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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 150 journals)
Showing 1 - 47 of 47 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acque Sotterranee - Italian Journal of Groundwater     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oceanography and Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
American Journal of Water Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Water Works Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Anales de Hidrología Médica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW. Land Reclamation     Open Access  
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Applied Water Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Aquacultural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Living Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aquatic Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Asian Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Water Resources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Desalination and Water Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Developments in Water Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Science : Water Research & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
EQA - International Journal of Environmental Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European journal of water quality - Journal européen d'hydrologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Groundwater for Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Grundwasser     Hybrid Journal  
Hydro Nepal : Journal of Water, Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Hydrology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 16)
Hydrology: Current Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IDA Journal of Desalination and Water Reuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Indonesian Journal of Urban and Environmental Technology     Open Access  
Ingeniería del agua     Open Access  
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Nuclear Desalination     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Salt Lake Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Waste Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Water Resources Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access  
Irrigation and Drainage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Irrigation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Contemporary Water Resource & Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Oceans     Partially Free   (Followers: 54)
Journal of Hydro-environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Hydroinformatics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hydrology (New Zealand)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Natural Resources and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Water Resources Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Water and Climate Change     Partially Free   (Followers: 41)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Water and Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Water Process Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Water Resource and Hydraulic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Water Security     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Water Supply : Research and Technology - AQUA     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia     Open Access  
La Houille Blanche     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Lake and Reservoir Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Liquid Waste Recovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mangroves and Salt Marshes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Marine Ecology Progress Series MEPS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Marine Ecosystem Stressor Response     Open Access  
Methods in Oceanography : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Osterreichische Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal  
Ozone Science & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Paddy and Water Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Revue des sciences de l'eau / Journal of Water Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
RIBAGUA - Revista Iberoamericana del Agua     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Riparian Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
River Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
River Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
SA Irrigation = SA Besproeiing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SABI Magazine - Tydskrif     Full-text available via subscription  
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access  
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref     Open Access  
Scientia Marina     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Smart Water     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Sri Lanka Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sustainable Technologies, Systems & Policies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Tecnología y Ciencias del Agua     Open Access  
Texas Water Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Urban Water Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Waste Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Water     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Water & Sanitation Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Water and Environment Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Water Environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Water Policy     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Water Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Water Practice and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Water Quality Research Journal of Canada     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Water Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Water Resources and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Water Resources and Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Water Resources and Rural Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Water Resources Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Water Resources Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 83)
Water SA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Water Science : The National Water Research Center Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Water Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Water Science and Technology : Water Supply     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)
Water Wheel     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Water21     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Waterlines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wetlands Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Water     Hybrid Journal  
WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)

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Journal Cover Journal of the American Water Resources Association
  [SJR: 0.771]   [H-I: 76]   [32 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1093-474X - ISSN (Online) 1752-1688
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1589 journals]
  • A Nationwide Analysis of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Reservoir
           Performance in Meeting Operational Targets
    • Authors: Lauren A. Patterson; Martin W. Doyle
      Abstract: The United States (U.S.) Army Corps of Engineers operates reservoirs across the U.S. with 89% of reservoirs constructed prior to 1980. Many reservoirs have experienced changes in environmental conditions (e.g., climate and sediment yield) and societal conditions (e.g., water/energy demand and ecological flows) since construction. These changes may challenge the potential for reservoirs to meet their operational targets (OTs) (management goals). Historic daily reservoir data and OTs were collected for 233 reservoirs. Analyses were developed to identify when and where reservoirs may be systematically departing from OTs in terms of the frequency and magnitude of departure. Fifty-six percent of reservoirs consistently met operating targets, 30% were borderline, and 13% experienced frequent and large magnitude departures. Fifty-two percent of reservoirs with large departures were due to shortages and were located in the South Pacific and Southwestern divisions. This work provides a framework to identify reservoir performance in relation to management goals, a necessary step for moving toward adaptive management under changing conditions. All individual reservoir analyses are provided via an interactive data visualization tool:
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T08:45:57.662837-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12622
  • Climate Sensitivity of Phosphorus Loadings to an Urban Stream
    • Authors: Kate M. Munson; Richard M. Vogel, John L. Durant
      Abstract: We investigate the sensitivity of phosphorus loading (mass/time) in an urban stream to variations in climate using nondimensional sensitivity, known as elasticity, methods commonly used by economists and hydrologists. Previous analyses have used bivariate elasticity methods to represent the general relationship between nutrient loading and a variable of interest, but such bivariate relations cannot reflect the complex multivariate nonlinear relationships inherent among nutrients, precipitation, temperature, and streamflow. Using fixed-effect multivariate regression methods, we obtain two phosphorus models (nonparametric and parametric) for an urban stream with high explanatory power that can both estimate phosphorus loads and the elasticity of phosphorus loading to changes in precipitation, temperature, and streamflow. A case study demonstrates total phosphorus loading depends significantly on season, rainfall, combined sewer overflow events, and flow rate, yet the elasticity of total phosphorus to all these factors remains relatively constant throughout the year. The elasticity estimates reported here can be used to examine how nutrient loads may change under future climate conditions.
      PubDate: 2018-01-09T11:20:37.258252-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12621
  • A Framework to Develop Nationwide Flooding Extents Using Climate Models
           and Assess Forecast Potential for Flood Resilience
    • Authors: Sivasankkar Selvanathan; Mathini Sreetharan, Seth Lawler, Krista Rand, Janghwoan Choi, Mathew Mampara
      Abstract: The methods used to simulate flood inundation extents can be significantly improved by high-resolution spatial data captured over a large area. This paper presents a hydraulic analysis methodology and framework to estimate national-level floodplain changes likely to be generated by climate change. The hydraulic analysis was performed using existing published Federal Emergency Management Agency 100-year floodplains and estimated 100- and 10-year return period peak flow discharges. The discharges were estimated using climate variables from global climate models for two future growth scenarios: Representative Concentration Pathways 2.6 and 8.5. River channel dimensions were developed based on existing regional United States Geological Survey publications relating bankfull discharges with channel characteristics. Mathematic relationships for channel bankfull topwidth, depth, and side slope to contributing drainage area measured at model cross sections were developed. The proposed framework can be utilized at a national level to identify critical areas for flood risk assessment. Existing hydraulic models at these “hot spots” could be repurposed for near–real-time flood forecasting operations. Revitalizing these models for use in simulating flood scenarios in near–real time through the use of meteorological forecasts could provide useful information for first responders of flood emergencies.
