- Engineering geological Characterization of Basement Rocks for Construction
Aggregates: A Case Study of Kajuru Area Kaduna, Nigeria.
Authors: A.G. Amuda, T.A. Adedokun, O.A.U. Uche, A.K Amuda
Abstract: The microstructure, mineralogical composition and analysis of chemical constituent of rock samples were evaluated as part of the research on the quality and suitability of rocks in Kajuru, Kaduna State, Nigeria as sources of aggregate for construction. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) in Global mapper software was used to visualize three dimensional perspectives (3D) of the study area and quantities of major oxides present in Rock samples were determined using x-ray florescence machine called X-supreme 8000. The microstructural characteristics of rocks such as mineralogy, structure, textural and distributions of minerals in the matrix were studied using a petrographic microscope. The rock predominantly consists of porphyritic granites and gneisses with minor quartz vein and quartzofeldpathic pegmatite intrusions. The high silica contents are confirmed from microscopic studies that elucidated the prevalent mineral specie to be felsic component - quartz and feldspar with interlocking grain boundary. The studies revealed mica, microcrack and fracture in some of the rock type which will invariably affect their engineering performance. It is therefore recommended that physicomechanical evaluation be carried out on the rock aggregates to establish the strength of aggregate and the link between physicomechanical properties and geological characteristics of the rock. Keywords: Basement rocks; microstructure; mineralogical composition; petrography
Issue No: Vol. 6
- Environmental Consequences of Poor Housing Development in Ado-Ekiti,
Authors: OGUNDELE; Joseph Adunbi, JEGEDE, Amen Osamede
Abstract: This work examined the environmental consequences of poor housing development in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Housing generally refers to the social problem of ensuring that members of a society have a home in which to live, whether this is a house, or some other kind of dwelling, lodging, or shelter ( Ananya,2009). Data for this study were collected from primary and secondary sources. The primary sources of data collected were from physical survey and the administration of three hundred (300) questionnaires, through multi-stage random sampling techniques. Results from this study shows that so many housing units in the study area were devoid of modern /adequate housing facilities, many of which were built with mud materials, poor housing and environmental condition. This study therefore recommends that since scarcity and high cost of land is a major impediment to the growth of proper housing in urban areas like Ado-Ekiti and as such, the Government at all levels should regulate the price of land in the area to enable developers build adequate and modern housing facilities at affordable prices Keywords; Adequacy, condition, consequences, environmental management and poor housing.
Issue No: Vol. 6
- Wind Catchers and Sustainable Architecture in the Arab World
Authors: Ayman Al Suliman
Abstract: Ventilation is considered as one of the most important aspects in a successful architectural design. Distinguished designers dedicate a considerable part of the design process to develop this important aspect in their building design. The research presents a comparative analysis of the mechanical ventilation system that is in one of my suggested projects in Aleppo (Syria), and the wind catcher system and the soil cooling properties. The design concept is based on suction of outdoor air through vertical wind catchers positioned on top of the buildings adjacently to staircases and directed to the North West. The imported air is directed into underground horizontal ducts where heat exchange takes place between the hot air in the ducts and the cooler soil, thus cooling the air and increasing the humidity level which ultimately results in colder air in the ducts. The hot air is then repelled into the courtyard or the outdoor. The research concludes the advantages and disadvantages of both systems from environmental, economical, urban and social perspectives. Keywords : Wind catchers, natural ventilation.
