Subjects -> METALLURGY (Total: 58 journals)
Showing 1 - 10 of 10 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Metallurgica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advanced Device Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Fluid Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Archives of Metallurgy and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Complex Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Energy Materials : Materials Science and Engineering for Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Graphene and 2D Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Handbook of Ferromagnetic Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Handbook of Magnetic Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
High Temperature Materials and Processes     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Indian Journal of Engineering and Materials Sciences (IJEMS)     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Metallurgy and Alloys     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Mining and Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ironmaking & Steelmaking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ISIJ International - Iron and Steel Institute of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Izvestiya Vuzov. Poroshkovaya Metallurgiya i Funktsional’nye Pokrytiya (Proceedings of Higher Schools. Powder Metallurgy аnd Functional Coatings)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
JOM Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Central South University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cluster Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Iron and Steel Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Materials & Metallurgical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Materials Processing Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Metallurgical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Metal Finishing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Metallurgical and Materials Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions E     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Metallurgical Research and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Metallurgy and Foundry Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration     Hybrid Journal  
Powder Diffraction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Powder Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Powder Metallurgy and Metal Ceramics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Powder Metallurgy Progress     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Practical Metallography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Rare Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Revista de Metalurgia     Open Access  
Revista del Instituto de Investigación de la Facultad de Ingeniería Geológica, Minera, Metalurgica y Geográfica     Open Access  
Revista Remetallica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue de Métallurgie     Full-text available via subscription  
Russian Metallurgy (Metally)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Science and Technology of Welding and Joining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Steel Times lnternational     Partially Free   (Followers: 19)
Transactions of the IMF     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Tungsten     Hybrid Journal  
Universal Journal of Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Welding in the World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Welding International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Вісник Приазовського Державного Технічного Університету. Серія: Технічні науки     Open Access  
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Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.361
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 5  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0972-2815 - ISSN (Online) 0975-1645
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Selective Flocculation of Chromite Tailings
    • Abstract: Abstract Odisha state is the major reserve of the chromite ore. Due to the extensive applications, high-grade chromite ore is getting depleted day by day. Now it is a challenge for the industry to utilize these low-grade ores and tailings. Several attempts were taken to upgrade the low-grade chrome ores and tailings using different gravity separation methods, magnetic separation methods, flotation, etc. But all the techniques have limitations for handling these ultra-fine chrome ores. Selective flocculation process can be one alternative method for upgrading the ultrafine chromite (< 37 µm). Mineralogical analysis reveals that ultrafine chromite tailing (< 37 µm) is enriched with ferruginous phase. Causticized starch of wheat origin was identified and used for flocculating. Selective flocculation performance due to change in different operating parameters such as dispersant dose, pH and flocculant dose was studied. Result shows that Cr2O3 (%) increases to 31.08 (%) with Cr/Fe > 1 from a feed grade of 16.36 (%) Cr2O3 with 0.36 Cr/Fe ratio. FTIR analysis reflects selective adsorption of the flocculant mineral surface.
      PubDate: 2021-01-23
  • Resistance Spot Welding Behavior of Automotive Steels
    • Abstract: Abstract In present-day automobiles, new high-strength steel grades are being extensively utilized, which have different alloy concentration, microstructure and properties, and results in different spot welding behavior. In the present work, the effect of weld current was studied on four widely used automotive grades, such as IF 270, TRIP 690, DP 780 and TRIP 980, in a laboratory welding machine. The welding current was varied between 5 and 15 kA. Weld quality was assessed based on tensile shear, mode of failure, weld nugget diameter, metallographic observations and hardness tests. Experimental results showed that weld strength increased with an increase in base metal tensile strength but with a drop at the point of expulsion. Variation in hardness along the cross section was found to be higher in high-strength steels. The initial microstructure and phase transformation during cooling affected the final properties. Critical currents for peak strength, expulsion, sticking and failure mode transition were determined for each grade for industrial applications. This study helped in determining the criterion-based optimized welding parameters for specific applications of these automotive-grade steels.
