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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 187 journals)
Showing 1 - 47 of 47 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acque Sotterranee - Italian Journal of Groundwater     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oceanography and Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Agua y Territorio     Open Access  
Águas Subterrâneas     Open Access  
American Journal of Water Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Water Works Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Anales de Hidrología Médica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Warsaw University of Life Sciences ? SGGW. Land Reclamation     Open Access  
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Applied Water Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Aquacultural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Aquaculture and Fisheries     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Aquasains     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Living Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aquatic Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AWWA Water Science     Hybrid Journal  
Bonorowo Wetlands     Open Access  
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Desalination and Water Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Developments in Water Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
e-Jurnal Rekayasa dan Teknologi Budidaya Perairan     Open Access  
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental and Water Sciences, public Health and Territorial Intelligence Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Processes : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Science : Water Research & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Environmental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
EQA - International Journal of Environmental Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European journal of water quality - Journal européen d'hydrologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Exposure and Health     Hybrid Journal  
Frontiers in Water     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Groundwater for Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Grundwasser     Hybrid Journal  
Hydro Nepal : Journal of Water, Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hydrology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Hydrology: Current Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IDA Journal of Desalination and Water Reuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Indonesian Journal of Urban and Environmental Technology     Open Access  
Ingeniería del agua     Open Access  
Inland Waters     Hybrid Journal  
International Hydrographic Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Energy and Water Resources     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Nuclear Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Salt Lake Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Waste Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Water Resources Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Irrigation and Drainage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Irrigation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Research in Water and Wastewater     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health     Open Access  
Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Contemporary Water Resource & Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Ecohydraulics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Oceans     Partially Free   (Followers: 61)
Journal of Hydro-environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Hydroinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Hydrology (New Zealand)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Natural Resources and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Oceanology and Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of South Carolina Water Resources     Open Access  
Journal of the American Water Resources Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Water and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Water and Environmental Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Water and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Water and Wastewater / Ab va Fazilab     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Water Process Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Water Resource Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Water Science & Environment Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Water Security     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Water Supply : Research and Technology - AQUA     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Enggano     Open Access  
La Houille Blanche     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Lake and Reservoir Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mangroves and Salt Marshes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Marine Ecology Progress Series MEPS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Methods in Oceanography : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural and Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Opflow     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Osterreichische Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal  
Ozone Science & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Paddy and Water Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Revue des sciences de l'eau / Journal of Water Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
RIBAGUA - Revista Iberoamericana del Agua     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Riparian Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
River Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
River Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
SA Irrigation = SA Besproeiing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
SABI Magazine - Tydskrif     Full-text available via subscription  
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access  
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref     Open Access  
Scientia Marina     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Smart Water     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Sri Lanka Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sustainable Technologies, Systems & Policies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sustainable Water Resources Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Tecnología y Ciencias del Agua     Open Access  
Texas Water Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Toprak Su Dergisi / Soil Water Journal     Open Access  
Urban Water Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Waste Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Water     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Water & Sanitation Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Water and Environment Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Water Environment and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Water Environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Water Policy     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Water Practice and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Water Quality Research Journal of Canada     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Water Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
Water Research X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Water Resources and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Water Resources and Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Water Resources and Rural Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Water Resources Management     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Water Resources Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 103)
Water SA     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 31)
Water Science : The National Water Research Center Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Water Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Water Science and Technology : Water Supply     Partially Free   (Followers: 26)
Water Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Water Wheel     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Water-Energy Nexus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Water21     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Waterlines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Watershed Ecology and the Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wetlands Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
wH2O : The Journal of Gender and Water     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
World Water Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
علوم آب و خاک     Open Access  

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Journal of South Carolina Water Resources
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2334-4962
Published by Clemson University Homepage  [4 journals]
  • Journal of South Carolina Water Resources Volume 5, Issue 1

    • Abstract: The Journal of South Carolina Water Resources (JSCWR) is an annual peer-reviewed journal dedicated to scientific research and policy on all aspects of water management to prepare for and meet the growing challenge of providing water resources for the sustainable growth of South Carolina’s economy, while preserving its natural resources.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jan 2019 09:40:35 PST
  • South Carolina Groundwater Availability Assessment: 2017 Stakeholder
           Outreach and Engagement Results