Issue No: Vol. 6
- New Concrete Technology Negates Traditional Concrete Placement in Sudan
Authors: Murtada Khalid A. Osman, Osama M. Ahamed Daoud
Abstract: Self-consolidating concrete, also known as self-compacting concrete (SCC), is an innovative concrete that does not require vibration for placing and compaction. The mixture qualification process of Self Compacting Concrete consists from a small, well controlled laboratory batches are tested, second, the closest mixture/s is tested in production, which includes the use of batch mixing, and placing equipment, and finally a quality assurance/control plan for the fresh and hardened properties is developed. However, this paper presents a full research addressed only a small, well controlled laboratory batches and the laboratory testing phase of the mixture qualification process. For the purpose of study, a small, well controlled laboratory batches are tested using available locally aggregates in Sudan. Therefore, Slumpflow, V-funnel, L-box shape, J-ring, and Sieve stability tests of concrete mixtures were used to determine the flowability, passing ability and segregation resistance of SCC mixtures. The produced self compacting concrete is successfully confirmed the fresh properties of SCC with Slumpflow in range of 650 to 850 mm with high viscosity and excellent segregation resistance. The hardened properties of concrete were also considered and tested. The strength of SCC was found to be same or higher than that of normally vibrated concrete with the same constituent materials. SCC has relatively higher dynamic modulus of elasticity ranged between 38 to 42 GPa, in comparison to normally vibrated concrete for the same strength range of 50 to 60 MPa. Whereas the Spilt Tensile and Flexural strength of SCC are of 2.5 MPa and 10 MPa respectively. The major difficulty which was faced in development of SCC was on account of contradictory factors that the concrete should be fully flowable but without bleeding or segregation. It is required that the cement mortar of the SCC should have higher viscosity to ensure flowability while maintaining non-sedimentation of aggregates and that was achieved by using high content of powder (fine materials less than 0.15 mm includes cementitious materials). Achievement of durable concrete structures independent of the quality of construction work by using Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) has been proposed to solve the problem of the durability of concrete structures due to the gradual reduction of adequate compaction and skilled workers and for complex shape for the prestressed and precast industries in Sudan. The features of high benefit of fluidity and self consolidation will result in a variety of potential benefits for the end-user. Other benefits of the application of this new concrete technology require effort to be achieved. Moreover, areas such as quality control, mixture development, and logistics may need modification or expand resources when develop self-compacting concrete in Sudan. Keywords: Self Compacting Concrete (SCC), Sudan, Flowability, Passing ability, Segregation Resistance Slumpflow, V-funnel, L-box shape, J-ring, and Sieve stability, Powder content
Issue No: Vol. 6
- An Assessment of Housing Infrastructural Provision in Public Housing: A
Case Study of Bashorun Housing Estate Akobo, Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria.
Authors: Morakinyo; Kolawole Opeyemi, Okunola, Adewuyi Samson, Musibau Lukman, ODEWANDE, Adeleye Gbenga, Dada Olanrewaju
Abstract: Infrastructure provision forms important ingredients to housing development and formal housing supply, thus adequate provision of infrastructural facilities are regarded as critical components and facilitator for economic development and key to improving the quality of life in any community irrespective of size. While there is a plurality of housing issues, the problem of infrastructure in housing remains prominent especially when mass housing schemes are considered. The failure of some of these housing schemes has revealed that housing provision transcends the mere provision of shelter for needs of man. Hence, the need to approach the situation in a pragmatic way, with a focus on the infrastructural provision – an important aspect of housing that is often left to fate – in most common housing schemes in developing countries – like Nigeria. For this study, a total of two hundred (200) copies of questionnaire were administered on randomly selected residents within Bashorun housing estate and one hundred and sixty six (166) copies were retrieved. The analysis presented below is therefore based on 166 responses which constitute 83% on the average. This paper therefore reviewed existing literatures and the research method is an empirical survey and case study approach involving quantitative analysis of primary data gathered from the selected housing estate thereby evaluating the state of infrastructures of the selected housing estate, Rank Test on the expected and obtained quality of this facilities shows that (Obtained Quality < Expected Quality). Furthermore, the study confirmed a strong positive relationship existing between infrastructural provision and occupants’ level of satisfaction, while a moderate, positive relationship exist between service rendered by the management authority and occupants’ level of satisfaction, which were attributed to private involvement in housing scheme. The study revealed that for housing development to be sustainable, basic infrastructures had to be put in place. The understanding of these infrastructural provision is thus a necessary prerequisite for developing an effective housing programme. The study underscores the need to consider relevant infrastructures for housing improvement and development in Nigeria with a view to ascertaining the sustainability of the housing environment and from this a conclusion is drawn and recommendations made in generating sustainable solutions to the subject matter. Keywords: Housing, Infrastructural Provision, Infrastructures, Public Housing Estate, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Issue No: Vol. 6
- Perceptions on Impacts of Decentralization on Local Governance in
Ethiopia: Insights from DLDP Implementation in Guraghe Zone and its
Authors: Melkamu Moshago, Worku Negash, Melesse Asfaw
Abstract: The rationale for the District level decentralization in Ethiopia has been reducing central and regional government control, increasing community and civil society participation, making government bodies more accountable, responsive and transparent to the constituents at the ground. This article explores and discusses how district level decentralization affected its potential for effective local public governance in Guraghe Zone and its Districts from local government bodies’ view. The study employed concurrent mixed methodes research design. The,data were collected through survey questionnaires,focus group discussions, and key informant interviews, simultaneosly. The Guraghe zone’s districts were taken purposively. The data were integrated with analysis and interpretation of the results. The researcher employs cross tabulations, percentages, and graphs to discuss and analyze the data. The results show that that the decentralization affects accountability, responsiveness and transparency of local governments to the public positively and negatively in the study area. While, the finding also revealed that effectiveness decentralization reform on local governance effectiveness has been constrained due to misuses of transferred public resources. Furthermore, the prevailing ethnic based political patrons and kinship networks are installing and implementing government policies and projects for their own interest than the ordinary citizen. The findings also revealed that local administrators are appointed and removed from their position without constituents’ knowledge. Even though both FDRE Constitution and SNNPRS Constitution clearly publicized how lower level government units are accountable to the higher government tiers, both fail state on how upper level tiers of government units are being accountable to the lower level government units. This might affect the down ward accountability of governance actors to their constituents. Obviously, this determines effectiveness of local governance. Keywords: decentralization, local public governance, accountability, responsiveness, transparency
Issue No: Vol. 6
- Application of Groyne as a Sustainable Solution to Agulu-Nanka Erosion
Authors: Otti; V. I., Aginam, H. C., Nwolum, F. C., Ogbuagu, F. U.
