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        1 2     

  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 129 journals)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Oceanography and Limnology     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Water Works Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Hidrología Médica     Open Access  
Annals of Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW. Land Reclamation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Applied Water Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquacultural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Living Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aquatic Procedia     Open Access  
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Asian Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Australian Journal of Water Resources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bubble Science, Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Desalination and Water Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Developments in Water Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
EQA - International Journal of Environmental Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European journal of water quality - Journal européen d'hydrologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Grundwasser     Hybrid Journal  
Human Resources for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Hydro Nepal : Journal of Water, Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hydrology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Hydrology: Current Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Nuclear Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Salt Lake Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Waste Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of Water Resources Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Irrigation and Drainage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Irrigation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Contemporary Water Resource & Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Oceans     Partially Free   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Hydro-environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Hydroinformatics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Hydrology (New Zealand)     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics     Open Access  
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of the American Water Resources Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Water and Climate Change     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Water and Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Water Resource and Hydraulic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Water Supply : Research and Technology - Aqua     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
La Houille Blanche     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Lake and Reservoir Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mangroves and Salt Marshes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Methods in Oceanography : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access  
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Osterreichische Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal  
Ozone Science & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Paddy and Water Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Revue des sciences de l'eau / Journal of Water Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Riparian Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
River Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
River Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
SA Irrigation = SA Besproeiing     Full-text available via subscription  
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientia Marina     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sri Lanka Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Open Access  
Sustainable Technologies, Systems & Policies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)

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Civil and Environmental Research
   [13 followers]  Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2224-5790 - ISSN (Online) 2225-0514
     Published by International Institute for Science, Technology and Education (IISTE) Homepage  [30 journals]
  • Suitabilty of Palm Kernel Shell As Coarse Aggregate In Lightweight
           Concrete Production

    • Authors: Williams; F.N, Ijigah, E.A, Anum, I, Isa, R.B, Obanibi, A.O
      Abstract: Palm kernel shell(PKS) is an agricultural waste which is environmental friendly. This research was focused on the assessment of characteristic strength of palm kernel shell concrete, with the view to be used as lightweight aggregate. This research is carried out to help in reducing construction cost in areas where lightweight concrete canbe considered. Various tests were carried out  in order to ascertain its use as lightweight aggregate. The aim was achieved by casting the beam and cubes with total replacement of granite with PKS and also casting an equivalent control to give a basis for comparison and a water cement ratio of 0.65 at a mix ratio of 1:2:4. A total of 24 beams and cubes each were cast  respectively . They were cured for 7, 14, 21 and 28days. Crushing of 3 each for the Palm Kernel Shell Concrete (PKSC) and Normal Weight Concrete (NWC) for each curing day upto the age of 28 days was carried out. The results of crushing values are as follows for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days; 14.47N/mm2, 18.49N/mm2, 20.33N/mm2 , 23.00N/mm2 and 7.40N/mm2, 9.20N/mm2; 11.30N/mm2 , 13.10 N/mm2, for NWC and PKSC respectively. The value for the flexural strength is as follow; 1.87, 0.91, 1.36, 1.81 and 0.34, 0.34, 0.40, 0.34 for NWC and PKSC respectively. The results showed that the compressive and flexural strength improved with age of curing, though the compressive and flexural strength of PKSC is low as compared to that of the NWC. It was concluded that the compressive and flexural strength of NWC is higher than that of PKSC. Therefore PKSC canbe used as lightweight concrete which should be designed with the corresponding design for NWC. It can therefore be concluded that palm kernel shell is a lightweight aggregate and can be used to produce lightweight concrete. Keywords: Palm kernel shell, lightweight aggregate, compressive strength, flexural strength
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Analysis of rainfall and temperature data to determine climate change in
           Dilla Zuria District, Southern Ethiopia