    • Authors: Thomas Walker III et al.
      Abstract: An update of the State Water Plan is underway in South Carolina. The purpose of the State Water Plan is to develop a water resources policy for South Carolina. A significant portion of the State Water Plan update is to include stakeholders into the planning process. Clemson University continues to facilitate the stakeholder engagement components of the steps to an updated water plan. This research is pertinent to the Groundwater Availability Assessment phase of the State Water Planning process. Overall, stakeholders were interested in all identified groundwater areas of interest in South Carolina. Additionally, they intended to be involved in the entire stakeholder process for groundwater and became more informed on the Groundwater Availability Assessment. Stakeholders agreed that groundwater modeling provided useful information for users in the state and thought the Groundwater Availability Assessment was important for water resources management. Nuances in stakeholder types and registered or permitted users versus nonregistered or nonpermitted users provide important details beyond general results. Moving forward, there are some more mixed results of the stakeholder engagement meetings that are important for planning and decision-making. The groundwater assessment meeting results had general agreement about the appropriateness of the scope, but had less certainty than other questions. Stakeholders generally identified the need for the allocation of additional resources for the planning process. Additionally, mixed results highlight the differences surrounding perceptions of the need for statewide permitting of groundwater resources. This exploratory research is important to water management in South Carolina because it assesses buy-in from those interested in or affected by water resource recommendations forthcoming at the end of the State Water Plan update.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jan 2019 09:40:23 PST
  • Assessment of Spatial and Temporal Variation of Potential
           Evapotranspiration Estimated by Four Methods for South Carolina

    • Authors: Devendra M. Amatya et al.
      Abstract: Given South Carolina’s ongoing water planning efforts, in this study, we evaluated seasonal and annual potential evapotranspiration (PET) using measured Class A pan evaporation (PE) and 3 widely used estimation methods for the state with 3 distinct physiographic regions (Coastal, Piedmont, and Mountain). The methods were temperature-based Hargreaves-Samani (H-S), radiation-based Priestley-Taylor (P-T), and process-based Penman-Monteith (P-M). The objectives of the study were to (a) describe seasonal and temporal distribution of PET by all methods, (b) quantify differences among PET methods, and (c) identify relationships between monthly PE and estimated PET by each method. Daily weather variables from 59 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration weather stations distributed in the 3 regions of South Carolina (SC) were used to estimate daily PET for an 18-year period (1998–2015). Net radiation was estimated using modeled solar radiation values for weather stations. The average annual H-S PET values adjusted with the empirical radiation factor (KT) and the average annual P-T PET values for 1998–2015 were 1,232 ± 9, 1,202 ± 11, and 1,115 ± 10 mm and 1,179 ± 10, 1,137 ± 11, and 1,082 ± 11 mm, respectively, for the Coastal, Piedmont, and Mountain regions. Both the mean annual H-S and P-T PET for the Mountain region were significantly (α = 0.05) lower than for the Coastal and Piedmont regions. The mean annual P-T PET for the Coastal region was significantly (α = 0.05) greater than that for the Piedmont. Regional differences showed that estimated PET for 1998-2015 was greatest in the Coastal and lowest in the Mountain region. Comparison of all 3 methods using only common 8-year data showed mean annual P-M PET, varying from 1,142 mm in the Piedmont to 1,270 mm in the Coastal region, was significantly higher than both the H-S and P-T PET in both regions. The greatest mean monthly H-S and P-T PET values were observed in June and July. Statistical evaluation using Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency and percent bias showed a slightly better agreement of H-S PET with both the measured PE as well as the P-M method, followed by the P-T. However, the P-T method yielded a close to unity slope and slightly higher R2 than the H-S PET when compared with the PE. The P-T PET method that uses both the temperature and radiation data may be preferred for SC with a humid climate dominated by forest land use, given more rigorous ground-truthing of modeled solar radiation as data become available. Surface interpolation algorithm, inverse distance weighted, was used to spatially map both the distributed H-S and P-T PET for the state. Results from this study can be used to support several components of the ongoing water planning efforts in SC.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jan 2019 09:40:09 PST
  • Spatial Analysis of Hydrological Productivity in Fractured Bedrock
           Terrains of the Piedmont of Northwestern South Carolina

    • Authors: Brooks Bailey et al.
      Abstract: Fractured bedrock aquifers are structurally complex groundwater systems. Groundwater flow is limited to secondary porosity features such as faults and fractures on account of the low primary porosity and permeability of the native bedrock. The hydrologic productivity of wells drilled within these systems is spatially and vertically variable because of limited interconnectivity among these features. The purpose of this study was to assess potential correlations between driller-estimated well yields and the mapped lithology and structural features of the fractured bedrock aquifers of the Piedmont of northwestern South Carolina. Groundwater well data (e.g., well depth, well yields, static water level) of 1,069 wells, geologic data (e.g., lithology, mapped structural features), and topographic data (e.g., surface elevation, slope) were integrated within a geographic information system database for a spatial analysis of well yield distribution. Wells drilled in alluvium had the highest median yield (15 gal/min), whereas those drilled in schist, amphibolite, and gneisses had lower median yields (9, 8.5, and 8 gal/min, respectively). Nonparametric statistical analyses indicated that no geologic or topographic variables considered were strongly or moderately correlated with reported well yields. Spearman’s correlation coefficients for well depth (0.24), static water level (0.19), proximity to water bodies (–0.10), and proximity to lithologic contacts (–0.08) were statistically significant (at the 0.05 confidence level) but only weakly correlated with well yield. Topographic variables and proximity to mapped faults were not statistically significant. Wells drilled in alluvium had the highest yields due to the higher porosity and permeability compared to the bedrock. However, alluvium makes up less than 5% of the study area surface, and so opportunities to further tap this unit are limited and spatially constrained. The lower median yields of other lithologies are attributed to the lack of fracture development in amphibolite and the low degree of weathering within gneiss foliation planes. To maximize yields, wells should be drilled in alluvium close to water bodies and lithologic contacts where possible.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jan 2019 09:39:56 PST
  • Water Users’ Perspectives: Summary of Withdrawal Survey Responses
           and Commentary