Abstract: The paper aims at highlights the natural and anthropogenic impact in gully-erosion geo-structural failures. The application of groyne model-placement as sustainable solution which minimizes the control cost and guaranttees bed load as well as suspended load sediment transport. Keywords: Erosion model sediment, groyne, sustainable-solution, control
Issue No: Vol. 6
- A Study of Strength Characteristics of Recycled Glass (Cullets) in
Concrete Floor Tiles Prodution
Authors: Aikulola O.A, Sanni H.A.
Abstract: The utilization of recycled glass in construction, such as its application in highway pavement construction, concrete oversite and flooring has been occurring over the past couple of decades. In recent years, the discovery of several economic and environmental benefits has increased the use of recycled glass most especially in highway construction and precast concrete members such as wall panel, table tops and so many other concrete products, making the evaluation of the properties of glass and aggregate mixes necessary. The uses of recycled glass are varied depending on the specific application. Crushed recycled glass, or cullet, has been independently, and has also been blended with natural stone aggregate at different replacement rates. The research provides an evaluation of the potential use of glass cullet when used in combination with natural coarse aggregate for slab construction. This research studied the strength and the density characteristics of different glass-aggregate blend to examine the effects of blending glass cullet into concrete by partial replacement of the coarse aggregate. A source of natural aggregate was tested,’ GRANITE’ it being crusher run and very angular in nature. The glass was introduced into the concrete mix at the replacement rates of 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% the maximum size of glass cullet is 20mm.
Issue No: Vol. 6
- Statistical Evaluation of Influence of Hydrochemical Parameters on Public
Water Supply in Ibadan, Nigeria
Authors: O. S. Oladeji, B. S. Aribisala
Abstract: The recent trends in the global socio-economic and technological developments have exerted undue pressure on water quality and supply. A robust model that predicts water supply from hydrochemical parameters could be useful in water resources management. Most of the existing models used bivariate analysis or simple multivariate analysis that treats each variable separately, but combined parameters could be better at capturing many related water properties and hence have stronger predictive value. In this work, exploratory factor analysis was used to investigate the relationships between fourteen measured hydrochemical parameters and the volume of water pumped for public water supply from Asejire waterworks in Ibadan. Representative monthly samples of raw water were collected and analyzed for their physical and chemical properties. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to derive five novel latent variables which represent combined properties of water. The results showed that, with the exception of colour, no other single hydrochemical parameter was significantly associated with the amount of water pumped for public supply. Interestingly, one of the novel latent variables ‘Opaque Index’ was significantly associated with water supply. Additionally, though colour as a single parameter had a predictive value, but it explained only 6.7 % of the variation in the amount of water pumped, whereas the Opaque Index explained 25.5 % of the variation in the amount of water pumped. This therefore suggests that the Opaque Index latent variable has a stronger predictive power than any of the individual measured parameters and hence could a useful metric for effective water resources management. Keywords: Hydrochemical, Latent variable, Prediction, Structural equation modelling
Issue No: Vol. 6
- Determination Sustainability Status in Urban Infrastructure and Policy
Recommendation for Development Case Study: Bandarlampung City, Indonesia
Authors: Citra Persada, Santun R.P. Sitorus, Marimin ., dan Ruchyat Deni Djakapermana
Abstract: There are many aspects and actors involved in city infrastructure development require a comprehensive and integrated policy towards sustainabilty. Therefore it is important to identify the measuring instrument determine the ability to build a sustainable infrastructure. In order to determine the key indicators of this study, stakeholder assessment, public opinion and assessment of existing infrastructure planning documents were included. The aims of this paper were to identify key indicator for sustainable infrastructure development policy by analizing indicators in sustainable infrastructure development and analizing sustainability status of city infrastructure. The results of review on previous studies and discussions with experts set 5 dimensions and 47 attributes of sustainable infrastructure development. By using Rapid Appraisal of Infrastructure (Rapinfra) analysis indicated that the sustainability status of Bandarlampung infrastructure was less sustainable with a value of 38.05 %. Meanwhile, Analytic Network Process (ANP) analysis of the composite indicator produced 8 key indicators of the most influential in the development of sustainable infrastructure, they consisted of: air quality, growth of built up area, community participation, citizen behavior, local economic growth, water availability, infrastructure planning and infrastructure budgets. Keywords: ANP, key indicators, Rapinfra, sustainability infrastructure, city
