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        1 2     

  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 128 journals)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (2 followers)
Advances in Oceanography and Limnology     Partially Free   (9 followers)
Advances in Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (1 follower)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (17 followers)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (13 followers)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (13 followers)
American Water Works Association     Full-text available via subscription   (13 followers)
Anales de Hidrología Médica     Open Access  
Annals of Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW. Land Reclamation     Open Access   (2 followers)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (9 followers)
Applied Water Science     Open Access   (5 followers)
Aquacultural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (26 followers)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (21 followers)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (19 followers)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Aquatic Living Resources     Hybrid Journal   (11 followers)
Aquatic Procedia     Open Access  
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (2 followers)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (16 followers)
Asian Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (9 followers)
Australian Journal of Water Resources     Full-text available via subscription   (5 followers)
Bubble Science, Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (17 followers)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (11 followers)
CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water     Hybrid Journal   (14 followers)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (1 follower)
Continental Journal of Water, Air, and Soil Pollution     Open Access   (6 followers)
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation     Open Access   (3 followers)
Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (9 followers)
Desalination and Water Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Developments in Water Science     Full-text available via subscription   (6 followers)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (2 followers)
Environmental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
EQA - International Journal of Environmental Quality     Open Access   (1 follower)
European journal of water quality - Journal européen d'hydrologie     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Grundwasser     Hybrid Journal  
Human Resources for Health     Open Access   (3 followers)
Hydro Nepal : Journal of Water, Energy and Environment     Open Access   (1 follower)
Hydrology Research     Partially Free   (6 followers)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
International Journal of Nuclear Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
International Journal of Salt Lake Research     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
International Journal of Waste Resources     Open Access   (3 followers)
International Journal of Water     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of Water Resources Development     Hybrid Journal   (13 followers)
Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (1 follower)
Irrigation and Drainage     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Irrigation Science     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Journal of Waste Water Treatment & Analysis     Open Access   (10 followers)
Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Contemporary Water Resource & Education     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (4 followers)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Oceans     Partially Free   (14 followers)
Journal of Hydro-environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (6 followers)
Journal of Hydroinformatics     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Journal of Hydrology (New Zealand)     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics     Open Access  
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Journal of Limnology     Open Access   (6 followers)
Journal of the American Water Resources Association     Hybrid Journal   (18 followers)
Journal of Water and Climate Change     Partially Free   (22 followers)
Journal of Water and Health     Partially Free   (1 follower)
Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Journal of Water Resource and Hydraulic Engineering     Open Access   (3 followers)
Journal of Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (5 followers)
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (22 followers)
Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination     Partially Free   (6 followers)
Journal of Water Supply : Research and Technology - Aqua     Partially Free   (8 followers)
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development     Open Access   (3 followers)
La Houille Blanche     Full-text available via subscription  
Lake and Reservoir Management     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (15 followers)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Mangroves and Salt Marshes     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Methods in Oceanography : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (1 follower)
Osterreichische Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal  
Ozone Science & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Paddy and Water Environment     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology     Open Access   (2 followers)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Revue des sciences de l'eau / Journal of Water Science     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Riparian Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (3 followers)
River Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
River Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
SA Irrigation = SA Besproeiing     Full-text available via subscription  
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access   (1 follower)
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref     Open Access   (1 follower)
Scientia Marina     Open Access   (2 followers)
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (9 followers)
Sri Lanka Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Open Access  
Sustainable Technologies, Systems & Policies     Open Access   (8 followers)

        1 2     

Journal of the American Water Resources Association    [20 followers]  Follow    
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1093-474X - ISSN (Online) 1752-1688
     Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1594 journals]   [SJR: 0.817]   [H-I: 56]
  • Spatial Variability in Nutrient Transport by HUC8, State, and Subbasin
           Based on Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin SPARROW Models
    • Authors: Dale M. Robertson; David A. Saad, Gregory E. Schwarz
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loading from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB) has been linked to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. With geospatial datasets for 2002, including inputs from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and monitored loads throughout the MARB, SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) watershed models were constructed specifically for the MARB, which reduced simulation errors from previous models. Based on these models, N loads/yields were highest from the central part (centered over Iowa and Indiana) of the MARB (Corn Belt), and the highest P yields were scattered throughout the MARB. Spatial differences in yields from previous studies resulted from different descriptions of the dominant sources (N yields are highest with crop‐oriented agriculture and P yields are highest with crop and animal agriculture and major WWTPs) and different descriptions of downstream transport. Delivered loads/yields from the MARB SPARROW models are used to rank subbasins, states, and eight‐digit Hydrologic Unit Code basins (HUC8s) by N and P contributions and then rankings are compared with those from other studies. Changes in delivered yields result in an average absolute change of 1.3 (N) and 1.9 (P) places in state ranking and 41 (N) and 69 (P) places in HUC8 ranking from those made with previous national‐scale SPARROW models. This information may help managers decide where efforts could have the largest effects (highest ranked areas) and thus reduce hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico.
      PubDate: 2014-01-16T23:56:07.522889-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12153
       
  • Thermal Pollution Mitigation in Cold Water Stream Watersheds Using
           Bioretention
    • Authors: Daniel L. Long; Randel L. Dymond
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This study examines the use of bioretention as a strategy to reduce the thermal impact associated with urban stormwater runoff in developing cold water stream watersheds. Temperature and flow data were collected during 10 controlled runs at a bioretention facility located in Blacksburg, Virginia. It was determined that bioretention has the ability to reduce the temperature of thermally charged stormwater runoff received from an asphalt surface. Significant reductions in peak and average temperatures (p 
      PubDate: 2013-12-23T01:10:19.260006-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12152
       
  • Conjunctive Water Use in Confined Basalt Aquifers: An Evaluation Using
           Geochemistry, a Numerical Model, and Historical Water Level
    • Authors: Patrick D. Royer; Matthew Tonkin, Travis Hammond
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: As withdrawals from deep compartmentalized aquifers increasingly exceed recharge throughout the western United States, conjunctive water use management alternatives have become an applied research priority. This study highlights both details and limitations of the role of irrigation canal seepage as groundwater recharge, revealing the regional limitations of canal seepage as a dependable source of recharge in overdrawn aquifers. A suite of geochemical indicators were used together with a numerical model to evaluate current and future management scenarios focused on recharge derived from seepage from a region‐wide irrigation canal system. Twenty‐five years of static groundwater level data were used to relate spatial trends determined using geochemistry and groundwater modeling with “on‐the‐ground” management practices, which vary based on acreage, crop, and irrigation scheduling. Increasing groundwater age determined using isotope analysis, and declines in potentiometric heads, each correlate with increasing distance from the canal reaches. Predictive modeling indicates that if pumping is gradually reduced, as has been suggested by management agencies, that recharge from canal seepage will be negligible by 2035 due to regional groundwater through‐flow and the pattern of potentiometric head recovery. Unfortunately, historic hydrographs suggest that under current groundwater development conditions most wells are not sustainable, irrespective of proximity to the canal.
      PubDate: 2013-12-13T14:49:13.972655-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12151
       
