- Preliminary Determination of Subsurface Soil Profiles in Akenfa Community,
Bayelsa State, Nigeria
Authors: H.O Nwankwoala, A.N Amadi, F.A Ushie, T. Warmate
Abstract: This study aims at establishing the sub-soil types and profile to ascertain the geotechnical characteristics of the underlying soils in Akenfa in Yenagoa, Yenagoa Local Government Area of Bayelsa State, Nigeria and recommend appropriate foundation design and construction of projects in the area. Three (3) geotechnical boreholes were drilled at the site to obtain baseline data on geotechnical properties of the soil and water level monitoring, the boreholes were advanced with the use of a cable percussion boring rig and were terminated to a maximum depth of 30m. The particle size distributions of a number of representative samples of the cohesionless soils were determined by sieve analysis. The results show that the samples are low to medium plasticity silty clay. The lithology revealed intercalations of clay and sand in thin layers to a depth of 2.0m below the existing ground level. Underlying this clay is a stratum of loose to medium dense sand and dense sand. The sand is well sorted grading from fine to medium as the borehole advances. The laboratory analysis showed that the silty clay has undrained shear strength of 48 kPa. The loose sand has a maximum SPT (N) value of 12 while the medium dense sand has maximum SPT (N) value of 28. Considering the nature of the civil structures to be sited in the area, it is anticipated the load and the moderate compressibility of this near surface silty clay and the underlying loose silty sand be supported by means of raft foundation founded within the clay layer. It is recommended that studies on the geotechnical characteristics of the area be carried out as it provides valuable data that can be used for foundation design and other forms of construction for civil engineering structures in order to minimize adverse effects and prevention of post construction problems. Keywords: Subsoils, geotechnical, foundation, engineering structures, Akenfa
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Environmental and Health risks Associated with Dental Waste Management: A
Authors: Babanyara; Y.Y, Gana, B, A, Garba, T, Batari, M. A.
Abstract: Proper management of dental waste is a crucial issue for maintaining human health and the environment. The waste generated in the dental clinics has the potential for spreading infections and causing diseases, so improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harm to the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers, general public and the environment through production of toxins or as by-products of the destruction process. Staff that provide dental healthcare ought to be aware of the proper handling and the system of management of dental waste used by different dental hospitals. The method of investigation adopted in the paper involved a desk study in which documents and records relating to dental waste handling were studied to obtain background information on existing dental waste management in Nigeria other countries of the world are also mentioned as examples. Additionally, information on generation, handling, segregation, risk associated during handling and treatment of dental medical waste were sought in order to determine the best method for safe disposal. This article provides dentists with the information they need to properly dispose of mercury and amalgam waste, and provides suggestions for managing the other wastes that result from the day-to-day activities of a dental office such as: used X-ray fixers and developers; cleaners for X-ray developer systems; lead foils, shields and aprons; chemiclave/chemical sterilant solutions; disinfectants, cleaners, and other chemicals; and, general office waste. Additionally, this study may be beneficial for authorities and researchers of developing countries to work towards improving their present Dental waste management system. Keywords: Clinic, dental, disposal, environment, waste management,
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Strategies for Mitigating Building Collapse in Nigeria: Roles of
Architects and Other Stakeholders in the Building Industry
Authors: Ayeni; Dorcas .A, Adedeji Y.M.D
Abstract: Collapse of buildings is one of the several failures of building projects and results either in loss of lives, properties and in some cases both. Often times the professionals in the building industry made up of Architects, Engineers, Planners, Quantity Surveyors, Land Surveyors, Estate Surveyors, Town Planners, Builders and Project Manager trade blames on who should be held responsible for the failure. Many factors can be adduced to the continuous occurrences of building collapse which, include inadequate monitoring of construction sites by government officials as a result of the vast and fast pace of developments in many Nigerian urban centres; as well as the use of substandard materials, improper soil investigations, bad design and supervision, poor quality construction and poor funding by clients. Using the secondary source of data collection, the paper discusses the roles the architect could play both in practice and in architectural education in mitigating building collapse. Findings reveal that mitigation of building collapse can be achieved in Nigeria through collaborative efforts of all stakeholders involved and concludes that architectural education could serve a supportive role. Keywords: Architects, Architectural Education, Building Collapse, Mitigation, Nigeria