Issue No: Vol. 6
- Nonlinear Analysis of Existing RC Bridge Using SAP 2000
Authors: Sachin Kulkarni, U.N. Karadi
Abstract: There are many literatures available on the seismic evaluation procedures of multi-storied buildings using nonlinear static (pushover) analysis. There are presently no comprehensive guidelines to assist the practicing structural engineer to evaluate existing bridges and suggest design and retrofit schemes. In order to address this problem, the aims of the present project was to carry out a seismic evaluation case study for an existing RC bridge using nonlinear static (pushover) analysis. In the present study a 4 Span RC Bridge existed in SH-12 in Karnataka, India, was selected and by defining FEMA 356 Auto hinges conducted Nonlinear Static (Pushover) Analysis using (ATC 40) Capacity Spectrum Method and software SAP2000 was used to analyze the Bridge. The evaluation results presented here shows that the selected bridge does not have the capacity to meet the desired performance level and it requires retrofitting. Keywords: RC Bridge, FEMA 356, Nonlinear Static (Pushover) Analysis, SAP 2000, ATC 40.
Issue No: Vol. 6
- Needs of Green Buildings Fundamentals and its Implementation Flexibility
for Prompt Effectiveness in Developing Countries
Authors: Pragyan Bhattarai, A.V.A Bharat Kumar, Rajendra Chaudhary, Shashi Kumar Gupta
Abstract: The construction concept is upgrading every year and major concern is given to the environment and human health. People’s activities for the sophistication has really degraded the component of environment which has impact in global warming, heat island effect and other hazardous effect causing negative impact to human health as well as environment. Now this trend need be changed and any construction work must be in collaboration with environment which is also coined as Green Building concept. In spite of many organizations’s effort this technology is being limited to some developed countries and no major progress is concluded in specially developing countries. Lack of awareness and misconception about the green building is limiting this concept. In order to make the green world very soon the system must be commenced from the government level itself. Government of every country should make grounds rules making basic green building categories and should register those building which have fulfilled the basic categories and certification must be given from government level itself evaluating the categories(Sustainable site development, Water saving, Energy efficiency, Material Selection, Indoor Environmental quality and Design) and innovation. Innovative design and implementation of engineering concept for every category must be given high priority. This paper forwards the concept of green buildings and basic categories which can be followed by government and basic planning design for everyone who can’t afford export which can be amend and implemented as per the context. Key words: Green Building, Environment, Awareness, Government, Engineering concept, Human health
Issue No: Vol. 6
- An Assessment of the Durability Properties of Binary Concrete Containing
Rice Husk Ash
Authors: Gambo Sanusi, Dahiru Dauda, I.M Khalil
Abstract: Waste is one of the major problems facing the present generation, that is why two of the basic actions towards sustainability specified in rio agenda 21 are minimization of total waste production and maximization of environmentally sound waste and recycling. The study evaluates the durability properties of binary concrete containing rice husk ash. The durability properties of the binary concrete was assessed using abrasion resistance and water absorption tests, then exposure to magnesium sulfate. Results show that the binary concrete has higher compressive strength, tensile strength, abrasion resistance, resistance to magnesium sulfate and low water absorption. It was concluded that the binary concrete can find application in a magnesium sulfate rich soil because of its higher resistance to magnesium sulfate. It is recommended that the Nigerian institute of building (NIOB) should incorporate the use of rice husk ash as a pozolan in to the national building code because of its ability to improve some properties of concrete. Keywords: Waste, Rice Husk Ash, Sustainability, compressive strength and durability.