  • Constructed Wetland Treatment of Nitrates: Removal Effectiveness and Cost
           Efficiency
    • Authors: Alan R. Collins; Neil Gillies
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A constructed wetland (CW) was strategically placed to treat nitrates in groundwater as part of a watershed‐based farmer engagement process. Using stream water quality data collected before and after installation, this CW was found to reduce stream concentrations of nitrogen from nitrate (NO3‐N) during the growing season by about 0.14 mg/l at mean streamflow, a 17% reduction. Based upon realistic ecological and economic assumptions, about 80 kg of NO3‐N were removed annually by the CW at a cost of around US$30/kg. This per unit cost is at the low range of small wastewater treatment plant costs for nitrates, but higher than the costs of reduced fertilizer application.
      PubDate: 2013-11-22T20:07:49.310318-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12145
       
  • Water Management Applications for Satellite Precipitation Products:
           Synthesis and Recommendations
    • Authors: Aleix Serrat‐Capdevila; Juan B. Valdes, Eugene Z. Stakhiv
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This article is an assessment of the current state of the art and relative utility of satellite precipitation products (SPPs) for hydrologic applications to support water management decisions. We present a review of SPPs, their accuracy in diverse settings including the influence of geography, topography, and weather systems, as well as the pros and cons of their use for different water management applications. At the end of this broad synthesizing effort, recommendations are proposed for: (1) SPP developers to improve the quality, usability, and relevance of precipitation products; and (2) SPP users to improve the reliability of their predictions and hydrologic applications to better support water management.
      PubDate: 2013-11-20T15:25:07.300614-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12140
       
  • Upstream Sediment‐Control Dams: Five Decades of Experience in the
           Rapidly Eroding Dahan River Basin, Taiwan
    • Authors: Hsiao‐Wen Wang; G. Mathias Kondolf 
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Sedimentation is emerging as a key issue in sustainable reservoir management. One approach to controlling reservoir sedimentation is to trap sediment in hydraulic structures upstream of the reservoir. In the 1,163‐km2 catchment of the Dahan River (Taiwan) over 120 “sabo” dams were built to reduce sediment yield to Shihmen Reservoir. Built in 1963 for water supply, Shihmen has lost over 40% of its 290‐Mm3 storage capacity to sedimentation. Most of these upstream structures were small, but three had capacities >9 Mm3. Field measurements and historical data from the Water Resources Agency show most smaller dams had filled with sediment by 1976. The three largest were full or nearly so by 2007, when one (Barlin Dam) failed, releasing a pulse of 7.5 Mm3, most of its 10.4 Mm3 stored sediment downstream. The Central Range of Taiwan is rapidly eroding (denudation rates 3‐6 mm/yr), so geologically high loads make sediment problems manifest sooner. Even in other environments, however, eventually small dams built upstream of large reservoirs are likely to fill themselves, creating multiple small sediment‐filled reservoirs, some located in sites inaccessible to mechanical removal. Our analysis suggests sabo dams do not offer a long‐term basis for controlling reservoir sedimentation in such a high‐sediment yield environment. Sustainable solutions must somehow pass sediment downstream, as would be accomplished by a sediment bypass around Shihmen Reservoir, as now being studied.
      PubDate: 2013-11-20T15:24:35.296137-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12141
       
  • Geospatial and Temporal Analysis of a 20‐Year Record of
           Landsat‐Based Water Clarity in Minnesota's 10,000 Lakes
    • Authors: Leif G. Olmanson; Patrick L. Brezonik, Marvin E. Bauer
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A large 20‐year database on water clarity for all Minnesota lakes ≥8 ha was analyzed statistically for spatial distributions, temporal trends, and relationships with in‐lake and watershed factors that potentially affect lake clarity. The database includes Landsat‐based water clarity estimates expressed in terms of Secchi depth (SDLandsat), an integrative measure of water quality, for more than 10,500 lakes for time periods centered around 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005. Minnesota lake clarity is lower (more turbid) in the south and southwest and clearer in the north and northeast; this pattern is evident at the levels of individual lakes and ecoregions. Temporal trends in clarity were detected in ~11% of the lakes: 4.6% had improving clarity and 6.2% had decreasing clarity. Ecoregions in southern and western Minnesota, where agriculture is the predominant land use, had higher percentages of lakes with decreasing clarity than the rest of the state, and small and shallow lakes had higher percentages of decreasing clarity trends than large and deep lakes. The mean SDLandsat statewide remained stable from 1985 to 2005 but decreased in ecoregions dominated by agricultural land use. Deep lakes had higher clarity than shallow lakes statewide and for lakes grouped by land cover. SDLandsat decreased as the percentage of agriculture and/or urban area increased at county and catchment levels and it increased with increasing forested land.
      PubDate: 2013-11-20T15:24:30.523417-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12138
       
  • Do Energy‐Based PET Models Require More Input Data than
           Temperature‐Based Models? — An Evaluation at Four Humid
           FluxNet Sites
    • Authors: Josephine A. Archibald; M. Todd Walter
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: It is well established that wet environment potential evapotranspiration (PET) can be reliably estimated using the energy budget at the canopy or land surface. However, in most cases the necessary radiation measurements are not available and, thus, empirical temperature‐based PET models are still widely used, especially in watershed models. Here we question the presumption that empirical PET models require fewer input data than more physically based models. Specifically, we test whether the energy‐budget‐based Priestley‐Taylor (P‐T) model can reliably predict daily PET using primarily air temperature to estimate the radiation fluxes and associated parameters. This method of calculating PET requires only daily minimum and maximum temperature, day of the year, and latitude. We compared PET estimates using directly measured radiation fluxes to PET calculated from temperature‐based radiation estimates at four humid AmeriFlux sites. We found good agreement between P‐T PET calculated from measured radiation fluxes and P‐T PET determined via air temperature. In addition, in three of the four sites, the temperature‐based radiation approximations had a stronger correlation with measured evapotranspiration (ET) during periods of maximal ET than fully empirical Hargreaves, Hamon and Oudin methods. Of the three fully empirical models, the Hargreaves performed the best. Overall, the results suggest that daily PET estimates can be made using a physically based approach even when radiation measurements are unavailable.
      PubDate: 2013-11-20T15:24:26.660165-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12137
       
  • Long‐Term High‐Resolution Radar Rainfall Fields for Urban
           Hydrology
    • Authors: Daniel B. Wright; James A. Smith, Gabriele Villarini, Mary Lynn Baeck
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Accurate records of high‐resolution rainfall fields are essential in urban hydrology, and are lacking in many areas. We develop a high‐resolution (15 min, 1 km2) radar rainfall data set for Charlotte, North Carolina during the 2001‐2010 period using the Hydro‐NEXRAD system with radar reflectivity from the National Weather Service Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 Doppler weather radar located in Greer, South Carolina. A dense network of 71 rain gages is used for estimating and correcting radar rainfall biases. Radar rainfall estimates with daily mean field bias (MFB) correction accurately capture the spatial and temporal structure of extreme rainfall, but bias correction at finer timescales can improve cold‐season and tropical cyclone rainfall estimates. Approximately 25 rain gages are sufficient to estimate daily MFB over an area of at least 2,500 km2, suggesting that robust bias correction is feasible in many urban areas. Conditional (rain‐rate dependent) bias can be removed, but at the expense of other performance criteria such as mean square error. Hydro‐NEXRAD radar rainfall estimates are also compared with the coarser resolution (hourly, 16 km2) Stage IV operational rainfall product. Stage IV is adequate for flood water balance studies but is insufficient for applications such as urban flood modeling, in which the temporal and spatial scales of relevant hydrologic processes are short. We recommend the increased use of high‐resolution radar rainfall fields in urban hydrology.
      PubDate: 2013-11-20T15:21:20.864211-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12139
       