    • Authors: Tesfahun Fentahun
      Abstract: The objective this study was to determine climate change in Dilla Zuria District, Southern Ethiopia using rainfall and temperature data. To do so, rain fall data from 1955-2010 and temperature data from 1997-2010 was employed. Focus group discussions and key informant interview were also conducted. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS v.16 soft ware. The result showed that there was a reduction of rain fall with the variability on the onset and off set of rainy seasons and increase of temperature. The conversion of large indigenous trees is responsible for the observed changes in rainfall and temperature. Key words: Temperature, rainfall, variability, climate change
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Innovative Use of Waste Steel Scrap in Rigid Pavements

    • Authors: Pooja Shrivastava, Y.p. Joshi
      Abstract: This paper work assessment on the study of the workability and mechanical strength properties of the high strength concrete reinforced with industrial waste fibers. This waste steel scrap material which is available from the lathe is used as a steel fiber for innovative construction industry and also in pavement construction. Lathe waste is generated by each lathe industries and dumping of these wastes in the barren soil contaminating the soil and ground water, which creates an unhealthy environment. In addition to get sustainable development and environmental benefits, lathe scrap as recycled fibers with concrete are likely to be used. Experimental studies are done to know about fresh and hardened concrete properties of SFRC and their mechanical properties such as compressive strength, flexural strength and split tensile strength are found to be increased due to the addition of steel scrap fiber in the concrete. When compared with conventional concrete to SFRC, steel fiber increases flexural strength by 40% and considerable increase in compressive and tensile strength. These fibers may also contribute to improve properties such as shrinkage reduction, modulus of elasticity, toughness, resistance to cracking and preventing crack propagation. The workability of fresh concrete containing lathe scraps are carried out by using slump test. This paper focuses on structural strength enhancement and improvement in fatigue life of rigid pavement by locally available scrap steel. These rigid pavements using steel scrap promises an appreciably higher design life, offer better serviceability and minimize crack growth and corrosion. The innovative idea of this paper is the use of waste lathe scrap as recycled steel fibers, which provides more economical and environmental sustainable SFRC PAVEMENTS. Key words: lathe scarps steel fibers, Fatigue endurance, Flexural strength, workability, Tensile strength.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Analysis of Factors Influencing the Selection of Incentive Schemes in
           Selected Construction Firms in Lagos State, Nigeria

    • Authors: AINA Omotayo Olugbenga, AKINYEMI Tobi Akinlolu
      Abstract: The management of construction firms use incentive schemes to motivate workers to be more productive. In doing this, different incentive schemes motivate workers differently, and their selection process also impacts the schemes. Their selection process has been rarely studied. Therefore, this study investigated the methods employed by firms to select incentive schemes and the factors influencing the methods. One hundred and four project managers of randomly selected construction firms were asked to indicate the methods they employed in selecting incentive schemes and the factors that influenced their choice. Findings revealed that incentive schemes were majorly selected by construction firms through discretion, tradition, study-based selection and selection based on performance measurement. Furthermore, construction firms’ selection of incentive schemes by tradition was influenced by capacity of company to pay, culture and nature of task; selection by discretion was influenced by fluctuation in production, timing, and system of governance; selection based on performance measurement was influenced by availability of standardized work measurement technique, adequacy of work and cost benefit analysis; and the study-based selection was influenced by system of governance and strategy, cost and benefit analysis and adequacy of work. The study therefore emphasized the need for construction firms to understand and critically examine the factors that influence the selection of incentive schemes in order to achieve optimum effectiveness in their use. Key words: Incentive Schemes, Incentive Schemes Selection Methods, Factors influencing incentive Selection Methods.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Structural Evaluation of Lightweight Concrete Produced Using Waste
           Newspaper and Office Paper