      PubDate: 2018-01-09T11:16:24.278699-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12613
  • Iowa Statewide Stream Nitrate Load Calculated Using In Situ Sensor Network
    • Authors: Christopher S. Jones; Caroline A. Davis, Chad W. Drake, Keith E. Schilling, Samuel H.P. Debionne, Daniel W. Gilles, Ibrahim Demir, Larry J. Weber
      Abstract: Various techniques exist to estimate stream nitrate loads when measured concentration data are sparse. The inherent uncertainty associated with load estimation, however, makes tracking progress toward water quality goals more difficult. We used high-frequency, in situ nitrate sensors strategically deployed across the agricultural state of Iowa to evaluate 2016 stream concentrations at 60 sites and loads at 35 sites. The generated data, collected at an average of 225 days per site, show daily average nitrate-N yields ranging from 12 to 198 g/ha, with annual yields as high as 53 kg/ha from the intensely drained Des Moines Lobe. Thirteen of the sites that capture water from 82.5% of Iowa's area show statewide nitrate-N loading in 2016 totaled 477 million kg, or 41% of the load delivered to the Mississippi–Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB). Considering the substantial private and public investment being made to reduce nitrate loading in many states within the MARB, networks of continuous, in situ measurement devices as described here can inform efforts to track year-to-year changes in nitrate load related to weather and conservation implementation. Nitrate and other data from the sensor network described in this study are made publicly available in real time through the Iowa Water Quality Information System.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T06:41:38.790766-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12618
  • Climate and Water Conflicts Coevolution from Tropical Development and
           Hydro-Climatic Perspectives: A Case Study of Costa Rica
    • Authors: Germain Esquivel-Hernández; Ricardo Sánchez-Murillo, Christian Birkel, Jan Boll
      Abstract: Costa Rica is a nation with a vast wealth of water resources; however, recently the country has faced water conflicts (WC) due to social, economic, legal, and political impediments in response to limited water availability during El Niño events and inefficient use of its water resources. This study presents a spatial distribution and temporal analysis of WC in Costa Rica from 2005 to 2015. In total, 719 WC were analyzed of which 54% were among private individuals and government. The largest urban areas and the Grande de Tárcoles Basin were identified as the main “hot spot” for the conflicts. WC were mainly caused by spills of wastewater, water pollution, water shortage, infrastructure damage, and flooding, and can be predicted using a multiple linear model including the population size and the number of hydro-meteorological events (HME) (R2 = 0.77). The identified HME also coevolved significantly with the changes in precipitation regimes (r = 0.67, p = 0.021). Our results suggest that there is a need to recognize that water infrastructure longevity across the country concatenates and amplifies WC, mainly in the most populated area located in the Central Valley. Implications of our findings include the need for truly integrated water resources management plans that include, for example, WC as indicators of hydro-climatic changing conditions and water supply and sanitation infrastructure status.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T07:40:02.113647-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12617
  • Measuring Suspended-Sediment Concentration and Turbidity in the Middle
           Mississippi and Lower Missouri Rivers using Landsat Data
    • Authors: Leticia S. F. Pereira; Lisa C. Andes, Amanda L. Cox, Abduwasit Ghulam
      Abstract: The Middle Mississippi River (MMR) and lower Missouri River (MOR) provide critical navigation waterways, ecological habitat, and flood conveyance. They are also directly linked to processes affecting geomorphic and ecological conditions in the lower MR and Delta. For this study, a method was developed to measure suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) and turbidity along the MMR and the lower MOR using Landsat imagery. Data from nine United States Geological Survey water-quality monitoring stations were used to create a model-development dataset and a model-validation dataset. Concurrent gaging data were identified for available Landsat images to generate the datasets. Surface-reflectance filters were developed to eliminate images with cirrus cloud coverage or vessel traffic. Using the filtered model-development dataset, unique reflectance-SSC and reflectance-turbidity models were developed for three Landsat sensors: Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager, Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus, and Landsat 4–5 Thematic Mapper. Coefficient of determination values for the models ranged from 0.72 to 0.88 for the model-development dataset. The model-validation dataset was used to evaluate the performance of the models and had coefficient of determination values ranging from 0.62 to 0.79.
      PubDate: 2017-12-19T08:20:31.833548-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12616
  • Featured Collection Introduction: National Flood Interoperability
           Experiment II
    • Authors: Jim Nelson
      PubDate: 2017-12-07T08:56:01.247544-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12614
  • Issue Information
    • PubDate: 2017-12-01T07:49:35.095263-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12470
  • County-Scale Rainwater Harvesting Feasibility in the United States:
           Climate, Collection Area, Density, and Reuse Considerations
    • Authors: Mounir William Ennenbach; Paulina Concha Larrauri, Upmanu Lall
      Abstract: Roof rainwater harvesting (RWH) has the potential to augment water supplies for urban and suburban uses throughout the United States (U.S.). Studies of the performance of RWH at the building and city scales in the U.S. are available, but a countrywide overview of the potential performance of RWH at the county scale has not been done before. Three approaches were taken: (1) assess the viability of RWH in terms of the rainfall that could be captured in relation to the water demand in each county (excluding agriculture), (2) evaluate the performance of a “typical” domestic RWH system across all counties with metrics related to its ability to supply the potable and nonpotable demand, and (3) evaluate the effect of adding a 50% rainwater reuse component to the analysis. We find RWH could be a viable supplemental water source in the U.S., particularly in counties of the Pacific Northwest, Central, and Eastern regions (percent demand covered>50%). Low population density counties have the potential to meet their annual water needs with RWH, while high-density counties could only source a small portion (~20%) of their annual demand with RWH. Typical RWH systems in counties in the Central and Eastern U.S. performed better than in Western counties. Adding a reuse component can be a key factor in making RWH attractive in many areas of the country. This work can inform future water infrastructure investment and planning in the U.S.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T00:07:17.858799-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12607
  • Assessing Spatial Scale Effects on Hydrometric Network Design Using
           Entropy and Multi-objective Methods
    • Authors: Connor Werstuck; Paulin Coulibaly
      Abstract: In order to facilitate water resources decisions, it is important that accurate and informative hydrometric data are collected. Combining information theory with multi-objective optimization has led to methods of optimizing the information content provided by hydrometric networks; however, there is no available study on the effects of spatial scale and data limitation on these methods. Herein, a dual entropy multi-objective optimization (DEMO) and a transinformation (TI) analysis were done to recommend optimal locations for additional hydrometric stations in the Madawaska Watershed. This analysis was designed to be comparative to a similar study conducted on the Ottawa River Basin which encompasses the Madawaska Watershed to allow for an investigation of the spatial scale effects in this type of network design. This study concludes that TI analysis is not adversely affected by scaling; however, the DEMO analysis is sensitive to the placement of potential station locations and the size of the study area. This study also examines the benefit of including nearby stations when the area of interest does not have a sufficient number of existing hydrometric stations for analysis. It is shown that these stations can provide useful information because their inclusion in the analysis increased the average TI in the watershed. Recommendations were made as to the ideal locations of additional stations in the Madawaska Watershed hydrometric network.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T00:01:10.004292-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12611
  • Assessment of Future Drought Conditions in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed
    • Authors: Hyunwoo Kang; Venkataramana Sridhar
      Abstract: Impacts of climate change on the severity and intensity of future droughts can be evaluated based on precipitation and temperature projections, multiple hydrological models, simulated hydrometeorological variables, and various drought indices. The objective of this study was to assess climate change impacts on future drought conditions and water resources in the Chesapeake Bay (CB) watershed. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Variable Infiltration Capacity model were used to simulate a Modified Palmer Drought Severity Index (MPDSI), a Standardized Soil Moisture index (SSI), a Multivariate Standardized Drought Index (MSDI), along with Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate models for both historical and future periods (f1: 2020-2049, f2: 2050-2079). The results of the SSI suggested that there was a general increase in agricultural droughts in the entire CB watershed because of increases in surface and groundwater flow and evapotranspiration. However, MPDSI and MSDI showed an overall decrease in projected drought occurrences due to the increases in precipitation in the future. The results of this study suggest that it is crucial to use multiple modeling approaches with specific drought indices that combine the effects of both precipitation and temperature changes.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T07:51:01.600567-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12600
  • Cyberinfrastructure and Web Apps for Managing and Disseminating the
           National Water Model
    • Authors: Michael A. Souffront Alcantara; Christian Kesler, Michael J. Stealey, E. James Nelson, Daniel P. Ames, Norm L. Jones