Issue No: Vol. 6
- The Nature, Extent and Intensity of Land Use and Land Covers Change and
Its Implications on Fringe Development in Eldoret Municipality, Kenya
Authors: Janet Cherono Korir
Abstract: In the rapidly growing urban areas of the developing countries, land use activities are changing at unprecedented rates. These continuous changes have resulted in the degradation of environmentally fragile resources, occupation of hazard-prone areas, loss of cultural resources, open space and prime agricultural land and excessive urban sprawl. This paper seeks to investigate the nature and extent of land use and land cover changes. The study was carried out in Eldoret Municipality, Land use and land cover data of Eldoret Municipality were interpreted for a 20-year time period from aerial photographs taken in 1973, 1985 and 1993. Each set of photographs was first assembled for pre-view so as to prepare a temporary classification system as well as assess the quality of the photographs. The study draws a conclusion that the built-up environment has generally increased. This refers to the land under commercial, industrial, institutions and residential facilities. The major explanation for this is the growth of urban population. This analysis is expected to promote environmental quality of the study area and also guide the land use planners in the study area. The information obtained can also be applied to other urban areas with similar environmental problems. Keywords: Nature, Extent, Intensity, Land Use, Land Cover Change
Issue No: Vol. 6
- Water Treatment Based on Ion Exchange Membrane Permeable Combined with The
Field Electrodeionization (EDI)
Authors: Sugito ., Budi Prijo Sembodo
Abstract: Water treatment can be done by ; removal of cations / anions contained in the water used: ion exchange resin (ion exchanger), deionization, distillation membrane transfer, flash evaporation, and reverse osmosis. But the way that can be done separately, each has drawbacks. If done multiple, can simultaneously support for removal of cations anions process contained therein. Water treatment processing procedures in this study are ; filtration using polipropylena, absorption by Manganese zeolite treatment, then ion exchange resins using anion and cation resin, continued with treatment electrodeionization (EDI) using membrane permeable cation and anion permeable membrane, which is arranged in cross, where the anode electrode attached adjacent by cation permeable membrane, and vice versa. Water treatment by technology based filtration, absorption, and ion exchanger with permeable membrane combined with electrodeionization (EDI) field concluded that; removal of some of parameters are: Total Disolved Solid (TDS) 752 ppm, Turbidity 4.94 NTU scale, color 40 units PtCo, Iron 0.55 mg/L Fe, Total hardness 457.24 mg/L CaCO3, Chloride 500 ppm, Nitrate 0.82 ppm, Nitrite 0.49 mg/L NO2-N, Zinc 0.07 ppm, Sulfate 9.14 ppm, Sodium 575.46 ppm, Organic Substances 17.74 mg/L KMnO4, and Detergent 0:06 mg/L LAS.Keywords: ion exchange, filtration, absorption, membrane permeable, electrodeionization (EDI)
Issue No: Vol. 6
- Effect of Water-Cement Ratio on the Mechanical Properties of Blended
Cement Containing Bottom Ash and Limestone
Authors: Olubajo O. O., Osha A. O., El- Nafaty U. A., Adamu H. A.
Abstract: This paper presents investigation on the effect of water requirement on compressive/ flexural strength of hardened cement mortar of ordinary portland cement (OPC) blended with 10% Limestone (L) and 10% coal bottom ash (BA) by weight ( 80C- 10L-10 BA). The water-cement ratio is one of the most important parameters that affect the performance (mechanical properties) of mortar, thus obtaining the best water requirement translates to the best mechanical properties. Class C bottom ash and Limestone (L) were used to partially replace Portland cement at 10% each by weight. The blended cement containing limestone and coal bottom ash and OPC were prepared at different water-cement ratios ranging from 0.35 to 0.55. Mortar mixtures were prepared for the blended cement and OPC control. 2, 7, 28, 60 days-compressive and flexural strengths of the mortar mixtures were determined. The strength results were compared to those of OPC and relative strengths are reported. It was observed that the compressive/flexural strength in comparison with the OPC control at water-cement ratio w/c = 0.4 was equivalent while at 0.45 and 0.50, the compressive strength experienced a reduction followed by compressive strength increment at 0.55. This can be attributed to the slow nature of the pozzolanic reaction which did not show effect until the water-cement ratio reached 0.55. But after 7 days, the pozzolanic reaction showed its effect with increment in flexural and compressive strength all through. At 28 days the compressive and flexural strengths were 40.85MPa and 9.34MPa respectively which were higher than OPC control for compressive and flexural strength of 33.85MPa and 8.92MPa respectively. It was observed that as the water-cement ratio was increased from 0.40 to 0.55 both blended cement and the control experienced increment in the compressive and flexural strength. Keywords: Compressive / Flexural strength, Water-cement ratio, Bottom ash, Limestone, Ternary cement
Issue No: Vol. 6