  • Flow, Organic, and Inorganic Sediment Yields from a Channelized Watershed
           in the South Carolina Lower Coastal Plain
    • Authors: Anand D. Jayakaran; Susan M. Libes, Daniel R. Hitchcock, Natasha L. Bell, David Fuss
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Many small streams in coastal watersheds in the southeastern United States are modified for agricultural, residential, and commercial development. In the South Carolina Lower Coastal Plain, low‐relief topography and a shallow water table make stream channelization ubiquitous. To quantify the impacts of urbanization and stream channelization, we measured flow and sediment from an urbanizing watershed and a small forested watershed. Flow and sediment export rates were used to infer specific yields from forested and nonforested regions of the urbanizing watershed. Study objectives were to: (1) quantify the range of runoff‐to‐rainfall ratios; (2) quantify the range of specific sediment yields; (3) characterize the quantity and quality of particulate matter exported; and (4) estimate sediment yield attributable to agriculture, development, and channelization activities in the urbanizing watershed. Our results showed that the urban watershed exported over five times more sediment per unit area compared with the forested watershed. Sediment concentration was related to flow flashiness in the urban watershed and to flow magnitude in the forested watershed. Sediments from the forested watershed were dominated by organic matter, whereas mineral matter dominated sediment from the urban stream. Our results indicated that a significant shift in sediment quality and quantity are likely to occur as forested watersheds are transformed by urbanization in coastal South Carolina.
      PubDate: 2013-11-20T15:20:57.83385-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12148
       
  • A Hydrologic Data Screening Procedure for Exploring Monotonic Trends and
           Shifts in Rainfall and Runoff Patterns
    • Authors: Ma. Librada Chu; Abduwasiti Ghulam, Jason H. Knouft, Zaitao Pan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A thorough understanding of past and present hydrologic responses to changes in precipitation patterns is crucial for predicting future conditions. The main objectives of this study were to determine temporal changes in rainfall‐runoff relationship and to identify significant trends and abrupt shifts in rainfall and runoff time series. Ninety‐year rainfall and runoff time series datasets from the Gasconade and Meramec watersheds in east‐central Missouri were used to develop data screening procedure to assess changes in the rainfall and runoff temporal patterns. A statistically significant change in mean and variance was detected in 1980 in the rainfall and runoff time series within both watersheds. In addition, both the rainfall and runoff time series indicated the presence of nonstationary attributes such as statistically significant monotonic trends and/or change in mean and variance, which should be taken into consideration when using the time series to predict future scenarios. The annual peak runoff and the annual low flow in the Meramec watershed showed significant temporal changes compared to that in the Gasconade watershed. Water loss in both watersheds was found to be significantly increasing which is potentially due to the increase in groundwater pumping for water supply purposes.
      PubDate: 2013-11-20T15:19:53.445379-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12149
       
  • Improvement in HSPF's Low‐Flow Predictions by Implementation of a
           Power Law Groundwater Storage‐Discharge Relationship
    • Authors: C.L. Schultz; S.N. Ahmed, R. Mandel, H.L.N. Moltz
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: We have enhanced the ability of a widely used watershed model, Hydrologic Simulation Program — FORTRAN (HSPF), to predict low flows by reconfiguring the algorithm that simulates groundwater discharge. During dry weather periods, flow in most streams consists primarily of base flow, that is, groundwater discharged from underlying aquifers. In this study, HSPF's groundwater storage‐discharge relationship is changed from a linear to a more general nonlinear relationship which takes the form of a power law. The nonlinear algorithm is capable of simulating streamflow recession curves that have been found in some studies to better match observed dry weather hydrographs. The altered version of HSPF is implemented in the Chesapeake Bay Program's Phase 5 Model, an HSPF‐based model that simulates nutrient and sediment loads to the Chesapeake Bay, and is tested in the upper Potomac River basin, a 29,950 km2 drainage area that is part of the Bay watershed. The nonlinear relationship improved median Nash‐Sutcliffe efficiencies for log daily flows at the model's 45 calibration points. Mean absolute percent error on low‐flow days dropped in five major Potomac River tributaries by up to 12 percentage points, and in the Potomac River itself by four percentage points, where low‐flow days were defined as days when observed flows were in the lowest 5th percentile range. Percent bias on low‐flow days improved by eight percentage points in the Potomac River, from −11 to −3%.
      PubDate: 2013-11-18T13:05:54.798267-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12144
       
  • Load Estimation Method Using Distributions with Covariates: A Comparison
           with Commonly Used Estimation Methods
    • Authors: Sébastien Raymond; Alain Mailhot, Guillaume Talbot, Patrick Gagnon, Alain N. Rousseau, Florentina Moatar
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Load estimates obtained using an approach based on statistical distributions with parameters expressed as a function of covariates (e.g., streamflow) (distribution with covariates hereafter called DC method) were compared to four load estimation methods: (1) flow‐weighted mean concentration; (2) integral regression; (3) segmented regression (the last two with Ferguson's correction factor); and (4) hydrograph separation methods. A total of 25 datasets (from 19 stations) of daily concentrations of total dissolved solids, nutrients, or suspended particulate matter were used. The selected stations represented a wide range of hydrological conditions. Annual flux errors were determined by randomly generating 50 monthly sample series from daily series. Annual and interannual biases and dispersions were evaluated and compared. The impact of sampling frequency was investigated through the generation of bimonthly and weekly surveys. Interannual uncertainty analysis showed that the performance of the DC method was comparable with those of the other methods, except for stations showing high hydrological variability. In this case, the DC method performed better, with annual biases lower than those characterizing the other methods. Results show that the DC method generated the smallest pollutant load errors when considering a monthly sampling frequency for rivers showing high variability in hydrological conditions and contaminant concentrations.
      PubDate: 2013-11-18T13:05:49.468976-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12147
       
  • A Cooperative Approach to Reduce Water Pollution Abatement Cost in an
           Interjurisdictional Lake Basin
    • Authors: Laijun Zhao; Wei Huang, H. Oliver Gao, Jian Xue, Changmin Li, Yue Hu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A cooperative approach via transfer fee was developed to improve the cost‐effectiveness of water pollution control in interjurisdictional lake basin management in China. Different from the existing literature that studies water quality trading and pollution reduction at micro levels (i.e., focusing on enterprises and firms), this article explores cooperative pollution reduction strategies from a macro level, targeting multiple jurisdictional regions. The merits of this new approach include: (1) improving the cost‐effectiveness of pollution reduction by making use of the cost differentiation in pollution reduction between industries and municipal sewage plants, and between different administrative areas; (2) managing payments for ecosystem services by horizontal transfer payment; and (3) incorporating the concepts of game, cooperation, coordination, and watershed‐based management in implementation. For empirical demonstration, a bilevel optimization model was built and calibrated using the 2005 data of the Lake Tai basin to work out the optimal solutions for cooperative chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction. Results show that policies based on this new approach can significantly reduce the overall COD abatement costs for the basin as well as the individual jurisdictional regions compared to the current practice.
      PubDate: 2013-11-18T13:05:45.285247-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12146
       
