Subjects -> METALLURGY (Total: 58 journals)
Showing 1 - 10 of 10 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Metallurgica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advanced Device Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Fluid Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Archives of Metallurgy and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Complex Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Energy Materials : Materials Science and Engineering for Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Graphene and 2D Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Handbook of Ferromagnetic Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Handbook of Magnetic Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
High Temperature Materials and Processes     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Indian Journal of Engineering and Materials Sciences (IJEMS)     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Metallurgy and Alloys     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Mining and Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ironmaking & Steelmaking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ISIJ International - Iron and Steel Institute of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Izvestiya Vuzov. Poroshkovaya Metallurgiya i Funktsional’nye Pokrytiya (Proceedings of Higher Schools. Powder Metallurgy аnd Functional Coatings)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
JOM Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Central South University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cluster Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Iron and Steel Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Materials & Metallurgical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Materials Processing Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Metallurgical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Metal Finishing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Metallurgical and Materials Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions E     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Metallurgical Research and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Metallurgy and Foundry Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration     Hybrid Journal  
Powder Diffraction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Powder Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Powder Metallurgy and Metal Ceramics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Powder Metallurgy Progress     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Practical Metallography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Rare Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Revista de Metalurgia     Open Access  
Revista del Instituto de Investigación de la Facultad de Ingeniería Geológica, Minera, Metalurgica y Geográfica     Open Access  
Revista Remetallica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue de Métallurgie     Full-text available via subscription  
Russian Metallurgy (Metally)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Science and Technology of Welding and Joining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Steel Times lnternational     Partially Free   (Followers: 19)
Transactions of the IMF     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Tungsten     Hybrid Journal  
Universal Journal of Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Welding in the World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Welding International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Вісник Приазовського Державного Технічного Університету. Серія: Технічні науки     Open Access  
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Journal Cover
Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.361
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 5  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0972-2815 - ISSN (Online) 0975-1645
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Investigation of the Effect of Inoculant and Casting Temperature on
           Fluidity Properties in the Production of Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron
    • Abstract: Abstract Working with liquid metal makes the casting method very advantageous, but also presents some difficulties. One of the common challenges in the casting process is that the liquid metal may not fill the mold cavity completely. This is mainly due to the contact of the liquid metal with the mold surface in the mold cavity, the high heat transfer coefficient of the mold material, and the undercooling and solidification of the liquid metal during liquid movements. For this reason, the fluidity of the liquid metal is important for robust casting production. The fluidity is affected by many factors such as mold properties, casting temperature, and alloying elements. In this study, it is aimed to investigate the fluidity characteristics of GGG60 alloy. For this purpose, the effects of casting temperature, different inoculants, and different inoculant quantities were used in the new mold design, which has different cross-sectional thicknesses. The distance of the alloy in the cavities was also compared with FlowCast Casting simulation software.