      Abstract: Hydrologic modeling can be used to provide warnings before, and to support operations during and after floods. Recent technological advances have increased our ability to create hydrologic models over large areas. In the United States (U.S.), a new National Water Model (NWM) that generates hydrologic variables at a national scale was released in August 2016. This model represents a substantial step forward in our ability to predict hydrologic events in a consistent fashion across the entire U.S. Nevertheless, for these hydrologic results to be effectively communicated, they need to be put in context and be presented in a way that is straightforward and facilitates management-related decisions. The large amounts of data produced by the NWM present one of the major challenges to fulfill this goal. We created a cyberinfrastructure to store NWM results, “accessibility” web applications to retrieve NWM results, and a REST API to access NWM results programmatically. To demonstrate the utility of this cyberinfrastructure, we created additional web apps that illustrate how to use our REST API and communicate hydrologic forecasts with the aid of dynamic flood maps. This work offers a starting point for the development of a more comprehensive toolset to validate the NWM while also improving the ability to access and visualize NWM forecasts, and develop additional national-scale-derived products such as flood maps.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T09:23:25.772964-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12608
  • Estimating Floodwater Depths from Flood Inundation Maps and Topography
    • Authors: Sagy Cohen; G. Robert Brakenridge, Albert Kettner, Bradford Bates, Jonathan Nelson, Richard McDonald, Yu-Fen Huang, Dinuke Munasinghe, Jiaqi Zhang
      Abstract: Information on flood inundation extent is important for understanding societal exposure, water storage volumes, flood wave attenuation, future flood hazard, and other variables. A number of organizations now provide flood inundation maps based on satellite remote sensing. These data products can efficiently and accurately provide the areal extent of a flood event, but do not provide floodwater depth, an important attribute for first responders and damage assessment. Here we present a new methodology and a GIS-based tool, the Floodwater Depth Estimation Tool (FwDET), for estimating floodwater depth based solely on an inundation map and a digital elevation model (DEM). We compare the FwDET results against water depth maps derived from hydraulic simulation of two flood events, a large-scale event for which we use medium resolution input layer (10 m) and a small-scale event for which we use a high-resolution (LiDAR; 1 m) input. Further testing is performed for two inundation maps with a number of challenging features that include a narrow valley, a large reservoir, and an urban setting. The results show FwDET can accurately calculate floodwater depth for diverse flooding scenarios but also leads to considerable bias in locations where the inundation extent does not align well with the DEM. In these locations, manual adjustment or higher spatial resolution input is required.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T09:22:07.823809-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12609
  • Landscape Hydrogeology and its Influence on Patterns of Groundwater Flux
           and Nitrate Removal Efficiency in Riparian Buffers
    • Authors: Alan R. Hill
      Abstract: This study uses data from 46 riparian sites to examine the influence of landscape hydrogeology on patterns of groundwater flux and the buffer width required for effective nitrate removal in humid temperate agricultural regions. There is a considerable imbalance in the research focus on different hydrogeologic settings. More than 40% of the buffers are located in landscapes with surficial sand aquifers, whereas few buffers have been studied in glacial till and weathered bedrock landscapes which cover large areas. Annual groundwater fluxes for 29 of these sites ranged from
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T09:16:00.31723-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12606
  • Impacts of Bakken Shale Oil Development on Regional Water Uses and Supply
    • Authors: Zhulu Lin; Tong Lin, Siew Hoon Lim, Michael H. Hove, William M. Schuh
      Abstract: The Bakken shale play in western North Dakota is one of the largest unconventional oilfields in the United States, but published research about impacts on the region's water resources is rare. In this study, besides examining North Dakota water management policies and activities, we also analyzed three datasets: the Bakken horizontal well completion data (2008-2014), North Dakota permitted water consumption data (2000-2014), and groundwater level and streamflow observations in western North Dakota (2000-2014). We found from 2008 to 2014, the annual total industrial water uses for Bakken shale oil development ranged between 0.5 and 10% of statewide total consumptive water use. The percentage increases were between 3.0 and 40% within the Bakken oil production region. The increased population of temporary oilfield service workers contributed additional domestic water use, which was equivalent to ~15% of annual industrial water use for the shale oil development in the Bakken. Despite being in a semiarid region, the impact of Bakken development on regional water supply was limited because the water in the Bakken was adaptively managed and the region received on average over 20% more precipitation than normal during 2008-2014. Of the 15 glaciofluvial aquifers under study, 12 have seen water levels increasing or unchanged and the water levels for the remaining 3 aquifers have decreased.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T09:15:55.84407-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12605
  • Groundwater Nutrient Concentrations and Mass Loading Rates at Iowa Golf
    • Authors: Keith E. Schilling; Matthew T. Streeter
      Abstract: Golf courses are often considered by the public to be significant nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) nonpoint sources but only limited information exists on nutrient concentrations and loads in golf course groundwater. In this study, we measured N and P concentrations in groundwater and available surface water at six randomly selected Iowa golf courses to assess the loading risk posed by these facilities to groundwater and local rivers. At each course, three shallow monitoring wells were installed, one each on representative tee, fairway, and rough locations. Wells and available surface water were sampled on eight occasions during 2015 and 2016. NO3-N concentrations were not detected above 1 mg/L at three of the six courses monitored in this study and the overall mean NO3-N concentration in Iowa golf courses was 2.2 mg/L. The mass of NO3-N recharged to groundwater averaged 3.3 kg/ha at the six courses, which represents approximately one-tenth of the NO3-N load exported by the watershed that contains the course and represented approximately 0.1 to 8% of the fertilizer N applied. Groundwater orthophosphorus concentrations averaged 0.13 mg/L and were similar to those measured in a variety of settings across Iowa. Study results should prove useful in evaluating nutrient contributions from golf courses in Midwestern states where nutrient reduction strategies are being pursued.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T09:10:50.541712-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12604
  • Characterizing Uncertainty in Daily Streamflow Estimates at Ungauged
           Locations for the Massachusetts Sustainable Yield Estimator
    • Authors: William H. Farmer; Sara Levin
      Abstract: Hydrologic characterization at ungauged locations is one of the quintessential challenges of hydrology. Beyond simulation of historical streamflows, it is similarly important to characterize the level of uncertainty in hydrologic estimates. In tandem with updates to Massachusetts Sustainable Yield Estimator, this work explores the application of global uncertainty estimates to daily streamflow simulations. Expanding on a method developed for deterministic modeling, this approach produces confidence intervals on daily streamflow developed through nonlinear spatial interpolation of daily streamflow using flow duration curves; the 95% confidence is examined. Archived cross-validations of daily streamflows from 66 watersheds in and around Massachusetts are used to evaluate an approach to uncertainty characterization. Neighboring sites are treated as ungauged, producing relative errors that can be resampled and applied to target sites. The method, with some modification, is found to provide appropriately narrow confidence intervals that contain 95% of the observed streamflows in cross-validation. Further characterizing uncertainty, multiday means of daily streamflow are evaluated. Working through cross-validation in Massachusetts, two- to three-month averages of daily streamflow show the best performance. These two approaches to uncertainty characterization inform how streamflow simulation produced for prediction in ungauged basins can be used for water resources management.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T09:10:28.84919-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12603
  • Evaluating the Applicability of a Two-dimensional Flow Model of a Highly
           Heterogeneous Domain to Flow and Environmental Management
    • Authors: Kara J. Carr; Tongbi Tu, Ali Ercan, M. Levent Kavvas
      Abstract: Two-dimensional simulation of highly heterogeneous domains, especially those with disparate length scales, roughness conditions, and geometries, often leads to challenges such as long computation times and numerical instability. Simulation of challenging domains is often needed to guide flood management and environmental regulation agencies in operation and potential domain modifications. This work evaluates the ability of a two-dimensional unsteady hydrodynamic model to represent long-duration transient flows over a domain with highly heterogeneous roughness, geometric characteristics, and length scales through bed roughness representation. The domain includes 13 km of Cache Creek and the 14.5 km2 Cache Creek Settling Basin, which traps both sediment and mercury. Calibration under different bed roughness methods, validation, and modeling results of bathymetric modification scenarios are presented. The modeling approach's performance supports its application as a tool for management of similar domains, such as settling basins, leveed floodplains, and reservoirs. Accurate representation of flow dynamics can also inform environmental management that involves transport of sediments, nutrients, and heavy metals. This study found that a two-dimensional unsteady flow model can accurately represent long-duration transient flow in a large settling basin with highly heterogeneous characteristics without parsing of the domain or flow events simulated.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T09:05:53.698269-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12602
  • Stormwater Control Measures for Runoff and Water Quality Management in
           Urban Landscapes
    • Authors: K. Majid Sadeghi; Hugo A. Loáiciga, Shahram Kharaghani
      Abstract: This study develops and tests a novel optimization method for optimally selecting and sizing stormwater control measures (SCMs) in urban landscapes for selected design storms. The developed methodology yields SCMs that capture and retain stormwater via onsite percolation, remove stormwater pollutants, and minimize stormwater control expenditures. The resulting environmental optimization problem involves integer and real variables imbedded in an objective function that is subjected to multiple constraints. This study's methodology aims at practicality and ease of implementation in the solution of the SCM sizing and selection optimization problem while taking into account the main factors that govern stormwater management in urban landscapes. The near-optimal global solution of the SCM selection and design problem is obtained with nonlinear programming and verified with the average of multiple solutions calculated with multiple runs of an optimization evolutionary algorithm. The developed methodology is illustrated with one stormwater project in the City of Los Angeles, California.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T08:50:42.481019-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12547