  • Use of Hydrologic Landscape Classification to Diagnose Streamflow
           Predictability in Oregon
    • Authors: Sopan D. Patil; Parker J. Wigington, Scott G. Leibowitz, Randy L. Comeleo
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: We implement a spatially lumped hydrologic model to predict daily streamflow at 88 catchments within the state of Oregon and analyze its performance using the Oregon Hydrologic Landscape (OHL) classification. OHL is used to identify the physio‐climatic conditions that favor high (or low) streamflow predictability. High prediction catchments (Nash‐Sutcliffe efficiency of Q (NS) > 0.75) are mainly classified as rain dominated with very wet climate, low aquifer permeability, and low to medium soil permeability. Most of them are located west of the Cascade Mountain Range. Conversely, most low prediction catchments (NS 
      PubDate: 2013-11-18T13:05:42.472563-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12143
       
  • The Comparative Accuracy of Two Hydrologic Models in Simulating
           Warm‐Season Runoff for Two Small, Hillslope Catchments
    • Authors: Yu Zhang; William Shuster
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This article assesses the performance of two hydrologic models in simulating warm‐season runoff for two upland, low‐yield micro‐catchments near Coshocton, Ohio. The two models, namely the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) and the Gridded Surface‐Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA), were implemented with contrasting levels of complexity, with the former representing the catchments as lumped spatial units and computing evaporation only from standing water, and the latter incorporating fine‐scale variation in topography and soil properties and computing evapotranspiration from soil based on weather data. Our investigation began with uncalibrated model runs for 1990‐2003 except for 1994 using a priori parameter values. Then a set of calibration experiments were performed wherein the sensitivity of model performance to the length of calibration records was examined. Our results pointed to large errors associated with simulations from both models: even the calibrated models were unable to reproduce the seasonal and between‐catchment contrasts in runoff response. Using a priori parameter values, SWMM attained better results than GSSHA. However, with simple calibration, GSSHA outperformed SWMM in several respects. It was also found that extending the record of calibration rendered relatively minor changes to model performance. The practical and scientific implications of the findings are discussed.
      PubDate: 2013-10-21T12:26:47.845851-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12135
       
  • Agronomic Water Mass Balance vs. Well Measurement for Assessing Ogallala
           Aquifer Depletion in the Texas Panhandle
    • Authors: Constant Z. Ouapo; B.A. Stewart, Robert E. DeOtte
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The Ogallala Aquifer is depleting faster than it is being replenished. Interpretation of well data suggests that the water table in some counties is not declining, or not as much as might be expected in view of the amount of land being irrigated. As the Ogallala Aquifer in the Texas Panhandle receives almost no recharge, a possible explanation is that the current method of using well data for estimating the quantity of water remaining in the aquifer is underestimating water in storage. This study used an agronomic water mass balance approach to estimate how much water has been used for irrigation compared to amounts estimated by well data. The major finding was in counties where irrigation well capacities have declined significantly but irrigation is continuing, there is likely more water in storage than presently estimated, but the amounts of water being used for irrigation in those counties are greater than estimated changes of water in storage. The proposed hypothesis for this difference is there are mounds of water between wells that are not being accounted for and data are presented and discussed to support this conjecture.
      PubDate: 2013-10-21T12:26:45.252328-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12134
       
  • A Multi‐Scale Analysis of Single‐Family Residential Water Use
           in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area
    • Authors: Yun Ouyang; Elizabeth A. Wentz, Benjamin L. Ruddell, Sharon L. Harlan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Studies that evaluate determinants of residential water demand typically use data from a single spatial scale. Although household‐scale data are preferred, especially when econometric models are used, researchers may be limited to aggregate data. There is little, if any, empirical analysis to assess whether spatial scale may lead to ecological fallacy problems in residential water use research. Using linear mixed‐effects models, we compare the results for the relationship of single‐family water use with its determinants using data from the household and census tract scales in the city of Phoenix. Model results between the household and census tract scale are similar suggesting the ecological fallacy may not be significant. Common significant determinants on these two spatial scales include household size, household income, house age, pool size, irrigable lot size, precipitation, and temperature. We also use city/town scale data from the Phoenix metropolitan area to parameterize the linear mixed‐effects model. The difference in the parameter estimates of those common variables compared to the first two scales indicates there is spatial heterogeneity in the relationship between single‐family water use and its determinants among cities and towns. The negative relationship between single‐family house density and residential water use suggests that residential water consumption could be reduced through coordination of land use planning and water demand management.
      PubDate: 2013-10-21T12:25:23.861982-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12133
       
  • Chloride Released from Three Permeable Pavement Surfaces after Winter Salt
           Application
    • Authors: Michael Borst; Robert A. Brown
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Few studies exist on how chloride from chloride‐based deicers is transported in infiltration‐based stormwater control measures. In 2009, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) constructed a 0.4 ha parking lot in Edison, New Jersey, that was surfaced with permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA). Each surface type has four equally sized, lined sections that direct all infiltrate to separate 5.7 m3 collection tanks. The USEPA acute criterion for aquatic life (860 mg/l) was exceeded in events immediately following a snow event. Concentrations of the infiltrate exceeded the detection limit (5 mg/l) year round but did not exceed the USEPA chronic toxicity (230 mg/l) after April. The chloride concentration decreased with cumulative rainfall since previous snow event, and a power regression described this relationship. In the power regression, the coefficient (b) described the initial concentration following a snow event, and the exponent (m) described the rate in which chloride was flushed through the system with infiltrating water. PC had the largest coefficient (5,664) and largest absolute exponent (−0.92), followed closely by PICP (b = 4,943 and m = −0.87), and distantly by PA (b = 2,907 and m = −0.67). The differences in release rate were proportional to the measured surface infiltration rates of 4,000; 2,400; and 200 cm/h for PC, PICP, and PA, respectively. These results will assist those who manage or regulate stormwater where receiving waters are chloride impaired.
      PubDate: 2013-10-21T12:25:21.331378-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12132
       
  • Creating False Images: Stream Restoration in an Urban Setting
    • Authors: Kristan Cockerill; William P. Anderson
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Stream restoration has become a multibillion dollar business with mixed results as to its efficacy. This case study utilizes pre‐ and post‐monitoring data from restoration projects on an urban stream to assess how well stream conditions, publicly stated project goals, and project implementation align. Our research confirms previous studies showing little communication among academic researchers and restoration practitioners as well as provides further evidence that restoration efforts tend to focus on small‐scale, specific sites without considering broader land use patterns. This study advances our understanding of restoration by documenting that although improving ecological conditions is a stated goal for restoration projects, the implemented measures are not always focused on those issues that are the most ecologically salient. What these projects have accomplished is to protect the built environment and promote positive public perception. We argue that these disconnects among publicized goals for restoration, the implemented features, and actual stream conditions may create a false image of what an ecologically stable stream looks like and therefore perpetuate a false sense of optimism about the feasibility of restoring urban streams.
      PubDate: 2013-10-21T12:25:18.768657-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12131
       