      PubDate: 2021-01-12
  • Characterization and Property Analysis of Heat-treated Functionally Graded
           Al8Si3Cu Alloy and TiC reinforced Composite
    • Abstract: Abstract Functionally graded (FG) Al8Si3Cu alloy and 8 wt% titanium carbide (TiC) reinforced composite (∅out100 × ∅56in × 100 mm) was fabricated through horizontal centrifugal casting, followed by T6 heat treatment. Metallographic analysis confirmed fine grain structure at FG alloy outer layers, whereas heat-treated alloy displayed spheroidised eutectic silicon. Gradient microstructure was observed for FG composite. Enhanced hardness for outer layer (10.31%) and tensile strength for outer zone (58.71%) were observed for heat-treated Al8Si3Cu/TiC composite owing to the high concentration of spheroidised eutectic Si and TiC particles, compared to as-cast composite. Linear reciprocating wear analysis performed on as-cast, heat-treated alloy and composite, respectively, at varying load (10–40 N) and sliding distance (500–2000 m) confirmed increasing wear rate, with heat-treated composite having superior wear resistance. Delamination wear was the predominant wear mechanism influencing wear behaviour of heat-treated composite. The alloy and composite were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
      PubDate: 2021-01-12
  • Influence on Mechanical Behaviour and Characterization of A6063/Bagasse
           and Titanium Nitride Hybrid Composites
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, aluminium matrix (A6063) composites reinforced with titanium nitride and sugarcane bagasse ash were fabricated using liquid metallurgy technique. Reinforcements were added to a maximum of 10 wt% in aluminium alloy. The composites were then subjected to various mechanical properties study. Microscopic examinations were employed to analyse the distribution of reinforcement and phases in the composites. The tensile and impact test specimen after fracture was exposed to scanning electron microscopy to study the fracture mechanism. The tensile strength, hardness, yield strength and flexural strength of composites increased to a maximum of 29.7%, 31%, 34% and 7.7%, respectively. Ductility and impact strength decreased to a maximum of 47% and 11.5%, respectively. The presence of dimples, shearing, tearing microcracks, pull-out, stress concentration, hillock and particle fracture influenced the tensile and impact fracture mechanisms. Contribution of titanium nitride was higher in influencing the tensile strength, hardness, flexural strength and impact strength than that of bagasse ash.
      PubDate: 2021-01-12
  • Review on the Creep Resistance of High-Temperature Titanium Alloy
    • Abstract: Abstract Creep property of high-temperature titanium alloys is one of the most important indexes to evaluate their high-temperature performance. The microstructure of titanium alloy materials plays a decisive role in creep resistance. Coarser the grains are and finer the secondary phase is, better is the creep property. Suitable hot deformation parameters, heat treatment processes and surface treatment techniques can be selected to acquire satisfactory microstructure, which can significantly increase the creep property of high-temperature titanium alloys. Adding alloying elements has a significant effect on the improvement of titanium alloy creep resistance. Alloying elements can change the morphology and phase content of high-temperature titanium alloy, thus affecting its creep property. The development direction of creep property of high-temperature titanium alloys is optimization of the type and content of alloying elements, selection of suitable processing conditions and application of appropriate heat treatment or surface treatment processes.
      PubDate: 2021-01-11
  • Effect of Different Filling Systems on Casting Densities and Porosities of
           Sand Step-Casted Aluminum Al–7Si–0.3Mg (LM 25) Alloy
    • Abstract: Abstract In spite of abundant information of conventional gating system design, casting defects such as shrinkage and gas porosities were found in castings that make the final castings extremely vulnerable to deformation. Improper fluid flow and irregular solidification of metals is due to faulty gating system design that in turn produces major casting defects. In this paper, quantitative analysis of the densities of an Al–7Si–0.3Mg (LM 25) alloy sand casting was performed using mass/volume or Archimedean porosimetry technique along with optical microscopy. Stepped geometry was casted in this study using circular, square and rectangular cross sectional runners and ingates. Single and double runners were used within each variation of runners and ingates. Electronic weighing balance and water displacement methods were used for measuring densities and porosities of the casted samples. The results showed that the average values of densities for castings using single and double circular cross sectional runners and ingates are higher i.e., 2.64 gm/cm3 and 2.64 gm/cm3 as compared to square and rectangular runner and ingate system i.e., 2.52 gm/cm3, 2.57 gm/cm3 and 2.46 gm/cm3, 2.49 gm/cm3 with lower percentage porosity defects i.e., 1.41% and 1.64% as compared to square and rectangular cross sections i.e., 5.86%, 3.82% and 8.34%, 7.18%, respectively. The densities for the casted samples for rectangular cross section are lesser of all with high porosity defects.
