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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 132 journals)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Oceanography and Limnology     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Water Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Water Works Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anales de Hidrología Médica     Open Access  
Annals of Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW. Land Reclamation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Applied Water Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquacultural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Living Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aquatic Procedia     Open Access  
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Asian Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Australian Journal of Water Resources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bubble Science, Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Desalination and Water Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Developments in Water Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
EQA - International Journal of Environmental Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European journal of water quality - Journal européen d'hydrologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Grundwasser     Hybrid Journal  
Human Resources for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Hydro Nepal : Journal of Water, Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hydrology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Hydrology: Current Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Nuclear Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Salt Lake Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Waste Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Water Resources Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Irrigation and Drainage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Irrigation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Contemporary Water Resource & Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Oceans     Partially Free   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Hydro-environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Hydroinformatics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Hydrology (New Zealand)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics     Open Access  
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of the American Water Resources Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Water and Climate Change     Partially Free   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Water and Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Water Resource and Hydraulic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Water Resource Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Water Supply : Research and Technology - Aqua     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
La Houille Blanche     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Lake and Reservoir Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mangroves and Salt Marshes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Methods in Oceanography : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access  
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Osterreichische Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal  
Ozone Science & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Paddy and Water Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Revue des sciences de l'eau / Journal of Water Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Riparian Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
River Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
River Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
SA Irrigation = SA Besproeiing     Full-text available via subscription  
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientia Marina     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)

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Journal Cover Civil and Environmental Research
   [14 followers]  Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2224-5790 - ISSN (Online) 2225-0514
     Published by International Institute for Science, Technology and Education (IISTE) Homepage  [30 journals]
  • Design and Construction of NBRRI Pozzolana Cement Pilot Plant Access Road

    • Authors: Bobzom; B.G., Quadri, H.A., Sule, E., Adeyemi, O.A.
      Abstract: Nigerian Building and Road Research Institute (NBRRI), in trying to solve the menace of housing deficit ravaging the country, established a Pozzolana Cement Pilot Plant at its Laboratory Complex, Ota, Ogun State. When the plant is fully in operation, it would bring respite/succour to the low-medium class citizenry as the cost of pozzolana cement will be affordable to build a light weight/bungalow structures. This gave rise to the birth of this access road, as it became imperative to design and construct an access road to the Pozzolana Cement Plant using a ‘’stage construction’’ approach. The ‘’stage construction’’ approach/method was adopted to construct a 300m long by 7m wide roadway, where the subgrade (poorly graded sand and clay) was stabilized by proportioning technique of mechanical stabilization with well graded lateritic sub-base and base layers of 100mm thickness each. With the development of the bitumen sprayer by the Engineering Material Research Department, the pozzolana access road was used to test the effectiveness and efficiency of the innovation. The combined lateritic road surfacing of 200mm thickness was overlaid with 80mm thick stone-dust (8mm; ø) interface which was smeared with a thin layer of bitumen MC1. The bitumen surface was then covered with a 100mm thick granite (10mm; ø) layer. All the layers were well compacted using a 730kg pedestrian roller to an average of 20 passes on each layer.  However, when the plant is fully operational, the road would facilitate the movement of goods/ NBRRI Pozzolana cements in and out of the Institute (NBRRI) as this would contribute greatly to the economy of the nation after being adopted/accepted by the larger masses as an affordable alternative to conventional Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) to erect their light weight concrete structures. Keywords: Pozzolana cement, Subgrade, Subbase, Base, Pedestrian roller, Light weight, Stabilization, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Bitumen MC1.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
       
  • Case Study of Seismic Effect on Hyperbolic Cooling Towers

    • Authors: Sachin Kulkarni, A.V. Kulkarni
      Abstract: This paper deals with the study of seismic analysis of hyperbolic cooling towers. Two existing cooling towers are chosen from Bellary thermal power station (BTPS) as case study. FEA based ANSYS Software is used for the analysis. The boundary conditions considered are Top end free and Bottom end fixed. The material properties of the cooling tower are young’s modulus 31GPa, Poisson’s Ratio 0.15 and density of RCC 25 kN/m3. The analysis is carried out using 8 noded SHELL 93 element. Maximum deflection, Maximum Principal Stress & Strain, Maximum Von Mises Stress, Strains are obtained. The variation in max principal stress v/s thickness, maximum deflection v/s thickness is plotted graphically.Keywords: Cooling tower, Stress, Strain, SHELL
      Issue No: Vol. 6
       