    • Authors: C. Alex Pellett et al.
      Abstract: The state of South Carolina is currently in a multiyear process of updating the State Water Plan, and water demand projections are an important component of that work. Predictions of water demand are inherently uncertain, but perhaps they can benefit from input by a diverse and robust sample of water users. A brief survey regarding water use was distributed to 780 permitted and registered water users in the state, including all water suppliers, industries, and irrigators withdrawing more than 3 million gallons in a month or more than 100,000 gallons in a day. There are 316 responses to 10 quantitative survey items that are summarized, presented, and discussed. Results indicate that most respondents plan to maintain their current levels of water use, consider their withdrawal reports to be accurate within 10%, and believe their current water supplies to be critical to their enterprise. A qualitative review of comments noted on survey responses includes a variety of potential drivers of water demand. The results motivate a discussion of recommendations for future research.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jan 2019 09:39:43 PST
  • Visualizing Relative Potential for Aquatic Ecosystem Toxicity Using the
           EPA Toxics Release Inventory and Life Cycle Assessment Methods

    • Authors: Theodore Langlois et al.
      Abstract: The U.S. EPA Toxic Release Inventory has been available since 1987 as a record of industrial releases of toxic chemicals following the 1986 Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. Combining this release data with estimates of relative toxicity of these chemicals to aquatic systems increases the value of the database by providing a common basis for comparison. The Tool for Reduction and Assessment of Chemicals and Other Environmental Impacts is a database of characterization factors to assess environmental impacts. It was used to develop relative ecotoxicity impacts and interpreted using Life Cycle Assessment concepts. The visualization software Tableau was used to generate representations of the preliminary results in this communication. The major potential sources of aquatic toxicity have been identified for South Carolina by industry type and by year over the period 1987–2016. The possibility of toxicity from releases of zinc compounds from power generation and pulp and paper mills far exceeds all other sources. Zinc compounds dominated the potential ecotoxicity over the full time period 1987–2016.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jan 2019 09:39:31 PST
  • An Online Tool for Estimating Evapotranspiration and Irrigation
           Requirements of Crops in South Carolina

    • Authors: Jose O. Payero
      Abstract: In recent years, there has been an increased interest in South Carolina regarding the amount of water used by different consumers, especially agricultural producers. This interest has sparked conversations among different stakeholders, including the media, policy makers, producers, scientists, and the general public, regarding the current state and future of water resources in the state. Central to these discussions, from the agricultural sector perspective, is the question of how much water producers really need to grow crops. The objective of this study was, therefore, to develop an online tool to use local South Carolina historic weather data to estimate daily and seasonal crop evapotranspiration and irrigation requirements for different crops. The overall goal was for the new tool to assist farmers and other stakeholders to better plan irrigation water allocations and management. Therefore, an interactive online tool called ETcCalc was created to address this objective. ETcCalc, which is freely available online (http://sccropwater.com), was developed using historic weather data; therefore, it is suitable as an irrigation planning tool rather than a real-time irrigation scheduling tool.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jan 2019 09:39:17 PST
  • Drought and Water Shortages: South Carolina’s Response Mechanisms,
           Vulnerabilities, and Needs

