- Modelling, Analysis and Design of a Bottle-Shaped Building
Authors: Anthony Nkem Ede, Edidiong Godwin Udoh
Abstract: The emergence of unique structures around the world have turned the points of it location to centers of attraction thereby yielding benefits to the economy of the cities where they are cited. Worldwide, iconic structures stand out, placing its location on the map. Hence, the idea of bottle-shaped building was birthed trying to put bottle to tension. This research models, analyses and designs a bottle-shaped structure according the British Standard. The works carried out in this research consisted of step by step generation of a three dimensional computer models of the bottle shaped super- structure, analysis and design of critical members for various combination of dead load, live load and the wind load and the critical analysis of the results obtained. The results of the nonlinear finite element analysis carried out for different ranges of loading scenarios were so exiting. It confirmed the validity of the approach adopted for the model and showed that the realization of the structure is very feasible.
Keywords: Bottle-Shaped Building, Iconic Building, Reinforced Concrete, Structural Analysis and Design,
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Developments in the Design and Construction of Modern Spate Systems in
Authors: Hintsa Libsekal
Abstract: Spate irrigation is an ancient irrigation practice that involves the diversion of flashy spate floods running off from mountainous catchments. Spate irrigation system in Ethiopia is common practice in arid areas in the past decades. Raya valley is one of the areas where spate irrigation is being practiced for long times and many schemes were modernizing since 1998. Individual and group discussion with experts and farmers were held and frequent field visit and observation to both traditional and modernized spate irrigation schemes were undertaken. Hara spate irrigation scheme was the first scheme for modernization and it was followed by Tirke spate scheme. In 2004, 2006 and 2011 many traditional spate schemes were modernizing by government and non-governmental organizations. The major improvement from the first schemes were changing of closed off take type in to open, enlargement of canal sizes, changing the diversion angle from 900 in to 1200 and avoid crossing structures. The community participation was not strong during design and construction. As farmers had their own experience in construction of traditional spate schemes they were not happy for the modernized schemes and had less ownership. Sedimentation in both diversion scheme and canals are the major problem and root causes for failures of modernized schemes. Spate irrigation modernization intervention works should be accomplished through real participation of farmers and initiate them to practically influence the planning, designing and construction processes so that successful modernized projects could be accomplished. Spate irrigation has different characteristics from conventional irrigation system, therefore this needs special attention during design. Especial design criteria should set spate scheme construction.
Keywords: spate irrigation, design development, Raya valley, spate modernization
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Sustainable Wave as a Legacy to London from the 2012 Olympics
Authors: Ayca Tokuc, Kutlug Savasir
Abstract: The Olympic Games are an intercultural huge event that usually leaves the city with megaprojects and related huge debts for their constructions after the Games. However London and environment conscious Londoners started the Olympic bid with the intention to leave a legacy to the city and thus earned the right to host the 2012 Olympics. Their Olympic proposal had sustainability in the forefront, prominently featuring the rehabilitation of a former industrial zone in the east side of the city. The Aquatic Centre is one the buildings that lie at the heart of the aforementioned olympic park. Its architect, Zaha Hadid, designed its main form inspired by a wave that is able to transform, meaning while the Aquatic Centre was designed to have the necessary 17,500 seating capacity for the Olympics, later it would transform into 2,500 seats for public everyday use. The aim of this paper is to examine and learn from the outlook of the Aquatic Centre to its environment, raw materials, natural resources and workforce involvement during its life cycle. In this context, the phases of its inception, construction period, shining in the Olympics and eventually becoming a part of the community as a legacy are examined according to sustainability so that learning from the story of this iconic sports building would be possible. The identification and implementation of performance improving strategies in this project points to many areas, in which the stakeholders can work together in various phases of the building to bring sustainable construction knowhow to the future generations.
Keywords: Sustainability, Stakeholder, Innovative materials, Aquatic centre, Transformation
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Phenological Charateristics of Brassica Napus L. as Influenced by Biochar
Application and Shoot Cutting Duration (Days)
Authors: IMRAN .