  • A Review Analysis of Ancient Greek Architecture

    • Authors: Mir Mohammad Azad, Abhik Barua, Shrmin Sultana
      Abstract: The architecture of Ancient Greece is the architecture produced by the Greek-speaking people (Hellenic people) whose culture flourished on the Greek mainland and Peloponnesus, the Aegean Islands, and in colonies in Asia Minor and Italy for a period from about 900 BC until the 1st century AD, with the earliest remaining architectural works dating from around 600 BC. Ancient Greek architecture is best known from its temples, many of which are found throughout the region, mostly as ruins but many substantially intact. The second important type of building that survives all over the Hellenic world is the open-air theatre, with the earliest dating from around 350 BC. Other architectural forms that are still in evidence are the processional gateway (propylon), the public square (agora) surrounded by storied colonnade (stoa), the town council building (bouleuterion), the public monument, the monumental tomb (mausoleum) and the stadium.Keywords: Greek architecture, Ancient Greece.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
       
  • Estimation of Water Balance Components in the Gaza Strip with GIS Based
           WetSpass Model

    • Authors: Adnan M. Aish
      Abstract: This study was initiated to estimate the water balance components in the Gaza Strip for the year 2013 using the WetSpass spatially distributed water balance model. Relevant input data for the model is prepared in the form of digital maps using GIS tools such as rainfall, air temperature, wind speed, potential evapotranspiration, soil, water depth, Topography, slope and land-use. The model produces digital maps of long-term average annual surface runoff, evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge. Results of the model show that 77% of the precipitation in the Gaza Strip is lost through evapotranspiration, 11% becomes surface runoff and 12% recharges the groundwater system. Analysis of the simulated results shows that WetSpass model is good enough to simulate the hydrological water balance components of the study area. Keywords: Water balance, WetSpass model, GIS
      Issue No: Vol. 6
       
  • Estimation of Surface Siltation Rate in Tagwai Reservoir, Minna, Niger
           State, Nigeria

    • Authors: Muhammad Aminu Kandi, Mukoro Ejiro, Musa Yakubu
      Abstract: This study examines the level of sediment deposit in the reservoir by estimating the reduction in surface area of the reservoir. In achieving these, a traverse survey was run through the bank the dam using TC 1201 Leica Total Station and its accessories from three set of control points namely; CSN 239,CSN 240 and CSN 241. Coordinates of the control points were given in three dimension (x,y,z) and hence the perimeter of the reservoir was obtained using Microsoft excel and surfer8 software in year 2010. Five years interval was chosen for estimation; therefore, a digitized spot5 satellite image of the reservoir was acquired for the year 2005. The perimeter area of the reservoir plotted from the field data in 2010 was superimposed on the digitized satellite image for 2005. The two areas measured 356ha and 340ha respectively. The result of the perimeter traverse revealed that about 3.7% of the surface area of the reservoir has been taken over by sediment deposit. The reduction is attributed to the environmental impact and long time morphological changes of the natural water. It is also as a result of particles transported through the runoff that entered the reservoir which is a function of watershed characteristics. Its effect is that, it present hazard to navigation, changes water stage and ground water condition. With this, vegetation growth around the bank of the reservoir, continuous monitoring of the sediment yield, conservation and erosion control is recommended.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
       