  • Book Reviews
    • Pages: n/a - n/a
      PubDate: 2013-10-21T12:20:18.360072-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12142
       
  • Assessment of Future Climate Change Impact on Water Quality of Chungju
           Lake, South Korea, Using WASP Coupled with SWAT
    • Authors: Jong Y. Park; Geun A. Park, Seong J. Kim
      Pages: 1225 - 1238
      Abstract: This study is to evaluate the future potential impact of climate change on the water quality of Chungju Lake using the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP). The lake has a storage capacity of 2.75 Gm3, maximum water surface of 65.7 km2, and forest‐dominant watershed of 6,642 km2. The impact on the lake from the watershed was evaluated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The WASP and SWAT were calibrated and validated using the monthly water temperatures from 1998 to 2003, lake water quality data (dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen [T‐N], total phosphorus [T‐P], and chlorophyll‐a [chl‐a]) and daily dam inflow, and monthly stream water quality (sediment, T‐N, and T‐P) data. For the future climate change scenario, the MIROC3.2 HiRes A1B was downscaled for 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s using the Change Factor statistical method. The 2080s temperature and precipitation showed an increase of +4.8°C and +34.4%, respectively, based on a 2000 baseline. For the 2080s watershed T‐N and T‐P loads of up to +87.3 and +19.6%, the 2080s lake T‐N and T‐P concentrations were projected to be 4.00 and 0.030 mg/l from 2.60 and 0.016 mg/l in 2000, respectively. The 2080s chl‐a concentration in the epilimnion and the maximum were 13.97 and 52.45 μg/l compared to 8.64 and 33.48 μg/l in 2000, respectively. The results show that the Chungju Lake will change from its mesotrophic state of 2000 to a eutrophic state by T‐P in the 2020s and by chl‐a in the 2080s. Editor's note: This paper is part of a featured series on Korean Hydrology. The series addresses the need for a new paradigm of river and watershed management for Korea due to climate and land use changes.
      PubDate: 2013-06-28T11:25:45.725404-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12085
       
  • Coastal Flood Inundation Monitoring with Satellite C‐band and
           L‐band Synthetic Aperture Radar Data
    • Authors: Elijah Ramsey; Amina Rangoonwala, Terri Bannister
      Pages: 1239 - 1260
      Abstract: Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) was evaluated as a method to operationally monitor the occurrence and distribution of storm‐ and tidal‐related flooding of spatially extensive coastal marshes within the north‐central Gulf of Mexico. Maps representing the occurrence of marsh surface inundation were created from available Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array type L‐Band SAR (PALSAR) (L‐band) (21 scenes with HH polarizations in Wide Beam [100 m]) data and Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT) Advanced SAR (ASAR) (C‐band) data (24 scenes with VV and HH polarizations in Wide Swath [150 m]) during 2006‐2009 covering 500 km of the Louisiana coastal zone. Mapping was primarily based on a decrease in backscatter between reference and target scenes, and as an extension of previous studies, the flood inundation mapping performance was assessed by the degree of correspondence between inundation mapping and inland water levels. Both PALSAR‐ and ASAR‐based mapping at times were based on suboptimal reference scenes; however, ASAR performance seemed more sensitive to reference‐scene quality and other types of scene variability. Related to water depth, PALSAR and ASAR mapping accuracies tended to be lower when water depths were shallow and increased as water levels decreased below or increased above the ground surface, but this pattern was more pronounced with ASAR. Overall, PALSAR‐based inundation accuracies averaged 84% (n = 160), while ASAR‐based mapping accuracies averaged 62% (n = 245).
      PubDate: 2013-06-24T11:24:21.725339-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12082
       
  • Assessing the Impacts of E. coli Laden Streambed Sediment on E. coli Loads
           over a Range of Flows and Sediment Characteristics
    • Authors: Pramod K. Pandey; Michelle L. Soupir
      Pages: 1261 - 1269
      Abstract: Understanding sediment Escherichia coli levels (i.e., pathogen indicators) and their contribution to the water column during resuspension is critical for predicting in‐stream E. coli levels and the potential risk to human health. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's current water quality testing strategies, however, rely on water borne E. coli concentrations to assess stream E. coli levels and identify impaired waters. In this work, we conducted a scenario analysis using a range of flows, sediment/water bacteria fractions, and particle sizes to which E. coli attach to assess the impact of E. coli in streambed sediments on water column E. coli levels. We used simple sediment transport theory to calculate the potential total E. coli concentrations in a stream with and without the resuspension process. Results clearly indicate that inclusion of resuspending sediment attached E. coli is necessary for watershed assessments and data on sediment attached E. coli concentrations is much needed. When neglecting the streambed sediment E. coli concentrations, the model predicted average E. coli loads of 107 Colony Forming Units (CFU)/s; however, when streambed sediment E. coli concentrations were included in the model, the predictions ranged from 1010 to 1014 CFU/s. To evaluate the predictions, E. coli data in the streambed sediment and the water column were monitored in Squaw Creek, Iowa. Comparisons between measured and predicted E. coli loads yielded an R2‐value of 0.85.
      PubDate: 2013-06-21T09:45:35.531406-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12079
       
  • A Comparison of DEM‐Based Indexes for Targeting the Placement of
           Vegetative Buffers in Agricultural Watersheds
    • Authors: Michael G. Dosskey; Zeyuan Qiu, Yang Kang
      Pages: 1270 - 1283
      Abstract: Targeted placement of vegetative buffers may increase their effectiveness for improving water quality in agricultural watersheds. The use of digital elevation models (DEMs) enables precise mapping of runoff pathways for identifying where greater runoff loads can be intercepted and treated with buffers. Five different DEM‐based targeting indexes were compared and contrasted for the degree to which they identify similar locations in watersheds: Flow Accumulation [S.K. Jenson and J.O. Domingue (1988). Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 54:1593], Wetness Index [I.D. Moore, R.B. Grayson, and A.R. Ladson (1991). Hydrological Processes 5:3], Topographic Index [M.T. Walter, T.S. Steenhuis, V.K. Mehta, D. Thongs, M. Zion, and E. Schneiderman (2002). Hydrological Processes 16:2041], and the Water Inflow and Sediment Retention Indexes [M.G. Dosskey, Z. Qiu, M.J. Helmers, and D.E. Eisenhauer (2011b). Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 66:362]. The indexes were applied in two different watersheds, one in New Jersey and one in Missouri. Results showed that they all tend to target similar locations in both watersheds which traces to the importance of larger contributing area to the rankings by each index. Disagreement among indexes traces to other variables which enable more accurate targeting under particular hydrologic circumstances. Effective use of these indexes poses special challenges, including selecting an index that better describes the hydrologic circumstances in a watershed and is simple enough to use, ensuring the accuracy of the DEM, and determining a maximum index value for the appropriateness of vegetative buffers. When properly applied, each index can provide a standardized basis and effective spatial resolution for targeting buffer placement in watersheds.
      PubDate: 2013-06-28T11:25:34.202202-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12083
       