    • Authors: Ekaterina Altman et al.
      Abstract: The South Carolina Drought and Water Shortage Tabletop Exercise took place on September 27, 2017, at the South Carolina Emergency Operations Center in West Columbia, SC. The exercise gathered 80 participants, representing federal and state agencies, public water suppliers, county and municipal governments, industry, consulting companies, and nonprofit organizations. The purpose of the exercise was to review plans and procedures that govern state-, basin-, and local-level responses to drought and water shortages. Many of South Carolina’s drought response mechanisms were updated by the 2000 Drought Response Act and Regulations, but a systematic effort has not been made to review or assess their effectiveness. Attendees walked through a series of exercise responses to gradually worsening drought scenarios and an activation of the Emergency Operations Plan. The event helped to identify strengths and weak points of the state’s drought response and opportunities to proactively prepare for future droughts. The key needs discussed by participants included updated drought response plans and procedures to ensure a coordinated and timely response to droughts; greater educational opportunities to enhance agencies’ familiarity with the Drought Response Program and their role in drought response and mitigation; more effective communications before, during, and after drought events, across agencies and with the public; and enhanced data and information products that can be used to build common understanding of drought risks, impacts, and vulnerabilities.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Mar 2018 10:03:32 PDT
  • Field Spectroscopy as a Tool for Enhancing Water Quality Monitoring in the
           ACE Basin, SC

    • Authors: Caitlyn C. Mayer et al.
      Abstract: The Ashepoo, Combahee, Edisto (ACE) Basin in South Carolina is one of the largest undeveloped estuaries in the Southeastern United States. This system is monitored and protected by several government agencies to ensure its health and preservation. However, as populations in surrounding cities rapidly expand and land is urbanized, the surrounding water systems may decline from an influx of contaminants, leading to hypoxia, fish kills, and eutrophication. Conventional in situ water quality monitoring methods are timely and costly. Satellite remote sensing methods are used globally to monitor water systems and can produce an instantaneous synopsis of color-producing agents (CPAs), including chlorophyll-a, suspended matter (TSM), and colored-dissolved organic matter by applying bio-optical models. In this study, field, laboratory, and historical land use land cover (LULC) data were collected during the summers of 2002, 2011, 2015, and 2016. The results indicated higher levels of chlorophyll, ranging from 2.94 to 12.19 μg/L, and TSM values were from 60.4 to 155.2 mg/L between field seasons, with values increasing with time. A model was developed using multivariate, partial least squares regression (PLSR) to identify wavelengths that are more sensitive to chlorophyll-a (R2 = 0.49; RMSE = 1.8 μg/L) and TSM (R2 = 0.40; RMSE = 12.9 mg/L). The imbrication of absorption and reflectance features characterizing sediments and algal species in ACE Basin waters make it difficult for remote sensors to distinguish variations among in situ concentrations. The results from this study provide a strong foundation for the future of water quality monitoring and for the protection of biodiversity in the ACE basin.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Mar 2018 10:16:03 PDT
  • Measuring and Modeling Flow Rates in Tidal Creeks: A Case Study from the
           Central Coast of South Carolina

    • Authors: Kathryn K. Ellis et al.
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to collect site- and condition-specific hydrology data to better understand the water flow dynamics of tidal creeks and terrestrial runoff from surrounding watersheds. In this paper, we developed mathematical models of tidal creek flow (discharge) in relation to time during a tidal cycle and also estimated terrestrial runoff volume from design storms to compare to tidal creek volumes. Currently, limited data are available about how discharge in tidal creeks behaves as a function of stage or the time of tide (i.e., rising or falling tide) for estuaries in the southeastern United States, so this information fills an existing knowledge gap. Ultimately, findings from this study will be used to inform managers about numeric nutrient criteria (nitrogen-N and phosphorus-P) when it is combined with biological response (e.g., phytoplankton assemblages) data from a concurrent study.We studied four tidal creek sites, two in the Ashepoo-Combahee-Edisto (ACE) Basin and two in the Charleston Harbor system. We used ArcGIS to delineate two different watersheds for each study site, to classify the surrounding land cover using the NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) data, and to analyze the soils using the NRCS Soil Survey Geographic database (SSURGO). The size of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Elevation Derivatives for National Application (EDNA) watersheds varied from 778 to 2,582 ha; smaller geographic watersheds were delineated for all sites (except Wimbee) for stormwater modeling purposes. The two sites in Charleston Harbor were within the first-order Horlbeck Creek and the second-order Bulls Creek areas. The ACE Basin sites were within the third-order Big Bay Creek and the fourth-order Wimbee Creek areas. We measured the stage and discharge in each creek with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) unit for multiple tide conditions over a 2-year period (2015–2016) with the goal of encompassing as large of a range of tide stage and discharge data measurements as possible. The Stormwater Runoff Modeling System (SWARM) was also used to estimate the potential water entering the creeks from the land surface; this volume was very small relative to the tide water volume except for the more-developed Bulls Creek watershed.The results show that the peak discharge occurred on the ebb tide and that the duration of the flood tide spanned a longer period of time; both of these observations are consistent with traits associated with an ebb-dominated tidal creek system. The tidal inflow and outflow (flood and ebb tides, respectively) showed an asymmetrical pattern with respect to stage and discharge; peak discharge during the flood (rising) tide occurred at a higher stage than for the peak discharge during the ebb (falling) tide. This is not an unexpected result, as the water on an ebb tide is moving down gradient funneled through the creek channel toward the coast. Furthermore, water moving with the rising flood tide must overcome frictional losses due to the marsh bank and vegetation; i.e., the peak discharge can only happen when the water has risen above these impediments. We infer from the flow dynamics data that faster water velocities during ebb tide imply that more erosive energy could transport a larger mass of suspended solids and associated nutrients (e.g., orthophosphate) from the estuary to the coastal ocean. However, the discharge andrunoff modeling indicate that land-based flux was important in the developed Bulls Creek watershed, but not at the larger and less-developed Big Bay Creek watershed. At Big Bay Creek, the relatively large tidal discharge volume compared to the smaller potential runoff generated within the watershed indicates that the creek could potentially dilute terrestrial runoff contaminants. Smaller, more-urbanized tidal wetland systems may not benefit from such dilution effects and thus are vulnerable to increased runoff from adjacent developed landscapes.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Mar 2018 10:15:59 PDT
  • Long-term and Two-period Analysis of Hydrologic Conditions of the South
           Edisto River

