- Journal coverpage
Authors: Journal Editor
Abstract: Journal coverpage
Issue No: Vol. 9
- Removal of Colour from Textile Wastewater Generated by Local Dyers in
Maiduguri using Millet Straw and Rice Husk Adsorbents
Authors: Zara Kyari Kolo, Abimbola Yisau Sangodoyin, Abubakar Adamu Waziri
Abstract: This study attempts to investigate the suitability of agricultural by-products based activated carbon as adsorbents for the treatment of textile wastewater. The chemical treatment adopted in the study is simple and qualitative. Two low– cost adsorbents namely: Rice husk (RH), and Millet straw (MS) were studied. The initial concentration of Colour in the wastewater was 25570 pt/co. Colour removal with the adsorbents were investigated under two conditions namely: constant adsorption time with varying dosage of adsorbents and constant adsorbent dosage with varying adsorption time. For MS, the optimum removal of colour at constant adsorption time of 2hrs was 95.9% and 94.5% at constant dosage consequently. For RS, the optimum removal of colour at constant adsorption time of 2hrs was 94.5% and 75.8% at constant dosage. Maximum saturation was attained for both adsorbents at 7 hrs contact period. The results of the adsorption study, shows that RH and MS adsorbents can serve as coagulants for removing colour from textile wastewater. The MS powder in particular, was discovered to have a high adorptive capacity. Keywords:Textile wastewater, colour removal, Rice husk, Millet straw,adsorbents.
Issue No: Vol. 9
- A Study of Operational Readiness of Egress System in Students` Halls of
Residence: The Case of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife
Authors: Emmanuel Olanipekun, Sunday Nunayon
Abstract: Fire poses a serious threat to lives and properties when uncontrolled. In the event of fire emergencies, egress system is an important component required for occupant safety. Thus, the operational readiness of all the elements within the egress system is paramount to safe and orderly evacuation of building occupants. This paper presented the results of an investigation conducted on the operational readiness of egress system in students` halls of residence within Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. The study employed quantitative and case study approaches to examine their fire safety preparedness. Field measurements were undertaken to document the dimensions of egress system components: width of stair, travel distance, space between balusters, height of handrails, headroom and riser height, tread length and pitch of stair. To assess whether the existing stair qualities are appropriate for the current population, past and current students’ population were collected from which occupancy growth rate was determined. The measured data were compared with the provisions of National Building Code of Nigeria , British Standard Institution Group  and Stairway Manufacturers Association of Virginia . The result showed an average of 300% increase in population of the occupants without increasing the capacity of the egress system. The results of comparative analysis of egress system components revealed narrow width, unequal treads and non-uniform risers of steps and other inaccuracies of stair components. The study concluded that in the event of fire outbreak occupants’ lives could be threatened, bottlenecks and confusion may be created when occupants are trying to escape. Keywords: Fire Safety, Egress system, Student housing, Operational readiness, occupancy growth.
Issue No: Vol. 9
- The Impact of Integration between the Theoretical and Practical Side of
Sustainability Teaching in Architecture Departments
Authors: Khalid Abdul wahhab Mustafa
Abstract: Today the world is facing great environmental problems. The built environment with its sick architectural designs has a major contribution in these problems, and it becomes clear that architects play a key role to overcome these problems or minimize their affect by taking sound sustainable measures in architectural designs. This makes teaching sustainability in higher education one of the most important tools to raise student's environment awareness, especially in architecture departments. Here appears the general research problem regarding the need to include sustainability teaching in architecture departments as an essential part of its curriculum starting from the early years of study, besides identifying the best methods to combine this subject with the existing ones, here appears the specific research problem considering the existing separation between the theoretical sustainability teaching and it's practical application in architectural design. That caused missing sustainable principles in students design. The hypothesis refers that adding sustainability as an important part of the curriculum in architecture departments from the early years of study have a great effect in changing students thoughts to shift towards sustainable designs, besides the integrating the theoretical part of teaching sustainability in classroom with its practical side in design studios. This will promote achieving the aimed goals of teaching this subject, and deeper student's knowledge about it. Keywords: sustainable teaching, theoretical and practical teaching in architecture departments.