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Forecasting Temperature in the Coastal Area of Bay of Bengal-An
Application of Box-Jenkins Seasonal ARIMA Model
Authors: Nigar Sultanad, Md. Mahedi Hasan
Abstract: Temperature is one of the most vital elements of the climate system and forecasting of the temperature helps the stakeholders those who are depends on it directly or indirectly to prepare in advance. Country like Bangladesh whose economy mostly geared up by the agricultural product need to know the upcoming pattern of temperature beforehand to take necessary actions. This study has been conducted on the monthly maximum and minimum temperature data (1949-2012) from the second largest and port city of Bangladesh, Chittagong. Non-parametric Mann-Kendall test has been adopted to identify the trend of the series and found that though the maximum temperature is increasing but not significantly but the minimum temperature is increasing significantly. The anomaly plot is just portrait the ups and downs of minimum and maximum temperature and found minimum temperature is increasing from last two decades whereas the maximum temperature has abrupt changes with increase and decrease. The linear trend analysis shows the climate line for maximum and minimum temperature are 35.67 and 10.23 degree Celsius respectively and the rate for significant increase of minimum temperature is 0.07 degree Celsius. The forecasting Seasonal ARIMA model for maximum temperature is SARIMA (1, 1, 1) (2, 0, 0)  and for minimum temperature is SARIMA (1, 1, 1) (1, 0, 1) . The resulted outcomes indicate the increasing pattern of temperature in upcoming days in this area of Bangladesh. Keywords: temperature, Seasonal ARIMA, forecasting, climate, Chittagong
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Potential of Quarry Dust and Cow Dung as stabilisers for Black Cotton soil
Eco-blocks for Housing
Authors: Njike Manette, Walter Oyawa, Timothy Nyomboi
Abstract: Present concerns for sustainable development have led to a revival of traditional building practices using natural or recycled resources. There is a perception that buildings constructed from such materials are environmentally benign. The use of earth on site as a building material saves manufacturing cost, time, energy, environmental pollution and transportation cost. Due to the atmospheric condition change, blocks made with black cotton soil swell, shrink and crack. This research work reports on the effect of waste material such as quarry dust and cow dung on the strength and stability of soil blocks made with black cotton soil. Black cotton soil is a soil in which there is a high content of expansive clay known as montmorillonite that forms deep cracks in drier seasons or years owing to extensive swelling and shrinkage. The shrinking and swelling of black cotton soil can significantly damage buildings and roads, leading to extensive subsidence. Accordingly, black cotton soil is never used as a construction material. The key objective of this research study was to determine the effect of various eco-friendly additives on the structural performance of black cotton soils in Kenya, and hence the potential of stabilized black cotton soil as an eco-block for buildings. Experimental work has delved into basic material properties, as well as strength tests on specimens. Accordingly, the research work has conducted numerous tests such as atteberg limit, particle density, particle size distribution compaction test and linear shrinkage on material as well as strength test on blocks. From the results obtained, it is established that the addition of 20% quarry dust to black cotton soil increases the compressive strength of the block from 0.6 to 2.7 MPa, and with further the addition of 6% cement this value increases up to 3 MPa. The addition of Cow dung to black cotton soil reduces the number of cracks and the amount of shrinkage on blocks, and also increases the strength of the blocks from 0.6MPa to 2MPa. It is thus confirmed that the addition of quarry dust and cow-dung have significant positive effects on black cotton soil, rendering them suitable for use sustainable eco-blocks for construction. Keywords: Black cotton soil, quarry dust, cow dung, compressive strength, cracks, shrinkage, eco-blocks, compressed earth blocks, stabilized soil blocks
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Water Supply Challenges of a University Community: The Case Study of Afe
Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti (ABUAD) Ekiti State, Nigeria
Authors: Oluwadare Joshua OYEBODE, Sunday Olakunle OYEGOKE