    • Authors: Rebecca W. Berzinis
      Abstract: The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) long-term daily streamflow record at station 02173000 in Bamberg County, South Carolina on the South Fork Edisto River (Latitude 33°23’35”, Longitude 81°08’00” NAD27) spans from 1932 to 2015 and was used for this study. The Nature Conservancy’s Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) software was used to analyze the entire record of hydrologic data as ecologically relevant parameters and to categorize the flows. A two-period analysis was conducted to evaluate whether a significant difference could be observed in historic flow data from 1932–1985 (period one) compared to 1986–2015 (period two). An extreme low flow was defined as an initial low flow below 10% of daily flows for the period. Over the entire 76-year period of record, 51 years had at least one occurrence of extreme low flows. A median of 4 days per year had occurrences of extreme flows in period one in contrast to a median of 60 days per year during period two. Annual precipitation totals were not correlated with the number of days per year with extreme low flows. The two-period analysis showed significant differences between period one and period two for monthly mean flow for February, April, May, and August, as well as for 1-day and 30-day minima and maxima values. The analysis calculated the 7Q10 (the lowest stream flow for seven consecutive days that would be expected to occur once in ten years) at 4.4 cubic meters per second (cms), which was -10.9% different from the most recently published estimate. Results presented in this study have shown that spring and summer flows in the South Fork Edisto are statistically significantly lower in period two compared to period one.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Mar 2018 10:15:56 PDT
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Suspended Materials in a
           Semi-urbanized Tidal Creek after an Historic Flood Event and Implications
           for Water Quality Monitoring

    • Authors: Barbara A. Beckingham et al.
      Abstract: Tidal creeks transport both dissolved and particulate natural organic carbon materials and contaminants, connecting land-based activities with estuarine surface waters. It is important to characterize these materials in tidal creeks because it provides insights as to their origins and potential for ecosystem impacts. Surface water samples were collected from Bull Creek, Charleston, SC, a semi-urbanized tidal creek wetland, on five sampling dates from fall 2015 to spring 2016 to measure total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), SUVA254 (specific absorbance as an indicator of aromaticity of DOC), and total water concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a ubiquitous class of hydrophobic organic contaminants of concern. Stream discharge was also measured to allow an estimation of material flux. One of the sampling dates captured these parameters following a historic rainfall related to Hurricane Joaquin in October 2015, and therefore the aim of the present study is to characterize the sources and to quantify the transport of carbonaceous materials and PAHs in Bull Creek, with a focus on the response to this storm event. The quality of suspended solids and DOC were different following the October storm event in comparison to the other sampling dates, and they were more terrestrially derived as shown by shifts in SUVA254 and correlations between TSS and turbidity. Elevated levels of PAHs were detected in Bull Creek after the storm, and diagnostic ratios indicated that additional mixed sources were mobilized by the event. Combining the measures of both carbonaceous material quality and PAH profile contributed to a better understanding of the sources to the tidal creek. Shifts in PAH sources and suspended materials have implications for PAH toxicity to aquatic life, as well as for the appropriate approach to water quality monitoring. Future work should aim to develop relationships between discharge, suspended materials, and PAHs to facilitate more continuous monitoring of material transport in tidal creeks, especially during storm events, which have a strong influence on water quality.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Mar 2018 10:15:53 PDT
  • Journal of South Carolina Water Resources Volume 4, Issue 1

