- Evaluating the Significance of Poor Road Design as a Factor of Road
Failure: A Study of Onitsha-Enugu Expressway, Southeastern Nigeria
Authors: EBUZOEME; OGECHUKWU DIVINE-FAVOUR
Abstract: Evaluating the significance of poor road design as a factor of the road failure of Onitsha-Enugu expressway, Southeastern Nigeria using a survey design method which employed the use of individual interviews and a well structured questionnaire to collate data. To determine the significant causes of road failure among causes listed, One-way Analysis of Variance was used. The ANOVA shows that the variation among the causes is not significantly different, a Post HOC test was applied to classify the listed factors. The mean values was used to rank the factors as follows; 1. Inadequate maintenance, 2. Mismanagement by the government, 3. Old age of the road pavement, 4. Incompetence of the contractor, 5. Bad nature of the soil, 6. Stress of heavy vehicles, 7. Poor road design; meaning that the least of the factors of the roadway under study is poor road design. The work concluded that poor road design is not a significant factor of the road failure although there is need for redesigning and reconstruction of the roadway. Sequel to these findings and conclusion, the work recommends that efforts be made by the stake holders in road construction to ensure accurate design of any road way before its construction proper which will consider all the characteristics of the area to be cut across by the roadway, the service burden to be borne by the road way and the expected life span. Relevant geologists, climatologists and engineers to be enlisted at the design and planning stages of any roadway before its construction proper. There should be routine and periodic maintenance as this is necessary not minding how good or bad the road was designed for it to stand the test of time. There should be monitoring and properly supervising of the construction engineers to see that they accurately implement what was preplanned by the designing engineers not trying to cut costs that may be detrimental.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Analysis of Travel Behavior in Khulna Metropolitan City, Bangladesh
Authors: Md. Ashiqur Rahman, Syed Ashik Ali, Quazi Sazzad Hossain
Abstract: In modeling travel demand and analyzing travel behavior, it is important to know the behavior of a large number of individuals. How the individuals choose an alternative among others given in the choice set, and how they assess and consider the different alternatives, must be a function of several factors including their need, task, socio-economic, environmental and the level of service offered by the various alternatives. A qualitative analysis of travel behavior was done with a number of individuals as the samples. To provide the required data, a field survey as direct home interview survey and travel time survey were conducted and given a number of 233 households and 871 respondents obtained as the samples. Meanwhile, the socio-economic data were obtained directly from the institution concerned. . The collected data were analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Software.The results of the analysis show that people with higher income and more automobile availability make more travel than people with low income and less automobile availability. The home-based trips take the largest percentage (50%) of people in the study area. The result also indicates that the shopping trips (15%) contribute higher among different trip purpose. The results also show that about 57% of individuals are between 20-50 years. The number of trips generated from each zone is strongly related to the amount of households, population, active workers and students of that zone. By considering a significant level of 5% four trip generation models have been developed. By using these models future trip generation from each zone can be determined. By applying the Gravity Model and the Fratar Method, the trip distribution models have been developed. Three basic models have been introduced by using travel time, road distance and straight distance as the resistance index. From these models the future travel pattern of Khulna Metropolitan city, Bangladesh can be predicted. Keywords: Khulna Metropolitan City, Household survey, Travel behavior, Trip Distribution Models, Trip Generation Models.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Challenges of urban waste management in Uyo Metropolis, Nigeria
Authors: Anthony Adomi Mbina, Edem; Ephraim E
Abstract: Waste generation is an integral aspect of human existence that is unavoidable. It is a product of resource use process that has the capacity to be inconveniencing and harmful leading in extreme cases to pollution with resultant epidemics and catastrophic consequences. Therefore, waste generated through human activities need to be properly managed through concrete efforts, to maintain a healthy and sustainable environment. The purpose of this research is to examine the challenges of waste generation, management, collection and disposal mechanism in Uyo, capital of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Data collection was carried out through a field survey using personal observations, structured interviews and questionnaire administration. Findings revealed that about 30,350 metric tons of Municipal Solid Waste, (MSW), is generated per day in Uyo urban centre. The study further shows that inadequate equipment coupled with understaffing at the State Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources engender accumulation of waste in several parts of the town. The results of this study will hopefully generate recommendations for sustainable waste management development in Uyo. Keywords: waste generation. waste collection. waste disposal. waste management. biodegradable.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Vertical Velocity of Pollutants through Porous Rocks of Anambra State:
Implications for Water Resources Planning and Management
Authors: Onwuka; S.U., Okoye, C. O., Muoghalu, L. N.