Abstract: Biochar is an organic amendment produced by a process called pyrolysis. Pyrolysis is the burning of biomass in a limited oxygen environment. In the recent past, agricultural use of biochar has been steadily increasing and attracting research interest. Biochar has been shown to reduce leaching of critical nutrients thereby providing greater soil availability and crop uptake. experiment entitled “biochar application and shoot cutting duration influenced phenology and morphology rapeseed (Brassica napus L) was conducted at Agriculture Research farm Matta (Swat) during Rabi season 2012-13. The field experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) having four replications. The sub plot size was kept 5 m x 2.7 m having 6 rows with 0.45 m apart. Four levels of biochar (0, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 tons ha-1) and five levels of shoot cutting duration after date of sowing (ADS), (no cutting, 30 days ADS, 40 days ADS, 50 days ADS and 60 days ADS) were used in the experiment with the test cultivar Dunkled. From the results it is observed that rapeseed cultivar positively responded for days to flowering, days to maturity, number of branches plant-1, H.I %, and maximum days to flowering (111), days to maturity (160), number of branches plant-1 (11), number of pods per plant (172) and harvest index (14%) was observed in plot treated with 10 ton biochar ha-1. Similarly highest days to maturity, number of branches per plant, (50 days ADS), and H.I (13% DAS) was noted in 50 DAS shoot cutting plot followed by shoot cutting after 60 days of sowing ADS plots while On the basis of the result it was concluded that shoot cutting with 10 ton biochar ha-1 produced highest branches per plant, number of pods plant-1, harvest index and other phonological components in the agro- climatic condition of swat valley.
ords: Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), biochar, ADS, shoot cutting, phenology
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Profiling the Environmental Management Practices on Construction Sites in
Lagos State, Nigeria
Authors: ISHOLA Oluwatosin Shola, OJO Stephen Okunlola, OLAOLUWA Olatunde
Abstract: Construction site activities are associated with negative impacts on the environment and construction companies are expected to mitigate these impacts using environmental management practices (EMP) on their sites based on ISO 14001 requirements .However in Nigeria where the construction industry is not regulated, it is imperative to explore if the contractors are ISO 14001 compliant. A systematic random sampling was used to select one hundred and twenty (120) site managers in Lagos state of Nigeria; out of which seventy-three (73) responded. The results of the analysis showed that, none of the construction managers were aware of their companies’ environmental management policy, but the three most prevalent environmental management practices (EMP) on construction sites were displaying of posters, inspection by management, planning and organizing site environment in rank order. It was also discovered that, the type of project, availability of a clear company policy on EMP and management attitude towards environmental issues were the most prevalent influential factors that necessitated the adoption of a particular EMP on site. The study therefore recommended that construction companies should be mandated to develop an environmental management plan for project site.
Keywords: Construction, environmental management practice, Nigeria
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Nitrogen Levels, Tillage Practices and Irrigation Timing Influenced Yeild,
Yeild Components and Oil Contents of Canola
Authors: IMRAN .
Abstract: Field experiment was conducted at Agriculture Research Institute (N) Mingora Swat, Pakistan during 2012-2013. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with split plot arrangement having three replications. Irrigation timing (12 days, 22 days and 32 days) and tillage Practices (conventional tillage with cultivator, deep tillage with chisel plough and shallow tillage with MBP) were allotted to main plots, while Nitrogen levels (0, 30, 60 and 80 kg ha-1) were allotted to sub plots. Irrigation timing had significantly affected all the parameters except oil content. Water supply to crop with 12 days irrigation timing had maximum seed capsule-1 (27), 1000 seed weight (3.61 g), oil yield (515 kg ha-1), seed yield (875 kg ha-1) and biological yield (6642 kg ha-1) as compared with irrigation timings. Tillage Practices had significantly effected on all the parameters except oil content. Conventional tillage produced maximum seed capsule-1 (23), 1000 seed weight (3.38 g), oil yield (505 kg ha-1), seed yield (848 kg ha-1) and biological yield (6054 kg ha-1) as compared with deep and shallow tillage implements. Nitrogen application had also significantly affected all parameters. Plots treated with 80 kg P ha-1 produced maximum seed capsule-1 (27), 1000 seed weight (4 g), oil content (58.21 %) oil yield (676 kg ha-1), seed yield (1160 kg ha-1) and biological yield (6684 kg ha-1) as compared with control plots. The interaction between tillage Practices, irrigation timings and Nitrogen levels revealed that application of water to crop with 12 days irrigation timing used conventional tillage method and treated with 80 kg P ha-1 had maximum seeds capsules-1, 1000 seed weight, oil yield, seed yield and biological yield. Conventional tillage with 12 days irrigation timing and treated with 80 kg P ha-1 seems to the best choice for Canola producer in the agro-ecological condition of Peshawar valley.