      PubDate: 2021-01-22
  • Bi-objective Optimization of Maraging Steel Produced by Vacuum Induction
           Melting Using Evolutionary Algorithms
    • Abstract: Abstract Maraging steel is a special alloy exhibiting excellent combination of ultra-high strength with considerable ductility. Thus, such steel become significant worldwide for strategic sectors (like nuclear, aerospace and defence) where stringent quality standards with respect to chemistry and properties is compulsory. Manufacturing of these steel is extremely difficult, and vacuum induction melting (VIM) furnace plays most significant part as a primary melting unit. There are a large number of processing parameters to manufacture these special alloys and on top of that, these type of vacuum furnaces are connected with various valves, motors, sensors along with safety systems, which lead to involvement of additional interdependent process variables. Accordingly, building logical agent is often difficult because the developer requires possessing the complete and intricate knowledge of all the agents, which is viable only for deterministic environment. In case of nonlinear condition, the data generation and collection in digital form is a very useful resource of valuable information for meaningful process optimization-related investigation by developing intelligent model from databases. In this perspective, data-driven optimization using evolutionary algorithms is effective tool in order to optimize parameters related to melting time of manufacturing maraging steel through critical analysis of the data. Data of 130 heats collected from VIM 6.5 Tonne furnace and the considered parameters are weight of carbon added, leak rate of system, complete meltdown time, carbon–oxygen–nitrogen pct in opening sample, carbon–oxygen–nitrogen pct in final stages of melting, refining time, leak rate during melting, tapping temperature, melt duration and tap to start time between previous and present melting and lining life. Out of aforementioned fifteen parameters, minimization of refining time and melt duration is the objectives of the present investigation. Evolutionary neural network has been used as a primary optimization algorithm for present investigation which is coupled with predator–prey genetic algorithm (PPGA). Optimization using PPGA has been achieved successfully and obtained the trade-off between refining time and melt duration. The analyses of all input parameters reveal that the complete meltdown time and carbon addition at start are the two main parameters which can affect the melting and refining time greatly. Putting extra care on these two parameters will greatly affect the melting time of maraging steel in VIM furnace.
      PubDate: 2021-01-22
  • An Investigation into Pre-concentration of Low-Grade Silica-Rich
           Malanjkhand Copper Ore by Wilfley Table
    • Abstract: Abstract Pre-concentration stages are generally employed to process base and precious metals where the feed grades are inferior. The pre-concentration could remove major gangue minerals and enrich the desired metal content. Further, it improves the efficiency of subsequent concentration stages. In the present investigation, pre-concentration studies were carried out on the mixed copper ore from Malanjkhand, India, containing 0.48% Cu and 74.12% SiO2 contents. Mineralogical characterization revealed that chalcopyrite is the major copper contributing mineral along with a minor amount of malachite. The major gangue minerals present in the ore are quartz, feldspar and mica. Liberation studies of the feed material indicate that around 75% of gangue minerals (mainly quartz) are liberated at 150 µm. Pre-concentration studies were carried out using a Wilfley shaking table, wherein deck angle and wash water rate were varied to achieve the maximum recovery and grade. Optimum results were achieved at a wash water rate of 3.5 lpm and deck angle of 4.9°, wherein the silica rejection and separation efficiency of 52.19% and 53.68% were achieved. The final product assays 2.79% Cu grade and 66.32% copper recovery. The investigation results indicate that the shaking table could be used to pre-concentrate Malanjkhand copper ore.
