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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 129 journals)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Oceanography and Limnology     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Water Works Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Hidrología Médica     Open Access  
Annals of Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW. Land Reclamation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Applied Water Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquacultural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Living Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aquatic Procedia     Open Access  
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Asian Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Australian Journal of Water Resources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bubble Science, Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Desalination and Water Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Developments in Water Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
EQA - International Journal of Environmental Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European journal of water quality - Journal européen d'hydrologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Grundwasser     Hybrid Journal  
Human Resources for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Hydro Nepal : Journal of Water, Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hydrology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Hydrology: Current Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Nuclear Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Salt Lake Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Waste Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Water Resources Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Irrigation and Drainage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Irrigation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Contemporary Water Resource & Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Oceans     Partially Free   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Hydro-environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Hydroinformatics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Hydrology (New Zealand)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics     Open Access  
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of the American Water Resources Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Water and Climate Change     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Water and Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Water Resource and Hydraulic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Water Supply : Research and Technology - Aqua     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
La Houille Blanche     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Lake and Reservoir Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mangroves and Salt Marshes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Methods in Oceanography : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access  
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Osterreichische Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal  
Ozone Science & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Paddy and Water Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Revue des sciences de l'eau / Journal of Water Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Riparian Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
River Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
River Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
SA Irrigation = SA Besproeiing     Full-text available via subscription  
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientia Marina     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sri Lanka Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Open Access  
Sustainable Technologies, Systems & Policies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)

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Civil and Environmental Research
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [14 followers]  Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2224-5790 - ISSN (Online) 2225-0514
     Published by International Institute for Science, Technology and Education (IISTE) Homepage  [30 journals]
  • Teachers’ Perception of the Impact of Educational Programmes on the
           Development of Children in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    • Authors: Nsikak-Abasi Udofia, Mary-Grace Ambrose Edet
      Abstract: This survey assessed the impact of early childhood educational programmes on the psychological, physiological, emotional, social and spiritual development of children in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State. The researchers employed simple random sampling method in selecting a sample of 120 teachers from Nursery/Primary Schools in Uyo Local Government Area for the survey. The instrument used in data collection was a simple questionnaire developed by the researchers to elicit data on how the educational programmes provided in the study area impacts on the development of the children. Questionnaire items covered the impact of available educational programmes on children’s cognitive, physical, emotional, social and, spiritual development. Obtained responses were analysed using descriptive quantitative statistics. The outcome of data analyses showed that that the educational programmes provided in the study area had a significant impact on the social, emotional, physical, cognitive and spiritual development of the children. The researchers therefore recommended, among other things, that improving upon the educational programmes of the children, at the early childhood level would be a promising intervention and could contribute to the optimum development of the child. Keywords: Childhood education; Child development, Pre-primary education; Crèche, Child psychology
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • A Comparative Study of the Effect of Family Types on Social Adjustment of
           Adolescent in Aba, Abia State

    • Authors: Usoroh; Comfort I, Akpan, Imaobong David, Amadi, Nneka B., Ezenwa, Happiness C
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to compare the influence of family type on adolescent social behavior in Aba Metropolis of Abia State, Nigeria. The study was guided by three specific objectives, two research questions and two null hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. A survey research design was adopted for the study, 600 adolescents were purposively selected from 17 Secondary school in Aba Metropolis and used for the study. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire tagged Single Parent and Adolescent Social Adjustment Questionnaire (SPASAQ). The instrument had four sections A – D and 32 items. The instrument was validated by three experts and the reliability coefficient of 0.80 was high enough to guarantee the instrument reliable for use in the study. Data obtained was analysed using descriptive statistics, frequency and Mean while the hypotheses were tested using t-test. Findings revealed that single parenting had negative influence on parent-adolescent relationship and sibling-sibling relationship. The result of the hypotheses showed that there is a significant difference between family type and parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent-teacher relationship. Based on the findings of the study, the researchers recommend that irrespective of the family type, parents should build healthy relationship with their adolescents to curb anti-social behaviour. Keywords: Family type; Adolescents; Social Adjustment; parent-adolescent relationship
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Development of Csharp-Based Computer Program for the Design of Single
           Storey Fixed-Feet Pitched-Roof Portal Frame