ords: Canola (Brassica napus L.), tillage, irrigation timing, Nitrogen levels, oil content, oil yield
Issue No: Vol. 7
- A Risk Allocation Model for Construction Projects in Yemen
Authors: Usama H. Issa, Moataz Awad Farag, Laila M. Abdelhafez, Saleh Alawi Ahmed
Abstract: Construction projects in Yemen always experience high levels of risk due to their complex and dynamic environments. This, in turn, impacts projects in both time and cost. Obviously, risk allocation is usually poorly assigned to project parties; leading to terrible disputes among them. Moreover, there are no suitable risk allocation models that suit the nature of Yemen's construction industry. This work endeavors to propose and apply a Risk Allocation Model (RAM), based on a simple mechanism for allocating critical risks to the responsible party in the project. In addition, the RAM aims to compare among projects, which is more risky. The construction of RAM is based on Delphi method by the expert's judgment of construction projects. Fifty four risk factors, over ten groups, are identified and used in the model development. All factors are analyzed and weighted by deploying Weighted Risk Factor (WRF) which combines the effect of a risk factor probability and its effect on time and cost. The model results identified the most important risk factors to be allocated to owner, contractor or shared between them, as well as the suitable risk action for each factor. The model is applied on a real case study through two construction projects in Yemen to test the validation. A complete comparison between the two projects is presented and a decision is introduced for contractor based on projects time and cost overruns, WRF, and risk allocated to contractor. The results emphasized that the model is easy to understand and use by the parties involved in construction projects. Further, it is characterized by flexibility in the event of variables. The RAM outcomes thus help decision-makers to come to the appropriate decision during the trade-off among different projects.
Keywords: Risk allocation, Delphi method, Construction projects, Decision-making, Yemen.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- An Evaluation of Stakeholder Management Role in GETFund Polytechnics
Projects Delivery in Ghana
Authors: Emmanuel Eyiah-Botwe
Abstract: Construction projects are undertaken to achieve specific goals and the success of it is measured by the realization of the set goals including stakeholder satisfaction. Several stakeholders are involved in construction projects and depending on the nature, complexity, procurement method adopted; stakeholders are involved at different stages of the project undertaking different roles and responsibilities. These stakeholders with varying stake influence and power, plays major roles in the success or failure of the project. Stakeholder Management is therefore essential if project goals are to be achieved. The Ghana Education Trust Fund (GETFund) is a key stakeholder established to provide and maintain educational infrastructure but has failed to achieve its objectives. Several projects have failed and stakeholders are dissatisfied. This study explores the role of Stakeholder Management in GETFund projects delivery. A mixed method approach of qualitative and quantitative surveys using semi-structured interviews and questionnaire was adopted. Research findings were analyzed using triangulation and descriptive analysis methods to evaluate the role of SM in project delivery. SM plays major role in project time, cost overruns, scope variation, non-completion, abandonment and poor payment schedules through poor SM process consideration and records keeping. Respondents agree that SM role should be considered during project planning, development and execution stages using SM framework.