  • Potability Assessment of Notable Water Sources in Nitte Community, India

    • Authors: Samson O. Ojoawo, Gaddale Udayakumar, Srinath Shetty
      Abstract: Quality is believed to best describe any given water more than other yardsticks. Water quality assessment is therefore a worthwhile study. Potable water is that which possesses the quality that renders it fit and safe for drinking. This research is necessitated by the need for ensuring consumption of wholesome water by all, and particularly in the study area. This study focuses on the quality assessment of some selected water sources in Nitte community, Udupi District of Karnataka State, India. Eight Samples from notable water sources were collected for the study, they include: Monsoon river water, Harmattan river water, distilled/deionized water, borehole, open well, rain water, UV sterilized, and mineral/bottled water. These were subjected to laboratory analysis at the NMAM Institute of Technology (NMAMIT), Nitte. Parameters that were measured include: colour, odour, taste, turbidity, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, acidity, alkalinity, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, total hardness, calcium hardness, zinc, copper, magnesium, lead, and total coliform. Findings reveal that all sampled sources, apart from the river water, have most of the characteristics within the limits provided for drinking water by the MUD, WHO and USEPA standards.  Samples are clear, tasteless and odourless, with the exception of Parappadi river water samples in both seasons of the year that have slightly objectionable physical properties. Some of the samples need slight modifications in their pH values to meet the drinking standard’s specifications. Electrical conductivity of rain water is observed to be extremely higher than all other samples. Groundwater sources, borehole and well, possess higher chloride levels and greater hardness values as compared to others. Well water tops others in the hardness scale with soft permanent hardness. The most acidic sample is borehole water while distilled, well and mineral water samples are all with the higher alkalinity levels. River water samples exceed others in their sulphate concentrations while distilled water has the least value. Heavy metals concentrations in the samples are generally minimal, found in microgram per litre levels as compared to the milligrams of the Standards. Traces of lead and coliform bacteria are detected only in river water samples.  The study concludes that the order of potability of the sampled water sources is Mineral/table > UV sterilized > Distilled water > Borehole > Rain > Well > Harmattan River > Monsoon River water. Mineral/table and UV sterilized water are directly potable without further treatments. For quality improvement, full scale treatment with all the unit processes is recommended for the river water. Lime treatment and disinfection are strongly suggested for rain, borehole, distilled and well water. The well water should be further subjected to softening by either lime soda or ion exchange treatment. Arising from this study, it is therefore highly imperative for all the concerned authorities to, as a matter of priority, cite a Water Treatment Plant in Nitte community. Keywords: Potability, Pollution, Water Quality, Nitte
      Issue No: Vol. 6
       
  • An Evaluation of the Impact of Defects in Public Residential Buildings in
           Ghana

    • Authors: Seth Emmanuel Allotey
      Abstract: Public housing in Ghana is a social responsibility of government by accommodating its employees. Due to inadequate or lack of thorough maintenance, a considerable number of these public residential buildings have developed various forms of defects internally, externally or both of which some are either minor or major in terms of their stages of severity. Whereas, some of these defects have seriously affected the structural integrity other defects are mild. This paper was therefore undertaken to evaluate the impact of these defects in some of these public housing or residential buildings. In arriving at the set objectives, data was gathered using the following instruments; questionnaire, personal observation and face to face interview with the occupants of these public buildings. Different types of major defects were identified of which the top twenty of the most common ones found in the buildings were listed and made part of a questionnaire where respondents ranked these defects by considering their impact of severity in terms of function and user requirements It was realized that majority of these defects or failures can be attributed to design of the buildings, usage of buildings and lack of adequate maintenance on the buildings, also majority of the identified defects were in the low severity range. Keywords: Public, Residential Buildings, Defects
      Issue No: Vol. 6
       
  • Investigation into Strength Properties of Polymer-Sand Aggregate Concrete

    • Authors: Bello; T., Quadri, H.A., Akanbi, D.O., Adeyemi, O.A.
      Abstract: Polymer concrete (PC) is a composite material formed by combining mineral aggregates such as sand or gravel with a monomer. This study investigated the strength properties of a polymer concrete using reprocessed Pure Water Sachet (PWS) as a binder and sharp sand as aggregate for possible replacement for conventional cement concrete in some areas of application. The polymer sand aggregate concrete was prepared by mixing reprocessed PWS with sand in different polymer-aggregate percentage replacements by volume (50%-50%, 60%-40%, 70%-30%, and 80%-20%) after sieve analysis had been carried out on the sand while the control specimen, that is, conventional cement concrete was prepared from a mix ratio of 1:2:4. Compressive strength test was carried out on all samples after 28 days curing in air and water for both polymer aggregate concrete and conventional cement concrete respectively. It was discovered that, the more the polymer (reprocessed PWS) content the lower the compressive strength. The compressive strength ranged from 2.0N/mm2-0.5N/mm2 (50%-50% to 80%-20%) at an average of 1.2N/mm2; but very low compared to conventional cement concrete strength as specified in BS 8110 1-1997. However, modifying cement formulations with polymers provides many important properties that make a variety of applications possible, including concrete patch and repair, decorative cement overlays, ceramic tile adhesives, and many others. Keywords: Polymer Concrete (PC), Pure Water Sachet (PWS), Polymer-Aggregate, Sieve analysis, Compressive Strength.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
       