    • Authors: Chinwuba Arum, Oladimeji Benedict Olalusi
      Abstract: This paper presents the design results of a simple task-specific Csharp-based computer program developed for the design of single storey fixed-feet pitched-roof portal frame. The program accommodates varying stanchion/rafter lengths and loadings. The overall process in the development of the program includes: formulation of the portal frame design outline, coding the outline into computer algorithm using Csharp programming language, implementing the developed program, development of the graphical user interface, testing the developed program and validation of results. Several sets of steel pitched-roof portal frame models were designed using the developed program and the design results were validated using established software - MasterSeries. Those frames were varied in span, slope angle and frame spacing. The design results obtained using the developed Csharp program were similar to the results obtained using standard software – MasterSeries, with greatest variation in the values standing at a mere 0.8%. Furthermore, the developed program was used to establish the relationships between span, slope angle, frame spacing and mass of framework steel of a single storey, fixed-feet pitched-roof portal sample frame building. Keywords; fixed-feet pitched-roof portal frame, code, Csharp
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • An Assessment of Housing Satisfaction among Pre-Degree Students of Obafemi
           Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    • Authors: ADELEYE Olufemi
      Abstract: This study examined housing satisfaction among Pre-degree students of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used in selecting the sample size in the study area. Therefore, 30% (6) of the male hostels and 33.33% (7) of female hostels in the study area were taken as the sampling frame. Therefore, one hundred and sixty seven (167) students out of eight hundred and thirty seven (837) were randomly selected for questionnaire administration. Information collected from the students included their socio-economic characteristics, housing characteristics and their level of satisfaction with their housing. Secondary information was collected from the Centre for Distance Learning on the number of students and number of hostels registered. Data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The study showed that there were more female respondents (56.8%) than male (40.1%) and most of them (52.1%) were between the ages of 18 and 20 years. The study showed that bungalow was the most common type of student hostel (34.7%); this was followed by the rooming type (32.9%). Similarly, most of the hostels (77.18%) were painted in the three locations. The study further established that most of the students in Moro and Asipa were dissatisfied with their hostel in terms of being conducive for reading (2.39 and 2.22 respectively). Moreover, students in the three selected locations were dissatisfied with the residences neighbourhood features such as distance to shopping areas, health centre, and recreational facilities (2.8, 3.0 and 3.13 for Moro, Ashipa and Ipetumodu respectively). The study concluded that since most of the students were dissatisfied with their hostels, their satisfaction could be enhanced, if the school authority could construct quality hostels very close to the school premises. Keywords: housing, housing satisfaction, pre-degree students  
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Evaluation of Residents’ Perception of Design and Construction
           Factors of Public Housing Estates in Awka and Onitsha, Nigeria

    • Authors: Eni; Chikadibia Michael
      Abstract: This study evaluated the occupants’ perception of design and construction factors of fourteen public housing estates in Awka and Onitsha cities in Anambra State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to identify and describe the public housing estates in these cities and to determine the perception of the occupants of the housing estates in the two cities on the design and construction of these public housing estates. A null hypothesis: There is no significant relationship between occupants’ perception on the design and construction of public housing in their various locations was formulated and tested. The theoretical basis of this study was hinged on Adams’ Equity Theory (Balancing   Inputs and Outputs) because it focused on determining whether the distribution of housing resources was fair to both relational partners (Occupants in Awka and Onitsha cities). This study utilized a survey research design in the collection of data. The universe of study consisted of 2,805 occupants comprising mainly households, and 2,805 housing units, 1,032 in Awka city and 1,773 in Onitsha city. The sample size of 30% (842) was used as derived from Taro Yamani technique. A stratified random sampling of these disparate public housing estates based on their proportion to population was studied.  A 20-item structured questionnaire on design and construction (QPH) was developed. This instrument was face and content validated. Cronbach Alpha Technique index was used for reliability test which gave a value of 0.90. The data were obtained by pulling all positive responses for each group of occupants (Awka or Onitsha) as positive responses and as negative responses and their proportions obtained and filled below pooled observations (counts). Undecided responses were left as neutral. Complete responses were 797 comprising 299 occupants in Awka and 498 occupants in Onitsha. The research questions were processed using percentages, means, chi-square, Contingency Table Analysis (CTA) and one way Categorical data analysis of variance (CATANOVA), while the hypotheses were tested by proportion of difference using Z-test. The major finding of the study was (1). That the proportion of occupants in Awka responding positively to design and construction factors of public housing is higher than the proportion responding positively in Onitsha. Hence, the inference is that occupants in Awka perceived this dimension of public housing more positively than occupants in Onitsha. This difference between the two cities needs to be addressed in order to validate the Adam’s equity requirements in the built environment. Also flexibility in design and construction of theses public housing estates suited the occupants as they were part of the design and construction processes. Key terms: Evaluation, perception public housing, Nigeria
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Evaluating the Causes of the Road Failure of Onitsha-Enugu Expressway,
           Southeastern Nigeria.