Abstract: The availability of adequate water supply both in quality and quantity is essential for human existence. With the exponential increase in population, access to improved water remains an important pre-condition for sustaining human life, maintaining eco systems and for achieving sustainable development. This paper evaluates the water supply in a university community, with Afe Babalola University as a case study. This work has been carefully carried out to show the way forward in the Nigeria Water Sector; Reviewing the current situation in the university, the huge investments that has been made by The Nigerian Government and External Partners alike, the benefits the populace stand to derive by making the a healthy one, and liberalization of the Water Sector Administration. For the sake of this work, the focus shall be limited only to Social and Economic Development of Water in Nigeria. The paper however concludes that research grants should be given to the researchers in water sector. Geophysical investigation for groundwater development should be carried out before exploitation of groundwater to ensure maximum yield. Also modern conventional water treatment plant should be designed, constructed and located at strategic places in the country to enhance regular provision of potable water and safety and the government should be ready to work towards the realization of the set goals. Keywords: Water, Development, Challenges, University.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- An Experimental Study on Utilization of Iron Ore Tailings (IOT) and Waste
Glass Powder in Concrete
Authors: Bakulamba Devi T S Natesh M G, Praveen kumar K S Archana N, Ashwini Sogi
Abstract: Cement manufacturing industry is one of the carbon dioxide emitting sources besides deforestation burning of fossil fuels. The global warming is caused by the emission of green house gases, such as CO2, to the atmosphere. Among the greenhouse gases, CO2 contributes about 65% of global warming. The global cement industry contributes about 7% of green house gas emission to the earth’s atmosphere. In order to address environmental effects associated with cement manufacturing, there is a need to develop alternative binders to make concrete. Consequently extensive research is on going into the use of cement replacements, using many waste materials industrial by products. Efforts have been made in the concrete industry to use waste glass as partial replacement of cement and also in recent years almost every mineral producing country is facing the problem of better utilization of mine waste because of its accumulation lack of suitable storage space. In this study, finely powdered waste glass from industries and Iron Ore Tailings (IOT) produced from mining areas are used as a partial replacement of cement and fine aggregates in concrete respectively. This work examines the possibility of using Glass powder and iron ore tailing as a partial replacement of cement and fine aggregate in concrete. In the present study Glass powder and Iron Ore Tailing ( IOT ) are partially replaced by 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% tested for its compressive, flexural strength for 7, 28 and 56 days of curing and were compared with those of conventional concrete. Keywords: Glass Powder – GP, Iron Ore Tailings – IOT, Conventional Concrete - CC
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Architectural Building Treatments in the Mediterranean Climate from an
environmental perspective; Case study of Amman City – Jordan
Authors: Diala Atiyat, Abeer AL-Soub, Rawan Bataineh, Samar abu Ameereh, Aseel Matar
Abstract: The paper will provide the most important architecture treatments which were adopted and applied in the Mediterranean region buildings, the paper provides an analysis of the architecture elements that have contributed to reduce the consumption of energy and a positive interaction with the environment and region climate based, a case study in Amman city – Jordan was chosen to came out of conclusions and recommendations which can help in the design process in Mediterranean region architecture. Keywords: Architectural Building Treatments, the Mediterranean Climate, environmental perspective.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- The impact of using Green Buildings on the rationalization of consumption
of energy resources, water and building materials in the Hashemite Kingdom
Authors: Aseel Matar, Diala Atiyat, Samar Abu Ameereh
Abstract: This paper aimed to study the environmentally friendly buildings( green building ), especially in the State of Jordan, also the benefits of these buildings have been identified, and through the research, it shows that regular buildings are characterized by three major Characters, which are the drain energy and resources, polluting the environment through emissions and fumes, liquid or solid waste, and the negative impact on the health of the users of buildings as a result of the use of different chemicals and other pollutants. The study also shows the impact of constructing an ordinary building on the amount of using energy, water and building materials resources which has lead to the fear of depletion of these resources, and based on these negatives, the principles of the environmentally friendly buildings carry ideas and theses which are able to overcome the drawbacks mentioned above. Jordan has provided several facilities in order to stimulate the construction of green buildings; the research found that the use of green building in the building regulations will reduce energy consumption rates by (20-50%), and the ratios of water resources to (40%), and rates of building materials to (70%).