Abstract: Indiscriminate siting of human activities has become a common practice in Anambra State, resulting to generation of mobile pollutants. To this effect, an infiltrometer was used to investigate the velocities of pollutants (four fluids) through five sedimentary formations of varying lithological characteristics, with a view to proffering efficient strategy for management of groundwater resources in the area. A purposive/judgmental sampling technique was used to select the formations used. The study tested the following hypotheses:(i) the velocity of pollutants through rocks is not related to the lithological characteristics of the underlying rocks and (ii) pollution level (densities of pollutants) is not related to the vertical infiltration (velocity) of pollutants. The following findings were recorded: (i) the velocity of pollutants through rocks is closely related to the lithological characteristics of rocks, including porosity and hydraulic conductivity, (ii) pollution level (densities of pollutants) is weakly related to vertical infiltration of pollutants. Consequently, the study recommended that the lithological characteristics of underlying formations should be known before selecting such sites for human activities that generate pollutants so as to safeguard the groundwater resources of the area. This is to say that shale terrains or any other formations that have, at most, porosity and hydraulic conductivity values of 18% and 2.3 x 10-8 cm/sec. respectively, should be used for human activities that generate mobile pollutants. It also recommended that site selection for various wide scales human activities that generate mobile pollutants should be based on the knowledge of underlying geology of the place in question, and not merely on the availability of such space and close proximity to users. Further research areas were also recommended. Keyword: Pollutants, porous rocks, groundwater, lithological characteristics and management
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Analyses Of The Effectiveness Of The Various Measures Employed By People
In The Control Of Flooding In Six Communities In Awka Anambra State Of
Authors: ONWUKA; S. U, IKEKPEAZU, F. O., MUO A.
Abstract: This study analyzed the effectiveness of the measures already put in place to control flooding in six Communities of Awka including Agulu, Amaenyi, Ezi-Awka, Amikwo, Ifite and Nkwelle. The questionnaire survey method was adopted in which questionnaire was employed in collecting the data from the respondents which was later collated and analyzed. Three hypotheses were tested and the T-test result showed that: 1. there is significant difference in the various efforts made to check flooding in Awka, 2. there is significant difference in the effectiveness of the various efforts made to check flooding in Awka, and 3. there is no significant difference in the various measures used in flood management in Awka. The study concluded therefore that there are many measures put in place to tackle the problem of flooding in the study area in all the six Communities studied, but the problem still persists because the parties involved are fighting the menace individually. The study thus recommends an integrated approach in tackling flooding in the area, which will include the following: massive campaign against improper dumping of refuse in the drainage system as it not only create room for flooding but also encourages flooding in the area, construction of sound drainage system, creating environmental awareness to keep the drainage system from waste dumps, encouraging people to open their drainage system constantly in order to help check and control flooding, avoiding dumping of refuse in drainage system and the enforcement of all these by a strong governmental force.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Acid Rain in Environmental Pollution: the Perception of the people of
Edagberi/Betterland Communities in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria
Authors: ZUDONU; ONISOMAN CHUKS
Abstract: This paper investigated acid rain in environmental pollution: the perception of the people of Edagberi/Betterland Communities in Engenni in Ahoada West Local Government Area of Rivers State. The work x-rayed the causes and effects of acid rain and also the contributions of the oil and gas companies to their host companies for this long period of time (over five decades) that they have already spent in siphoning the God-giving wealth of the Niger delta people. A total of one hundred and thirty (130) respondents were randomly selected for this study. Structured questionnaires (EBCSQ) were administered to the total respondents. The results of the study were analyzed using simple percentage and the results indicated that the prime causes of acid rain are the activities of oil and gas companies in the Niger Delta region; the activities of oil and gas exploration and exploitation companies are posing gigantic threats to the lives of their host communities. Additionally, it also indicated that there are little or no contributions made by the multinational companies to cushion the effects of the hardship they have plunged on the host communities. Based on this, recommendations were made.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Equations for Predicting Flexural Strength and Compressive Strength of