    • Authors: Onuoha; D. C., Onwuka, S. U., Obienusi, E. A.
      Abstract: Considering the persistence of road failure along the Onitsha -Enugu expressway and many other roads in the southeastern Nigeria, this work was conceived with the aim of evaluating the causes of the road failure in other to help marshal out effective and efficient measures of tackling this problem of road failure. The study adopted a survey design which employed the use of a well structured questionnaire to gather information on the causes and effects of the road failure. To determine the sample size, volumetric analysis was used and the data so generated was analyzed using One-way Analysis of Variance and Post HOC test. The ANOVA shows the variation among the causes is not significantly different while the Post HOC test ranked the causative factors treated. The work thus concluded that all the factors listed contribute to the failure of the road with inadequate maintenance, mismanagement by the government and old age of the road pavement being the major factors. The work therefore recommends that there should be Quality Determination for materials during construction, Effective Maintenance Programme (routine or preventive maintenance, periodic maintenance, and disaster maintenance or major repairs of our roads) and Establishment of an Active Maintenance Crew.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Investigating the Pozzolanic Potentials of Cowdung Ash in Cement Paste and

    • Authors: Duna Samson, Omoniyi Tope Moses
      Abstract: This paper reports on the investigation into the pozzolanic potentials of cowdung ash. Cowdung was calcined at a temperature range of 400-500 14??/m:t>"> , sieved through 212µm sieve and characterized using chemical and physical methods. Cement paste and mortar were produced using CDA as cement replacement at 0, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30%. Standard consistency, soundness and setting time test were conducted on the blended cement paste, while compressive strength test was conducted on the hardened mortar samples after curing for 7, 28, 60 and 90days. The sum of SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 in CDA exceeds the 70% minimum specified by ASTMC 618-12. The test results revealed that addition of CDA to cement paste prolonged the setting time and increased standard consistency, while the compressive strength decrease with increase in CDA and increase with curing age. One way ANOVA conducted on the strength results indicates that there was no statistically significant difference between control mortar (0% CDA) and those containing up to 15% CDA. Linear regression model developed to predict compressive strength with cowdung ash and curing age as predictors was highly significant.  Keywords: Cement, Compressive strength, Cowdung ash, Mortar, Pozzolana, Regression model, Setting times.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • The Psychological and Socio-economic Status of the Clientele: Its impact
           upon the sale’s value of the product.

    • Authors: Muhammad Saqib Khan, Irfanullah Khan, Farhatullah Khan, Raqibaz Khan, Naseem Bakht ; Yar, Hamid Rauf, Naveed Saif
      Abstract: In the present corporate culture, the socio-economic status coupled with the psychological approach of the consumer is the defining indicators in determining the sale value of every product. The selection and the purchase of any product reflect the social and the psychological profile of the customer. Presently, in the economic perspectives, the society is bifurcated in different Statas. The ultra-rich class, the rich, the middle class and last but not the least there is a class of the society who visits the market rarely. Every class among the mentioned prefers to purchase the product according to their lifestyle. Accordingly, even the outlet of different brands bears different price tags in the different markets. In this regard, it has been observed that the customers opt for that market which matches his/her lifestyle. This entire phenomenon manifests the socio-economic status and ultimately the behavior of the clientele. Keywords: Consumer Buying Behavior (CBB), Psychological & Socio-economic factors
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Solid Wastes Management and its Willingness to Pay in Mingora, Swat