    • Abstract: For the better part of 2017, South Carolina saw an improvement in drought status for many of the state’s 55 counties, with the SC Drought Response Committee reporting 28 of those in ‘incipient’ (first stage of drought) status and the remaining 17 in ‘normal’ status on November 27. With regard to major rain events, Tropical Storm Irma brought noteworthy levels of rainfall to much of the state in mid-September, as well as coastal flooding. Because of the ongoing significant weather events that continue to threaten water resources and related infrastructure, Clemson’s SC Water Resources Center held its first Summit Series event entitled “Back to the Future of Drought” in April to begin bringing statewide water professionals together for issue specific forums during the ‘off ’ years of the biennial SC Water Resources Conference (SCWRC). The presentations and discussions during the summit fostered new collaborations and shortly after, the SC State Climatology Office took the lead in coordinating a Drought and Water Shortage Tabletop Exercise in September at the SC Emergency Operations Center, drawing 80 participants from across the state. Included in this issue of the journal is a short communication paper about the exercise. Continuing to build on the benefits of statewide networking and collaboration, the SC State Climatology Office has also developed a 2017-18 Climate Connection Workshop series in collaboration with the Carolinas Integrated Sciences and Assessments (CISA) and the Clemson SC Water Resources Center. The first workshop was held in Greenville in December, and workshops are to be scheduled in Columbia and Charleston in early 2018. In addition, SCDNR in partnership with SCDHEC, USGS, Clemson SC Water Resources Center and USACE, held stakeholder meetings during the fall focused on the state’s groundwater assessment. Events such as these, are filling the growing need to initiate collaborative efforts to positively impact water resources management, which in turn continue to grow the network of outreach.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Mar 2018 10:15:50 PDT
  • Climate and Water Resources in the Carolinas: Approaches to Applying
           Global Climate Change Information to Local Decisions

    • Authors: Kirsten Lackstrom et al.
      Abstract: A wide range of resource managers, community planners, and other stakeholders are increasingly asking for information regarding how climate change will affect South Carolina’s freshwater and coastal resources. They are interested in using this information for decisions related to infrastructure design, water system planning, vulnerability assessments, and ecosystem management. While climate change data, projections, and related information are also becoming increasingly available, many uncertainties around future climate change and its potential impacts often hinder its application. Furthermore it is often not available in a format or at a scale that is easily translated to local- and regional resource management decisions. This article highlights decision-maker questions about climate change in the Carolinas, approaches to using global climate change information, and opportunities to bridge the gap that often exists between scientific research and applications. We find that integration of future climate scenarios with water resources issues succeeds when robust links exist between climate variables and system response, and when scenarios from observed or simulated climate data are representative, plausible, and consistent. In general, there is no one “best” model that depicts future climate conditions, nor can climate science provide accurate predictions for specific locations and impacts. However, climate change projections can be used in conjunction with a variety of other tools and resources, such as vulnerability assessments and historical climate observations, to inform planning processes. Improved understanding of the system of concern, the linkages to climate, and the most important variables can help decision makers and researchers alike to develop the most relevant and informative analyses for climate-related questions. Ongoing engagement, as well as a willingness to experiment and share lessons learned, between and across the resource management and science communities will help to advance the climate change dialogue in the Carolinas and enhance the production and use of climate change information.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jan 2017 06:40:58 PST
  • Adjusting NRCS Curve Number for Rainfall Durations Less Than 24 Hours

    • Authors: Michael Meadows
      Abstract: The primary use of the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) curve number (CN) is to compute total storm runoff based on total rainfall. The method was originally created to determine the mean daily depth of runoff during flood producing events on small agricultural watersheds. CN values were determined using daily rainfall and runoff data. Practically, it did not rain for 24 hours during many, perhaps most, of the events, but since the data were recorded as daily rainfall, 24 hours became the implicit duration for values input to the curve number runoff model. NRCS references do not specifically state the CN applies only to the 24-hour storm. Even so, it may be inferred from what is published that the standard CN applies to the 24 hour duration storm.Many methods and computer models used for the analysis and design of stormwater management systems incorporate the NRCS CN method. Because some designs and performance evaluations are based on rainfalls with durations less than 24 hours, there is the need for a method to modify CN values for shorter duration events. It goes against basic hydrologic principles if the same CN is used for storms of all durations. Not yet formally published, the NRCS recently developed a procedure to modify CN values for rainfall durations less than 24 hours. With encouragement from the NRCS, introducing that method to the engineering community is the goal for this paper.The impact of adjusted CN values was demonstrated by calculations comparing runoff depths computed with standard and duration modified CN values for rainfalls of 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hour duration. The standard CN significantly under-predicted runoff depths compared to the duration modified CN values. The differences increased with shorter duration storms.The impact of adjusted CN values also was demonstrated during a forensic assessment of the performance of a stormwater detention pond in a residential subdivision. The pond was designed compliant with regulations to limit the post-development peak discharge rate at or below the pre-development peak runoff rate for 2- and 10-year frequency 24-hour design storm events. Even though the pond design met regulatory standards for 24-hour design storms, downstream flooding and sediment problems frequently occurred during short duration events. As part of the forensic study, runoff hydrographs were simulated for pre-development, construction phase, and post-development land use conditions for rainfalls of 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hour duration. The simulation results for post development conditions showed successful pond performance for the 24-hour rainfall. However, the peak outflow rates for storms with durations less than 24-hours were greater than the 24-hour pre-development peak runoff rate.The simulation results emphasize pond design calculations and decisions should include pond performance for events with duration less than 24 hours and should use duration modified CN values. It is recommended controlling regulations specify design events such as the 2- and 10-year 24-hour rainfalls, but include a mandatory check of other events, such as the 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 hour events. Prudent and ethical practice suggests pond design be upgraded for the critical rainfall event.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jan 2017 06:40:54 PST
  • A Policy Lens of South Carolina Coastal Stormwater Management