    • Authors: Isaac I. Akinwumi, Olasunkanmi M. Olatunbosun, Oluwarotimi M. Olofinnade, Paul O. Awoyera
      Abstract: The construction industry consumes a large amount of non-renewable resources. On the other hand, more waste paper ends up in landfill or dump sites than those recycled. Consequently, recycling waste paper for use as a construction material constitutes a step towards sustainable development. This research effort aims at determining the density, water absorption capacity, compressive strength and fire resistance of papercrete produced using waste newspaper and office paper in order to ascertain their suitability for use as a building construction material. For each of the mix proportions considered, the bulk density, water absorption, compressive strength and fire resistance of papercrete made with newspaper were found to be higher than those made with office paper. The water absorption and fire resistance of papercrete were found to be high and increased with increasing waste paper content while the bulk density and compressive strength of papercrete were low and decreased with increasing waste paper content. Papercrete was recommended to be an effective and sustainable material for the production of lightweight and fire-resistant hollow or solid blocks to be used to make partition walls of especially high-rise buildings. Mix proportions were recommended for production of hollow and solid blocks using papercrete. Keywords: green-construction, low-cost housing, recycling, sustainability, waste paper
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Adsorption Studies of Direct Red 28 Dye onto Activated Carbon Prepared
           from Low Cost Material

    • Authors: Dakhil Nassir Taha, Israa Sadi Samaka, Luma Ahmed Mohammed, Ali Saib naige
      Abstract: An experimental investigation on the removal of direct red 28 dye from wastewater by using rice-husk carbon as low cost adsorbent was carried out in a laboratory. Batch type experiments were conducted to study the influence of different parameters such as adsorbent dose, contact time, pH, initial concentration of dye and particle size of adsorbent. The removal data have been analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The adsorption process was in conformity demonstrated use of rice husk to obtain low cost adsorbent for dye removal from aqueous solution . Keywords: adsorption,  low cost adsorbent, isotherm, dye .
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Removal of Basic Red 2 from Industrial Effluents Using Natural Iraqi

    • Authors: Israa Sadi Samaka
      Abstract: The use of natural Iraqi porcellanite as a cheap, abundantly and ecofriendly adsorbent has been studied as an alternative substitution of activated carbon for the removal of dye from industrial wastewater. This material was successfully used to remove the basic red 2 dye from aqueous solution in a batch equilibrium adsorption technique. Various factors such as adsorbent dose, contact time, pH, initial dye concentration and particle size of adsorbent were taken into account at room temperature, and promising results were obtained. The well known Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied for the equilibrium adsorption data and the various isotherm parameters were evaluated. The monolayer saturation capacity for adsorption basic red 2 was found to be 66.22 mg/g adsorbent. Keywords: adsorption,  dye, natural material, isotherm
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Performance Evaluation of Labour Output of Indigenous Construction Firms
           in North- Central Nigeria.

    • Authors: Agbo; Adakole Edwin
      Abstract: This paper evaluates the performance of labour output of indigenous contractors in the North Central Nigeria with a view to measure on site, the labour output of selected craftsmen as well as structured questionnaire targeting the clients – all as a measure of indigenous contractor’s performance. The data were collected through work sampling techniques and structured questionnaire designed on likert scale of 1-3. Analysis of the data was done using mean item score and direct calculation of performance using formula. The results indicate that the performance of the indigenous contractors were above average with a performance level of 0.56. The performance Ability Ratio (PAR) was 1.07 indicating that there are grater potentials for the indigenous contractors to improve.  All the firms investigated scored above 0.50 on the mean item scale. This means that all the measures of performance considered were very important. Technical competence was ranked as the overall most importance of the clients measured of performance.  The study concluded that the indigenous contractors perform above average contrary to the believe of the general public in Nigeria. The study also recommended that Nigerian government should consider indigenous contractors in their projects.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Influence of Quantity and Quality of Fines in Dug-up Gravel on the
           Performance Characteristics of Concrete