Plastic Concrete Pavement Blocks
Authors: Eric Ababio Ohemeng, Kofi Owusu Adjei, Anita Asamoah-Duodu
Abstract: The influence of plastic content within the range of 0% - 60% as replacement for sand volume, water cement (w/c) ratio of 0.30 – 0.50 and curing age of 7 days – 28 days on flexural strength and compressive strength of plastic concrete pavement blocks (PCPBs) was investigated. All the mixtures were proportioned with a fixed aggregate / cement ratio of 4.5. Based on the experimental results, the flexural strength and the compressive strength of the PCPBs were calculated by considering the predictor variables (water cement ratio, curing age and plastic content). Equations derived based on the results from the experimental work are proposed to predict the flexural strength and the compressive strength of the developed PCPBs. The effect of water cement ratio, curing age and plastic content on flexural strength and compressive strength of PCPBs was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.0001). The equations are only capable of predicting the flexural strength and the compressive strength of plastic concrete products, if the w/c ratio, the curing age and the aggregate cement ratio used are within the tested range. Keywords: water cement ratio, plastics, curing age, flexural strength, compressive strength.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Contemtious Issues on Poor Stakeholder Management in Some Major Road
Construction Projects in Anambra State, Nigeria
Authors: A.C.C Ezeabasili, C. M. U-Dominic, B.U. Okoro
Abstract: The unwary attitude of most construction firms in mapping-out as well as analyzing various stakeholders’ interest and influence during projects execution has brought about a lot of conflicting issues that has deterred success on these road construction projects in Anambra State. Constructions sites are marred with uncertainties, which most times if unchecked may likely spread all through the Project phase. Ambiguities associated with road construction projects are sometimes innately embedded in the job description and it is very unwise to neglect the influence of some extraneous variables like some of the construction stakeholders. This paper discussed confrontational issues prevalent in road Construction projects in the State and its consequences on Project schedule and consequently cost. Based on some highly debated arguments surrounding the causes of Project delays, our research surveys was conducted in phases to capture all the involved stakeholders in the road construction projects in the state. In the first phase of our study, we conducted an interview within the concerned communities (n1 = 25). Various community stakeholders were interviewed (n2 = 298); the interview questions used in this phase was structured based on four parameters suspected to be the likely causes of project delays. These are as follows: duration of the Project, quality of materials used, environmental management, and community participation in decision making. The structured questions asked were made concise, coherent and complete enough to elicit the required information concerning the success and delays witnessed in most of the awarded road projects in the State. In the subsequent phase of the study, a survey questionnaire was designed based on the stakeholder’s arguments and interviewed response of the selected community stakeholders. The questionnaires were sent to three key different players in these road construction projects in the state who had actively participated in some of these road construction activities. The studied groups were made up of four consultants, twelve major contractors and nine project managers. Their various responses was tabulated and analyzed with respect to the initial purported arguments that characterized the study needs. We also took study of some road construction projects awarded from 2006 to 2009; the effects of poor stakeholders management on their execution timetables were also analyzed reflecting percentages of delayed, stalled, and timely executed projects. The study was able to unveil the causes of project delays and pivotal issues surrounding stalled projects in the State. The protracted arguments that led to the study was clarified from the study and recommendation were proffered that will assist both the contractors and the State government to timely execution of projects with adequate resources being utilized optimally in the road construction Projects in the State. Keywords: Stakeholders, Road Construction, Management, Anambra State
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Sustainable Construction Implementation In Ghana: Focusing On Awareness
Authors: Simon Ofori Ametepey, William Gyadu-Asiedu, Millicent Assah-Kissiedu