  • Experimental Studies on Green Concrete using Volcanic Ash and PVA/VE

    • Authors: Sari W. Abusharar
      Abstract: This paper investigates the influence of volcanic ash (VA) and vinyl acetate/ethylene copolymer powder (PVA/VE) as partial cement replacement on the engineering properties of blended binders concretes. The parameters studied included density, workability and compressive strength. A total number of 12 trial mixtures were prepared and tested by varying the proportions of binders. Firstly, VA was used to replace OPC at dosage levels of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 50% by weight of the binder. Secondly, PVA/VE was used to replace OPC at dosage levels of 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2% and 2.50% by weight of the binder. Finally, the optimum replacement levels of VA and PVA/VE were determined and used to prepare a new trial mix. The results show that cement replacement up to 15% volcanic ash and 1.5% PVE/VE leads to increase in workability and compressive strength for C30 grade compared with the control mixture. Keywords: Green concrete, Compressive strength, Workability, Volcanic ash, PVA/VE 
      Issue No: Vol. 6
       
  • Effects on Flexural Strength of Reinforced Concrete Beam Subjected to Fire

    • Authors: Leonard Mwamlamba Kiute, G.N. Mang’uriu, Paul Mulu
      Abstract: Studies on reinforced concrete members have shown that there is loss of flexural strength of reinforced concrete beam when subjected to elevated temperatures. This is because; there are membrane forces and the redistribution of bending moment which considerably affects the behavior of the reinforced concrete beam. The aim of this study was to use non-linear analytical methods to determine the temperature reached at a given depth of concrete and hence determine the flexural strength at such elevated temperatures and hence give a way forward to develop a procedure in analyzing the reinforced concrete flexural member’s subjected to fire. This paper gives the way forward on the effects of fire on flexural strength of a beam at elevated temperature and at a given time. More so, it discusses effect of such beams cooled by quenching with cold water, a practical case which relates to the fire fighting process.It was found that, when reinforced concrete classes C20 is heated at 250°C there is a loss of up to 20.1% when heated for one hour and 24.88% when such member is heated for two hours. However, when heated at a temperature of 600°C for one hour, the loss of flexural strength ranges from 33.1% and 34.36% for members heated for two hours. For a member heated at a temperature of 750°C, the loss of strength ranges from 41.81% when heated for one hour 43.01% for members heated for two hours.When class C25 is heated at a temperature of 250°C and cooled by normal loading, for one hour, the loss of flexural strength is 18.22% and when heated for two hours, the flexural strength loss is 20.84%. For members heated at a temperature of 600°C the strength loss of such member is 24.37% and when heated for duration of two hours, it loses the flexural strength of 27.14%. For members heated and cooled by quenching with cold water, the flexural strength loss is very high compared to those cooled at room temperature. Keywords: flexural strength, non-linear analytical methods, elevated temperatures, normal loading, quenching
      Issue No: Vol. 6
       
  • Effects of Rivalry among Professionals in the Nigeria’s Construction
           Industry

    • Authors: Olanrewaju; Sharafadeen Babatunde Owolabi, Okedare David Kolawole Olufemi
      Abstract: The effect of the rivalry among professionals is a fact that occurs in construction industry of Nigeria. The study first traces the history of construction industry, then survey its development at the present time and also describes the intensity of competition and rivalry among the existing professionals in the Nigeria’s construction industry. Data for the study were collected through well-structured questionnaire directed to construction professionals in the construction firm and government ministries. Data collected were analyzed using frequency distribution table and relative significance index. The findings also revealed the level of severity of the effects of the causes of rivalry among the professionals. Abandonment of projects was observed to be the most significant effect in Nigeria with 89% significance and some others like loss of trust among participant in the project, collapse of structures, delay in delivery time of project, defective structures, exceeding estimated costs of project, disputes between client`s representative, workers may be demotivated, loss of future chances of work, and loss of confidence of the client. The study recommended the strict regulation and implementation of laws by the local authorities of each profession and the abolishment of discrimination of professional certificates by the government.  
      Issue No: Vol. 6
       
  • Effects of Bauxite Tailings as Partial Replacement for Sand in Sandcrete
           Bricks Production

