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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 130 journals)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Oceanography and Limnology     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Water Works Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Hidrología Médica     Open Access  
Annals of Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW. Land Reclamation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Applied Water Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquacultural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Living Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aquatic Procedia     Open Access  
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Asian Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Australian Journal of Water Resources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bubble Science, Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Continental Journal of Water, Air, and Soil Pollution     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Desalination and Water Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Developments in Water Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
EQA - International Journal of Environmental Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European journal of water quality - Journal européen d'hydrologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Grundwasser     Hybrid Journal  
Human Resources for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Hydro Nepal : Journal of Water, Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hydrology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Hydrology: Current Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Nuclear Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Salt Lake Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Waste Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of Water Resources Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Irrigation and Drainage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Irrigation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Contemporary Water Resource & Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Oceans     Partially Free   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Hydro-environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Hydroinformatics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Hydrology (New Zealand)     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics     Open Access  
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of the American Water Resources Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Water and Climate Change     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Water and Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Water Resource and Hydraulic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Water Supply : Research and Technology - Aqua     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
La Houille Blanche     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Lake and Reservoir Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mangroves and Salt Marshes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Methods in Oceanography : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access  
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Osterreichische Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal  
Ozone Science & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Paddy and Water Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Revue des sciences de l'eau / Journal of Water Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Riparian Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
River Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
River Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
SA Irrigation = SA Besproeiing     Full-text available via subscription  
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientia Marina     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Sri Lanka Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Open Access  

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Civil and Environmental Research
   [13 followers]  Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2224-5790 - ISSN (Online) 2225-0514
     Published by International Institute for Science, Technology and Education (IISTE) Homepage  [30 journals]
  • Predicting Changes in Landuse and Landcover in Niger Delta using Post
           Classification Analysis.

    • Authors: John Onwuteaka
      Abstract: Post Classification sorting was used to extract average spectral response of land cover classes in class boundaries between two images of 1996 and 2010 to generate land use change. A Landuse change extracted from cross-tabulation of classified clusters was observed in about 30,213 hectares in this scene area. Compared with the approximately 1.4 million hectares of land in the scene, a change of about 2.2% in classes of features between 1996 and 2010 were evident. Highly significant change was evident in the change from Scrub/Shrub in 1996 to Forest-Lowland swamp in 2010 which accounted for 31% of the change occurring in this scene. Landuse accounting from remote sensing and GIS can help planners integrate various uses of land for urbanization, industralisation or agriculture. Keywords: Post Classification sorting, Change detection, Landuse-Landcover, Landuse change
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Comparative Study on Structural Parameter of R.C.C and Composite Building

    • Authors: S. S. Charantimath, Swapnil B. Cholekar, Manjunath M. Birje
      Abstract: Steel-concrete composite construction has gained wide acceptance world wide as an alternative to pure steel and pure concrete construction. However, this approach is a relatively new concept for the construction industry. Steel-concrete composite elements are used extensively in modern buildings. Extensive research on composite column, composite beam and deck slab in which structural steel section are encased in concrete have been carried out. However, for medium to high-rise buildings R.C.C structure is no longer economic because of increased dead load, less stiffness, span restriction and hazardous formwork. The results of this work show that the Composite structures are the best solution for high rise structure as compared to R.C.C structure. Keywords: Seismic response; composite beam/column; ETAB 13 Software; equivalent static analysis; dynamic analysis; composite floor; shear connector; natural period
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Location Theory and Public Facilities: A Case Study of Health-Care

    • Authors: JULIUS O. GBAKEJI
      Abstract: This study examined the distribution and patronage pattern of public health-care facilities in Ughelli-South Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria.  In doing this, existing location theories were examined for concepts and ideas that provide theoretical guidelines for issues relating to the location and patronage of public facilities.  Furthermore, attempts were also made to see how the spatial distribution and patronage pattern of health-care facilities in the study area accord with these theoretical guidelines.  Some problems facing the health-care delivery system in the study area were identified and appropriate remedial measures were suggested for implementation. KEYWORDS: Location, Health-Care Facilities, Patronage, Spatial Distribution.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • A Comparative Study of the Quality of Wastewater from Tema Oil Refinery
           (TOR) Against EPA Standards and its Effect on the Environment