Abstract: The quest for sustainable construction everywhere is mainly to achieve the dual end of ensuring a balance in infrastructural development and the ecosystem both for the present and future generations. This is due the growing realization among leading scientists and researchers that the rate at which the earth’s resources are being used exceeds its long-term capacity and undermines the vital life support system of the earth. The extent to which this all-important agenda is being pursued varies from one country to the other despite the global nature of the threat. This research assesses the level of awareness and challenges of implementing sustainable construction in Ghana. The study adopted a quantitative study design where questionnaire survey was used to elicit data from respondents. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from 100 randomly sampled construction practitioners (architects, quantity surveyors and structural engineers). For the data analysis, descriptive statistics and severity index were mainly used. The results of the survey demonstrated that there is low level of awareness and practical application of the concept of sustainable construction amongst stakeholders in the construction industry in Ghana. The research findings further indicate cultural change resistance, lack of commitment from government, fear of higher investment costs, lack of professional knowledge, and lack of legislation as the most severe challenges of implementing sustainable construction in Ghana. Keywords: Awareness, Challenges, Construction Industry, Ghana, Sustainable Construction
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Plane Strain Deformation In Thermoelastic Microelongated Solid
Authors: Sunil Kumar Sachdeva, Praveen Ailawalia
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to study the two dimensional deformation in a thermoelastic microelongated solid. A mechanical force is applied along the interface of fluid half space and thermoelastic microelongated half space. The normal mode analysis has been applied to obtain the exact expressions for displacement component, force stress and temperature distribution. The effect of microelongation on the displacement component, force stress and temperature distribution has been depicted graphically for Green-Lindsay (GL) theory of thermoelasticity. Keywords: Thermoelasticity, Microelongation, Normal mode analysis
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Profit Analysis for a Stochastic Model on a Cement Grinding System with
Categorisation of Failure on the Basis of Cost for Its Nine Components
Authors: Ritu Gupta, Gulshan Taneja
Abstract: A stochastic model for profit analysis of a cement grinding system with failure in the nine important components namely; Belt Conveyor, Bucket Elevator, Separator, Roller Press, Diverting Gate, Process Fan, Cyclone, Ball Mill and Fly Ash System has been developed. The failure in these components has been divided into various categories on the basis of cost of repair/replacement. The fly ash system is a component in which a failure may not cause the failure of the complete system instantly. Data on time to repair and cost of repair/replacement for different types of failure have been collected from Shree Cement Ltd., Khushkhera, Rajasthan, India. The system has been analysed by using semi – Markov processes and regenerative point technique and various measures of system effectiveness have been obtained. Profit incurred to the system is obtained and graphs are plotted for the model for better interpretation of results. Keywords: Stochastic Model, Cement Grinding System, Categorisation of Failure, Measures of System Effectiveness, Profit Analysis.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Treatment of Olive mill Wastewater by ozonation and electrocoagulation
Authors: Walid K. Bani Salameh
Abstract: The main purpose of this paper was to investigate the removal of total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) for olive mill wastewater (OMW) by the combination of electrocoagulation (EC) and the ozonation process. In the combination of electrocoagulation followed by ozonation process the optimum working pH was found to be in range 6. The efficiency of the electrocoagulation process allowed removal of TSS and COD about 82.5% and 47.5% respectively at 45mA/cm2 after 70 minutes by using coupled iron–aluminum electrodes. These results showed that the optimum TSS and COD removal was obtained at the optimum experimental parameters such as current density, pH, and reaction time. After EC, most organic compounds still remained in the effluent. The subsequent ozonation shows high levels of organic compound elimination. The obtained TSS and COD values: 31.1g/L and 67.3 g/L for the sample from the olive mill, 5.4 g/L and 35.35 g/L after EC and 5.4 g/L and 2.6 g/L respectively after ozonation. Keywords: olive mill wastewater; Electrode; Electrocoagulation (EC);TSS;COD; ozonation
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Performance Evaluation of Sand-based Surface flow Constructed wetland in
Domestic Wastewater Treatment using Typha Orientalis as Macrophyte
Authors: Oladipupo. S. OLADEJO, Adejuwon A. KOFOWORADE, Azeez O. ABOLARINWA, Sulaiman A. ADEYEMI, Abayomi D. OLABISI