      PubDate: 2021-01-09
  • Effect of Heat Treatment on the Damping Characteristics of Ni
           Surface-Deposited Agro Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites
    • Abstract: Abstract The current study chiefly endeavours about adjudicating the heat treatment characteristics on the energy dissipation behaviour of nickel surface-deposited Al/RHA metal matrix composites (MMC). The base A356.2 matrix system is reinforced with rice husk (RHA) at three dissimilar wt.%, viz. (2, 4, and 6%), by engaging customary stir casting practise. Then, the fabricated Al/RHA composites are nickel surface deposited through conventionally stirred electrolytic aqueous watts solution. The energy dissipation behaviour of the relatively surface-deposited MMCs preceding and succeeding T6 heat treatment is examined by engaging a dynamic mechanical analyser at three distinct frequencies, viz. (0.1, 1, and 10 Hz). The surface deposition morphology is reviewed thoroughly using XRD, SEM, and FESEM techniques. It is evident the T6 heat-treated nickel-deposited test specimen’s yielded enhanced energy dissipation tendencies in comparison with the test samplings specimens before heat treatment.
      PubDate: 2021-01-08
  • Friction Stir Processing of AA3105/SiC Composites Constructed Through the
           Sandwich Method: The Effects of FSP Variables
    • Abstract: Abstract This study investigates the production of Al-SiC metal matrix composite by sandwich method as a manufacturing process. The SiC particles were applied through spraying method as a layer between AA3105 aluminum sheets, and then, the effect of FSP parameters was scrutinized. The results showed an enhanced degree of stirring and plastic deformation by increasing \(w/v\) ratio, which led to the refinement of the reinforcement particles through fracture and homogenization of the particle distribution in the matrix. The hardness of the AA3105/SiC metal matrix composites FSPed with lower \(w/v\) ratio was more scattered compared to the higher \(w/v\) ratio. It can be concluded that the FSP using sandwich method significantly improves the mechanical properties of the AA3105/SiC composite, with a maximum increase of 10% in UTS and 260% in toughness at 800 rpm and 31.5 mm/min.
      PubDate: 2021-01-07
  • FactSage Studies to Identify the Optimum Slag Regime for Blast Furnace
    • Abstract: Abstract Decreasing the slag rate can lead to a lower fuel rate and higher productivity in the blast furnace (BF). Indian iron ore is known to have adverse alumina–silica ratio. Therefore, to reduce the slag rate there is a need to either remove alumina from the iron ore or to add more silica to dilute the effect of alumina in slag. The latter would increase the slag rate, while the other option is not cost effective. The slag rate can be reduced by operating the BF at high Al2O3%. However, high Al2O3% in BF slag has an adverse impact on liquidus temperature and viscosity. Therefore, there is a prerequisite to identify a slag regime that has low liquidus temperature and low viscosity. In the present work, the FactSage studies of 275 no. of BF slags at wide chemistry variation (Al2O3 = 17–25%, MgO = 8–16%, slag basicity = 0.96–1.2) are conducted to calculate the liquidus temperature and viscosity of slag. Based on the FactSage calculation, it has been identified that 12% MgO coupled with slag basicity ~ 1.0 is the most favorable composition for 22% Al2O3 in slag operation to achieve a lower liquidus temperature and lower viscosity which is essential for efficient BF operation.
      PubDate: 2021-01-06
  • Experimental and Theoretical Study of Porous Al 2 O 3
    • Abstract: Abstract In this report, we have investigated the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of porous alumina using theoretical results and experimental measurements. To simulate the bulk and porous Al2O3 supercell in a monoclinic structure with C2/m space group, the DFT method was employed. The results show that the porous alumina has a lower band gap compared to the nonporous alumina, and the DFT simulation confirms the existence of ferromagnetic properties in porous samples.