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Factors Affecting Performance of Incentive Schemes in the Construction
Industry in Nigeria
Authors: Omotayo Olugbenga AINA, David Abiodun ADESANYA
Abstract: This study sought to empirically determine the factors that influence how incentive schemes induce construction industry workers to expend more efforts at work with a view to improving how the schemes are designed and implemented. The study was conducted with two sets of questionnaire administered on project managers on seventy one construction sites in Nigeria and five craftsmen on each of these sites. The respondents were required to rank twenty eight factors affecting incentive schemes on a five point Likert scale. The factors rated as high impacting by project managers were regular payment of bonus, clear work targets, site management input and performance measurement. The factors ranked high by craftsmen were quality of supervision, workers' involvement, regular payment of bonus and payout period. Achieving optimum performance of the incentive schemes would require harmonisation of the dissention in the views of management and craftsmen of construction firms. Keywords; incentive schemes, factors affecting incentives, management of construction firms, craftsmen of construction firms.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Climate Change and Thermal Comfort: Implications for Building Design in
Authors: Anthony Peter, Peter O. Adewale
Abstract: One of the greatest challenges facing the world in this century is the twin phenomena of global warming and environmental degradation with their consequential effects. There are growing cases of ocean surge, desert encroachment, hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis, acid rain, heat stress, flash floods, etc. which have been claiming many lives and rendering several million homeless. Recent scientific studies have predicted that these events, rather than subsiding, would be more severe and more frequent in the future, with many of the developing countries most vulnerable. This suggests that man’s response to these challenges should not be limited to combating efforts alone but should also include adequate adaptation strategies that would minimise the impending disasters. This paper examines the science of global warming and its implications on thermal comfort in buildings in Southern Nigeria. It contends that as the area becomes warmer, the cooling potential of natural ventilation in the area would be reduced with fatal consequences. The paper closes by highlighting certain design strategies that could minimise the impending catastrophes. Keywords: Architectural Design, Climate Change, Global Warming, Hot-Humid Climate, Thermal Comfort
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Assessment of Compressive Strength of Concrete Produced from Different
Brands of Portland Cement
Authors: Gideon Olukunle Bamigboye, Anthony Nkem Ede, Chioma Egwuatu, Joshua Jolayemi, Oluwaleke Olowu, Tajudeen Odewumi
Abstract: Concrete is basically a mixture of two components: aggregates and paste. The paste, comprised of Portland cement and water, binds the aggregates (usually sand and gravel or crushed stone) into a rocklike mass as the paste hardens because of the chemical reaction of the cement and water. In our society today some of the cement brands that are being sold are not up to standard and this may be traced to negligence on the part of the manufacturers by paying very little attention to the quality and also the regulatory body does not put strict measures to enforce the required standard. This problem has led to the production of poor quality concrete that increases the risk of collapse of building structures. This research determined the cement brands that have the highest compressive strength to enhance the quality and durability of the structures being built in the country. Different brands of Portland cement were used to produce concrete varying with1:2:4 and 1:3:6 mix ratio respectively with a curing date of 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days respectively. No additive was used in any of the mix. The tests carried out include slump test at its fresh state while compressive strength was carried out for the hardened concrete, also the vicat test was carried out on the cement brands to determine the setting time. Compressive strength at 28 days showed that Dangote 3X cement produced 25.27N/mm2, Ibeto cement 38.89 N/mm2, Purechem cement 24.58 N/mm2, Unichem cement 21.16 N/mm2 and Elephant cement 27.9 N/mm2 for 1:2:4 mix ratio respectively. For 1:3:6 mix ratio at 28 days Dangote cement produced 18.89 N/mm2, Ibeto cement 22.07 N/mm2, Purechem cement 11.63 N/mm2,Unichem cement 15.86 N/mm2 and Elephant cement 16.71 N/mm2 respectively. The study concluded that Ibeto cement has the highest strength at 28 days for 1:2:4 and 1:3:6 mix ratios respectively. Keywords: Cement, Compressive strength, Concrete, Fresh Property, Portland Cement
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Assessment of Factors Responsible for Successful Project Implementation in
Anambra State, Nigeria.
Authors: Nzekwe; Justina U, Oladejo, Esther I., Emoh, Fidelis I.