  • Curve Number Derivation for Watersheds Draining Two Headwater Streams in
           Lower Coastal Plain South Carolina, USA
    • Authors: Thomas H. Epps; Daniel R. Hitchcock, Anand D. Jayakaran, Drake R. Loflin, Thomas M. Williams, Devendra M. Amatya
      Pages: 1284 - 1295
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess curve number (CN) values derived for two forested headwater catchments in the Lower Coastal Plain (LCP) of South Carolina using a three‐year period of storm event rainfall and runoff data in comparison with results obtained from CN method calculations. Derived CNs from rainfall/runoff pairs ranged from 46 to 90 for the Upper Debidue Creek (UDC) watershed and from 42 to 89 for the Watershed 80 (WS80). However, runoff generation from storm events was strongly related to water table elevation, where seasonally variable evapotranspirative wet and dry moisture conditions persist. Seasonal water table fluctuation is independent of, but can be compounded by, wet conditions that occur as a result of prior storm events, further complicating flow prediction. Runoff predictions for LCP first‐order watersheds do not compare closely to measured flow under the average moisture condition normally associated with the CN method. In this study, however, results show improvement in flow predictions using CNs adjusted for antecedent runoff conditions and based on water table position. These results indicate that adaptations of CN model parameters are required for reliable flow predictions for these LCP catchments with shallow water tables. Low gradient topography and shallow water table characteristics of LCP watersheds allow for unique hydrologic conditions that must be assessed and managed differently than higher gradient watersheds.
      PubDate: 2013-06-28T11:25:55.389887-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12084
       
  • Evaluation of Operational National Weather Service Gridded Flash Flood
           Guidance over the Arkansas Red River Basin
    • Authors: Dugwon Seo; Tarendra Lakhankar, Juan Mejia, Brian Cosgrove, Reza Khanbilvardi
      Pages: 1296 - 1307
      Abstract: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service (NWS) flash flood warnings are issued by Weather Forecast Offices and are underpinned by information from the Flash Flood Guidance (FFG) system operated by the River Forecast Centers (RFCs). This study focuses on the quantitative evaluation and limitations of the FFG system using reported flash flood cases in 2010 and 2011. The flash flood reports were obtained from the NWS Storm Event database for the Arkansas‐Red Basin RFC (ABRFC). The current FFG system at the ABRFC provides gridded flash flood guidance (GFFG) system using the NWS Hydrology Laboratory‐Research Distributed Hydrologic Model to translate the upper zone soil moisture to estimates of Soil Conservation Service Curve Numbers. Comparisons of the GFFG and real‐time Multisensor Precipitation Estimator‐derived Quantitative Precipitation Estimate for the same duration and location were used to analyze the success of the system. Typically, the six‐hour duration was characterized by higher probability of detection values than the three‐hour duration, which highlights the difficulty of hydrologic process estimation for shorter time scales. The current system does not take into account physical characteristics such as land use, including irrigated agricultural farm and urban areas, hence, overly dry soil moisture estimates over these areas can lower the success rate of the GFFG product.
      PubDate: 2013-06-28T11:25:20.013541-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12087
       
  • Streamflow Responses to Climate Change: Analysis of Hydrologic Indicators
           in a New York City Water Supply Watershed
    • Authors: Soni M. Pradhanang; Rajith Mukundan, Elliot M. Schneiderman, Mark S. Zion, Aavudai Anandhi, Donald C. Pierson, Allan Frei, Zachary M. Easton, Daniel Fuka, Tammo S. Steenhuis
      Pages: 1308 - 1326
      Abstract: Recent works have indicated that climate change in the northeastern United States is already being observed in the form of shorter winters, higher annual average air temperature, and more frequent extreme heat and precipitation events. These changes could have profound effects on aquatic ecosystems, and the implications of such changes are less understood. The objective of this study was to examine how future changes in precipitation and temperature translate into changes in streamflow using a physically based semidistributed model, and subsequently how changes in streamflow could potentially impact stream ecology. Streamflow parameters were examined in a New York City water supply watershed for changes from model‐simulated baseline conditions to future climate scenarios (2081‐2100) for ecologically relevant factors of streamflow using the Indicators of Hydrologic Alterations tool. Results indicate that earlier snowmelt and reduced snowpack advance the timing and increase the magnitude of discharge in the winter and early spring (November‐March) and greatly decrease monthly streamflow later in the spring in April. Both the rise and fall rates of the hydrograph will increase resulting in increased flashiness and flow reversals primarily due to increased pulses during winter seasons. These shifts in timing of peak flows, changes in seasonal flow regimes, and changes in the magnitudes of low flow can all influence aquatic organisms and have the potential to impact stream ecology.
      PubDate: 2013-06-28T11:25:40.763347-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12086
       
  • A System Dynamics Model for Conjunctive Management of Water Resources in
           the Snake River Basin
    • Authors: David J. Hoekema; Venkataramana Sridhar
      Pages: 1327 - 1350
      Abstract: The Pacific Northwest is expected to witness changes in temperature and precipitation due to climate change. In this study, we enhance the Snake River Planning Model (SRPM) by modeling the feedback loop between incidental recharge and surface water supply resulting from surface water and groundwater extraction for irrigation and provide a case study involving climate change impacts and management scenarios. The new System Dynamics‐Snake River Planning Model (SD‐SRPM) is calibrated to flow at Box Canyon Springs located along a major outlet of the East Snake Plain Aquifer. A calibration of the model to flow at Box Canyon Springs, based on historic diversions (1950‐1995) resulted in an r2 value of 0.74 and a validation (1996‐2005) r2 value of 0.60. After adding irrigation entities to the model an r2 value of 0.91, 0.88, and 0.87 were maintained for modeled vs. observed (1991‐2005) end‐of‐month reservoir content in Jackson Lake, Palisades, and American Falls, the three largest irrigation reservoirs in the system. The scenarios that compared the impacts of climate change were based on ensemble mean precipitation change scenarios and estimated changes to crop evapotranspiration (ET). Increased ET, despite increased precipitation, generally increased surface water shortages and discharge of springs. This study highlights the need to develop and implement models that integrate the human‐natural system to understand the impacts of climate change.
      PubDate: 2013-07-15T07:55:37.776733-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12092
       
  • Using Paleo Reconstructions to Improve Streamflow Forecast Lead Time in
           the Western United States
    • Authors: Christopher Carrier; Ajay Kalra, Sajjad Ahmad
      Pages: 1351 - 1366
      Abstract: In water stressed regions, water managers are exploring new horizons that would help in long‐range streamflow forecasts. Oceanic‐atmospheric oscillations have been shown to influence streamflow variability. In this study, long‐lead time streamflow forecasts are made using a multiclass kernel‐based data‐driven support vector machine (SVM) model. The extended streamflow records based on tree ring reconstructions were used to provide a longer time series data. Reconstructed data were used from 1658 to 1952 and the instrumental record was used from 1953 to 2007. Reconstructions for oceanic‐atmospheric oscillations included the El Niño‐Southern Oscillation, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, and North Atlantic Oscillation. Streamflow forecasts using all four oscillations were made with one‐year to five‐year lead times for 21 gages in the western United States. This is the first study that uses both instrumental and reconstructed data of oscillations in SVM model to improve streamflow forecast lead time. SVM model was able to provide “satisfactory” to “very good” forecasts with one‐ to five‐year lead time for the selected gages. The use of all the oscillation indices helped in achieving better predictability compared to using individual oscillations. The SVM modeling results are better when compared with multiple linear regression model forecasts. The findings are statistical in nature and are expected to be useful for long‐term water resources planning and management.
      PubDate: 2013-07-15T07:55:48.767183-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12088
       