      PubDate: 2021-01-05
  • Evaluation of Thermoelectric Properties of Doped β-Iron Disilicide
           Prepared by the Powder Metallurgy Technique
    • Abstract: Abstract Thermoelectric generator (TEG) offers a potential application in harvesting waste-heat energy into usable electrical power. β-iron disilicide (β-FeSi2) thermoelectric is applicable in elevated temperature systems such as hydrogen plants, copper reverberatory furnace and copper refining furnace. In this work, high TE performance Mn doped p-type and Co doped n-type thermoelectric (TE) β-iron disilicide compacts were fabricated for TEG using powder metallurgy route. The effects of variation in type and quantity of dopants [p-type dopant: Mn: stoichiometry Fe1−xMnxSi2 (x = 0.04 − 0.12) or n-type dopant: Co: stoichiometry Fe1−yCoySi2 (y = 0.01 − 0.05)] on thermoelectric properties were studied. Significant improvement in ZT was observed compared to earlier research works for this material system. This result is a positive indication for the potential use of β-FeSi2 in the high temperature TEG. In this work, the working efficiency was also evaluated which was not mentioned in the earlier research works.
      PubDate: 2021-01-05
  • Effect of Heat on Organic and Inorganic Components in Some Non-coking
           Lower Gondwana Coals
    • Abstract: Abstract The concentration of different maceral groups and minerals in coal influence the quality as each of them behaves differently during heat treatment. The purpose of this study is to know how these are behaving at different temperature conditions. Therefore, various macerals and minerals were concentrated by using heavy liquids of different specific gravities (1.3, 1.7 and 1.9). The generated density fractions were treated with heat at 400, 600, 800 and 1000 °C. All the density fractions at various temperature conditions along with feed sample were investigated by optical microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, electron-probe microanalysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. The results suggest that fusinite and sclerotinite are the most stable macerals, whereas quartz is the most stable mineral. Telocollinite is found to be oxidized very prominently at 400 °C. Siderite and pyrite alter to form hematite above 400 °C and 800 °C, respectively. Kaolinite converts to metakaolin followed by mullite with increasing temperature.
      PubDate: 2021-01-05
  • Influence of Boron on Solid-State Phase Transformation Temperatures and
           Grain Size in IF Steel
    • Abstract: Abstract The influence of boron on solid-state phase transformation temperatures and grain size in IF steel was investigated. The results show that boron can segregate at the grain boundaries of the IF steel doped with boron during the cooling process. Compared with the specimen without boron, the grain size of specimen with 34-ppm boron is large and its Brinell hardness is relatively small, 216 μm and 59.8HB, respectively. Moreover, the addition of boron in IF steel can rotate the grains toward the [001] orientation, decrease the phase transformation temperature from austenite to ferrite and increase its phase transformation activation energy during the cooling process. According to the experimental results, during the cooling process, the addition of 34-ppm boron in IF steel can reduce the peak temperature of phase transformation by 3.44 K ~ 6.67 K and increase the phase transformation activation energy by 318.59KJ/mol.
      PubDate: 2021-01-05
  • Numerical Investigation of Single-Strand Slab Casting Tundish Flow with
           Heat Transfer and Inclusion Transport
    • Abstract: Abstract In continuous casting process, cleanliness of steel can be improved and maintained by promoting the inclusion separation inside the tundish by various means; tundish flow optimization using arrangement of flow control devices inside the tundish is one among them. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation of tundish flow is an efficient way to investigate the arrangement of flow control devices. In the present work, three-dimensional isothermal steady-state flow simulations, residence time distribution analysis and inclusion transport simulations of tundish flow are conducted. All the simulation results are validated with experimental measurements reported in literature. Subsequently, the simulations are extended for a non-isothermal flow of the existing tundish in the plant and an additional flow control device, namely a weir with appropriate dimensions is proposed which indicated better steel flow in the tundish with more inclusion separation efficiency as compared to the existing bare tundish.