    • Authors: Akinropo Musiliu Olajumoke, Fola Lasisi, Martins Olusola Ogedengbe
      Abstract: The effects of quantity and quality of fines in the two earlier identified dug-up gravels as aggregates, on the performance characteristics of concrete were investigated. This aims at providing scientific solutions to the failure of concrete structures resulting from use of poor quality aggregates. Gravel A (Tiwantiwa) and gravel B (Majeroku) which were two major gravel sources in Ile-Ife and Ikire areas of Osun State were procured. The quantity and quality characteristics of the fines in the gravels were determined through gradation, chemical and mineralogical composition analyses. Each of the gravel was sieved into fines (? 2 mm) and non-fines (2 mm ? particle size ? 20 mm). The fines (F) and non-fine (NF) were later re-combined at varying percentages as coarse aggregate portion to make concrete cubes and beams for compressive and flexural strength tests using 1:2:4 mixes. The results showed that the gravels were absent of deleterious chemical compounds or minerals, but contained some level of impurities. At 28-day, the average compressive strength of concrete made with 0% F + 100% NF as coarse aggregate for both gravels A and B was 18.5 N/mm2 and 16.1 N/mm2. These values were decreasing as the quantity of fines in the coarse aggregate increased up to 100% F with 0% NF. There is good agreement between the experimental and modelled strengths. The recommended characteristic strength of concrete made with both gravels at fines content not exceeding 20%, at 28-day and 56-day curing ages are 14 and 18 N/mm2 respectively. Keywords: Dug-up gravel, fines and non-fines, compressive and flexural strengths, characteristic strength,                              failure of concrete structures, organic matters, water absorption, coefficient of determination
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Assessment of Craftsmen Turnover in the Construction Industry

    • Authors: Calistus Ayegba, Adakole Edwin Agbo
      Abstract: The paper gives an insight on construction craftsmen turnover in the construction industry. In the study, the main factors responsible for craftsmen turnover, the effect of craftsmen turnover on contractors’ performance and suggestions that will tackle the problem of turnover were considered. A total of 50 questionnaires were distributed and 46 of the administered questionnaire was responded to and returned. The data obtained were analysed with statistical tools such as standard deviation, mean and variance. Also pie charts, bar chart, column chart and line chart were used in presenting results. The four-point Likert scale was used to rank factors in order of their importance based on the relative Important Index (R.I.I) of the factors. The result shows that poor payment and benefits, poor treatment of workers and absence of advancement and promotion opportunities are the main cause of turnover while tribal differences and religious differences as regard cultural diversity are the main factors responsible for turnover. The study observed that craftsmen turnover has both direct cost and indirect cost effect on the performance of construction companies. Cost of hiring new employees, training of new workers and replacing old workers was shown to be the main direct cost effect on the performance of a contractor while indirect cost such as Project overtime, additional workload on remaining workers and reduction of project performance are the main effect of indirect cost. The study also shows that the problem of craftsmen turnover can be reduced by paying competitive compensation and benefit packages, fair treatment of workers and reward for dedicated workers are some of the best ways of reducing turnover while fairness, equal opportunity and respect for all and conducive workplace and cultural relation balance are ways of reducing turnover resulting from the cultural diversity of workers. The study also identified that motivation of craftsmen by increasing wages and salaries, promoting committed workers and training of craftsmen can be used to reduce the effect of craftsmen turnover. Based on the findings in the work, appropriate recommendations were being made to help tackle the challenges of craftsmen turnover in the construction industry. Key words: Turnover, Craftsmen, Construction Industry
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Evaluation of land use/land cover changes of Bantneka Watershed, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Tesfahun Fentahun
      Abstract: This study was carried out to examine the trend of land use and land cover changes of Bantenka watershed, Ethiopia through time. It was conducted using satellite image of Landsat5 TM 1986, Landsat7 ETM+ 2000 and Spot 2006. In addition, field observations and focus group discussions were conducted. ERDAS Imagine 9.1 and ArcGIS 9.3 software for satellite image processing, and global positioning system as well as topographical maps of scale 1:50,000 for ground verification were used. The result of the study revealed that annual cereal crop, mixed and woodland showed a negative rate of change. However, perennial crop land and settlement land were increased by 5.83 and 1.41 ha/year respectively from 1986-2006. It implies that perennial crop land and settlement land were the major driving forces for the change of watershed biodiversity and other land resources. Key words: Land use and land cover change, watershed
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Spatial Variations of the Flood and Drought in the Northern Region of Sri