Abstract: A laboratory-scale free water surface-flow constructed wetland was set up at the Department of Civil Engineering; Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH) Ogbomoso, Nigeria in May 2013 to demonstrate the performance of sand- based constructed wetland, using Typha Orientalis as a viable low-cost efficient treatment option for domestic wastewater from kitchen. The nutrient removal and performance evaluation of the constructed wetland in treatment of kitchen wastewater against retention period of ten days was investigated. During the 10-day retention period, the sand- based constructed wetland set up with Typha Orientalis had improved the wastewater quality significantly as it had reduced 94.9% of Turbidity, BOD5 by 79.0%, NO-3 by 66.7%, 87.9% of SO-4 , 70.24% of Cl-, Conductivity by 70.8% and Magnesium by 80.62%. The pH value and Dissolve Oxygen increased by 28.3% and 64.01% respectively and the initial offensive odour of the raw water was no more noticeable. The final effluent was found to be suitable for non-drinking purposes like crop irrigation and keeping aquatic animals. However, it was noted that a 7- day detention time was optimal for the treatment of domestic wastewater from kitchen. The treatment system was found to be economical, as the cost of construction only was involved and maintenance cost very minimal. It was environmentally friendly as it was free from offensive odour and insect invasion. The prototype scale is recommended for in-situ use, especially for wastewater from kitchen. Keywords: Constructed wetland, Domestic wastewater, Nutrient removal, Retention period, Typha Orientalis
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Modelling Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Groundwater of the Gaza
Coastal Aquifer from Ensemble of Global Climate Model Projections
Authors: Salem S. Gharbia, Adnan Aish, Francesco Pilla
Abstract: The Gaza Strip is subjected to considerable impacts of climate change that may adversely affect the groundwater resource. A decrease in annual precipitation as well as an increase in temperatures are projected from an ensemble of global climate models. In this study, the impact of climate change on groundwater resources in Gaza coastal aquifer was evaluated. Regional groundwater flow simulations were made by means of a three-dimensional numerical model. The model was calibrated by adjusting model input parameters until a best fit was achieved between simulated and observed water levels. Simulated groundwater levels compared favorably with observed mean groundwater levels measured in observation wells. SEAWAT groundwater transient model with simulated climate change data input without any adaption pumping scenario was developed in order to determine the impacts of climate change on groundwater of the Gaza coastal aquifer. An effective management scenario was developed and examined by the same groundwater transient model. The scenario was generated to adapt with climate change conditions by developing new water resources and managing pumping rates. The results indicated that lack of water is expected to be a problem in the future. Also, the generated and examined solution scenario is a strategic solution for about a thirty year period. Keywords: Gaza Strip, climate change, groundwater, management, modeling, seawater intrusion
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Modeling the Relationship of Architectural and Structural Design Variables
for Estimating Substructure Cost of Duplexes
Authors: Uche O. Ajator, Stanley Ugochukwu, O. Ogunsina
Abstract: In-complete project definition at schematic design phase create difficulty in obtaining tangible cost estimate. This research work attempted to establish a time saving quantification model of architectural and structural design relationship for faster estimation of cost of concrete in column bases of residential duplexes. It collated substructure cost predictive variables of 30 residential duplexes from participating construction and cost professionals and crafted and validated from analyzed statistics 5 predictive models for quantifying cost of substructure concrete. It established among others that volume of concrete in column base cannot be estimated from linear regression model based on block work girth alone, but from a multiple regression of floor area and block work girth. It recommended the evolved model as adequate and fit for the forecast of volume and cost of concrete at column bases at sketch design stage when there is no detailed plan. Keywords: Model, Cost estimation, Concrete, Substructure
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Effect of Superplasticizer on Workability of Concrete Containing Crumb
Authors: Mustafa Maher Al-Tayeb, Hasan Hamouda
Abstract: Crumb rubber concrete was produced by using 10% of recycled fine rubber 400 ?m as the sand replacement. Superplasticizer with 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1.0% contents were added into crumb rubber concrete without changing the water-cement ratio purposely to study the effects of superplasticizer to the concrete. The specimens were tested on the age of 28th day. Several tests were carried out to study the effect of superplasticizer such as slump test, compression test, split tensile test, flexural test and ultrasonic pulse velocity test. The results show that an increase of superplasticizer will increase the workability of the concrete without changing the water-cement ratio. It was found that the rubberized concrete with content 0.5% superplasticizer produced better compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength ultrasonic pulse velocity. Keywords: Crumb rubber, Superplasticizer, Workability, Concrete strength
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Assessment of Some Enteropathogenic Bacteria In Water And Irrigated
Vegetables Along Selected Locations Of River Kaduna, Nigeria.