    • Authors: Muhammad Saqib, Muhammad Rashid
      Abstract: Solid waste is one of the major environmental dilemmas of Pakistan which causes environmental degradation. There is no proper management system for the collection and disposal of solid wastes. The current study is design to highlight solid wastes and willingness to pay (WTP) for its management in Mingora Swat, Pakistan. The objective of the study is to identify factors effecting solid waste management (SWM) activities and to evaluate the relationship of income, house hold size and diseases with WTP for SWM. The study is based on primary and secondary data. The value of WTP is taken as dependent variable while income, house hold size and diseases are independent variables. Survey questionnaire incorporated the opinion of local people and Tehsil Municipal Administrators (TMA), about solid wastes as primary data. According to the current survey, the average household per day solid wastes is 1.55 Kg while the total solid wastes generated in Mingora are 45.59 Ton/day.  The study found out that lack of resources and landfills, least government/community interest and lack of awareness are the main factors contributes to solid wastes mismanagement in Mingora Swat.  The study also investigated that bank of river is used for disposal of solid wastes by the TMA while most people used near places as a storage for solid wastes. According to 85% of respondents, installation of solid wastes to energy plant is the most appropriate method for the management of solid wastes in Mingora Swat. According to the current survey 83% of the respondents are agree to pay for the improvement of solid wastes management system. About 44% of the respondents have willingness to pay 100 rupees per month for solid wastes management system. The statistical analysis shows 0.888 correlations between WTP and income per month. Key words: Solid wastes, Management of solid wastes, Willingness to Pay, Mingora Swat.  
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Parametric Study on Reinforced Concrete Beam using ANSYS

    • Authors: Neha S. Badiger, Kiran M. Malipatil
      Abstract: Concrete structural components such as beams, columns, walls exist in various buildings and bridges. Understanding the response of these components of structures during loading is crucial for the development of an efficient and safe structure. Recently Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is also used to analyze these structural components. In this paper, four point bending analysis is carried out using reinforced concrete beam. The results of the beam with respect to mesh density, varying depths, use of steel cushions for support and loading points, effect of shear reinforcement on flexure behaviour, impact of tension reinforcement on behaviour of the beam are analyzed and discussed. Finite element software ANSYS 13.0 is used for modeling and analysis by conducting non linear static analysis. Keywords: Material nonlinearity, Finite element analysis, Convergence, Steel cushion, Varying depths, ANSYS.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Effect of Base Opening in Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall

    • Authors: Pooja Hegde, SV Itti
      Abstract: Shear walls (SW) are proven to be efficient in resisting and transferring the lateral/seismic loads in earthquake prone areas. In High raised buildings it is customary to provide basement parking also known as stilt parking which leads to the provision of openings at the base of shear walls. Therefore it is very important to study the logical positioning of the base opening and the behaviour of structure. This paper presents the study on SW with base openings, focusing on comparing the load carrying capacity with respect to that of solid SW. Finite element package in ANSYS software is used for modeling and analysis. A non-linear static analysis is performed for two parameters – a) location of the base opening and b) the percentage area of base opening for the SW. It is observed in the case of SW with symmetric base opening, the eccentric base opening leads to less load carrying capacity comparatively. Also it is found that the load carrying capacity decreases abruptly for the shear wall with base opening area greater than 50% of solid shear wall. Keywords: ANSYS, Base opening, Non Linear Static Analysis, Seismic load, shear wall
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Assessing Water Supply Coverage and Water Losses from Distribution System
           for Planning Water Loss Reduction Strategies (Case Study on Axum town,
           North Ethiopia)