    • Authors: Piratheeparajah. N, Raveendran .S
      Abstract: There are no any systematic orders in the occurrences of drought and flood hazards in Sri Lanka. Some areas have higher number of disaster occurrences and some other areas have lower numbers. In this situation this study focused the spatial variations of the drought and flood hazards in the Northern Region of Sri Lanka.  Main objective of this study is to identify the spatial patterns of drought and flood hazards in the study area. Monthly, Seasonal and annual climatic data for the stations Akkarayankulam, Ambalapperumalkulam, Iranaimadu, Kanukkerny, Karukkaikulam, Murunkan, Muththaiyankaddu, Nainathivu, Pallavarayankaddu, Pavatkulam, Thirunelveli, Vavunikkulam, and Vavuniya, were collected for the period from 1972 to 2012. Primary data for this study were collected using interviews and discussions and direct observations. Also varius sources of secondary data were used to carry out this study. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) has been used to identify the drought and flood hazards in every station for the period from 1972 to 2012. Krigging method of Arc GIS 9.2 version was used to identify the spatial variations of the drought and flood hazards.  During the South West Monsoon Season (SWMS) 03 severe drought in Vavunikkulam station and 09 in Akkarayankulam, 08 in Murungan, and 08 in Pavatkulam were identified. During the First Inter Monsoon Season (FIMS), extreme floods were experienced in several areas. Three in Iranaimadu, 03 in Thirunelveli, 03 in Pallavarayankaddu and 03 in Nainathivu station were identified in the Northern region using SPI method. During the Second Inter Monsoon Season (SIMS), 02 extreme floods in Thirunelveli, 02 in Vavuniya, and 03 in Murungan, and 02 in Akkarayankulam station and 07 severe droughts in Nainathivu and 05 in Vavuniya were also identified. During the North East Monsoon Season(NEMS), 03 extreme floods in Akkarayankulam, 03 in Ambalapperumalkulam and 03 severe floods, 03 extreme floods in Pallavaraykaddu, 03 severe floods in Muththaiyankaddu, 04 severe floods in Vavunikkulam station and 03 severe floods in Vavuniya were identified in the Northern region of Sri Lanka. Spatially some areas have been affected many times by flood and drought in the Northern Region of Sri Lanka. Comparatively, Eastern Parts of the study have more flood hazards and more number of droughts has occurred in the Western part of the study. Also 70% of the people expressed above thing. Also frequencies of the flood occurrences gradually decrease in the direction from the east to the west and similarly drought occurrences gradually decrease from the west to the east. Key Words: Drought, Flood, Seasons, Spatial Variations and Northern Region
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • The Impact of Outdoor Thermal Environment on Iraqi Building Energy

    • Authors: Ahmed Hasson, Saad Kh. Mahmood
      Abstract: The performance of direct heat gain system is affective by the sever summer heat environment in the building design types in Iraq. Therefore, it is important to consider the outdoor environment while designing direct heat gain system. Base on analyzing the long term weather data over the past 10 years and examine the practical issues of building design, useful climatic information and patterns are identified. The provided information will enable people to better understand the trends of local buildings (modern and traditional intensive buildings type) climate and to build up the resources for assessing important issues of renewable energy and environmental design and to determine indoor environmental quality based on the outdoor microclimate. The simulation result reveals how the relationship between the outdoor environment and indoor factors (indoor design building) the performance of direct heat gain system. The results indicated that the thermal storage mass of direct of direct heat gain system raises the room air temperature due to the large area of window. The climatic data currently being used for energy design calculations leads to inaccuracies in predictions of energy use. Heating coefficients were consistently positive and their values varied between 0.1, to 0.46, while albedo values varied between 0.19 and 0.37. The results indicated that there is little monthly variation in the values of nocturnal net radiation. The energy cost of cooling fuel estimated for both building types. Keywords: Albedo, Microclimatology, Modern, Outdoor environment, Traditional Building.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Geo-technical Investigation and Characterization of Sub-soils in Yenagoa,
           Bayelsa State, Central Niger Delta, Nigeria