Keywords: Evaluation, GETFund, Project Delivery, Role, Stakeholder Management
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Physico-Chemical Characterization of Dry-Weather-Flow Wastewater and
Assessment of Treatment Plants in Nitte and Environs, India
Authors: Samson O. Ojoawo, Gaddale Udayakumar
Abstract: The effective treatment of a given wastewater depends largely on its characteristics. Physico-chemical parameters constitute indispensible analytes in wastewater. In two pre-monsoon months when there was Dry-Weather-Flow (DWF), this study characterized the wastewater in Nitte, India based on the physical and chemical properties. It also assessed efficiency of its domestic and industrial Wastewater Treatment Plants. Fourteen samples were collected from domestic and industrial wastewater in the environment, sources of which include:hostels, laundry, mechanical and auto-workshop effluent, foundry, WTP influent, and landfill leachates. Parameters measured are: colour, odour, temperature, turbidity, pH, electrical conductivity, chloride, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Copper, Lead, Magnesium, Chromium, Nickel, Zinc, Manganese, Cadmium and Phenols, using Standard Methods. Findings show that the main physico-chemical parameters that are of pollution concern in the domestic wastewater of the study area include conductivity, chloride, COD, phenols, phosphate, Cu, Pb and Mg. Pollutants in the industrial wastewater encompass Cr and Zn in addition to those of domestic wastewater, while Cd is a key pollutant in leachates aside those identified in domestic and industrial wastewater samples. Domestic WTP is more suitable in remediating turbidity, sulphate, nitrate and phosphate unlike industrial one that is more efficient in treating chloride, Ni and Zn. Both reduced COD, with domestic WTP being of better performance but also not to a pollution-free concentration level. Both WTPs are found to be incapable of treating phenols in the samples.Further treatment methods like bioremediation, ion-exchange and adsorption are therefore recommended in addition to the existing WTPs in the study area.
Keywords: Pollution, Remediation, Trace metals, Wastewater, Concentration, Pollution,
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Degradation of Phenanthrene in Liquid Culture and Sand Slurry by
Authors: Suhaimi Abdul-Talib, Nor Amani Filzah Mohd-Kamil, Salina Alias, Norzila Othman
Abstract: Most studies on PAHs biodegradation evaluated the degradation potential of microorganisms under indigenous condition in either liquid or solid. There are limited studies on evaluation of the same microorganisms in degrading PAHs under non-indigenous condition in both liquid and solid media. This study investigated the potential of the bacterium, Corynebacterium urealyticum isolated from municipal sludge in degrading phenanthrene in both liquid and solid media. Batch experiments were conducted over 20 days. Batch reactors containing artificially contaminated phenanthrene minimal media and sand slurry were inoculated with bacterium culture. Percentage phenanthrene degradation in liquid culture and sand slurry were found to be 87% and 29%, respectively. Apart of having higher rate in liquid culture, the degradation activity by bacterium remain active throughout the experiment. There were no significant differences on the degradation of phenanthrene at low and high initial phenanthrene concentrations in liquid cultures, which differed to the observation in sand slurry. From the viable count analysis, it was observed that this bacterium immediately adapted to the new environment. This study shows that Corynebacterium urealyticum show better capability in degrading phenanthrene in liquid culture compared to sand slurry.
Keywords: Bioremediation, Corynebacterium urealyticum, liquid cultures, Phenanthrene, sand slurry
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Effects Associated with Processing Ballast and Waste Oil at Port Reitz,
Authors: Saeed Mwaguni, Daniel Munga
Abstract: This study was carried out in response to a complaint regarding environmental pollution, arising from the processing of ballast water and waste oil on the premises of the landlord on Plot No. LR 1192/VI/MN, Port Reitz, Mombasa. The plot is designated commercial for purposes of land use purposes, and its tenant had been undertaking a ballast water/oil sludge scheming process to obtain fuel oil, which he sold to industrialists. This had resulted in damage to the environment as the facility incorporated no safeguard to address oil spills and no drainage system to contain waste discharges from the process. The study was undertaken to establish the level of environmental damage, propose rehabilitation costs, and offer recommendations for remedial measures. The study was realised through desk study, field visits, digging and sampling of soils for analysis. The results showed that between 60-70% of the soil in the premise was contaminated with oil, penetrating at least one meter deep. Effect from the oil contamination manifested in the failure of the soils to support growth of new vegetation, while existing tree plants were withered. The impact from this was the loss of aesthetic beauty of the property, reducing its amenity value. Percolation of oil underground in porous rock formation has potential to contaminate groundwater, threating the quality status of this resource for domestic purposes. The process activities were also of health concern since no safeguards had been provided to protect the workers from direct contact the oil. Hydrocarbon oils when exposed to hot climatic conditions like those prevalent in Mombasa, which provide high solar radiation have the potential to breakdown, emitting some toxic and potentially carcinogenic substances. The facility therefore exposed the workers to the dangers of contracting cancer through inhalation of the emissions with potential long term health consequences. Finally, the massive physical environmental damage on the premises means rehabilitation costs could be high. Estimates indicated that as much as US$100,000 would be required to restore the premises to a condition that would allow natural regeneration. The findings also indicate that the activity being undertaken, is not the best land-use for the area. It is consequently recommended that if the activity must continue, then it must be conducted according to established guidelines. Otherwise, it is ideal that it is ceased, and rehabilitation works, commenced. It is also observed that important potential effects were not included in this research. Ballast water is known to introduce invasive species. Efforts therefore need to be undertaken to determine the presence such species in the neighbourhood before they attain pest proportions.