      PubDate: 2021-01-22
  • Cold Spray of Metal Powder Mixtures: Achievements, Issues and Perspectives
    • Abstract: Abstract Cold spray is the solid-state process for elaboration of metal coatings and free-standing parts. The absence of material melting during build-up of deposit allows to apply this technology for producing metal composites with innovative properties. The cold spray metal composites could be produced by deposition of composite powders or by simultaneous spraying of powder mixtures. The second approach is considered as the most robust and the simplest one that is important for industrial application. In the present paper, the comprehensive review of the actual knowledge about the formation of metal composite by simultaneous cold spraying of several powders is performed. The main advantages of this approach as well as the issues and the limits are analyzed. The eventual applications of the cold spray composite deposits are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2021-01-22
  • Development and Modeling of a Robotic Restoration System Based on Laser
           Directed Energy Deposition
    • Abstract: Abstract Laser-based directed energy deposition (DED) technique has the potential for precise restoration of localized damage in high value components. This paper describes the indigenous development and sub-systems integration of a robotic restoration system based on laser DED. This system comprises of four modules: a robot for imparting desired outcome; 3 kW fiber laser as the energy source; powder feeder; and a quartz block head connected deposition head with co-axial powder delivery nozzle. In addition, a damage detection technique using a laser line scanner has been developed. Experimental characterization of the developed system is also presented. Laser DED involves a complex interplay of several physical phenomena, such as powder particle injection, melt pools formation, deposition spreading, and coupled metallo-thermomechanical behavior which induces residual stresses in the deposition and the substrate. In order to understand the complete process, each of these vital mechanisms needs to be studied. Computational fluid dynamics models have been developed to predict the flow and injection of powder particles via coaxial annular nozzle, melt pool spreading and deposition geometry. The major challenge in restoration via DED is the compromised service life of the restored part due to unfavorable residual stresses originating from differential thermal expansion/contraction, volume dilation and transformation plasticity. A fully coupled metallo-thermomechanical model has been presented in this paper. The residual stresses obtained from the model have been validated using residual stress measurements from X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction techniques. Finally, process maps have been developed based on these physics-based models to obtain optimal process parameters to ensure favorable residual stresses, dilution and geometry in DED.
      PubDate: 2021-01-22
  • Development and Implementation of Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM)
           Based on Pulse Spray GMAW for Aluminum Alloy (AlSi7Mg)
    • Abstract: Abstract Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) is a manufacturing technology that uses an arc welding process to produce metal parts additively. The key attraction of WAAM for industries is the low cost per component and short production lead time, when components are required in small quantity for applications such as complex components of prototypes and parts for repairs/breakdown replacement. This paper presents the experience in the development of a cost-effective WAAM system on the basis of pulse spray gas metal arc welding; method of feasibility assessment for selection of applications; selection of welding variables; effect of different heat treatments on mechanical properties in the three spatial directions of test builds made additively; and manufacturing of near shape components by WAAM. Mechanical properties of test builds made by WAAM followed by heat treatment meet the requirements specified for the parts. This is an energy efficient way of making parts which are traditionally made through forging/casting route that can take months to manufacture.
      PubDate: 2021-01-22
  • Theoretical Analysis of Hysteresis and Characteristic Transition
           Temperatures of Iron-Based Memory Metals
    • Abstract: Abstract The correlation between valence electrons per atom (ev/a) and the characteristic transition temperatures of quaternary and quinary Fe-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) is investigated. Regression equations relating their transformation temperatures (Ms, As) to composition and ev/a are obtained. On adding alloying elements to the SMAs, their transformation temperatures get altered and this is correlated to their ev/a ratio. Three distinct trends between the ev/a ratio and transformation temperatures are found. The correlation between the transformation hysteresis and the atom diameter of the alloying elements is also analysed.
      PubDate: 2021-01-22
  • Design and Engineering Challenges for Installation of Coke Dry Quenching
           Plant in Brown Field Scenario
    • Abstract: Abstract The increasing focus on sustainability of Steel Industries worldwide has brought in new trends, viz. maximizing utilization of assets and reduction of energy consumption and carbon footprint. Coke dry quenching (CDQ) technology for recovery of waste heat from hot coke to generate process steam and power is well established and adopted worldwide that meets these objectives of sustainable operation. Conceptualizing and executing CDQ technology in brown field site conditions throws up many challenges requiring innovative approach for technically and financially feasible solutions. The complexity of the situation is compounded with the requirement of proper technology selection based on space availability, synchronization of CDQ operation with oven pushing schedule, integration of the process with existing system, keeping the existing coke oven batteries operative as well as adhering to maintainability, process safety protocols and constructability of new facilities within the project execution schedule. Brief description of CDQ process, advantages and challenges for implementation of the same in brownfield unit has been described in this paper with examples/ references.