    • Authors: H.O Nwankwoala, E. Oborie
      Abstract: This study aims at establishing the sub-soil types and profile to ascertain the geotechnical characteristics of the underlying soils in parts of Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria and recommend appropriate foundation design and construction of projects in the area. Four boreholes were drilled using hand auger and representative disturbed samples were taken at regular intervals of 1.0m depth, and also when a change in soil type was observed. Standard laboratory procedures were used in the analysis of the samples. Water levels recorded in the site BH-1 (1.50m), BH-2 (1.50m), BH-3 (4.00m) and BH-4 (1.00m), respectively. Geotechnical result reveal that the area is underlain predominantly by medium to firm silty clay (although) in BH-1, silty sand and medium to fine silty clay in BH-2 and medium to firm silty clay at the top, silty sand (middle) and fine to medium sand at the bottom of BH-3 and BH-4, respectively. Water level (WL) recorded in the site for BH-1 (1.50m), BH-2 (1.50m), BH-3 (4.00m) and BH-4 (1.00m), respectively. The soil material presented average Moisture Content (MC) of 27%; 35% average Liquid Limit (LL); 22% average Plastic Limit (PL); 13% average Plasticity Index (PI) with average Liquidity Index of 0.387. Average Hydraulic conductivity K (Permeability) obtained from grain size analysis for BH-3 and BH-4: 3.2 x 10-3m/s and 1.8 x 10-3 m/s respectively, with an average of K = 2.5 x 10-3m/s. BH-3 and BH-4 were considered for sieve analysis only because of the appreciable sand presence which were not available in BH-1 and BH-2. The hydraulic conductivity values are high within the typical permeability values for fine to medium sand to gravel. The implication of high K values is that the aquifer system in the area is prolific. It is recommended that studies on the geotechnical characteristics of the area be carried out as it provides valuable data that can be used for foundation design and other forms of construction for civil engineering structures in order to minimize adverse effects and prevention of post construction problems. Key Words: Geotechnical, Hydraulic conductivity, Sub-soil, Yenagoa, Niger Delta.  
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Non-Destructive Testing Techniques for Corrosion Assessment in Reinforced
           Concrete Structures in Kenya

    • Authors: Violah J. Salbei, Cox M. W. Sitters, John Vantomme
      Abstract: Deterioration of concrete structures is inevitable due to the fact that it is subjected to deterring environmental factors. Therefore, inspection and maintenance of these structures should be done to ensure their serviceability. Many concrete structures have been constructed in Kenya. A survey of some of the existing multi-storey buildings shows that even some of the old ones are in good condition; examples are the Norfork Hotel, Sarova Stanley Hotel and the railway bridges built in early 1900s. Yet, ageing structures require periodic monitoring to check their serviceability. Currently, inspection of most structures is done solely by simple visual means which is not always adequate. In order to enhance reliable assessment of structures, the present research introduces non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques for corrosion damage diagnosis in Kenyan concrete structures. Visual inspection is followed by half-cell potential measurements, carbonation tests and chloride tests. Laboratory analysis as well as field testing shows that NDT techniques provide safe, fast and reliable tools for the assessment of structural integrity. Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, Deterioration, Inspection, Non-destructive testing
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Application of Geogrids on the Geotechinical Properties of Subgrade
           Materials under Soaked Condition