    • Authors: Asmelash Zewdu
      Abstract: Problems in provision of adequate water supply to the rapidly growing urban population in developing countries are increasing dramatically. Moreover, reduction of non-revenue water remains one of the major challenges facing many water utilities in Ethiopia in general and Axum water supply system in particular. This study mainly focuses on the status of water supply coverage and water losses in Axum town using statistical analysis and Water audit software. A statistical analysis was applied to analyse the current water supply coverage of the entire town and to develop distribution coverage map using Arc GIS software. Water meter test was conducted for samples from each size of meters installed in the distribution system of the town in order to quantify the water loss through meters of under registration. Water audit software was also used to analyze water loss components and the efficiency of the system was evaluated using different performance indicators. Discussions were made with Local experts’ to support the quantitative analysis. From the result of the analysis, it was observed that the average daily per capita water consumption of the town is 12.8 litre/person/day. Thus, nearly 75% of the entire town population is getting water less than the basic service level and the average in-house or yard connection of the town is 27%. Besides, the total water loss in Axum water supply system is high enough up to 39.1% of the system input volume and about 8.84% of the total system loss is mainly due to meter under registration. In general, the low water supply coverage of the town was highly influenced by the availability of water. However, the main reasons for the high loss of water in Axum water supply system are the present way of water network management with ad-hoc maintenance and insufficient financial resources of the utility. Thus, it is necessary to identify the losses encountered in the water supply system so as to take remedial actions in reducing the water loss more significantly. Key words: water supply coverage, non-revenue water, water supply system, water audit software, performance indicator, meter under registration.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Characteristics of Squatter Houses in Burayu Town Adjoining Addis Ababa,
           Capital City of Ethiopia

    • Authors: Degu Bekele, S.S.A. Jafri, Melesse Asfaw
      Abstract: Expansion of squatter settlements and burgeoning of slum are among the challenges being posed by rapid rate of urbanization especially in developing countries like Ethiopia. Burayu town is one of the fastest growing towns in Oromia National Regional State of Ethiopia. The town is located about 15 kilometers from the center of Addis Ababa metropolis, the capital of Ethiopia. The population of Burayu town was 4,138 in 1984; 10,027 in 1994; 63,873 in 2007 (Census) and has grown to 150,000 in 2014 (estimated), showing that the population of the town has increased by more than 36 folds within the past 20 years. The town is characterized by many land related problems like proliferation of squatter settlements, expansion of slums and other illegal land developments. This article tries to identify characteristics of squatter houses in Burayu town in relation to location of the houses in environmentally sensitive areas, construction materials of the houses and accessibility of the houses to public utility services and facilities. By random purposive sampling method, 246 squatter households were selected from different social segments of the squatter households in the town and quantitative data and qualitative information were collected from primary as well as secondary sources and analyzed. The finding indicates that the characteristics of squatter houses in Burayu town are not different from characteristics of other houses which are developed in legal manner in the town. But, 58.1 per cent of the squatter houses are located in environmentally sensitive areas which are prohibited by the Structure Plan Preparation Manual prepared by Ethiopian Ministry of Urban Development and Construction, 2012. The common characteristic is the lack of ownership of the residential land on which the squatter houses have been built. Key Words: Squatter and squatter houses
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Settlement and Bearing Capacity of Foundations with Different Vertical
           Cross-sectional Shapes on Non-cohesive Soil Bases under Vertically Applied

    • Authors: Musa Alhassan
      Abstract: Settlement and bearing capacity of foundation models with different vertical cross-sectional shapes on non-cohesive subsoil bases under the action of vertically applied load are presented. Models of foundations with rectangular, wedge and T vertical cross-sectional shapes were experimentally studied. The study generally showed foundations with rectangular vertical cross-sectional shapes having higher bearing capacity and less settlement as compared to those with wedge and T shapes, from which lower bearing capacity and higher settlement were recorded. Although, wedge and T shape foundations showed less bearing capacity, they have the potentials of actively mobilizing soil, both long their vertical trunks and beneath their bases in active  resistance of structural loads. Keywords: Bearing capacity; Foundation shape; Non-cohesive soil; Settlement; Subsoil base.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Urban Environment and Squatting: One Affecting the Other The Case of
           Burayu Town, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Degu Bekele, S.S.A. Jafri, Melesse Asfaw
      Abstract: Squatting is the process of illegally occupying land or buildings without the explicit permission of the owner. It is clear that squatter settlements help some households in solving their shelter problems. But, rising evidences on the other side indicate that squatter settlements are the causes for remarkable public costs many of which are related to environmental degradation. Burayu town is one of the fastest growing towns in Oromia National Regional State of Ethiopia. The town is located about 15 kilometers from the center of Addis Ababa metropolis, the capital of Ethiopia. The population of Burayu town was 4,138 in 1984; 10,027 in 1994; 63,873 in 2007 (Census) and has grown to more than 150,000 in 2013 (estimated), showing that the population of the town has increased very rapidly especially during the past about seven years. The town is characterized by many environmental related problems like proliferation of squatter settlements, expansion of slums and other illegal land developments. The objective of this article is therefore to identify the collision of squatting on urban environment in relation to location of the squatter houses and generation and mismanagement of different kinds of wastes. By random purposive sampling method, 246 squatter households were selected and quantitative data and qualitative information were collected from primary as well as secondary sources and analyzed. The result points out that, squatter houses are negatively related to the town’s environment. 58.1 per cent of the squatter houses are located in environmentally sensitive areas which are prohibited by the Structure Plan Preparation Manual prepared by Ethiopian Ministry of Urban Development and Construction, 2012. They generate different kinds of wastes and the management of wastes in squatter settlements is not sustainable. Key Words: Squatting and squatter houses
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Performance of Combination of PreOzonation and Membrane Biological Reactor
           on Greywater Characteristics