      PubDate: 2021-01-04
  • Smelting Reduction Characteristics and Mechanism of Vanadium–Titanium
           Magnetite Carbon-Bearing Pellet
    • Abstract: Abstract Vanadium–titanium magnetite is one kind of important strategic resources. However, there exist some common problems in the current smelting process of vanadium–titanium magnetite. In the present paper, we propose the rotary kiln pre-reduction and bath smelting process reasonably for smelting vanadium–titanium magnetite. The smelting reduction test of vanadium–titanium magnetite carbon-bearing pellet in the bath was conducted under laboratory condition, and the effect of end slag basicity, the smelting temperature, the smelting time and the amount of pulverized coal on the separation of slag–iron and the quality of hot metal were mainly investigated. The results showed that the reasonable smelting parameters for vanadium–titanium magnetite smelting of the process introduced in the paper were above 1450 °C of smelting temperature, above 0.8 of basicity of slag, 30–40 min of smelting time and 20–22% of coal addition. Nevertheless, the sulfur content of the iron particle was higher than the demand of steelmaking and it needed further desulfurization. The process is economically feasible for smelting vanadium–titanium magnetite, which can recover the vanadium and titanium resources effectively.
      PubDate: 2021-01-03
  • Assessment of Microstructure and Tensile Behavior of Hot Wire Gas Tungsten
           Arc Welded Pure Nickel Tubes
    • Abstract: Abstract The interest in hot wire gas tungsten arc welding (HWGTAW) process is increasing in industrial sector in the current decade. Pure nickel (Ni 200) tubes having 4-mm-thickness and 44-mm-outer diameter were effectively joined by HWGTAW. The heating current of the filler wire was varied from 80 amps to 120 amps in steps of 10 amps. The joint microstructure was recorded using conventional optical microscope and advanced transmission electron microscope. Electron backscatter diffraction was applied to visualize the grain structure and orientation. The increase in heating current enlarged the fusion zone geometry and caused coarsening of grains. There were no cracks or pores present in the joints. Three kinds of microstructure zones were observed across the joints. Few dislocations were formed in the fusion zone which recorded the lowest hardness. All joints demonstrated excellent ductility. The joint fabricated using a heating current of 100 amps showed highest tensile strength.
      PubDate: 2021-01-03
  • EBSD Study on Two Modes of Metal Flow Transfer in Friction Stir Weldment
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, the metal flow phenomenon of friction-stir-welded AA6082-T6 and AA2014-T6 alloys is studied in detail and correlated with hardness measurement. The FSW process was carried out with optimized process parameters obtained from Taguchi’s method L9 orthogonal array of tool rpm (1200 rpm), welding speed (70 mm/min) and tilt angle of 2°. Cross-sectional view of dissimilar weldment interestingly showed the two modes of metal flow phenomenon within the weld matrix. EBSD analysis revealed that the weld matrixes of first mode region had almost equal fractions of LAGBs and HAGBs, whereas the second mode region had the lower fractions of LAGBs compared to HAGBs, which was due to the severe plastic deformation associated with tool shoulder.
      PubDate: 2021-01-03
  • A Novel Approach for Process and Tool Design During Manufacturing of
           Industrial Sheet Metal Components
    • Abstract: Abstract Manufacturing of sheet metal components feeds into several domains such as automotive, aerospace and strategic applications. The optimum process and tool design are crucial in ensuring successful manufacturing of components without developing any defects. The current trend is to do it right the first time during the industrial stamping practice, so that the costly shop floor trials are eliminated or at least minimized. One of the common failures that are observed during manufacturing of industrial sheet metal components is the splitting/cracking. The present work focuses on addressing the design considerations for preventing development of such defects. Traditionally, the strain-based forming limit diagram (FLD) is used to assess if a proposed process and tool design will lead to splitting failures. The approach is to measure or predict the strains that will develop during the stamping process and to infer that splitting failures will occur if these strains are above the FLD. The optimum process and tool design should ensure that the strains developed in the component must be below the FLD. The approach of using the strain-based FLD has serious limitation, as it does not account for the influence of complex strain paths on the forming limit strains. As an alternative, stress-based FLDs have been proposed, which does address the effect of complex strain paths. But, the stress-based FLDs are not intuitive and therefore are not very suitable to use for analysis of industrial sheet metal components. In this work, a novel approach, based on monitoring development of local thickness gradients during manufacturing of sheet metal components, is proposed to assess a given process and tool design for developing splitting/cracking failures. The novel approach is validated for sheets of different metals and thicknesses. The effect of bilinear strains paths on the forming limits is captured and validated using this proposed novel approach. A new approach, based on the novel thickness gradient criteria, is proposed for quantifying the forming severity of industrial sheet metal components.