  • Managing Uncertainty in Runoff Estimation with the U.S. Environmental
           Protection Agency National Stormwater Calculator
    • Authors: L.A. Schifman; M.E. Tryby, J. Berner, W.D. Shuster
      Abstract: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Stormwater Calculator (NSWC) simplifies the task of estimating runoff through a straightforward simulation process based on the EPA Stormwater Management Model. The NSWC accesses localized climate and soil hydrology data, and options to experiment with low-impact development (LID) features for parcels up to 5 ha in size. We discuss how the NSWC treats the urban hydrologic cycle and focus on the estimation uncertainty in soil hydrology and its impact on runoff simulation by comparing field-measured soil hydrologic data from 12 cities to corresponding NSWC estimates in three case studies. The default NSWC hydraulic conductivity is 10.1 mm/h, which underestimates conductivity measurements for New Orleans, Louisiana (95 ± 27 mm/h) and overestimates that for Omaha, Nebraska (3.0 ± 1.0 mm/h). Across all cities, the NSWC prediction, on average, underestimated hydraulic conductivity by 10.5 mm/h compared to corresponding measured values. In evaluating how LID interact with soil hydrology and runoff response, we found direct hydrologic interaction with pre-existing soil shows high sensitivity in runoff prediction, whereas LID isolated from soils show less impact. Simulations with LID on higher permeability soils indicate that nearly all of pre-LID runoff is treated; while features interacting with less-permeable soils treat only 50%. We highlight the NSWC as a screening-level tool for site runoff dynamics and its suitability in stormwater management.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T09:21:23.727076-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12599
  • A Framework for Incorporating the Impact of Water Quality on Water Supply
           Stress: An Example from Louisiana, USA
    • Authors: David M. Borrok; Jian Chen, Hisham Eldardiry, Emad Habib
      Abstract: Water of poor quality can directly impact the budget of water available for key user groups. Despite this importance, methods for quantifying the impact of water quality on water availability remain elusive. Here, we develop a new framework for incorporating the impact of water quality on water supply by modifying the Water Supply Stress Index (WaSSI). We demonstrate the usefulness of the framework by investigating the impact of high salinity waters on the availability of irrigation water for agriculture in Louisiana. The WaSSI was deconstructed into sectoral components such that the total available water supply could be reduced for a particular demand sector (agricultural irrigation in this example) based on available water quality information. The results for Louisiana highlight substantial impacts on water supply stress for farmers attributable to the landward encroachment of saline surface water and groundwater near the coast. Areas of high salinity near the coast also increased the competition for freshwater resources among the industrial, municipal, and agricultural demand sectors in the vicinities of the municipal areas of Lake Charles, Lafayette, and Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The framework developed here is easily adaptable for other water quality concerns and for other demand sectors, and as such can serve as a useful tool for water managers.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26T07:50:54.026674-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12597
  • Spatiotemporal Evaluation of Simulated Evapotranspiration and Streamflow
           over Texas Using the WRF-Hydro-RAPID Modeling Framework
    • Authors: Peirong Lin; Mohammad Adnan Rajib, Zong-Liang Yang, Marcelo Somos-Valenzuela, Venkatesh Merwade, David R. Maidment, Yan Wang, Li Chen
      Abstract: This study assesses a large-scale hydrologic modeling framework (WRF-Hydro-RAPID) in terms of its high-resolution simulation of evapotranspiration (ET) and streamflow over Texas (drainage area: 464,135 km2). The reference observations used include eight-day ET data from MODIS and FLUXNET, and daily river discharge data from 271 U.S. Geological Survey gauges located across a climate gradient. A recursive digital filter is applied to decompose the river discharge into surface runoff and base flow for comparison with the model counterparts. While the routing component of the model is pre-calibrated, the land component is uncalibrated. Results show the model performance for ET and runoff is aridity-dependent. ET is better predicted in a wet year than in a dry year. Streamflow is better predicted in wet regions with the highest efficiency ~0.7. In comparison, streamflow is most poorly predicted in dry regions with a large positive bias. Modeled ET bias is more strongly correlated with the base flow bias than surface runoff bias. These results complement previous evaluations by incorporating more spatial details. They also help identify potential processes for future model improvements. Indeed, improving the dry region streamflow simulation would require synergistic enhancements of ET, soil moisture and groundwater parameterizations in the current model configuration. Our assessments are important preliminary steps towards accurate large-scale hydrologic forecasts.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23T07:31:04.00352-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12585
  • Towards Real-Time Continental Scale Streamflow Simulation in Continuous
           and Discrete Space
    • Authors: Fernando R. Salas; Marcelo A. Somos-Valenzuela, Aubrey Dugger, David R. Maidment, David J. Gochis, Cédric H. David, Wei Yu, Deng Ding, Edward P. Clark, Nawajish Noman
      Abstract: The National Weather Service (NWS) forecasts floods at approximately 3,600 locations across the United States (U.S.). However, the river network, as defined by the 1:100,000 scale National Hydrography Dataset-Plus (NHDPlus) dataset, consists of 2.7 million river segments. Through the National Flood Interoperability Experiment, a continental scale streamflow simulation and forecast system was implemented and continuously operated through the summer of 2015. This system leveraged the WRF-Hydro framework, initialized on a 3-km grid, the Routing Application for the Parallel Computation of Discharge river routing model, operating on the NHDPlus, and real-time atmospheric forcing to continuously forecast streamflow. Although this system produced forecasts, this paper presents a study of the three-month nowcast to demonstrate the capacity to seamlessly predict reach scale streamflow at the continental scale. In addition, this paper evaluates the impact of reservoirs, through a case study in Texas. Validation of the uncalibrated model using observed hourly streamflow at 5,701 U.S. Geological Survey gages shows 26% demonstrate PBias ≤  25% , 11% demonstrate Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) ≥ 0.25, and 6% demonstrate both PBias ≤  25% and NSE ≥ 0.25. When evaluating the impact of reservoirs, the analysis shows when reservoirs are included, NSE ≥ 0.25 for 56% of the gages downstream while NSE ≥ 0.25 for 11% when they are not. The results presented here provide a benchmark for the evolving hydrology program within the NWS and supports their efforts to develop a reach scale flood forecasting system for the country.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T00:40:57.872534-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12586
  • Statistical and Hybrid Methods Implemented in a Web Application for
           Predicting Reservoir Inflows during Flood Events
    • Authors: Tingting Zhao; Barbara Minsker, Fernando Salas, David Maidment, Vesselin Diev, Jacob Spoelstra, Prashant Dhingra
      Abstract: Reservoir management is a critical component of flood management, and information on reservoir inflows is particularly essential for reservoir managers to make real-time decisions given that flood conditions change rapidly. This study's objective is to build real-time data-driven services that enable managers to rapidly estimate reservoir inflows from available data and models. We have tested the services using a case study of the Texas flooding events in the Lower Colorado River Basin in November 2014 and May 2015, which involved a sudden switch from drought to flooding. We have constructed two prediction models: a statistical model for flow prediction and a hybrid statistical and physics-based model that estimates errors in the flow predictions from a physics-based model. The study demonstrates that the statistical flow prediction model can be automated and provides acceptably accurate short-term forecasts. However, for longer term prediction (2 h or more), the hybrid model fits the observations more closely than the purely statistical or physics-based prediction models alone. Both the flow and hybrid prediction models have been published as Web services through Microsoft's Azure Machine Learning (AzureML) service and are accessible through a browser-based Web application, enabling ease of use by both technical and nontechnical personnel.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18T07:06:21.143702-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12575
  • Rapid Flood Damage Prediction and Forecasting Using Public Domain
           Cadastral and Address Point Data with Fuzzy Logic Algorithms
    • Authors: J.L. Gutenson; A.N.S. Ernest, A.A. Oubeidillah, L. Zhu, X. Zhang, S.T. Sadeghi
      Abstract: National Flood Interoperability Experiment (NFIE) derived technologies and workflows will offer the ability to rapidly forecast flood damages. Address Points used by emergency management personnel approximate the locations of buildings, and they are a common operating picture for emergency responders. Most United States (U.S.) county tax assessment offices throughout the contiguous U.S. (CONUS) produce georeferenced cadastral data. To varying degrees, these parcel data describe building characteristics of structures within the parcel. Address Point data with cadastral data offers the ability to rapidly develop building inventories for flood damage estimation. Flood damage forecasts can expedite recovery and improve short-term flood resilience. In this work the authors evaluate Flood Damage Wizard, a proposed open source platform independent methodology. Flood Damage Wizard uses point shapefile building information to estimate flood damage to buildings by finding the appropriate depth-damage function using fuzzy-text matching. The authors apply Flood Damage Wizard using Address Point and parcel datasets to demonstrate a method of estimating flood damage to buildings nearly anywhere within the CONUS. Results indicate using Address Point and cadastral datasets can generate total flood damage estimates approximate to those estimated using existing software solutions Hazus-MH and HEC-FIA with minimal manual processing of input data.