      PubDate: 2021-01-22
  • Microstructural Studies of Composite (Cr 3 C 2 –NiCr) Laser Clads
           Developed on Preheated Substrate T91
    • Abstract: Abstract High cooling speed in laser cladding process yields excellent metallurgical and mechanical properties. Indeed, this attribute along with the process’s additive nature contributes significantly to the development of thermal stresses that are the major cause of any possible crack and delamination formation across the deposition. This limitation is more common for additive materials such as chromium carbide which are crack-sensitive by nature during most of the hard facing process. In the current work, A 90 wt% Cr3C2–10 wt% NiCr-based laser clads were developed with and without preheating the substrate T91. In the case of preheating, the substrate was preheated at 200 °C, 400 °C, and 600 °C temperature before clad deposition. Liquid dye penetration test was carried out on the developed composite clads, whereas 20 numbers of cracks per unit length were observed on without preheated substrate. The microstructure studies revealed that the preheated substrates have shown a crack-free structure as compared to those without preheating of the substrate. The clad height, heat-affected zone, and dilution rate were found reliable in the case of cladding developed at preheated temperature (200 °C) as compared to higher preheated temperature (400 °C and 600 °C). Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy study cleared that the chromium-rich phases were more segregated with iron and nickel elements on the developed clad on the preheated surface as compared to the surface developed on without preheating of the substrate. The average microhardness of the developed composite laser clads with and without preheating of the substrate was 802 ± 94 HV and 878 ± 68 HV, respectively. This was found to be much higher than the substrate microhardness (439 ± 12 HV).
      PubDate: 2021-01-22
  • Fabrication of Al/Cu Composite Reinforced with AISI 304 Stainless Steel
           Wires Through Accumulative Roll Bonding and Evaluation of Their Mechanical
    • Abstract: Abstract In the present study, a multilayer Al/Cu composite reinforced with AISI 304 stainless steel wires was fabricated through an accumulative roll bonding process. The microstructure and bonding integrity of different layers were investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties of the produced composite samples were evaluated by tensile testing and micro-hardness measurements. Results showed that after six cycles of ARB processing, a multilayer Al/Cu composite with uniform distribution of Cu and AISI304 wires in an Al matrix is produced. Also, the results of tensile testing indicate that both the strength and elongation of the fabricated composite decrease with increasing the ARB cycle. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the fractured surfaces of tensile specimens showed a combination of ductile rupture with deep dimple forming and cleavage fracture at different composite layers.
      PubDate: 2021-01-22
  • Experimental and theoretical study of dynamic bend angle in the explosive
           welding process
    • Abstract: Abstract Dynamic bend angle (β) is an important parameter that should satisfy the range defined by the weldability window for successful joining in the explosive welding process. In this manuscript, we studied the dynamic bend angle (β) for the newly developed low velocity of detonation explosive welding (LVEW) process theoretically and then experimentally with the help of flash X-ray radiography (FXR) technique. The FXR system captured the real-time image of the event where proper explosive welding process with clear flight shape and appropriate collision bend angle was observed. The FXR results were in good agreement with numerically calculated β values and demonstrated the suitability of LVEW process for joining of dissimilar metal plates. This was further justified by phased array-based ultrasonic testing (PAUT) results where complete bonding area with slight non-bonded area was observed across the edges of the welded metal plate.
      PubDate: 2021-01-21
  • Comparative Study on Using Ultrasonic Array-Based Techniques for Detection
           of Flaws in Thick and Attenuating Materials
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper reports the influence of thickness and material attenuation on volumetric inspection using conventional and advanced ultrasonic array-based techniques through suitable examples. The sensitivity achieved in conventional phased array ultrasonic testing technique with focusing at specific depth using delay laws and advanced array-based techniques for simultaneous focusing at all depths such as Full Matrix Capture-Total Focusing Method and plane wave imaging-TFM are compared in the present study. Finally, experimental results are discussed for advanced ultrasonic array-based techniques for detection and characterization of a 4 mm through wall dimension vertical planar defect (simulating a lack of side wall fusion in a thick narrow gap weld) in a nickel base alloy forging having fine and coarse grains. The sensitivities and signal-to-noise ratio achieved in the different techniques are discussed in detail.