    • Authors: Peter Abum Sarkodie, Daniel Agyapong, George Obiri Larbi, Ernest Owusu-Ansah
      Abstract: The proliferation of industrialization has resulted in increased wastewater generation and its disposal has rapidly been of serious concern in recent times to environmental scientists. The discharge of these untreated or partially treated effluents into the environment, especially, surface water poses a great threat to the environment and also causes adverse human health. Industrial wastewater may contain high levels of contaminants such as suspended, colloidal and dissolved minerals, inert organic matter, heavy metals, possible pathogenic bacteria which might be either excessively acidic or alkaline in a way that may  have negative impact on all forms of life in the environment. This study was therefore conducted to determine the treated effluent quality of Tema (Ghana) Oil Refinery against the Ghana Environmental Protection Agency (EPA standards and also assess its impact on the environment. Samples of the effluents discharged from the refinery were taken and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters as well as Heavy Metals; lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), chromium(Cr), vanadium (V), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) for three consecutive months and their mean values compared with EPA standard. The results revealed that, all the heavy metals were within the standard of the EPA regulatory standard but mean conductivity was very high with a mean value of 10399.0 as against 1500. Also a high TDS mean value of 5358.67mg/l was recorded as against the EPA standard of 1000mg/l. Unsatisfactory mean levels of BOD and COD which reflected the organic load in the water were recorded. The BOD value was found to be 60mg/l as against the EPA standard of 50mg/l while COD value was 423.7mg/l which was far above the EPA standard of 250mg/l. It is therefore recommended that, the wastewater treatment unit of the Tema Oil Refinery should be revamped to enhance the control of contaminant levels of the final effluent discharged into the environment. Keywords: Tema Oil Refinery; environment; wastewater; regulatory bodies; waste management; Environmental Protection Agency
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Analysis Of Relationship Between Preliminary Estimate, Tender Sum And
           Final Accounts (A Case Study Of Selected Building Projects In Edo State,

    • Authors: OSEGHALE G. E, WAHAB A. B.
      Abstract: This research provides an analysis of the relationship between preliminary estimate, tender sum and final account of building projects with a view to predicting final account accurately from tender sum and preliminary estimate. To achieve the objectives, the study carried out extensive review of literature and collected data  interviews and administration of structured questionnaires. The data collected were analysed using multiple regression, correlation matrix and frequency distribution. The research reveals that there is a significant relationship between preliminary estimate, tender sum and final account of building projects. This research work has contributed to the existing body of knowledge in that it would help to provide reliable estimate for budgeting purposes. Key Words: Final account, Tender sum and Preliminary estimate
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Actualizing Nigeria’s Vision 20:2020: Imperatives of the
           Construction Sector

    • Authors: Baba Shehu Waziri, Kabir Bala
      Abstract: Nigeria’s vision 20:2020 is aimed at placing the country in the league of the first 20 global economies by the year 2020 with a minimum GDP of US$900 billion and per capita income of no less than US$4000 per annum. The Nigerian construction sector provides the much needed physical infrastructure for economic development which is critical toward realizing this laudable vision. The sector’s contribution to overall GDP dropped from 3.76% achieved in 2008 to 3.16% in 2009 and 2.86% in 2010. The Building and Construction sector also recorded a growth rate which slowed down from 12.8% in 2008 to 11.97% in 2009 and 11.85% in 2010. In 2011, the sector recorded a growth rate of 12.26% which is below the target of 19.0% set in the Transformation agenda. The study investigates through empirical means the impacts of the factors influencing the performance of the sector in providing the infrastructural base that contributes to national development. Bret Frischmann’s theory of infrastructure and commons management was adopted to put the work in context. Relative Importance Indices (RII) of 17 relevant factors surveyed revealed that low investment in the construction sector, low involvement of private sector in the provision of infrastructural facilities, lack of policy to promote indigenous contactors, reverse order of industrial development and monumental corruption in the sector with RII of 0.88, 0.84, 0.84, 0.80, and 0.79 respectively are the most significant factors. It is recommended that in order to achieve the vision in the year 2020 there is need for investment in infrastructure development, resuscitation of the decayed infrastructure, private financing of public projects and the need for capacity building. Keywords: Vision 20:2020, construction sector, economic development, infrastructure, Nigeria.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • An Experimental Investigation on the Strength and Durability Aspects of
           Bacterial Concrete with Fly Ash