: Ballast water, MARPOL, oil sludge; air, soil and groundwater contamination, environmental damage, health effects, toxic substances carcinogenic products.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Evaluation of Driver Behavior Mistakes and Their Effects on Improving
Traffic Safety in Jordan
Authors: Mohammad Abojaradeh
Abstract: Causes of accidents are of special concern to researchers in traffic safety, since such research would be aimed not only at prevention of accidents but also at reduction of their frequency and severity. Motor vehicle accidents are a major cause of death among Jordanians. Roughly 700 people died in 2011 in car accidents according to the Jordan traffic institute out of a total population of about 6 million people.The main objectives of this study are: to identify driving behaviors and mistakes that drivers make; based on a questionnaire, which may cause traffic accidents in Jordan and highlight their effect on traffic safety. Also, to develop traffic accidents regression prediction models. Also, to propose effective countermeasures to reduce the frequency and severity of traffic accidents. The analysis is based on the questionnaire by using SPSS software to predict accident rates and compare the results with the model reports developed in Jordan and Amman area.The data for this study was collected from a survey questionnaire which was distributed to a sample of drivers in Amman Area and in some Jordan Universities. The data from the survey questionnaire were analyzed and used in forming the regression models. It was found that the drivers' behavior is considered aggressive, according to the first part which represents the participant's opinion weather they listed the behavior as aggressive or not, and the other part which represent weather the participants conducted this behavior or not. Also, there was a strong direct relationship between the driver behaviors and their exposure to accidents. In conclusion, the aggressive behavior increases the chance of exposure to accidents.From this study, it was concluded that the main causes of traffic accidents, injuries, and fatalities that are related to driver behavior. Preventive countermeasures were recommended to enhance traffic safety in Jordan.
ords: Traffic Accidents, Traffic Safety, Driver Behavior, Driver Mistakes, Aggressive driving, Countermeasures, Regression Models.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Application of GIS in Water Management of Eleyele Catchment, South-Western
Authors: O.S. Olaniyan, J.A Ige, A.S. Akolade, O. A. Adisa
Abstract: Eleyele dam has drastically reduced in capacity since its inception in 1942. There are frequent flood incidences within the dam catchment area- noteworthy of them is the August, 2011 flood incidence. This research studies the hydrological condition of Eleyele catchment through the use of Geographic Information System. The topographical maps, digital elevation measurement maps (DEM) and hydrological maps of the Eleyele catchment were produced through GIS watershed delineation process for the year 1967 and year 2014.The results show that there is an average lowering of elevation of about 14.63m within the catchment which has greatly affected the hydrological pattern of the catchment. The Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) of the catchment was used to produce flood risk map. The map showed that 25.24% of the catchment is prone to flooding. The study showed that there is a change in topography of Eleyele Catchment within the period studied. This is due to the urbanization of the area.
Keywords: Eleyele Dam, Flood Incidences, Hydrological Condition, GIS, Watershed Delineation Process, Triangulated Irregular Network
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Assessing Housing Project End-Users Satisfaction in Ghana: A Case Study of
SSNIT Housing Flats in Asuoyeboa-Kumasi
Authors: Eyiah-Botwe; E.