    • Authors: Yalley Peter Paa-Kofi, Asiedu Emmanuel, Mpae Isaac
      Abstract: This study was carried out on sand-cement bricks with bauxite tailings, a mining by-product partially replacing the sand varying percentage levels. The bauxite tailings varied from 0% to 50% against the sand at intervals of 10%. Using bricks with dimensions: 210mm × 105mm × 75mm, a total of 120 bricks were produced and tested for their compressive strength, abrasion loss and water absorption after 28-days curing age. Results from the study showed that composite bricks with the bauxite tailings replacing up to 20% of the sand content recorded the highest compressive strength, lowest abrasion loss with the least water permeability. Even though, there was a general decline in the properties of the composite bricks with bauxite tailings replacement beyond 20%, bricks produced satisfied the minimum requirements for bricks suitable for walling. A strong correlation exited between bricks produced from the different replacement levels and the properties of the bricks studied. The bricks performed satisfactorily as masonry units where bauxite tailings content did not exceed 20%. Keywords: Bauxite tailings, sand, composite bricks, abrasion loss
      Issue No: Vol. 6
       
  • An Assessment of the Impacts of Construction Projects on the Environment
           in the Gaza Strip

    • Authors: Ehsan Y. Rizqa, Sari W. Abusharar
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to assess the most common impacts of construction projects on the environment in the Gaza Strip and propose the best solutions in curbing down the adverse impacts. To achieve this aim, a structured survey, in the form of a questionnaire was conducted to identify the most critical and important impacts of construction projects on the environment. Environmental impacts were categorized into three safeguard subjects: ecosystems, natural resources, and public impacts. The results showed that dust generation, noise pollution, operations with vegetation removal, and air pollution are the most significant environmental impacts of construction sites in the Gaza Strip. In addition, the public impacts are the most important category that affects the environment in the Gaza Strip. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the necessity of taking measures to protect labors and residents who are living near to construction sites. It is recommended to enhance the knowledge and awareness of construction participants to the environmental impacts of construction projects and enact strict laws to curb down the adverse impacts of construction projects. In addition, the researchers should look for alternative methods for construction to mitigate the adverse impacts of construction projects on the environment. The results of this study can help decision makers to identify major construction impacts on the environment and make environmentally friendly construction plans in the early stages of construction. Keywords: Environment, Construction projects, EIA, Gaza Strip 
      Issue No: Vol. 6
       
  • Effects of Bauxite Tailings as Partial Replacement for Sand in Sandcrete
           Bricks Production

    • Authors: Yalley Peter Paa-Kofi, Asiedu Emmanuel, Mpae Isaac
      Abstract: This study was carried out on sand-cement bricks with bauxite tailings, a mining by-product partially replacing the sand varying percentage levels. The bauxite tailings varied from 0% to 50% against the sand at intervals of 10%. Using bricks with dimensions: 210mm × 105mm × 75mm, a total of 120 bricks were produced and tested for their compressive strength, abrasion loss and water absorption after 28-days curing age. Results from the study showed that composite bricks with the bauxite tailings replacing up to 20% of the sand content recorded the highest compressive strength, lowest abrasion loss with the least water permeability. Even though, there was a general decline in the properties of the composite bricks with bauxite tailings replacement beyond 20%, bricks produced satisfied the minimum requirements for bricks suitable for walling. A strong correlation exited between bricks produced from the different replacement levels and the properties of the bricks studied. The bricks performed satisfactorily as masonry units where bauxite tailings content did not exceed 20%. Keywords: Bauxite tailings, sand, composite bricks, abrasion loss
      Issue No: Vol. 6
       
  • Moving Nigeria’s Project Procurement System to Best Value: A
           Prescription

    • Authors: Aderemi Y. Adeyemi, Dean T. Kashiwagi
      Abstract: A new sustainable and best value procurement initiative suitable for use in developing countries has been developed.  The procurement system, the Performance Information Procurement System (PIPS) was developed in the United States (US), and has been tested in Botswana and recently in India.  PIPS not only stabilizes the procurement system, it transfers the risk and control to contractors who must act in the best interest of the client.  The transparency, accountability, and risk management orientation of the PIPS structure disengages relationships, inaccurate expectations, and bureaucratic and political actions.  The strength of PIPS includes minimizing the need for professionals representing the client to make decisions, direct, and control contractors.  PIPS has been tested for 20 years in the US, with 98% performance on over 600 projects.  Recent tests outside of construction reveal that the efficiency of PIPS can minimize up to 50% of the procurement transaction costs. We hypothesized that paradigm shift from the low-bid or price-based procurement to the best value procurement through the application of PIPS technology is a potential panacea capable of extricating corruption, collusion, fraud, bid rigging, ethical violations and negative headlines from developing countries’ procurement environment rather than advancing measures that only scratches the problems on the surface. We infer that a adoption of a new initiative in best value procurement using PIPS technology can revolutionize the procurement environment in Nigeria in particular and the developing countries as a whole. Keywords: Best value, public project procurement, Performance Information Procurement System (PIPS), sustainable consumption, developing countries, Nigeria.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
       