  • A Two‐Decade Watershed Approach to Stream Restoration Log Jam Design
           and Stream Recovery Monitoring: Finney Creek, Washington
    • Authors: Roger A. Nichols; Gary L. Ketcheson
      Pages: 1367 - 1384
      Abstract: A federal, state, and private partnership leveraged resources and employed a long‐term, systematic approach to improve aquatic habitat degraded by decades of intensive forest management in Finney Creek, a tributary to the Skagit River of Northwest Washington State. After more than a decade of work to reduce sediment sources and the risk of landslides within the watershed, log jam installation commenced in 1999 and progressed downstream through 2010. Log jam design was adapted as experience was gained. A total of 181 log jams, including 60 floating log ballasted jams, were constructed along 12 km of channel. The goal was to alter hydraulic processes that affect aquatic habitat formation along 39 km of stream with emphasis on 18.5 km of lower Finney Creek. Aquatic habitat surveys over a five‐year period show an increase in the area of large pools and an accompanying increase in residual and maximum pool depth in the lower river reach. Channel cross sections show a generally deeper channel at the log jams, better channel definition in the gravel deposits at the head of the log jams, and improved riffle and thalweg development below the log jams. Stream temperature in the upper river decreased by 1.0°F in the first three years, and 1.1°F in the lowest treated reach over nine years. There is a trend of less stream heating over the restoration time period. Photo points show that riparian vegetation is recolonizing gravel bars.
      PubDate: 2013-07-15T07:56:07.489611-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12091
       
  • Characterization of Drought in the South Atlantic, United States
    • Authors: Lauren A. Patterson; Brian D. Lutz, Martin W. Doyle
      Pages: 1385 - 1397
      Abstract: Drought has been less extensively characterized in the humid South Atlantic compared to the arid western United States. Our objective was to characterize drought in the South Atlantic and to understand whether drought has become more severe in this region over time. Here we used monthly streamflow to characterize hydrological drought. Hydrological drought occurred when streamflow fell below the 20th percentile over three consecutive months and terminated once streamflow remained above the 20th percentile for three consecutive months. We characterized the frequency, duration, magnitude, and severity of events using the above definition. Significant changes in drought characteristics were tested with Mann‐Kendall over three periods: 1930‐2010, 1930‐1969, and 1970‐2010. We show that 71% of drought events were shorter than six months, while 7% were multiyear events. There was little evidence of trends in drought characteristics to support the claim of drought becoming more severe in the South Atlantic over the 20th Century. The one exception was a significant increase in the joint probability of nearby basins being simultaneously in drought conditions in the southern portion of the study area from 1970 to 2010. While drought characteristics have changed little through time, decreasing average streamflow in non drought periods coupled with increasing water demand provide the context within which recent multiyear drought events have produced significant stress on existing water infrastructure.
      PubDate: 2013-07-15T07:56:17.064966-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12090
       
  • Characterizing Rainwater Harvesting Performance and Demonstrating
           Stormwater Management Benefits in the Humid Southeast USA
    • Authors: K.M. DeBusk; W.F. Hunt, J.D. Wright
      Pages: 1398 - 1411
      Abstract: Rainwater harvesting (RWH) has traditionally been implemented in areas with (semi) arid climates or limited access to potable water supplies; however, recent droughts in the humid southeastern United States have led to increased implementation of RWH systems. The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) present usage characteristics and performance results for four RWH systems installed in humid North Carolina (NC) as compared with systems located in arid/semiarid regions and (2) identify system benefits and modifications that could help improve the performance of RWH systems installed in humid regions of the world. For this study four RWH systems were installed in NC. Their usage was monitored for at least one year and compared with similar studies. Results revealed that dedicated water uses and usage characteristics for RWH systems in NC differed from those previously reported in the literature. Two of the systems studied met 100 and 61% of the potable water demand with designated uses of animal kennel flushing and greenhouse irrigation, respectively. The designated uses yielding the greatest potable water replacement were often seasonal or periodic, thus necessitating the need for identifying and implementing secondary objectives for these systems, namely, stormwater management. Otherwise, the expense and effort required to implement RWH systems in humid areas will most likely preclude their use.
      PubDate: 2013-07-19T05:16:02.450602-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12096
       
  • Estimating Suspended Solids from Turbidity in the Robeson Creek, NC
           Watershed
    • Authors: D.E. Line; K.R. Hall, J.D. Blackwell
      Pages: 1412 - 1420
      Abstract: The purpose of this project was to assess the effect of estimating total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations from turbidity on TSS loads for streams in the Robeson Creek watershed. Discharge was monitored continuously and base‐flow grab and storm event composite samples were collected and analyzed for TSS and turbidity from five sites during five years of monitoring. For base‐flow samples, the TSS‐turbidity relationship for all five sites was poor indicating that TSS concentrations in base flow cannot be estimated from a TSS‐turbidity relationship. To test the effect of analyzing fewer samples, TSS from every third and the first 20 samples collected from each site was used to develop TSS‐turbidity relationships. In addition, the TSS‐turbidity relationship developed from the most downstream site was used to estimate TSS concentrations from turbidity measured at the other four sites. For four of the five sites, analyzing every third sample for TSS and using the TSS‐turbidity relationship to estimate the missing TSS concentrations would result in mean TSS loads that were not significantly different from the observed. Using the TSS‐turbidity relationship from the outlet to estimate TSS from turbidity measured at the other four sites resulted in significantly different mean TSS loads at three of the four sites. These results indicate that estimating TSS concentrations from turbidity using a TSS‐turbidity relationship developed from a subset of the overall dataset should be done with great caution.
      PubDate: 2013-07-19T05:15:41.504082-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12094
       
  • Flood Forecasting Using Neural Computing Techniques and Conceptual Class
           Segregation
    • Authors: Sungwon Kim; Vijay P. Singh
      Pages: 1421 - 1435
      Abstract: Various neural networks models are developed and applied for flood forecasting at Sangye station (no. 1) of the Bocheong Stream catchment, which is one of the International Hydrological Program's representative catchments, Republic of Korea. The neural networks models (NNMs) are multilayer perceptron‐neural networks model (MLP‐NNM), generalized regression neural networks model (GRNNM), and Kohonen self‐organizing feature maps neural networks model (KSOFM‐NNM). Data used for model training and testing are divided into two groups: such as floods and typhoon events. Single conventional application and class segregation implementation are applied to evaluate the neural networks models. KSOFM‐NNM forecasts flood discharge more accurately than do MLP‐NNM and GRNNM for the testing data of Methods I and II for single conventional application and class segregation implementation. This study shows that class segregation can capture the dynamics of different physical processes and overcome the difficulties using single conventional application of neural networks models.
      PubDate: 2013-07-19T05:20:10.605871-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12093
       