Abstract: Provision of housing is a critical component of the social and economic structure constituting basic human needs. Housing challenges however ranges from inadequate provision to unsatisfactorily performance regarding project location, housing features and demographic characteristics. This paper identified and assessed factors constituting end-users perception of satisfaction against the performance of the housing development. Thirty-five (35) factors were identified as constituting perception of end-users satisfaction and grouped under building design, neighborhood conditions, social amenities and management practices.A case study approach and purposive sampling of the two types of designs were used. Questionnaires were administered to occupants of thirty-eight (38) flats to rank the factors using five-point Likert scale and Relative Importance Index, the factors were analysed. End-users were generally satisfied with building design features especially room height and material finishes. Respondents were dissatisfied with housing designs without balconies, terraces, and outdoor spaces for traditional food preparation and socio-cultural practices. In addition were location, high dust and noise levels, inadequate social infrastructure and poor management practices. The study recommends gated community concept, consideration of noise and dust buffers, spaces for social-cultural practices and location away from major highway for enhanced end-users satisfaction.
Keywords: Assessing, End-User, Ghana, Housing Projects, Satisfaction.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Journal Cover Page
Authors: Journal Editor
Abstract: Journal Cover Page
Issue No: Vol. 7
- An Investigation of the Failure of the Hydrogenated Copper Pipes in the
Water Supply Systems
Authors: Salman Al-Duheisat
Abstract: The failure of the water copper pipes was investigated on the specimens hydrogenated under different hydrogenation conditions. The strength and ductility of the copper pipe specimens were significantly reduced by hydrogenation. The effect of hydrogenation on the strength and ductility of copper pipes was monitored by applying different hydrogenation conditions such as current density and hydrogenation time. The severity of strength and ductility degradation depends on the hydrogenation condition applied to the copper pipes. Thus, the strength and ductility of the copper pipes were decreased with increasing the current density and hydrogenation time applied to them. Moreover, the copper pipes were hydrogenated at a fixed current density and for different times in the first series of experiments. While in the second series of experiments, the copper pipes were hydrogenated at a fixed time and various current densities. The results showed that the copper pipes hydrogenated for longer time at a fixed current density exhibited more severe decrease in the strength and ductility than those hydrogenated at different current densities for a fixed hydrogenation time. The fracture surfaces of the hydrogenated copper pipe specimens consisted of mixed fracture mode, brittle fracture was found in the outer periphery of the cross sectional areas while ductile fracture was observed in the center of the fracture surfaces of the hydrogenated material. Moreover, the brittle fracture area is increased with increasing the current density applied to the copper pipes. The service life of copper pipes in the water supply systems is reduced significantly by absorbed hydrogen.
Keywords: Copper pipes, Hydrogenation, Strength and ductility.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Effect of Co-composting Fish and Banana Wastes with Organic Municipal
Solid Wastes on Carbon / Nitrogen Ratio
Authors: Aya El Zein; , Hamdy Seif, Essam Gooda
Abstract: This study seeks to assess the quality of co-composted shredded Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) with fishery wastes, banana mulch wastes and aerobically composted slaughterhouse wastes. They are most common in Southern Lebanon and are likely candidates to investigate the carbon and nitrogen amendments to the MSW. The overriding goal of this study is to make the co-composting method as practical as possible for ordinary people to reproduce it in natural field settings by using a low cost technology and a good quality fertilizer. At a low maintenance cost, three initial trials were executed in this study to optimize the composting process of these waste ingredients. The objective of the first two trials was to evaluate composting processes in two different bioreactors and using the two different mix ratios of co-composted waste material. However the third trial`s objective was to develop and validate the composting process of 4 different waste mix combinations by using commercially available plastic barrels as self-heating bioreactors. The evaluations are focused on process indices during composting and chemical indices of carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio of the final compost. A mathematical optimization model is presented. Components of the composting are estimated in order to satisfy C/N ratio in the range between 20 and 30. The chosen ideal weight of the composting is 25 kg. Output data of optimization model, C/N ratio as a main parameter as well as secondary parameters components of composting are tabulated. A multiple regression analysis is performed to relate the main parameter to the secondary parameters. Finally, this study suggests that specific weights for fish and banana mulch wastes can be considered suitable for efficient composting with organic fraction of MSW. If implemented successfully at individual household or larger municipality level, it will contribute to the minimization of wastes.
Keywords: C/N ratio, municipal solid wastes (MSW), Fishery wastes, Agricultural solid wastes, Compost, Saida Solid Waste Management plant (SWM).