    • Authors: Lori A. Dickes et al.
      Abstract: Similar to many environmental issues today, stormwater management lies within a network of regulatory and policy oversight. As South Carolina coastal communities continue to experience economic and population growth, understanding the broader policy context of stormwater pond management is important. This study was aimed at compiling the state-of-the-knowledge of stormwater pond management policy for the eight coastal counties of South Carolina. In order to enhance researchers and policymakers understanding of the stormwater policy and regulatory environment, this research utilizes a mixed methods approach. A mixed methods approach allows researchers to explore different components of a particular research question by deploying more than one methodological tool.This research employed three primary qualitative techniques: a policy instrument scan, a regional online survey and a local policy and economic focus group. Results indicate that while potentially strong policy exists at all levels (federal, state and local), there are identified gaps and stakeholder concerns around policy implementation and proper stormwater pond management at the local level. Additionally, with many stormwater ponds managed by Homeowners’ Associations (HOAs) there appears to be wide variation in their management and maintenance. Some of the recommendations identified in these results include: encouraging more Low Impact Development (LID) practices both for new development and re-development, improved communication on and best practices in pond maintenance, research and development of alternative pond management methods, more effective communication from South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC) related to design criteria, effective maintenance and training opportunities for engineers preparing stormwater plans, and improved education for developers and HOAs. This document provides a framework to help lay the foundation for future stormwater pond policy studies that can assist policy makers, managers, stakeholders and other decision makers to more fully understand issues impacting water resource management in South Carolina.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jan 2017 06:40:49 PST
  • Hydro-meteorologic Assessment of October 2015 Extreme Precipitation Event
           on Santee Experimental Forest Watersheds, South Carolina

    • Authors: Devendra M. Amatya et al.
      Abstract: The extreme precipitation event on October 3-4, 2015, likely resulting from the convergence of a persistent deep easterly flow, the continuous supply of moisture, the terrain, and the circulation associated with Hurricane Joaquin off the eastern Atlantic Coast (http://cms.met.psu. edu/sref/severe/2015/04Oct2015.pdf) resulted in extreme and prolonged flooding in many parts of South Carolina. We present the precipitation amounts and intensities observed at four gauges on the USDA Forest Service Santee Experimental Forest (SEF) watersheds during this extreme event in conjunction with the antecedent conditions for 5 days prior to the event. All four rain gauges recorded 24-hr maximum rainfall of 340 mm or more during October 3-4, exceeding the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) 100-yr 24-hr design rainfall data. The 5-day antecedent measured rainfall prior to October 3 already exceeded 170 mm in three of the four gauges resulting in weekly (September 28-October 4 totals exceeding 625 mm in all gauges. Local surface water ponding of as much as 0.46 m above land surface was observed on one of the groundwater wells at an elevation of 10.395 m. The recorded stage heights at one 1st order (WS 80) and one- 2nd order (WS79) watershed gauging stations over topped the compound weir (WS 80) and weir/culvert (WS 79) outlets, with the highest stages coming near the invert of the bridge above the weir gauges and inundating large riparian areas upstream of them. Preliminary calculations yielded peak flood discharges of at least 17.4 m3 s-1 (10.9 m3 s-1 km-2 or 996 cfs/mi2) and 33.9 m3 s-1 (6.8 m3 s-1 km-2 or 620 cfs/mi2) for a 1st and 2nd order watersheds, respectively. These values exceeded the previously measured peak discharges within a 25-year record of 3.8 m3 s-1 and 11.2 m3 s-1 for these two watersheds that were recorded on October 24, 2008. When compared with computed design discharges the estimated peak flood discharges on October 4, 2015 exceed the values for a 500-yr return period. These extreme peak flood discharge results may provide insights for a need to revisit existing approaches for hydrologic analyses and design of cross drainage and other water management structures as concerns about extreme storm events resulting from global warming continue.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jan 2017 06:40:45 PST
  • Development of Extended Unimpaired Streamflow Records in the Saluda Basin,
           South Carolina