    • Authors: M. Manjunath, Santosh A. Kadapure, Ashwinkumar A. Kalaje
      Abstract: This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation carried out to evaluate the influence of Bacillus sphaericus bacteria on the compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength, shear strength, water absorption and chloride permeability of concrete made without and with fly ash. Cement was replaced with two percentages (10 and 20) with fly ash by weight. Three different cell concentration (0, 103,105,107 cells/ml) of bacteria were used in making the concrete mixes. Tests were performed at the age of 28 days. Test results indicated that inclusion of B. sphaericus in fly ash concrete enhanced the compressive strength reduced the water absorption and chloride permeability of fly ash concrete. Maximum increase in compressive strength 15.47% was observed with 105cells/ml of bacteria. This improvement in strength was due to deposition on the bacteria cell surfaces within the pores. The present work highlights the influence of bacteria on the properties of concrete made with supplementing cementing material such as like fly ash. Usage of bacteria like B. sphaericus improves strength and durability and strength of fly ash concrete through self-healing effect. Keywords: Bacterial concrete, Bacillus sphaericus, compressive strength, water absorption, chloride penetration
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Analysis of pollutants present in the ground water due to Leachates at
           Thuraipakkam Dumpyard, Chennai

    • Authors: Yasar Arafath, Praveen Kumar, Vigneshwaran ., Banupriya .
      Abstract: Water is a gift of nature, but many regions are facing water shortage due to its being polluted by human activities, or increasing demand by industrialization and high population growth. In the present scenario most of the wastes which are discharged into natural water bodies such as lakes and rivers, it also affects the ground water quality. Groundwater is the alternative source of fresh water in areas where surface water is polluted and deficit. However, the ground water that is polluted by various sources e.g. solid waste, Industrial waste etc. The leachate from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills is a highly concentrated, so it can pollute large amounts of groundwater and hence it becomes unsuitable for domestic purposes. In this study we have analyzed the physical and chemical parameters of ground water samples at Thuraipakkam dumpyard located at Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India and the impacts of leachates on ground water is evaluated. In this report we have summarized the laboratory results of all the samples collected from the study area against the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) for drinking water. Spatial maps also created using ArcGIS Software for various parameters. The results of this study demonstrated that, the high concentration of Total Dissolved Solids, Electrical Conductivity, Hardness, Nitrates, Chlorides, Sulphates in ground water near landfill deteriorates the quality of water are compared to the samples away from the dumping yard. Keywords: ground water quality, leachate, ArcGIS, spatial maps.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Potentials of Sludge from Drinking Water Treatment Plant for Use as Source
           of Soil Nutrients for Reclamation of Degraded Land