      PubDate: 2021-01-03
  • CMT Joining of AA6061-T6 and AA6082-T6 and Examining Mechanical Properties
           and Microstructural Characterization
    • Abstract: Abstract Nowadays, CMT is used for joining dissimilar thickness of dissimilar metals for achieving higher mechanical strength by using properties of both the metals. Joining of dissimilar aluminium alloys with dissimilar thickness by using gas metal arc welding with cold metal transfer (GMAW-CMT) process, is the primary objective of this work. CMT butt joining of 6061-T6 (3.18 mm) and 6082-T6 (2 mm) aluminium alloys was carried out by using ER4043 (Al–5%Si) wire. Mechanical properties and microstructural characterization were carried out for the weld bead. Microstructural examination at different weld zones is studied using optical microscope and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Macro-structural images were captured to study the weld bead geometry in relation to heat input. Mechanical properties were examined by Vicker’s microhardness and tensile test (with reinforcement, that is, the actual profile of the bead and without reinforcement, that is, the profile of bead are flattened to the surface of the plate). The residual stresses were measured using high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) method. Results showed significant changes in mechanical properties when heat input was in the range of 120–130 J/mm. Removal of reinforcement height improved almost 7–11% of tensile strength. Compressive residual stresses were experienced in the weldment. Comparatively cold metal transfer (CMT) showed better residual stress results than metal inert gas (MIG) welding at the same heat input.
      PubDate: 2021-01-03
  • Investigation of Friction-Stir Welding Parameters in the Fabrication of a
           2-Layer Aluminum–Copper Pipe with Monolithic Interface
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, the friction-stir welding process was used to fabricate a 2-layer pipe consisting of AA5086 aluminum alloy and Cu12200 pipes. The welding was done with cylindrical and conical pin tool. The effect of rotational speed and linear velocity of the tool on the microstructure, macrostructure and mechanical properties of the joints was investigated. In this study, AA5086 aluminum alloy tube was placed upon the copper tube. Macro-studies have shown that at a rotational-travel speed ratio of 5–15 rev/mm using a conical pin tool and at a rotational-travel speed ratio of less than 10 rev/mm using a cylindrical pin tool, the tunnel defect was created in the weld cross section. The heat input is a more effective factor than the strain applied during the process, on the grain size of the stir zone. The cylindrical pin tool at rotational speed 600 rpm and travel speeds of 40 and 60 mm/min results in sound weld and a 2-layer Al/Cu pipe with monolithic interface. The effective bonding thickness and the distribution of copper particles and intermetallic compounds are important factors in achieving maximum joint strength.
      PubDate: 2021-01-02
  • High-Temperature Oxidation Performance of Niobium-Containing Ferritic
           Stainless Steel for Exhaust Manifold
    • Abstract: Abstract The high-temperature oxidation behavior of niobium-containing ferritic stainless steel suitable for exhaust manifolds was studied at 1000 °C for up to 50 h. The results showed that for the steels with the stable element Nb addition, the oxidation weight gain per unit area was reduced and the formation of spinel-like oxide MnCr2O4 was promoted. A small amount of niobium tended to segregate at the oxide/metal interface to form the Laves phase, which promoted the formation of the inner oxide layer of SiO2 and improved the oxidation resistance of the material. When the content of niobium increased to 0.7% (mass fraction), the formation of the SiO2 oxide layer was inhibited. Adding 0.5% Nb, the weight gain of the sample was 2.33 mg cm−2 and the oxide film thickness was only 8.1 μm, showing the best oxidation resistance.
      PubDate: 2021-01-02
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