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:06:08.171681-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12556
  • Streamflow Hydrology Estimate Using Machine Learning (SHEM)
    • Authors: T.R. Petty; P. Dhingra
      Abstract: Continuity and accuracy of near real-time streamflow gauge (streamgage) data are critical for flood forecasting, assessing imminent risk, and implementing flood mitigation activities. Without these data, decision makers and first responders are limited in their ability to effectively allocate resources, implement evacuations to save lives, and reduce property losses. The Streamflow Hydrology Estimate using Machine Learning (SHEM) is a new predictive model for providing accurate and timely proxy streamflow data for inoperative streamgages. SHEM relies on machine learning (“training”) to process and interpret large volumes (“big data”) of historic complex hydrologic information. Continually updated with real-time streamflow data, the model constructs a virtual dataset index of correlations and groups (clusters) of relationship correlations between selected streamgages in a watershed and under differing flow conditions. Using these datasets, SHEM interpolates estimated discharge and time data for any indexed streamgage that stops transmitting data. These estimates are continuously tested, scored, and revised using multiple regression analysis processes and methodologies. The SHEM model was tested in Idaho and Washington in four diverse watersheds, and the model's estimates were then compared to the actual recorded data for the same time period. Results from all watersheds revealed a high correlation, validating both the degree of accuracy and reliability of the model.
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T09:00:37.622469-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12555
  • Mapping Outlets of Iowa Flood Center and National Water Center River
           Networks for Hydrologic Model Comparison
    • Authors: Felipe Quintero; Witold F. Krajewski
      Abstract: River networks based on Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data differ depending on the DEM resolution, accuracy, and algorithms used for network extraction. As spatial scale increases, the differences diminish. This study explores methods that identify the scale where networks obtained by different methods agree within some margin of error. The problem is relevant for comparing hydrologic models built around the two networks. An example is the need to compare streamflow prediction from the Hillslope Link Model (HLM) operated by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) and the National Water Model (NWM) operated by the National Water Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The HLM uses landscape decomposition into hillslopes and channel links while the NWM uses the NHDPlus dataset as its basic spatial support. While the HLM resolves the scale of the NHDPlus, the outlets of the latter do not necessarily correspond to the nodes of the HLM model. The authors evaluated two methods to map the outlets of NHDPlus to outlets on the IFC network. The methods compare the upstream areas of the channels and their spatial location. Both methods displayed similar performance and identified matches for about 80% of the outlets with a tolerance of 10% in errors in the upstream area. As the aggregation scale increases, the number of matches also increases. At the scale of 100 km2, 90% of the outlets have matches with tolerance of 5%. The authors recommend this scale for comparing the HLM and NWM streamflow predictions.
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T08:56:24.112307-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12554
  • Simulation of Daily Flow Pathways, Tile-Drain Nitrate Concentrations, and
           Soil-Nitrogen Dynamics Using SWAT
    • Authors: Charles D. Ikenberry; Michelle L. Soupir, Matthew J. Helmers, William G. Crumpton, Jeffrey G. Arnold, Philip W. Gassman
      Pages: 1251 - 1266
      Abstract: Tile drainage significantly alters flow and nutrient pathways and reliable simulation at this scale is needed for effective planning of nutrient reduction strategies. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has been widely utilized for prediction of flow and nutrient loads, but few applications have evaluated the model's ability to simulate pathway-specific flow components or nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentrations in tile-drained watersheds at the daily time step. The objectives of this study were to develop and calibrate SWAT models for small, tile-drained watersheds, evaluate model performance for simulation of flow components and NO3-N concentration at daily intervals, and evaluate simulated soil-nitrogen dynamics. Model evaluation revealed that it is possible to meet accepted performance criteria for simulation of monthly total flow, subsurface flow (SSF), and NO3-N loads while obtaining daily surface runoff (SURQ), SSF, and NO3-N concentrations that are not satisfactory. This limits model utility for simulating best management practices (BMPs) and compliance with water quality standards. Although SWAT simulates the soil N-cycle and most predicted fluxes were within ranges reported in agronomic studies, improvements to algorithms for soil-N processes are needed. Variability in N fluxes is extreme and better parameterization and constraint, through use of more detailed agronomic data, would also improve NO3-N simulation in SWAT. Editor's note: This paper is part of the featured series on SWAT Applications for Emerging Hydrologic and Water Quality Challenges. See the February 2017 issue for the introduction and background to the series.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19T10:10:54.933687-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12569
  • Evaluation of Existing and Modified Wetland Equations in the SWAT Model
    • Authors: Charles D. Ikenberry; William G. Crumpton, Jeffrey G. Arnold, Michelle L. Soupir, Philip W. Gassman
      Pages: 1267 - 1280
      Abstract: The ability to accurately simulate flow and nutrient removal in treatment wetlands within an agricultural, watershed-scale model is needed to develop effective plans for meeting nutrient reduction goals associated with protection of drinking water supplies and reduction of the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone. The objectives of this study were to incorporate new equations for wetland hydrology and nutrient removal in Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), compare model performance using original and improved equations, and evaluate the ramifications of errors in watershed and tile drain simulation on prediction of NO3-N dynamics in wetlands. The modified equations produced Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency values of 0.88 to 0.99 for daily NO3-N load predictions, and percent bias values generally less than 6%. However, statistical improvement over the original equations was marginal and both old and new equations provided accurate simulations. The new equations reduce the model's dependence on detailed monitoring data and hydrologic calibration. Additionally, the modified equations increase SWAT's versatility by incorporating a weir equation and an irreducible nutrient concentration and temperature coefficient. Model improvements enhance the utility of SWAT for simulating flow and nutrients in wetlands and other impoundments, although performance is limited by the accuracy of inflow and NO3-N predictions from the contributing watershed. Editor's note: This paper is part of the featured series on SWAT Applications for Emerging Hydrologic and Water Quality Challenges. See the February 2017 issue for the introduction and background to the series.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19T10:10:38.025108-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12570
  • Optimizing Agricultural Best Management Practices in a Lake Erie Watershed
    • Authors: Jongcheol Pyo; Sang-Soo Baek, Minjeong Kim, Sanghun Park, Hyuk Lee, Jin-Sung Ra, Kyung Hwa Cho
      Pages: 1281 - 1292
      Abstract: Implementing agricultural best management practices (BMPs) is influenced by a balance of desired environmental outcomes, economic feasibility, and stakeholder familiarity, the latter taken to be related to BMP acceptability. To explore this balance, we developed a multi-objective decision support system for allocating BMP type and placement by coupling the Soil and Water Assessment Tool with a nondominated sorted genetic algorithm that minimizes total phosphorus (TP) yields from agricultural hydrologic response units (HRUs) and costs, while using stakeholder BMP familiarity as a constraint; conventional tillage, no tillage, nutrient management, riparian buffers, and contour cropping were explored. Using constraints representing current conditions, the optimization resulted in 59.6 to 81.0% reduction in agricultural TP yield from HRUs at costs ranging between US $0.8 and US $5.3 million. The constrained optimization tended to select mostly single BMPs or at most two BMPs for a given HRU due to these BMPs having higher acceptability to stakeholders. In contrast, the unconstrained case, representing full familiarity, selected 2- and 3-BMP applications. There was little difference in costs between the constrained and unconstrained cases below an 80% TP yield reduction; however, significant differences were found at larger reductions, supporting the value of stakeholder education and extension efforts. Editor's note: This paper is part of the featured series on SWAT Applications for Emerging Hydrologic and Water Quality Challenges. See the February 2017 issue for the introduction and background to the series.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T11:30:32.010741-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12571