      PubDate: 2021-01-21
  • Slurry Erosion Behaviour of Low-Temperature Liquid Nitrided 16Cr5Ni
           Martensitic Stainless Steel
    • Abstract: Abstract Hydroturbine blades experience erosive wear during operations due to the presence of silt particles. The hydroturbine blades are fabricated from 16Cr5Ni martensitic stainless steels (16/5MSS). In order to mitigate the erosive wear of blades, heat-treated 16/5MSS (16/5HTT) were liquid nitrided at low temperature of 450 °C (16/5M450) and 500 °C (16/5M500) for 10 h in separate batch process. The cumulative weight loss after slurry erosion test of 16/5M450 is found to be 73% less than that of 16/5HTT, whereas the cumulative weight loss of 16/5M500 is found to be 6.7% more than that of 16/5HTT. The enhanced resistance to slurry erosion of 16/5M450 is attributed to high hardness of expanded martensite (αN-Fe) in the nitrided layer. αN-Fe is formed by diffusion of N in the nitrided 16/5HTT. When nitriding is done at 500 °C, then there is a reduction in resistance to the slurry erosion resistance which is caused by the CrN phase.
      PubDate: 2021-01-21
  • A Review of Developments in Steel: Implications for Long-Span Structures
    • Abstract: Abstract Historically, iron in different forms has been known to exist for Architectural and Engineering applications from early periods of civilisation, but in the modern context, it would be best to review the growth of steel, during the last couple of centuries. This paper, first, traces briefly the developments in steel in terms of its various aspects, which are relevant to the design of structures. It is perhaps needless to remind ourselves that humans perpetually endeavour for a better quality of life. To meet the challenge thus created for providing additional and improved infrastructure, and, riding on a number of parallel (or nearly so) developments, the frontiers for Civil and Structural engineers and architects have moved to horizons not easy to imagine. One exciting thrust has been towards increased dimensions, in both height as well as span of structures, which have touched kilometres from tens of metres. One of the important factors responsible for the aforesaid developments is without reservation, the advancements in steel, and, products based upon it, for deployment in structures, besides the related aspects of fabrication, construction and maintenance. There are other factors too, such as, the growth of electronics which has led to enormously increased capabilities in computing. Also, there are the remarkable developments in instrumentation and robotics as tools in structural engineering. This has led to a paradigm shift in the scenario for structural analysis, design and drafting, construction and maintenance. In traversing the journey above, there are different aspects and features that have already become convention through practice and literature, and there is extensive awareness about them. On the other hand, there are issues and areas of comparatively new developments about which the awareness is rather limited. The emphasis in this text is largely on the latter. Since some of these issues can provide for extensive coverage, the attempt herein is to only bring out the salient features.
      PubDate: 2021-01-21
  • A Comparative Studyon Characteristics of Inconel-625 Joints Developed
           through Microwave Hybrid Heating and Tungsten Inert Gas Welding
    • Abstract: Abstract In recent years, microwave welding has received attention for joining of similar and dissimilar metals due to its major advantages like volumetric heating, selective heating of target materials, energy saving and sustainability. In the present work, the microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of Inconel-625-welded joints developed through microwave hybrid heating and those produced by TIG welding have been compared. Welding through microwave hybrid heating (MHH) was carried out using Inconel-625 interface filler powder of 50 μm size, while TIG welding was carried out using ERNiCrMo-3 filler wire of 2.5 mm diameter which had a composition similar to that of Inconel-625 alloy. The welded samples were characterized in terms of microstructural observations and tensile and microhardness properties. The study reveals that the joining of bulk metals through MHH has potential in manufacturing industries in the near future. TIG-welded joints exhibit superior strength compared to MHH joints because of fine grain structure, lower amount of segregation in the weld zone and also smaller width of the weld zone in joints developed through MHH. The hardness in the weld zone of welded joints in both the cases is observed to be almost the same. Use of a finer interface filler of 20–25 μm particle size may further contribute to improving the mechanical properties of the joints developed through MHH. Furthermore, the use of industrial microwave furnace may improve the strength of MHH-welded joints as the process may be integrated with real-time temperature measurement of the joint zone so as to achieve better control over the process.