    • Authors: Sabo; A., Garba, T, Bello, I. D., Mohammed, G. U
      Abstract: The residuals from Gubi drinking water treatment plant are usually discharged directly into the nearby streams without any form of treatment. The decomposition of the organic materials contained in the untreated sludge has caused the production of malodorous gases and unsightly condition in the area. The disposal of this sludge in an environmentally friendly manner is therefore not only desirable but necessary. The aim of this investigation was to assess the feasibility of utilizing the residuals from Gubi water treatment plant as a source of nutrients for reclamation of degraded lands especially those arising from mining activities. The study was carried out at Gubi water treatment plant located in the vicinity of Gubi Dam water reservoir.Ten sludge samples were collected from each of the three clerifiers. Important sludge properties that are known to aid nutrients status of soil were analyzed using standard laboratory procedures. The means of various soil quality parameters recorded in the WTRs were 6.8, 20.06g/kg, 34.90g/kg, 1.65g/kg, 2.30g/kg, 13.45mg/kg, 2.50Cmol/kg, 2.10Cmol/kg and 28Cmol/kg for pH, Organic C, Organic Matter, K, Total N, Olsen P, Ca, Mg and CEC respectively. The means of all the parameters analysed falls within the ranges considered good for vegetation growth. The heavy metals concentrations recorded in the residual were 1.8mg/kg, 0.1mg/kg, 2mg/kg, 29mg/kg, 66mg/kg, 15mg/kg, 8.7mg/kg, 6.2mg/kg and 0.03mg/kg for As, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr and Hg respectively. The concentrations of all the metals did not exceed the acceptable threshold limits recommended by regulatory authorities. Considering the enormous amount of plant nutrients and absence of excessive toxic metals in Gubi WTRs, it is safe to conclude that the residual can be use as a source of soil nutrients for reclamation of degraded land. Key words : Sludge, Soil Nutrients, Degraded Land, Reclamation
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Fitting Statistical Distributions of Monthly Rainfall for Some Iraqi

    • Authors: Najm Obaid Salim Alghazali, Dhelal Adnan Hussein Alawadi
      Abstract: In this study three statistical distributions were fitted to thirteen Iraqi stations of monthly rainfall observations: Mosul, Kirkuk, Khanaqin, Ramadi, Baghdad, Karbala, Hilla, Najaf, Diwaniya, Samawa, Nasiriyah, Amara and Basrah for the period (1970-2010) for all stations except Ramadi (1981-2010) and Hilla (1980-2010). These distributions were: Normal, Gamma and Weibull distributions. Method of moments was used for estimating parameters and two goodness of fit test were used: Chi-Square and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. Chi-Square test showed that Gamma distribution was suitable for five stations which were Ramadi, Baghdad, Hilla, Najaf and Samawa stations while, Normal and Weibull distributions were not suitable for any station. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed that none of the three distributions was suitable for any station. Keywords: Rainfall in Iraq, Statistical distributions, Normal distribution, Gamma distribution, Weibull distribution
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Experimental Study on the Limits of Flow Regimes for Different
           Configurations of Stepped Spillway

    • Authors: Najm Obaid Salim Alghazali, Salam M. Jasim
      Abstract: Flow over a stepped spillway can be divided mainly into three flow regimes that are nappe, transition and skimming depending upon the discharge and the dimensions of the stepped spillway. The determination of the flow regime is a very important aspect in the design of stepped spillway due to the different properties for each flow regime. Experimental work on flow regime limits for stepped spillways has been conducted using twelve stepped spillway models. The models were manufactured with three downstream slope angles: 25, 35 and 45°, and four numbers of steps: 5, 10, 15 and 20. Five configurations of steps were tested, which are conventional Flat, pooled, porous end sills, pooled with gabions and porous end sills with gabions. The results revealed that the end sills highly affect flow regime type; this effect is primarily for the lower limits of skimming flow. Using end sills increases the range of transition flow regime (by increasing the lower limit of skimming flow) as well as increases the instabilities that occur in this flow regime. Gabions reduce the effects of end sills on the lower limit of skimming flow regime to near the limit of flat steps. New empirical equations were suggested based upon the experimental results. Keywords: Flow Regimes, Gabions Steps, Nappe Flow Regime, Pooled Steps, Skimming Flow Regime, Stepped Spillway, Transition Flow Regime.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Design Optimization of Single Span Fixed-Feet Portal Frame Using
           Generalised Reduced Gradient Method