Abstract: There is a high rate of project failure in Anambra State, Nigeria. This manifests not only as abandonment of projects, but also as cases of structural collapse, inability to deliver projects on time, cost overshoots and poor client satisfaction. Because every microenvironment is unique in some way, factors dictating project success could differ markedly from environment to environment. The aim of this research therefore was to appraise the factors critical for project success in Anambra State, Nigeria, with a view to helping stem the high incidence of project failure. Primary information used in the research were sourced from a survey of one hundred (100) project professionals, each possessing a minimum of 5 years of experience. Structured questionnaires based on the Likert-5-Point Scale of Responses were used to capture their opinions on the reasons for project success, while Secondary information were sourced from a review of literature. Results were analyzed using appropriate statistical tools based on the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 16.0). We have established and firmly ranked the first five factors responsible for project success in Anambra State, Nigeria. We concluded that the most important factor for project success is ability to handle unexpected crises above client commitment. It is recommended that the results of this research be disseminated and used in community enlightenment, and in further policy guidance and regulation. It is also recommended that the study be applied to the entire South Eastern states of Nigeria in order to generate better client satisfaction in subsequent projects. Keywords: Assessment, Factors, Successful Project, Implementation.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Assessment of Qualitative Adequacy of Public Housing Schemes in Ado-Ekiti,
Authors: Abiodun Olukayode Olotuah
Abstract: Nigeria is a developing country with severe housing deficiency. The quality of housing is particularly poor, and there is a high magnitude of housing needs while the vast majority of the populace does not have the wherewithal to make effective demand. There has been public sector intervention to ameliorate the appalling situation over the years, beginning from the pre-independence era. Public housing schemes have been embarked upon by government in various locations nationwide. This paper appraises public housing schemes in Ado-Ekiti, the capital city of Ekiti State, Nigeria in terms of their qualitative adequacy and hence their livability. Twenty-five (25) variables were examined in 146 buildings comprising 243 cases. Quality indices were derived for the variables which enabled the determination of a numerical value for the qualitative adequacy for each of the housing schemes studied. The qualitative adequacy values obtained indicate that the estates are barely above average in livability and thus are deserving of critical attention by the authorities concerned (the Federal Ministry of Housing and Urban Development, and the State Housing Corporation). Keywords: development, housing, public, quality, variables.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Equivalent Blows Approach to the Calibration of a Minicompactor for
Authors: Nwakaire; C.M., Nwaiwu, C.M.O., Aginam, C.H.
Abstract: Researchers and laboratory personnel often encounter some difficulties when using standard compaction methods to compact a soil sample before they are tested with the triaxial machine. The difficulties include; difficulties in extrusion, bulkiness of rammers, and non-uniformity in the distribution of blows, and associated sample disturbance when preparing specimens for triaxial testing. These problems have been curbed by the use of minicompactors which are newer technologies. A minicompactor (Nanjing Soil Minicompactor) manufactured to enable production of 39.1mm diameter that can fit into triaxial machine (Model TS2-1) was used for the compaction studies. The minicompactor is made of a split mold of 96.06cm3 by volume. The rammer weight 600g fits well to the internal circumference of the mould. The drop height is 30cm, which is relatively short. These features are very desirable to contemporary researchers, but it will be very important to ensure uniformity with the standard compactors on which the experimental methodologies were originally based. Ignoring this will lead to an erroneous assumption that the minicompactors would achieve the same compaction as the standard ones using the same specifications, but this would result a level of inconsistency that would affect the results of the experiments. To bridge this gap, this study, attempts to determine the number of blows with the Nanjing minicompactor that will achieve the same MDD and OMC with those conventional standards: - British Standard Light (BSL), Reduced British Standard Light (RBSL), West African Standard (WAS), and British Standard Heavy (BSH), using the same lateritic soil material and same number of layers. The research shows that there is a consistent increase in Maximum Dry Density and decrease in Optimum Moisture Content as compactive efforts increased. A total of 11 compactions were made using the minicompactor; seven were made at 3 layers using 4,8,12,16,20,24, and 28 blows while four were made at 5 layers using 34, 38, 42, and 46 blows. Plots of the Maximum Dry Densities against Number of Blows were made for the 3 layers as well as the 5 layers. Using statistical models, the number of blows that are equivalent to the known standards were established. It was recommended that for the Reduced British Standard (Light), 22 blows at 3 layers; for the British Standard (Light), 27 blows at 3 layers; for the West African Standard, 42 blows at 5 layers; and for the British Standard (Heavy), 46 blows at 5 layers would be used to achieve a corresponding MDD and OMC. Keywords; compactors, calibration, lateritic, blows, dry density, moisture content.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- An Overview of the Health Risks and Safety in Nursing in Emergency