      PubDate: 2021-01-21
  • Effect of Using a Copper Insert on Stability and Energy Balance in an
           Aluminum Production Cell
    • Abstract: Abstract Roughly half of the electrical energy input to a modern Hall–Héroult cell for the aluminum (Al) production is lost as heat. Naturally, significant efforts are currently directed toward increasing the thermal efficiency of the cell by a variety of means. In this work, a slice thermoelectric model of a Hall–Héroult cell was developed for a conventional base model (insert-free collector bar) as well as for a copper (Cu) insert model (cylindrical copper inserts in the steel collector bar). Finite element method-based simulations were carried out to determine the components of voltage drops, steady-state ledge profile, cell stability and the overall heat balance. Comparison of the specific energy consumption (SEC) and the cell current in all cases highlighted the advantages of copper insert collector bar assembly over the insert-free, base case. The use of a Cu insert can increase the plant productivity by over 5% at the same SEC as in the base case. Moreover, with the introduction of an insert, an increase in productivity with a concomitant decrease in the SEC could be achieved.
      PubDate: 2021-01-18
  • Historical Review on the Boriding Process using Bibliometric Analysis
    • Abstract: The boriding process is a branch of materials heating treatments that studies the improvement of the mechanical properties in steels and alloys. Recently, the borided trends have been studied by a selected group of researchers around the world with an interest to divulge the new results on borided materials for different industrial and biomedical applications. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the historical review of the boriding process using the Bibliometric analysis. In total, 1227 documents in the Scopus database have used the boriding process as keyword with a growth rate of 7.3% every year from 1962 to 2020. The papers were written by around 2434 authors, mainly from Mexico, Turkey, and Poland, representing 37.7% of the total publications analyzed. The data obtained show that the boriding process has been global and fast-growing in the scientific publications of the last ten years. Graphic
      PubDate: 2021-01-17
  • Enhanced Performance of Automotive and Industry Precision Components by
           Advanced Carbonitriding Technology
    • Abstract: Abstract Due to their enhanced mechanical properties, gas carbonitrided steel components containing martensite and nitrogen stabilized austenite are currently widely used for highly loaded and severe application conditions. Carbon and nitrogen (C–N) concentration profiles developed during the gas carbonitriding have significant effect on the final properties of the steel. To achieve consistent properties and increase the reliability of processes, simulation of the C–N profile and evolving precipitates during the carbonitriding is essential. Generally, it is observed that the surface nitrogen content developed in the low-alloyed bearing-grade steels is much higher compared to the nitrogen potential in the furnace atmosphere during gas carbonitriding. The formation of nitrides/carbonitrides is one of main reasons for this difference. Thus, diffusion equations cannot be directly applied to calculate the C–N profile, as they do not include precipitation. To solve this problem, a mathematical approach is developed in this work. Thermodynamic data from MatCalc and experimental data are used to formulate equations to calculate the precipitated fraction of C–N during carbonitriding. Furthermore, these equations are integrated with diffusion equations to predict C–N profile that includes precipitates and the developed model is validated with experiments.
      PubDate: 2021-01-15
  • Investigation of the Effect of Inoculant and Casting Temperature on
           Fluidity Properties in the Production of Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron
    • Abstract: Abstract Working with liquid metal makes the casting method very advantageous, but also presents some difficulties. One of the common challenges in the casting process is that the liquid metal may not fill the mold cavity completely. This is mainly due to the contact of the liquid metal with the mold surface in the mold cavity, the high heat transfer coefficient of the mold material, and the undercooling and solidification of the liquid metal during liquid movements. For this reason, the fluidity of the liquid metal is important for robust casting production. The fluidity is affected by many factors such as mold properties, casting temperature, and alloying elements. In this study, it is aimed to investigate the fluidity characteristics of GGG60 alloy. For this purpose, the effects of casting temperature, different inoculants, and different inoculant quantities were used in the new mold design, which has different cross-sectional thicknesses. The distance of the alloy in the cavities was also compared with FlowCast Casting simulation software.
      PubDate: 2021-01-12
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