Authors: Abubakar Haruna
Abstract: Irrigation Farming in Nigeria is not the only one of the most important economic sectors but also provide many job opportunities. Nowadays the sustainability of the sector has become threatened with faecal pollution of rivers used to irrigate produce. A ten months study was done to assess the enteropathogenic bacterial load and distribution in water, vegetables and fruits along some parts of river Kaduna. The results of bacteriological analysis obtained from water and irrigated vegetables sampled at the various sampling points revealed high correlation with those isolated from the river water in load and species types. Escherichia coli was the predominant coliform isolated with 90% frequency of occurrence in Lettuce(Lactuca sativa). Salmonella and Shigella species were the only enteropathogenic bacteria with high percentage of occurrence at point B. In the control sample, only two enteropathogenic bacteria Salmonella and Shigella species registered 5% frequency of occurrence. The preponderance of identical enteropathogenic bacteria in both vegetables and water in all the three sample points is suggestive of cross contamination by irrigation water from the river. Bring to doubts the safety value of vegetables cultivated along study area and portended health risk of food-borne infection to potential consumers of raw eaten vegetables irrigated by the water and users of the water downstream. Key Words: Enteropathogenic bacteria, Irrigated vegetables, River Kaduna.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Experimental Study on the Effect of Partial Substitution of Cement
Portland on Red Cement against Concrete Compressive Strength
Authors: Heri Sujatmiko
Abstract: Increasing building will impact indirectly to the increased needs of the concrete. Concrete is a material that has long been recognized in general and has several advantages, namely: is planned and set up, high temperature resistant, can be made by the manufacturer, as well as raw materials easily obtainable. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of red cement substitution by comparing the compressive strength of concrete using the K225 with a mixture of red cement. The method used in this study is an experiment with a sample consisting of 45 concrete cylinders size f 150 mm x height 300 mm, which is divided into 5 treatment (composition at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%) and were tested in groups age of concrete after printing (7, 21 and 28 days). The results showed that the red cement can reduce the characteristic concrete compressive strength and the higher the percentage increase compressive strength tends to decline, and the addition of up to 20% did not show any significant decrease. Key words : Concrete, Pozzolan, Substitution, Concrete Depress Strength
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Determination of macro and micronutrients levels in organic manure soils
and irrigation water
Authors: Omar Asad Ahmad
Abstract: The organic fertilization is cornerstone to raise production value of agricultural land and reduce environmental pollution resulting from the excessive use of chemical fertilizers. Therefore, recycling is important factor that lead to the provision of large quantities of organic fertilizers that meet the needs of agricultural land, especially sandy soils that are poor in organic matter. The study includes estimating the concentration of selected chemical elements and heavy metals in agricultural soils fertilized with organic matter and recycled irrigation water in some areas of the Wadi-Al shati including (Ashkeda , Qyra, Dabdab, Qaqum , Tamazawa , Aqar , and Mahruqa ), where the soil physical and chemical properties are analyzed here. The results showed that the studied soils consistency range from sandy to loamy sand, which has an important role in determining the ability of the soil to retain nutrients. Organic matter played a role in increasing the productivity of sandy soils by 0.63% and improved the cation exchange capacity to reach 39.36 million equivalent / 100 g soil in sandy soils textures. Also, the study showed that the clay minerals and organic matter and pH are the most important factors that influence the content of the soil of heavy elements in addition to the clay minerals which originated the soil. The results showed that irrigation water has direct effect on the properties of physico-chemical properties of soil where accumulation of salts like sulfates of calcium, magnesium and sodium chloride , calcium, Bicarbonate calcium in the soil. Results showed that the concentration of the elements manganese, chromium, and cadmium in irrigation water was higher than the maximum limits by the FAO standard. Also, the results show that levels of zinc, nickel and iron were within the allowable limit, and the elemental lead and copper are below detection limits. Keywords: Fertilization, Environmental pollution, Recycling, Nutrients, Production value, Physico-chemical properties.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Journal Cover Page
Authors: Journal Editor
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Application of Smart Materials in the Interior Design of Smart Houses
Authors: Mohammed Thabit Al-Baldawi
Abstract: We highlight in this research the development and uses of smart materials to enhance the economical, functional, technical and aesthetic side as well. We discussed in the study the classification of materials used in the design of interior architecture, and the relationship between the environment and the impact on the health of occupants and the use of less harmful materials. The effect of reducing the use of materials’ amounts is important in economic terms, by choosing the appropriate material and put it in the right place. It is also necessary to know the specifications and properties of the physical and chemical materials for optimization of its use. The understanding of this stage can enhance interior design in the future. Taking advantage of the types of materials used in interior design that can be recycled and re-manufactured reflects its beneficial effect on the environment and also reduces the consumption of agricultural original materials. We pointed to the bamboo as an example of the kinds of agricultural materials used in interior design and the possibility to develop this types of which Biocomposite and Hybrid bamboo-glassfibers composites. We addressed the subject of smart materials and their use in smart homes after the definition provided on the types of materials, and also the importance of smart materials from an environmental point of interior design. The benefits of smart materials which we considered are minimized air conditioners size, in addition to most smart materials in the interior design is sensible and invisible, which plays a big role in smart homes design. We have defined the smart home and what are the essential parts that constitute it and its association with a computerized engineering mechatronic reflection on economic and interior design. The study is aimed at linking the use of smart materials and the possibility of energy conversion for introducing better interior design to modern homes that makes them more convenient and comfortable and energy-saving. We have given some examples of smart materials largely used in sensors, glass, coatings and heating. Keywords: smart materials, interior design, smart house, energy, environment.
Issue No: Vol. 7