    • Authors: C. Alex Pellett et al.
      Abstract: This paper presents the steps involved and the methodologies employed in the first phase of the South Carolina Surface Water Assessment - development of extended and unimpaired streamflow estimates based on USGS gage data in the Saluda basin. Streamflow data are first adjusted to remove effects of anthropogenic impairments. Adjustments are made for reservoirs, withdrawals, and discharges based on available documentation. Where documentation is insufficient, hindcasting methods are used. The resulting datasets are called unimpaired flows (UIFs).The UIFs are then extended in time from 1925, the starting date of the first continuous stream discharge data available in the basin, through 2013. Candidate reference gages for each short-record gage are selected based on a qualitative assessment. Area ratio and Maintenance of Variance Extension (Hirsch, 1982) methods are applied. Statistical and graphical evaluation of the extension results is followed by composition of extended UIFs.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jan 2017 06:40:40 PST
  • The Historic South Carolina Rainfall and Major Floods of October 1-5, 2015

    • Authors: Hope Mizzell et al.
      Abstract: A record setting and historic rainfall event occurred October 1-5, 2015, producing widespread and significant flooding across much of South Carolina. The rainfall resulted from several atmospheric and hydrometeorological factors. The record rainfall triggered flash floods and riverine flooding that resulted in emergency evacuations, travel disruptions, personal property damage, business losses, bridge collapses, dam failures and tragic loss of life. Precipitation records were broken from the midlands to the coast, with totals ranging from 10 to over 26 inches of rain. Sixteen National Weather Service Cooperative Weather Stations set new 24-hour rainfall records for October. The amount of rainfall during the event at various locations and for various durations (6-, 24-, 48-, 72-, 96- hours) had a statistical probability of occurrence of 0.1% or 1 in 1,000 chance of happening in any given year, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Atlas 14. Streams and creeks swelled out of their banks with at least 17 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) stream gages reaching record peaks. The event was the worst flooding most residents had ever experienced. This report will provide a synoptic and chronological overview of how the historic rain and flooding unfolded with documentation of the meteorological and hydrological records. A comprehensive interactive journal of the event is available on-line at http://www.dnr.sc.gov/flood2015.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jan 2017 06:40:36 PST
  • Journal of South Carolina Water Resources Volume 3, Issue 1

    • Abstract: It has been a busy and somewhat tumultuous time for South Carolina’s water resources since the publication of the Journal’s second volume. This past October, Hurricane Matthew caused significant flooding and major property damage throughout a large swath from Beaufort County in the Lowcountry up into eastern North Carolina. The small town of Nichols on the Little Pee Dee River in Marion County was especially hard hit. Residents there continue salvage and recovery work, and dozens of properties were lost. Meanwhile, recovery efforts are still ongoing in many areas from the storm complex of October 2015 which created a historic flooding event with widespread amounts of 15-20 inches of rain. Somewhat paradoxically, prior to October 2015 and ongoing, South Carolina has been dealing with a serious drought that has deepened in the Upstate and across the South. The agriculture sector and related economies are struggling in many respects. Fortunately, the South Carolina Departments of Natural Resources and Health and Environmental Control, CDM Smith, and Clemson University’s South Carolina Water Resources Center are leading efforts to assess water availability and flows in the state’s eight major river basins. Dr. Jeff Allen, director of Clemson University’s South Carolina Water Resources Center, is coordinating meetings with stakeholders across the state to build a comprehensive view of issues on water resources (http://www.scwatermodels.com). This information-sharing approach is critically important to help guide management decisions and increase awareness among the public.In this third volume of the Journal, we have six papers that provide insight into the impacts of the October 2015 storm; updates on the State Water Plan; location-specific models on storm runoff behavior; and a forecast of what we should expect for the future of water resources in the Southeast, and South Carolina in particular, based on climate change models.Extreme events rightfully demand considerable attention as we work to be better prepared for the next event; just as important is our ability to plan for slower-moving threats such as sea level rise in coastal areas and drought across the region. The articles in this third volume of the Journal are all excellent contributions which apply state-of-the-science research knowledge to address local and regional issues. We feel the content of this latest volume carries forward our mission to disseminate the latest science and policy work to support management decisions and help improve resiliency of our water resources. Access to reliable water resources is increasingly important to South Carolina’s economic and environmental health.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jan 2017 05:15:31 PST
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