  • Modeling Changes to Streamflow, Sediment, and Nutrient Loading from Land
           Use Changes Due to Potential Natural Gas Development
    • Authors: Lars Hanson; Steven Habicht, Prasad Daggupati, Raghavan Srinivasan, Paul Faeth
      Pages: 1293 - 1312
      Abstract: Natural gas development using hydraulic fracturing has many potential environmental impacts, but among the most certain is the land disturbance required to build the well pads and other infrastructure required to drill and extract the gas. We used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to investigate how natural gas development could impact streamflow and sediment, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP) loadings in the upper Delaware River Basin (DRB), a relatively undeveloped watershed of 7,950 km2 that lies above the Marcellus Shale formation. If gas development was permitted, our projections show the DRB could experience development of over 600 well pads to extract natural gas at build out, which, with supporting infrastructure (roads, gathering pipelines), could convert over 5,000 ha from existing land uses in the study area. In subbasins with development activity we found sediment, TN, and TP yields could increase by an average of 15, 0.08, and 0.03 kg/ha/yr, respectively (an increase of 2, 3, and 15%, respectively) for each one percent of subbasin land area converted into natural gas infrastructure. At the study area outlet on the Delaware River at Port Jervis, New York, we found increases in the annual average streamflow and sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus loads of up to 0.01, 0.2, 0.2, and 1%, respectively, for a rapid development year, and 0.08, 1.3, 2.0, and 11%, respectively, for the full development scenario. Editor's note: This paper is part of the featured series on SWAT Applications for Emerging Hydrologic and Water Quality Challenges. See the February 2017 issue for the introduction and background to the series.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23T07:35:35.789697-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12588
  • Policy Implications from Multi-scale Watershed Models of Biofuel Crop
           Adoption across the Corn Belt
    • Authors: Catherine L. Kling; Indrajeet Chaubey, Raj Cibin, Philip W. Gassman, Yiannis Panagopoulos
      Pages: 1313 - 1322
      Abstract: The implications and value of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)-based simulations of the productive potential and water quality impacts associated with switchgrass, Miscanthus, or corn stover removal biofuel cropping systems are discussed. Specifically, the three accompanying studies describe the water quality implications of adopting the three biofuel-cropping systems via large-scale conversion of cropland or targeting to marginal lands for three smaller watersheds located in the western or eastern Corn Belt, or across the Upper Mississippi and Ohio-Tennessee River Basins. Other results such as climate change related impacts for two eastern Corn Belt watersheds are also discussed. These studies are supported by the CenUSA Bioenergy coordinated agricultural project funded by the USDA to develop a regional system for producing cellulosic biofuels. A description of the evolving federal policy related to cellulosic biofuel production and consumption is provided as are other potential drivers for encouraging the adoption of stover removal, switchgrass, and Miscanthus as perennial feedstocks. Findings from the SWAT studies and their implications for environmental and economic performance in their respective agroecosystems are discussed, and commonalities and divergences in results are identified. The potential for policy design to improve the performance of these systems based on the findings of these modeling studies, and continuing research needs and directions for improved policy design are discussed. Editor's note: This paper is part of the featured series on SWAT Applications for Emerging Hydrologic and Water Quality Challenges. See the February 2017 issue for the introduction and background to the series.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T08:16:13.234162-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12592
  • Influence of Bioenergy Crop Production and Climate Change on Ecosystem
    • Authors: Raj Cibin; Indrajeet Chaubey, Rebecca L. Muenich, Keith A. Cherkauer, Philip W. Gassman, Catherine L. Kling, Yiannis Panagopoulos
      Pages: 1323 - 1335
      Abstract: Land use change can significantly affect the provision of ecosystem services and the effects could be exacerbated by projected climate change. We quantify ecosystem services of bioenergy-based land use change and estimate the potential changes of ecosystem services due to climate change projections. We considered 17 bioenergy-based scenarios with Miscanthus, switchgrass, and corn stover as candidate bioenergy feedstock. Soil and Water Assessment Tool simulations of biomass/grain yield, hydrology, and water quality were used to quantify ecosystem services freshwater provision (FWPI), food (FPI) and fuel provision, erosion regulation (ERI), and flood regulation (FRI). Nine climate projections from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase-3 were used to quantify the potential climate change variability. Overall, ecosystem services of heavily row cropped Wildcat Creek watershed were lower than St. Joseph River watershed which had more forested and perennial pasture lands. The provision of ecosystem services for both study watersheds were improved with bioenergy production scenarios. Miscanthus in marginal lands of Wildcat Creek (9% of total area) increased FWPI by 27% and ERI by 14% and decreased FPI by 12% from the baseline. For St. Joseph watershed, Miscanthus in marginal lands (18% of total area) improved FWPI by 87% and ERI by 23% while decreasing FPI by 46%. The relative impacts of land use change were considerably larger than climate change impacts in this paper. Editor's note: This paper is part of the featured series on SWAT Applications for Emerging Hydrologic and Water Quality Challenges. See the February 2017 issue for the introduction and background to the series.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T08:15:50.134375-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12591
  • Assessment of Bioenergy Cropping Scenarios for the Boone River Watershed
           in North Central Iowa, United States
    • Authors: Philip W. Gassman; Adriana M. Valcu-Lisman, Catherine L. Kling, Steven K. Mickelson, Yiannis Panagopoulos, Raj Cibin, Indrajeet Chaubey, Calvin F. Wolter, Keith E. Schilling
      Pages: 1336 - 1354
      Abstract: Several biofuel cropping scenarios were evaluated with an improved version of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) as part of the CenUSA Bioenergy consortium for the Boone River Watershed (BRW), which drains about 2,370 km2 in north central Iowa. The adoption of corn stover removal, switchgrass, and/or Miscanthus biofuel cropping systems was simulated to assess the impact of cellulosic biofuel production on pollutant losses. The stover removal results indicate removal of 20 or 50% of corn stover in the BRW would have negligible effects on streamflow and relatively minor or negligible effects on sediment and nutrient losses, even on higher sloped cropland. Complete cropland conversion into switchgrass or Miscanthus, resulted in reductions of streamflow, sediment, nitrate, and other pollutants ranging between 23-99%. The predicted nitrate reductions due to Miscanthus adoption were over two times greater compared to switchgrass, with the largest impacts occurring for tile-drained cropland. Targeting of switchgrass or Miscanthus on cropland ≥2% slope or ≥7% slope revealed a disproportionate amount of sediment and sediment-bound nutrient reductions could be obtained by protecting these relatively small areas of higher sloped cropland. Overall, the results indicate that all biofuel cropping systems could be effectively implemented in the BRW, with the most robust approach being corn stover removal adopted on tile-drained cropland in combination with a perennial biofuel crop on higher sloped landscapes. Editor's note: This paper is part of the featured series on SWAT Applications for Emerging Hydrologic and Water Quality Challenges. See the February 2017 issue for the introduction and background to the series.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T08:17:08.53134-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12593
  • Water Quality Assessment of Large-scale Bioenergy Cropping Scenarios for
           the Upper Mississippi and Ohio-Tennessee River Basins
    • Authors: Yiannis Panagopoulos; Philip W. Gassman, Catherine L. Kling, Raj Cibin, Indrajeet Chaubey
      Pages: 1355 - 1367