    • Authors: Chinwuba Arum, Oladeji Abiodun Tayo
      Abstract: The design of single span fixed-feet portal frames was optimized using MSExcel solver, a multi-disciplinary optimizing ad-in in MSExcel spreadsheet formulated using Generalised Reduced Gradient (GRG2) method of optimization. Portal frames of different geometries with two sets of different loading arrangements were designed using structural design software - PROKON (version W2.0.11) and the resulting design sections were mass-optimized based on the area of member cross section, using Excel solver. In the optimization exercise, the objective function (area of cross section) was minimized subject to the satisfaction of the constraints in accordance with the relevant British Standard. After the optimization process, the portal frame structural members (two vertical members and one horizontal member) for the first set of loading were 21.86%, 19.65% and 27.22% lighter than their initial sections thereby giving an average of 22.91% lighter section, and the second set of loading results show that the optimized sections were 30.31%, 31.27% and 30.29% lighter than their initial sections giving an average of 30.62% lighter section. Keywords: optimization, excel solver, generalised reduced gradient, portal frame.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Assessing Landcover Changes from Coastal Tourism Development in Ghana:
           Evidence from the Kokrobite-Bortianor Coastline, Accra

    • Authors: Yaw Agyeman Boafo, Alex B. Asiedu, Kwasi Appeaning Addo, Kwabena Effah Antwi, John Boakye-Danquah
      Abstract: As a major driver of landcover change, tourism-based developments are growing rapidly along different part of Ghana’s 560 km coastline. Kokrobite and Bortianor, with their serene environment, relatively clean, and pristine sandy beaches, have become popular coastal tourism destinations for tourists, recreationist, and holiday seekers in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. This study assesses how landcover changes emanating from coastal tourism establishments such as hotels, resorts, restaurants, and recreational facilities are affecting the socio-ecological landscape of the area. In this study, we utilize the maximum likelihood supervised classification along with post classification change detection techniques to analyze Landsat images for the years 1990, 2000 and 2010. Landcover maps of the different years were created and used to analyze changes occurring along the coastline of Kokrobite and Bortianor. Assembled results showed that built-up areas associated largely with tourism-based establishments have increased substantially from 1.02 km2 (16%) to 2.20 km2 (34.6%) between 1990 and 2010. Approximately 60% of the Kokrobite and Bortianor coastline’s natural ecosystem has been converted into different forms of tourism-based facilities such as hotels, resorts and settlements. Conversely, all forms of vegetative cover–riverine, dense active, and shrub/herbaceous cover are declining significantly. Increased tourist and recreationist demands along with the rapid urban growth in Accra is a preeminent cause of the current trends of developments. Regrettably, majority of the tourism-based establishments are unplanned, lacking authorization from development institutions and agencies, a reflection of the lack of a coherent integrated coastal zone management plan and functional urban landuse policy in Ghana. The result is a significant encroachment and degradation of the coastal ecosystems. Considering the already vulnerable state of most coastal areas in Ghana including Kokrobite and Bortianor, such developments could aggravate social and ecological vulnerability if left unchecked. In line with this, this study recommends the urgent need for a functional integrated coastal zone management plan and resourced institutions and agencies to enable effective management and regulation of developments in coastal zones in Ghana. Ultimately, coastal tourism, with all its recognized and potential socio-economic benefits to local and national economies can only be sustained with an ecologically productive coastal zone. Keywords: Tourism, Coastal tourism, Landcover, Kokrobite and Bortianor, Erosion
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • A Path to Sustainability: Biogas Recovery towards Energy Self Sufficiency
           Wastewater Treatment Plant

    • Authors: Hasan Hamouda, Nadine Abu-Shaaban
      Abstract: The concept of Sustainability is vigorously introduced into the curriculum of Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP) due to worldwide concerns over increasing energy demand coupled with growing volumes of sewage sludge. This paper evaluates anaerobic digestion of bio-sludge as a method for alleviating environmental, economic and social challenges surrounding current energy source, demand and strict sludge disposal standards. Gaza Strip has been selected as a case study area to assess the applicability of such approach; as AD is proposed to be integrated into Wastewater Treatment Plants in the Gaza Strip to reduce the volume of sludge produced as well as recovering biogas. Results show that AD is an attractive strategy along the path of sustainably managing WWTPs delivering the two key objectives of recovering enough energy to make WWTPs self sufficient and minimizing waste generation. Keywords: key words, anaerobic digestion, sludge reduction, sustainability, wastewater treatment plant  
      Issue No: Vol. 6
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Heriot-Watt University
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