  • Runoff Curve Numbers at the Agricultural Field‐Scale and
           Implications for Continuous Simulation Modeling
    • Authors: Paul M. McGinley; Adam T. Freihoefer, Randy S. Mentz
      Pages: 1436 - 1443
      Abstract: This study used monitoring in the waterways of agricultural fields to understand the use of the runoff curve number (CN) in continuous simulation models. The CN has a long history as a design tool for estimating runoff volumes for large, single storms on small watersheds, but its use in continuous simulation models to describe runoff from smaller storms and relatively small areas is more recent and controversial. We examined 788 nonwinter rainfall events on four agricultural fields over five years (2004‐2008) during which runoff was generated in 87 events. The largest 20 runoff events on each field generated approximately 90% of the total runoff volume. The runoff event CNs showed an inverse correlation with storm depth that could not consistently be explained by previous precipitation. We review how small areas of higher runoff generation within larger areas will systematically increase the apparent CN of the larger area as the storm size decreases. If this variation is not incorporated into a model explicitly, continuous simulation modelers must understand that when source areas are aggregated or when runoff generation is spatially variable, the overall CN is not unique when smaller storms are included in the calibration set.
      PubDate: 2013-07-19T05:19:52.307891-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12097
       
  • Modeling Hydrologic Benefits of Low Impact Development: A Distributed
           Hydrologic Model of The Woodlands, Texas
    • Authors: George Doubleday; Antonia Sebastian, Tatyana Luttenschlager, Philip B. Bedient
      Pages: 1444 - 1455
      Abstract: Low Impact Development (LID) is alternative design approach to land development that conserves and utilizes natural resources to minimize the potential negative environmental impacts of development, such as flooding. The Woodlands near Houston, Texas is one of the premier master‐planned communities in the United States. Unlike in a typical urban development where riparian corridors are often replaced with concrete channels, pervious surfaces, vegetation, and natural drainage pathways were preserved as much as possible during development. In addition, a number of detention ponds were strategically located to manage runoff on site. This article uses a unique distributed hydrologic model, Vflo™, combined with historical (1974) and recent (2008 and 2009) rainfall events to evaluate the long‐term effectiveness of The Woodlands natural drainage design as a stormwater management technique. This study analyzed the influence of LID in The Woodlands by comparing the hydrologic response of the watershed under undeveloped, developed, and highly urbanized conditions. The results show that The Woodlands drainage design successfully reflects predeveloped hydrologic conditions and produces peak flows two to three times lower than highly urbanized development. Furthermore, results indicate that the LID practices employed in The Woodlands successfully attenuate the peak flow from a 100‐year design event, resulting in flows comparable to undeveloped hydrologic conditions.
      PubDate: 2013-07-19T05:15:55.687958-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12095
       
  • A Method to Consider Whether Dams Mitigate Climate Change Effects on
           Stream Temperatures
    • Authors: Sarah E. Null; Scott T. Ligare, Joshua H. Viers
      Pages: 1456 - 1472
      Abstract: This article provides a method for examining mesoscale water quality objectives downstream of dams with anticipated climate change using a multimodel approach. Coldwater habitat for species such as trout and salmon has been reduced by water regulation, dam building, and land use change that alter stream temperatures. Climate change is an additional threat. Changing hydroclimatic conditions will likely impact water temperatures below dams and affect downstream ecology. We model reservoir thermal dynamics and release operations (assuming that operations remain unchanged through time) of hypothetical reservoirs of different sizes, elevations, and latitudes with climate‐forced inflow hydrologies to examine the potential to manage water temperatures for coldwater habitat. All models are one dimensional and operate on a weekly timestep. Results are presented as water temperature change from the historical time period and indicate that reservoirs release water that is cooler than upstream conditions, although the absolute temperatures of reaches below dams warm with climate change. Stream temperatures are sensitive to changes in reservoir volume, elevation, and latitude. Our approach is presented as a proof of concept study to evaluate reservoir regulation effects on stream temperatures and coldwater habitat with climate change.
      PubDate: 2013-07-19T05:17:02.862383-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12102
       
  • A Decade of Geomorphic and Hydraulic Response to the La Valle Dam Project,
           Baraboo River, Wisconsin
    • Authors: Samantha L. Greene; Austin Jena Krause, James C. Knox
      Pages: 1473 - 1484
      Abstract: We investigate stream response to the La Valle Dam removal and channel reconstruction by estimating channel hydraulic parameter values and changes in sedimentation within the reservoir. The designed channel reconstruction after the dam removal included placement of a riffle structure at the former dam site. Stream surveys undertaken in 1984 by Federal Emergency Management Agency and in 2001 by Doyle et al. were supplemented with surveys in 2009 and 2011 to study the effects of the instream structure. We created a model in HEC‐RAS IV and surface maps in Surfer© using the 1984, 2009, and 2011 surveys. The HEC‐RAS IV model for 2009 channel conditions indicates that the riffle structure decreases upstream channel shear stress and velocity, causing renewed deposition of sediment within the former reservoir. We estimate by 2009, 61% of former reservoir sediments were removed during dam removal and channel reconstruction. Between 2009 and 2011 renewed sedimentation within the former reservoir represented approximately 7.85% of the original reservoir volume. The HEC‐RAS IV models show the largest impacts of the dam and riffle structure occur at flood magnitudes at or below bankfull. Thus, the riffle and the dam similarly alter channel hydraulics and sediment transport. As such, our models indicate that the La Valle Dam project was a dam replacement rather than a removal. Our results confirm that channel reconstruction method can alter channel hydraulics, geomorphology, and sediment mobility.
      PubDate: 2013-07-19T05:16:55.324537-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12100
       
  • Do Polynomials Adequately Describe the Hypsometry of Monadnock Phase
           Watersheds?
    • Authors: James A. Vanderwaal; Herbert Ssegane
      Pages: 1485 - 1495
      Abstract: Hypsometry has been shown to be a useful tool in geomorphic analysis of watersheds with the use of third‐degree polynomial equations to express the hypsometric curve. Despite its usefulness with watersheds in the equilibrium stage, the third‐degree polynomial has been found to be inadequate to describe the hypsometry of Monadnock phase watersheds. Three other equations — a modified third‐degree polynomial with a rational term, a sigmoidal model, and a double exponential — were used to determine hypsometric attributes of 32 Monadnock phase watersheds and compared to the third‐degree polynomial form. The three other equations were found to be better fits for Monadnock phase watersheds than the third‐degree polynomial equation, regardless of which ratio — area or elevation — was plotted as the independent variable. Due to the occasional failure of each functional form to give logical values for hypsometric attributes, the importance of using more than one form equation is discussed. After determining the best‐fit equation for each watershed, the usefulness of hypsometric attributes is discussed in relation to erosion processes within Monadnock phase watersheds.
      PubDate: 2013-07-15T07:55:53.211791-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12089
       
  • Reviewer Index ‐ 2013
    • Pages: 1499 - 1502
      PubDate: 2013-12-02T12:46:46.650963-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12150
       
 
 
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