      Abstract: The Upper Mississippi River Basin and Ohio-Tennessee River Basin comprise the majority of the United States Corn Belt region, resulting in degraded Mississippi River and Gulf of Mexico water quality. To address the water quality implications of increased biofuel production, biofuel scenarios were tested with a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model revision featuring improved biofuel crop representation. Scenarios included corn stover removal and the inclusion of two perennial bioenergy crops, switchgrass and Miscanthus, grown on marginal lands (slopes>2% and erosion rates>2 t/ha) and nonmarginal lands. The SWAT model estimates show water quality is not very sensitive to stover removal. The perennial bioenergy crops reduce simulated sediment, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) yields by up to 60%. Simulated sediment and P reductions in marginal lands were generally twice that occurring in the nonmarginal lands. The highest unit area reductions of N occurred in the less sloping tile-drained lands. Productivity showed corn grain yield was independent from stover removal, while yields of the two perennial bioenergy crops were similar in the marginal and nonmarginal lands. The results suggest planning for biofuel production in the Corn Belt could include the removal of stover in productive corn areas, and the planting of perennial bioenergy crops in marginal land and in low-sloped tile-drained areas characterized by high N pollution. Editor's note: This paper is part of the featured series on SWAT Applications for Emerging Hydrologic and Water Quality Challenges. See the February 2017 issue for the introduction and background to the series.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T08:15:35.51002-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12594
  • Assessing Parameter Uncertainty of a Semi-Distributed Hydrology Model for
           a Shallow Aquifer Dominated Environmental System
    • Authors: S. Samadi; D.L. Tufford, G.J. Carbone
      Pages: 1368 - 1389
      Abstract: This paper examines the performance of a semi-distributed hydrology model (i.e., Soil and Water Assessment Tool [SWAT]) using Sequential Uncertainty FItting (SUFI-2), generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE), parameter solution (ParaSol), and particle swarm optimization (PSO). We applied SWAT to the Waccamaw watershed, a shallow aquifer dominated Coastal Plain watershed in the Southeastern United States (U.S.). The model was calibrated (2003-2005) and validated (2006-2007) at two U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations, using significant parameters related to surface hydrology, hydrogeology, hydraulics, and physical properties. SWAT performed best during intervals with wet and normal antecedent conditions with varying sensitivity to effluent channel shape and characteristics. In addition, the calibration of all algorithms depended mostly on Manning's n-value for the tributary channels as the surface friction resistance factor to generate runoff. SUFI-2 and PSO simulated the same relative probability distribution tails to those observed at an upstream outlet, while all methods (except ParaSol) exhibited longer tails at a downstream outlet. The ParaSol model exhibited large skewness suggesting a global search algorithm was less capable of characterizing parameter uncertainty. Our findings provide insights regarding parameter sensitivity and uncertainty as well as modeling diagnostic analysis that can improve hydrologic theory and prediction in complex watersheds. Editor's note: This paper is part of the featured series on SWAT Applications for Emerging Hydrologic and Water Quality Challenges. See the February 2017 issue for the introduction and background to the series.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26T07:40:40.107192-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12596
  • Featured Series Conclusion: SWAT Applications for Emerging Hydrologic and
           Water Quality Challenges
    • Authors: Venkatesh Merwade; Claire Baffaut, Katrin Bieger, Laurie Boithias, Hendrik Rathjens
      Pages: 1390 - 1392
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T09:21:40.534133-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12601
  • Evaluating the BANCS Streambank Erosion Framework on the Northern Gulf of
           Mexico Coastal Plain
    • Authors: Mitchell McMillan; Johan Liebens, Christopher Metcalf
      Pages: 1393 - 1408
      Abstract: The Bank Assessment of Nonpoint source Consequences of Sediment (BANCS) framework allows river scientists to predict annual sediment yield from eroding streambanks within a hydrophysiographic region. BANCS involves field data collection and the calibration of an empirical model incorporating a bank erodibility hazard index (BEHI) and near-bank shear stress (NBS) estimate. Here we evaluate the applicability of BANCS to the northern Gulf of Mexico coastal plain, a region that has not been previously studied in this context. Erosion rates averaged over two years expressed the highest variability of any existing BANCS study. As a result, four standard BANCS models did not yield statistically significant correlations to measured erosion rates. Modifications to two widely used NBS estimates improved their correlations (r2 = 0.31 and r2 = 0.33), but further grouping of the data by BEHI weakened these correlations. The high variability in measured erosion rates is partly due to the regional hydrologic and climatic characteristics of the Gulf coastal plains, which include large, infrequent precipitation events. Other sources of variability include variations in bank vegetation and the complex hydro- and morphodynamics of meandering, sand bed channels. We discuss directions for future research in developing a streambank erosion model for this and similar regions.
      PubDate: 2017-09-07T06:55:51.448548-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12572
  • Enhancing the Ability of a Soil Moisture-based Index for Agricultural
           Drought Monitoring by Incorporating Root Distribution
    • Authors: Hongkui Zhou; Jianjun Wu, Guangpo Geng, Xiaohan Li, Qianfeng Wang, Tianjie Lei, Xinyu Mo, Leizhen Liu
      Pages: 1409 - 1423
      Abstract: Agricultural drought differs from meteorological, hydrological, and socioeconomic drought, being closely related to soil water availability in the root zone, specifically for crop and crop growth stage. In previous studies, several soil moisture indices (e.g., the soil moisture index, soil water deficit index) based on soil water availability have been developed for agricultural drought monitoring. However, when developing these indices, it was generally assumed that soil water availability to crops was equal throughout the root zone, and the effects of root distribution and crop growth stage on soil water uptake were ignored. This article aims to incorporate root distribution into a soil moisture-based index and to evaluate the performance of the improved soil moisture index for agricultural drought monitoring. The Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China was used as the study area. Overall, soil moisture indices were significantly correlated with the crop moisture index (CMI), and the improved root-weighted soil moisture index (RSMI) was more closely related to the CMI than averaged soil moisture indices. The RSMI correctly identified most of the observed drought events and performed well in the detection of drought levels. Furthermore, the RSMI had a better performance than averaged soil moisture indices when compared to crop yield. In conclusion, soil moisture indices could improve agricultural drought monitoring by incorporating root distribution.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T11:35:43.940866-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12573
  • Forecasting the Probability of Future Groundwater Levels Declining Below
           Specified Low Thresholds in the Conterminous U.S.
    • Authors: Robert W. Dudley; Glenn A. Hodgkins, Jesse E. Dickinson
      Pages: 1424 - 1436
      Abstract: We present a logistic regression approach for forecasting the probability of future groundwater levels declining or maintaining below specific groundwater-level thresholds. We tested our approach on 102 groundwater wells in different climatic regions and aquifers of the United States that are part of the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Climate Response Network. We evaluated the importance of current groundwater levels, precipitation, streamflow, seasonal variability, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and atmosphere/ocean indices for developing the logistic regression equations. Several diagnostics of model fit were used to evaluate the regression equations, including testing of autocorrelation of residuals, goodness-of-fit metrics, and bootstrap validation testing. The probabilistic predictions were most successful at wells with high persistence (low month-to-month variability) in their groundwater records and at wells where the groundwater level remained below the defined low threshold for sustained periods (generally three months or longer). The model fit was weakest at wells with strong seasonal variability in levels and with shorter duration low-threshold events. We identified challenges in deriving probabilistic-forecasting models and possible approaches for addressing those challenges.