Issue No: Vol. 9
- Drinking Water Quality Status of Boditi Town
Authors: Hailu Gisha
Abstract: This study assessed bacteriological and physicochemical water quality status of the Town. Purposive sampling was employed for sample sites selection. The inferential statistics ANOVA and LSD was employed for water quality analysis to see the statistical significances and association of the temporal and spatial variations of samples. Water quality assessed by membrane filtration and spectrophotometer methods. The resulted were compared with WHO and Ethiopian drinking water standards. Residual chlorine in the pipeline system and springs were extremely low when compared to the standards. Turbidity result showed that out of eight samples tested, four samples, i.e, one sample of pipe line and three samples of springs were above the standards. Bacteriological results showed that out of eight samples tested the presence of Escherichia Coli on seven water samples, i.e, four samples from pipe lines and three samples from springs exceeding the standards. Bacteriologically and physicochemically, the water in the distribution system violets the WHO and Ethiopian drinking water standards. Keywords: Water quality, bacteriological, physicochemical, Boditi Town.
Issue No: Vol. 9
- The Level of Existence and Impact of Cost and Time Overruns of Building
Construction Projects in Ghana
Authors: Emmanuel Bentil, Rev. Edward Nana-Addy, Eric Kwaku Asare, Alfred Fokuo-Kusi
Abstract: The construction industry has over the years been challenged with cost and time overruns of construction projects all over the world including Ghana. This problem has become a major concern to all the stakeholders of construction industry in Ghana. This study attempts to identify and establish the level of existence of cost and time overruns of building construction projects in Ghana, its causes and its relative effect on the construction industry and offers recommendations to minimize or curbs it. A survey which relied heavily on questionnaires was used to elicit opinions from Quantity Surveyors, Architects and Project/Construction Managers in key institutions in the Ghanaian construction industry such as client organisations, contracting firms and consulting firms. The purposive, convenience and snowball sampling techniques were used and out of 120 questionnaires distributed, 89 were received. The findings showed that cost and time overruns exist in more than 40% of building construction projects in Ghana. It was also identified and established that cost and time overruns of building construction projects in Ghana exceed 40% of estimated project cost and time. It was further established that, public building construction projects in Ghana had an alarming average cost and time overruns of 75% and 146% respectively with a maximum limits of cost and time overruns of 376% and 400% respectively, whereas, private building construction projects in Ghana, rather had a relatively lower average cost and time overruns of 34% and 77% respectively, with maximum limits of cost and time overruns of 98% and 300% respectively. The study further identified 34 and 38 significant causes of cost and time overruns respectively, as well as 15 significant effects. This study has not only filled the gap in existing literature on the subject in Ghana, but has also made recommendations which will improve and minimize the occurrence of cost and time overruns of construction projects in Ghana. Keywords: Level of Existence, Impact, Cost Overrun, Time Overrun, Building Construction Projects
Issue No: Vol. 9
- Improvement of Unconfined Compressive Strength of Natural Organic Soil
Authors: Adel H. Majeed, Abbas A. O. Al Zayadi, Jasim M. Abdul Abbas
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the possible improvement of unconfined compressive strength of natural organic soil by using cement dust and fly ash. Natural organic soil with different percentage of organic content (0, 5, 10.15 and 20 %) is used. Three different percentages of cement dust and fly ash (3, 6 and 9 %) are used to improve the strength characteristics of the organic soil. The effect of curing time is investigates. The result show that unconfined compressive strength of organic soil decreased with increasing the organic content. The addition of cement dust increased the unconfined compressive strength for all percentage of organic content, while the addition of fly ash improved the strength characteristics of organic soil for samples with organic content greater than 10 %. Keywords: organic content, unconfined compressive strength, cement dust, fly ash.
Issue No: Vol. 9