    • Authors: Dheyaa W. Abbood, AmerHassan Taher, Ali Ahmed Ali
      Abstract: an ozone-biological aerated filter process was operated for ten months to evaluate its feasibility in polishing Greywateras primary treatment. The reduction efficiency of BOD5, COD, and TSS were 44%,27%, and 41.1% respectively. The average ranged effluent of PH, NH3-N,T-N, Total Phosphorous were (6.5-8.5), (19-61)mg/l, (9.1-34.7)mg/l, and (2.8-18.2)mg/l respectively. Main operational parameters were: Ozone rate 2 gm/hr for 6 hr from April to July and 8 hr from October to march.All results showed excellent performance of the ozone-biological aerated filter process. Experiences proved that the operation parameters such as dosage of ozone should be changed with the influent quality to acquire the best quality of the effluent.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Operational Evaluation of Road 2 – Road 6 Intersection at Obafemi
           Awolowo University, Ile – Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

    • Authors: Hussein Mohammed
      Abstract: Over the recent years traffic at the Road 2 – Road 5 intersection has been observed to be high at peak hours. This situation sometimes becomes frustrating as a result of long queues. Accidents have even occurred in some instances. The need to proffer solution to this problem, therefore becomes imperative, hence this study. The geometric characteristics and the traffic and the signalized conditions of the intersection were determined using standard procedures  The intersection geometrics show that, there are two lanes on all approaches, with an average width of 3.65 m. The terrain is level and there is no storage bay. Raised islands are provided to separate the traffic streams. There are no lane and pedestrian markings. The saturation flows (s), for the East Bound (EB), West Bound (WB), North Bound (NB) and South Bound (SB) traffic, were, 2306, 1948, 1561 and 1569 veh. / h respectively, while the critical v/c ratio value for the intersection was, 0.54.The uniform delay, d1,for EB and  WB, and  NB and SB, were 10 and 26 sec. / veh.  respectively; while the values for their incremental delays, d2, were, 0.44, 0.56, 0.41 and 0.47sec. / veh. respectively. The average intersection delay is, 13 sec / veh., which put the level of service (LOS), at B. It can therefore be concluded that, there is a slight delay at the intersection, which could probably be attributed to the inadequate geometrics of the intersection. A new geometric configuration was therefore proposed to eliminate this delay. Keywords: Intersection, Geometrics, Saturation Flow, Critical v/c Ratio, Average delay and Level of Service (LOS).
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Using Intermittent Sand Filters of Various Depths to Remove NH3-N, NO3N
           and NO2N from the Wastewater of Sugar Milling Factory