Authors: Iva Widyanti, Tjipto Suwandi, Hari Basuki N
Abstract: Work Safety is a safety condition that is free from the risk of workplace accidents that covers workplace conditions, equipment, and workers. Nurses are medical workers that many have the potential physical hazards, ergonomics, biology, chemistry, psychosocial that can lead to illness or accidents. Risk management AS / NZS 4360/2004 are used to prevent the occurrence of adverse events (accidents or contracting the disease). Implementation of nursing activities on nurses in the ER RSU as research objects. This study aims to find the root causes of accidents by analyzing the human element, methods, machines, materials, costs and environmental (5M + 1E) using Root Cause Analysis (RCA). Research with 24 respondents have a semi-quantitative research with cross sectional study design. The results of hazard identification and risk by the method of Job Safety Analysis (JSA) acquired 33 risks that could threaten the safety of nurses. Conclusion: The human factor becomes dominant underlying cause, such as fatigue due to working shifts, lack of resources nurses, lack of adherence to standard operating procedures (SOP), and lack of awareness on the implementation of HSE nurses in the workplace. Safety risk control and commitment nurses make risk management program run HSE as a recommendation to minimize workplace accidents in the ER nurse. Keywords: risk, work accidents, emergency room, nurse
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Absorptive Capacity for Firms Development: Impending Factors for Small and
Medium Sized Construction Firms
Authors: Ade Abdulquadri Bilaud, Musibau Akintunde Ajagbe, Ahmadu Shehu Bustani, Tolani Abdulrahman Sani
Abstract: The concept of Absorptive Capacity (AC) emanated from the presumptions of macroeconomists, who described it as the capability of an economy to adapt and absorb external knowledge. The concept was engrossed into firms through the capacity to identify the value of new, external information, assimilate it, and apply it to business perspectives. However, this study sought to explore on issues concerning AC on development of Small and Medium Sized Construction Firms (SMCFs) in Nigeria. Through qualitative interviews and quantitative survey protocols of 100 respondents, relevant responses were obtained from participants in the construction industry and research institutions. The questionnaire used was designed to obtain responses using closed ended questions for easy analysis through the Likert Scale and ranking system. The data obtained were subjected to a computer based Statistical Package for Social Scientist (SPSS) Version 17. Other open-ended responses and interviews were thematically analyzed to determine the distribution of responses to the variables under investigation. The study finds that SMCFs in Nigeria have a mean awareness index of 4.38 out of a scale of 5.0. This finding indicates that construction firms in Nigeria are highly aware of the prospects of the implementation of AC concept for the development of SMCFs. In addition to this, the study also has identified the factors affecting the implementation of AC concept in Nigeria. Keywords: Absorptive capacity, Small and medium sized firms, Service Organizations; Construction firms, Knowledge management, Nigeria.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Journal Coverpage
Authors: Journal Editor
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources in Desert Area Considering
Irregularity in Rainfall Intensity and Distribution: A Case Study in Wadi
Kafrein Basin, Jordan
Abstract: There is a growing awareness regarding climate change fluctuation as its one of the central issues that affects water resources directly. This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of climate change on surface water resources due to the change in rainfall intensity and distribution and to investigate the sensitivity of water resources to climate change. WEAP has been utilized to simulate future available water resources and figure out the possible implications of changing climate on Wadi Kafrein Basin which represent the Jordan valley feature in Jordan. Different future scenarios have been built up and analyzed to predict the change in runoff over the period between 2014 and 2050; thus precipitation and evapotranspiration data for the period between 1991 and 2013 have been alerted for the model input to develop four different climate change scenarios. The simulation shows that annual average runoff in the selected study area would decrease compared with “no change” scenario. This reduction will influence the amount of water stored in Kafrein dam directly which in turns will add additional pressure on the available water resources and thus intensify water scarcity in the country. Climate change could also have effects on monthly runoff distribution. The model predicts that runoff will decrease in a different manner over months. March to June months along with October could face the highest relative decrease in runoff compared to December, January and February months. Keywords: climate change, hydrological model, WEAP model, Kafrein Basin
Issue No: Vol. 7