      PubDate: 2017-09-21T07:41:47.500289-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12582
  • Method for Rapidly Assessing the Overtopping Risk of Bridges Due to
           Flooding over a Large Geographic Region
    • Authors: Yawen Shen; Jonathan L. Goodall, Steven B. Chase
      Pages: 1437 - 1452
      Abstract: Hydraulic events are a leading cause of bridge failures. While these hydraulic events are accounted for in bridge design, changing environmental and land use conditions require continual updating of this risk. For example, after a bridge has been constructed, streamflow can change in unanticipated ways as a result of land use changes, geomorphic changes, and climate change. The objective of this research was to create a screening method able to quickly and inexpensively estimate overtopping risk across a collection of bridges based on the current streamflow conditions. The method uses a geographic information system, nationally available and standardized datasets, and recent regression equations to quantify bridge vulnerability to overtopping for flooding with varying return periods. This screening method could also be used to assist decision makers in updating the Waterway Adequacy field in the National Bridge Inventory, which indicates the overtopping risk of bridges. The method was applied to a portion of the Hampton Roads region of Virginia, United States that includes 475 bridges. The results of the analysis, when combined with transportation data for bridges, aid decision makers to assign further resources to complete more detailed analyses of bridges identified as being at risk for overtopping.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04T07:17:01.161186-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12583
  • Are Irrigators Different from Dryland Operators' Insights from a
           Comparative Study in Australia
    • Authors: Matthew R. Sanderson; Allan L. Curtis
      Pages: 1453 - 1466
      Abstract: Social researchers tasked with advising practitioners on effective stakeholder engagement often develop typologies that distinguish operators on key attributes. We build on emerging research exploring the efficacy of occupational identity by investigating a potentially important difference among rural landholders that, to our knowledge, remains untested: irrigated operations and dryland operations. Using primary data collected from a large sample of operators in the North Central region of Victoria, Australia, we compared irrigators with dryland operators across a range of characteristics, controlling for the influence of occupational identity. We find evidence that irrigators tend to hold a stronger business orientation toward their properties and that dryland operators tend to hold stronger environmental concerns. But, it is important not to overdraw contrasts on business-environment tradeoffs. Both place value on financial aspects of their properties and both hold environmental concerns. But, the especially close coupling of life and work among irrigators encourage a stronger orientation toward farming, and the natural resource base, as a means of sustaining livelihoods. We discuss the implications of the findings for future research and for stakeholder engagement efforts.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04T07:15:23.020216-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12584
  • Scenario-Based and Scenario-Neutral Assessment of Climate Change Impacts
           on Operational Performance of a Multipurpose Reservoir
    • Authors: Allison G. Danner; Mohammad Safeeq, Gordon E. Grant, Charlotte Wickham, Desirée Tullos, Mary V. Santelmann
      Pages: 1467 - 1482
      Abstract: Scenario-based and scenario-neutral impacts assessment approaches provide complementary information about how climate change-driven effects on streamflow may change the operational performance of multipurpose dams. Examining a case study of Cougar Dam in Oregon, United States, we simulated current reservoir operations under scenarios of plausible future hydrology. Streamflow projections from the CGCM3.1 general circulation model for the A1B emission scenario were used to generate stochastic reservoir inflows that were then further perturbed to simulate a potentially drier future. These were then used to drive a simple reservoir model. In the scenario-based analysis, we found reservoir operations are vulnerable to climate change. Increases in fall and winter inflow could lead to more frequent flood storage, reducing flexibility to store incoming flood flows. Uncertainty in spring inflow volume complicates projection of future filling performance. The reservoir may fill more or less often, depending on whether springs are wetter or drier. In the summer, drawdown may occur earlier to meet conservation objectives. From the scenario-neutral analysis, we identified thresholds of streamflow magnitude that can predict climate change impacts for a wide range of scenarios. Our results highlight projected operational challenges for Cougar Dam and provide an example of how scenario-based and scenario-neutral approaches may be applied concurrently to assess climate change impacts.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23T07:36:21.466599-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12589
  • The Financial Impact of Different Stormwater Fee Types: A Case Study of
           Two Municipalities in Virginia
    • Authors: Amanda Fedorchak; Randel Dymond, Warren Campbell
      Pages: 1483 - 1494
      Abstract: Eight stormwater user fees (SUFs) were applied to the City of Roanoke and the Town of Blacksburg, Virginia, to determine the effect each has on how land use type impacts the sources of revenue. Roanoke is larger and includes more industrial areas, but less multifamily impervious areas than Blacksburg, which translates differently in the SUFs. Residential parcels comprise the highest percentage of the revenue in all eight SUFs in Blacksburg and four in Roanoke. For both municipalities, two specific SUFs consistently comprised the highest percentage burden for residential homeowners while three other SUFs demonstrated the highest burden for commercial parcels. Open space parcels contain little impervious area, yet account for up to 27% of the revenue in the Blacksburg Area fee structure. Industrial parcels comprise more revenue in Roanoke, averaging 10.1-4.5% in Blacksburg. Fee types that are easier to administer (e.g., Flat fees) may not fully represent the stormwater contribution from the parcels. SUF types that more accurately represent the stormwater burden on the municipality are also more administratively intensive and are more variable with fee factors.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T05:55:26.227578-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12590
  • Accretion of Nutrients and Sediment by a Constructed Stormwater Treatment
           Wetland in the Lake Tahoe Basin
    • Authors: Robert G. Qualls; Alan C. Heyvaert
      Pages: 1495 - 1512
      Abstract: This unique study evaluates the cumulative 16-year lifetime performance of a wetland retention basin designed to treat stormwater runoff. Sediment cores were extracted prior to basin excavation and restoration to evaluate accretion rates and the origin of materials, retention characteristics of fine particulate matter, and overall pollutant removal efficiency. The sediment and organic layers together accreted 3.2 cm of depth per year, and 7.0 kg/m2/yr of inorganic material. Average annual accretion rates in g/m2/yr were as follows: C, 280; N, 17.7; P, 3.74; S, 3.80; Fe, 194; Mn, 2.68; Ca, 30.8; Mg, 30.7; K, 12.2; Na, 2.54; Zn, 0.858; Cu, 0.203; and B, 0.03. The accretion of C, N, P and sediment was comparable to nonwastewater treatment wetlands, overall, and relatively efficient for stormwater treatment wetlands. Comparison of particle size distribution between sediment cores and suspended solids in stormwater runoff indicated the wetland was effective at removing fine particles, with sediment cores containing 25% clay and 56% silt. A majority of the accretion of most metals and P could be attributed to efficient trapping of allochthonous material, while over half the accretion of C and N could be attributed to accumulation of autochthonous organic matter. Stormwater treatment was shown to be effective when physical properties of a retention basin are combined with the biological processes of a wetland, although sediment accretion can be relatively rapid.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T07:05:25.77267-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12595
  • Channel Evolution Models as Predictors of Sediment Yield
    • Authors: Tim D. Keane; Christopher K. Sass
      Pages: 1513 - 1529
      Abstract: This paper recounts our predictions of channel evolution of the Black Vermillion River (BVR) and sediment yields associated with the evolutionary sequence. Channel design parameters allowed for the prediction of stable channel form and coincident sediment yields. Measured erosion rates and basin-specific bank erosion curves aided in prediction of the stream channel succession time frame. This understanding is critical in determining how and when to mitigate a myriad of instability consequences. The BVR drains approximately 1,062 km2 in the glaciated region of Northeast Kansas. Once tallgrass prairie, the basin has been modified extensively for agricultural production. As such, channelization has shortened the river by nearly 26 km from pre-European dimensions; shortening combined with the construction of numerous flow-through structures have produced dramatic impacts on discharge and sediment dynamics. Nine stream reaches were established within three main tributaries of the BVR in 2007. Reaches averaged 490 m in length, were surveyed, and assessed for channel stability, while resurveys were conducted annually through 2010 to monitor change. This work illustrates the association of current stream state, in-channel sediment contributions, and prediction of future erosion rates based on stream evolution informed by multiple models. Our findings suggest greater and more rapid sedimentation of a federal reservoir than has been predicted using standard sediment prediction methods.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T09:15:40.241442-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12598
  • Reviewer Index - 2017
    • Pages: 1530 - 1532
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T07:49:42.056961-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12612
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