    • Authors: Kelly A. W. Kariuki, Benedict M. Mutua, Musa R. Njue
      Abstract: Intermittent sand filter systems have been used in wastewater treatment according to Selecky (2012) especially their application for on-site wastewater management. Intermittent sand filters have not been used to treat effluent from sugar factories in Kenya. There is very limited information on how to optimize their application in treating effluent from sugar factory in Kenya. This study focused on optimization of intermittent sand filter used in treatment of wastewater from sugar factory. Samples of wastewater were randomly taken from Kibos Sugar and Allied factories. These samples were loaded into sand filters with different sand depths of 0.30, 0.45 and 0.60m. Different loading rates, volumes and frequencies were applied for each depth. Samples from the filtrate were collected and analyzed in the laboratory for NH3-N, NO3-N and NO2-N values. The data was subjected to analysis of variance for fractional factorial (ANOVA) using the GenStat Version 13.2 computer programme. Wastewater generated from the sugar factories had NH3-N, NO3-N and NO2-N were within the WHO acceptable limits. The sugar factory managers targeting to remove NO3-N should use a sand filter with a depth of 0.45m by loading it at a rate of 2L/min, volume of 30L and frequency of 12hrs. To remove NO2N using a sand filter of 0.45 m deep, they should use a loading rate of 4L/min, loading volume of 10L and loading frequency of 12hrs. Keywords: Effluent, factory, filter, intermittent, sand, sugar, wastewater.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • The Effect of Hydraulic Structure on Aeration Performance Case Study:
           Stepped Cascade with End Sill

    • Authors: Dheyaa Wajid Abbood, Hanan Hussien Abood
      Abstract: Cascade aeration has been utilized as a hydraulic structure for years which  has proven to be the least costly aeration system in replenishing dissolved oxygen. The aeration performance of the cascade structure with end sill has been investigated in a large laboratory cascade structure  which has been  designed and constructed at Al- Mustansiriya university in environmental hydraulic  .An empirical equation to  predicting the oxygen transfer efficiency   for different models of cascade structure with end sill was correlated. The results indicated that l/h and s/h were a significant effect on the aeration efficiency of cascade structure. Keywords: Hydraulic structure, Stepped cascade , End sill ,Aeration, Oxygen transfer
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Evaluation of Water Quality Index in the Main Drain River in Iraq by
           Application of CCME Water Quality

    • Authors: DheyaaW. Abbood, KarimR. Gubashi, HananH. Abbood
      Abstract: Water Quality Index in the Main Drain River in Iraq by Application the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index(CCME WQI) has been achieved .Fifteen water quality parameters (pH, alkalinity, phosphate(PO4) , nitrate(NO3), sulfate(SO4), chloride(Cl), total hardness(TH), calcium(Ca), magnesium(Mg), total dissolved solids(TDS), biological oxygen demand(BOD), dissolved oxygen(DO), electrical conductivity(EC), sodium (Na) and potassium(K) measured at ten stations along the main drain river (Baghdad, Babylon, Qadiysiah, ThiQar and Al-Basrah). The field work was conducted during the years 2004 until 2011. Based on the results obtained from the index the water quality of main outfall drain river ranged between 26.6- 35.5 which indicate that river has the worst quality due to effect of various pollutant sources. Keywords:Water quality index, Iraq, Main drain, CCME WQI
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Investigating the applicability of PMVe-PPDe model in non air-conditioned
           hostel building

    • Authors: OLANIPEKUN Emmanuel Abiodun
      Abstract: To make PMV-PPD model applicable in NV buildings, Fanger proposed PMVe-PPDe model by including an expectancy factor (e). However, there are conflicting reports as regard the applicability of the model in NV buildings. Using the data obtained from physical measurement of (air temperature, relative humidity and air velocity) using Kestrel model 4500, questionnaire survey and observation considering class II protocol, the applicability of PMVe-PPDe model in a NV hostel building was investigated. All the measured environmental variables fell below the comfort range recommended by ASHRAE standard 55 and ISO 7730 standard. Most (85%) of the calculated PMVe values fell within the comfort range recommended by ASHRAE standard 55 and ISO 7730 standard. The obtained PPDe results showed only a slight overestimation (8.9% about) of the percentage of dissatisfied under neutrality conditions. The study concluded that PMVe-PPDe is applicable in NV hostel in this climate. According to the findings of this study, it can be concluded that the Fanger’s basic approach for the assessment of the thermal comfort is effective also in naturally ventilated hostel environments if a right expectancy factor is applied. Keywords: NV environments, thermal comfort in hostel, PMVe-PPDe, expectancy factor.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
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