  • Reliability Estimate of Strength Characteristics of Black Cotton Soil
           Pavement Sub-Base stabilized with Bagasse Ash and Cement Kiln Dust

    • Authors: Sani J. E, Bello A. O., Nwadiogbu; C. P.
      Abstract: Reliability of estimates of strength characteristic values from laboratory results for specimens compacted at the energy levels of British Standard Light (BSL), WestAfrican Standard (WAS) and British Standard Heavy (BSH)for compacted bagasse ash treated black cotton soil using cement kiln dust (CKD) as an activator was developed by incorporating data obtained fromUnconfined compressive strength(UCS) test gotten from the laboratory test to produce a predictive model. Data obtained were incorporated into a FORTRAN-basedfirst-order reliability program to obtain reliability index values. variable factors such as water content relative tooptimum (WRO), hydraulic modulus (HM), bagasse ash (BA), cement kiln dust (CKD), Tri-calcium silicate (C3S), Di-calcium silicate(C2S), and maximum dry density (MDD)do not produced acceptable safety index value of1.0 at the three energy levels namely BSL, WAS and BSH compactive effort at coefficient of variation (COV) ranges of 10-100% for the Unconfined compressive strength but they produces acceptable safety index value at the three energy level at coefficient of variation (COV) ranges of 10-100% for both California bearing ratio and resistance to loss in strength. Observed trends indicate that for unconfined compressive strength WRO, HM, CKD and MDD is greatly influenced by the COV and therefore must be strictly controlled in CKD/BA treated black cotton and California bearing ratio indicate that theCKD, C3S, C2S and MDD is greatly influenced by the COV and therefore must be strictly controlled in CKD/BA treated black cotton while for resistance to loss in strength indicate that theWRO, CKD, C3S, C2S and MDD is greatly influenced by the COV and therefore must be strictly controlled in CKD/BA treated black cotton. Stochastically, none ofthe compactive efforts can be used to model the 7 days unconfined compressive strength of compacted CKD/BA treated black cotton soil as a sub-base material for road pavement at all COV range because the safety index are lower than the acceptable 1.0 value. All the compactive effort, BSL, WAS and BSH compactive efforts can be used to model both California bearing ratio and resistance to loss in strength of compacted CKD/LBWA treated black cotton soil as sub-base material for road pavement at the variable ranges of COV between 10-100% at BSL, WAS and BSH compactive efforts respectively. Finally, care must be taken in ensuring that the compactive efforts required to produce successful safety index are carefully monitored during the construction. Keywords: Compaction, Compactor weight, Hydraulic Modulus, BagasseAsh, Black Cotton Soil, Cement Kiln Dust, ReliabilityAnalysis, Reliability Index, Unconfined Compressive Strength.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
       
  • Utilization of Kiln Accretion as a Raw Material in Rural Road Laying

    • Authors: Shashwat Pandey
      Abstract: Sponge iron plants are mostly concentrated in four Eastern states of India namely West Bengal, Jharkhand, Orissa and Chhattisgarh. Kiln accretion is an important byproduct of the sponge iron industries. Indiscriminate disposal of the accretion on the land creates a gross visual pollution and the probable subsequent pollution of ground water and soil of surrounding area is a cause of concern. The study was undertaken to find a practical and acceptable solution to reuse the accretion so that the huge mountain of disposable kiln accretion lying unutilized as a solid waste, may be utilized properly.  Physical and chemical tests of the kiln accretion were conducted. The physical tests included loss on ignition, aggregate crushing strength test and aggregate impact value test, gradation of kiln accretion by sieve analysis and water absorption test .The chemical analysis identified the oxide contents of accretion. The results were then compared with the norms of the sub base materials of normal aggregate for road making purpose. The comparison shows favorable results and thus identifies a novel approach to solid waste utilization. Keywords: Solid Waste, Accretion Kiln, Chemical Analysis, Rural Road Laying
      Issue No: Vol. 6
       
 
 
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