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Public Acceptability of Burnt Brick for Mass Housing Projects in Ilorin,
Authors: ODUNJO; OLURONKE OMOLOLA, OLADIMEJI, SAMUEL BOLAJI, OKANLAWON, SIMON AYORINDE
Abstract: Mass housing programmes have not yielded much in Nigeria due to high cost of provision arising from utilization of conventional building materials; thus, people have continued to live in substandard, overcrowded and dilapidated houses which have socio-psychological effects on the well-being of residents. This paper therefore, conducted an opinion survey based on the experience of developed countries of the world such as America and Brazil by assessing People’s perception on the utilisation of Burnt brick for Mass housing projects. The study uses Ilorin, the seat of one of the Federal Universities in Nigeria where Housing problem is pronounced as a case study. Multistage random sampling was used in selecting 216 respondents from the three senatorial districts in the city, while questionnaire forms the basic instrument for data collection. The data collected were analyzed using Frequency counts, Percentage and Chi-square.
The paper found out that 81.2% of the respondents have knowledge of the material, out of which 73.3% are willing to utilise it. However, reasons for willingness to utilise the material include quality (53.3%), cost effectiveness (52.1%), availability (58.5%), income (13.6%) and recommendation (4.4%), while chi-square test of perception shows that, People’s perception on the utilisation of the material does not differ at 0.05 level of significance. The paper concludes based on the findings above, that in order to achieve sustainable housing provision in Nigeria, the material should be incorporated into housing policies and programs which should not be at the exclusive preserve of Federal Government and at the exclusion of State and Local governments.
words: Mass housing projects, Conventional building material, Burnt brick, incorporation, Sustainable housing provision.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Impact of Acceleration Aggressiveness on Fuel Consumption Using
Comprehensive Power Based Fuel Consumption Model
Authors: Peter Bakhit, Dalia Said, Laila Radwan
Abstract: Chang's in v'hicle fu'l-consumption and emission rat's are associated with changes in v'hicl' cruis' sp''ds and acc'l'ration. Higher levels of speed is b'li'v'd to b' on' of th' most pr'val'nt factors contributing to fu'l consumption. As a r'sult, th' r'lationship b'tw''n fu'l consumption and driving sp''d b'haviour has b''n th' subj'ct of inv'stigation by several r'search. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the fuel consumption during different acceleration degrees namely: aggressive, normal and mild. The test vehicle was examined on a 2 km section of Cairo - 'l Ain El Sokhna Road. The three levels of acceleration were determined based on pre-developed drive scenarios. In addition, fuel consumption was estimated based on a Virginia Tech Power Based Fuel Consumption Model (VT-CPFM). This model is a simple and rapid method for investigating fuel consumption rates. The study demonstrated that the fuel consumed to accelerate an initially stationary vehicle was not related to the target speed as to driving behaviour. It was also observed that the fuel consumed per maneuvers decreased as the degree of aggressiveness increased due to the fact that the vehicle time spent during acceleration was less.
Keywords: Fuel consumption, VT-CPFM, Acceleration levels.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Influence of Carriageway Width and Horizontal Curve Radius on Passenger
Car Unit Values of Two-lane Two-way Rural Roads
Authors: Amr Shalkamy, Dalia Said, Laila Radwan
Abstract: Capacity is a central concept in design and operation of roadways. Studying roadway capacity and factors affecting this capacity is an important issue when transportation facilities are designed or upgraded. One of the main components for the estimation of roadway capacity is the passenger car unit (PCU). The main objective of this paper is to study the influence of different geometric features of tangent and curved elements on PCU values on two-lane two-way rural roads. Geometry and traffic data were collected from six sites located on Benisuif-Assiut Agricultural Road, Egypt. Each site was composed of two elements; a straight element (tangent) and a succeeding horizontal curve. PCU values were estimated using the speed-area method. Using regression analysis, different models were developed to model the influences of different geometric features on PCU values. The results show that the PCU values for different vehicle categories increase linearly with increase of carriageway width and horizontal curve radius. This increase is clearly observed in case of heavy vehicles rather than light vehicles. The resulting models are useful in optimizing geometric design on two-lane two-way highways from the capacity point of view in the preliminary design stage.
Keywords: Passenger car unit, passenger car equivalent, capacity, two-lane two-way rural highways
Issue No: Vol. 7