    • Authors: OLANIYAN; O. S., AKOLADE, A. S
      Abstract: Highway construction is one of the main engineering design and construction in civil engineering in many countries all over the world. Existing studies have shown that civil engineers engaging in highway construction have several challenges during road construction especially as it is related to the topography of the site ,inadequate subgrade soil and high water table, inspite of this challenges ,the application of geogrids as a geotechnical property is imperative to improve the subgrade of soils with soaked condition. Soil samples were labeled (A, B& C) at random. These samples were taken to the Laboratory for experiments to identify and determine the Grain size analysis, atterberg, compaction and California bearing ratio by placing the geo-grids at varying depths and in single layer under soaked conditions (48hrs) to determine the strength of the soil samples. The geogrids were introduced in three independent single layers i.e. 2/5, 3/5 and 4/5 the distance from the base of the mould. Samples A, B&C (3%, 9% &6%) respectively, shows that the strength of subgrade is considerably increased by introducing geo-grids reinforcement in the soil. It is found that geo-grids placed at 3/5 the distance from the base showed higher CBR value(15.1%,14% & 12.2%) than when placed at 2/5 (12.8%,11% & 8.8%) and 4/5(11%, 10% & 8.3%) distances from the base. The differences in the behavior of the soil under soaked conditions improve on increasing the number of layers of geo-grids. As a subgrade stabilizer it has shown great effect of improvement. It can be used to improve poor lateritic materials due to its low maintenance, corrosion resistance and increment in the service life of road pavement. This application of geogrids is a means to improve the strength of basic engineering and geotechnical properties of poor subgrade soils under soaked condition. This  will reduce land wastage, uneconomical design of road construction. Geo-grids should be employed as a modernized form of improving road construction on poor subgrade materials. Keywords: geogrids, CBR, highway construction, soaked conditions, reinforcement, subgrade.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Deforestation in Obubra Local Government Area: The Challenges before the
           Cross River State Anti-Deforestation Commission

    • Authors: Anthony Adomi Mbina
      Abstract: There is no gainsaying the fact that our environment is facing the greatest challenge ever in its long history; and many are forced to believe that human activities are a major cause of the climate change and global warming, which may have catastrophic consequences for the climate and the environment. For instance, rising temperatures could intensify storms, floods and droughts. Rising temperatures may also foster the spread of diseases by enabling mosquitoes, ticks and other disease-carrying organisms, including fungi, to spread. According to the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientist, “the dangers posed by climate change are nearly as dire as those posed by nuclear weapons; and the effects may be less dramatic now, but over the next three to four decades, climate change could cause irremediable harm to the habitats upon which human societies depend for survival”. What do all these portend for our local environment? What benefits could be derived from the recently formed anti-deforestation commission and the planned House of Assembly Bill on Deforestation in Cross River State? This paper seeks to assess the effect of deforestation in Obubra Local Government Area of Cross River State taking into consideration the state policy on deforestation. It is hoped that the outcome of this presentation will assist stakeholders and government alike in fashioning out a sustainable policy for curbing the effects of deforestation and the rate at which our natural forests are being deforested. Key Words:        Deforestation; Obubra; Challenges; Forestry Commission; Cross River State; Nigeria
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Effect of Preservation on the Quality of Sachet Water consumed by
           Households in Nsukka Zone

    • Authors: Priscilla Mberekpe, Ngozi Eze
      Abstract: The paper investigated the effect of preservation on the quality of sachet water consumed by the households in Nsukka Zone of Enugu state, Nigeria. The reason being that portable water is needed by the body and may lead to poor health problems, if poorly preserved. Four brands of sachet water were randomly selected from the seventeen brands identified in the zone. The water samples were stored at two storage environments (indoor and outdoor) and time durations were as follows: day one (as control); 2 weeks; 5weeks and 8 weeks. The samples were coded as MCW, DOW, and ETW. The samples were examined in both sensory and microbial count before they were stored in their storage environments and assessed at the treatment time durations respectively using standard analytical methods. At each treatment, time duration,48 samples of water were analyzed. The findings showed that, there were no significant difference (P<0.05) in the mean values at indoor storage environment for odour, and for taste, but there was a  significant difference (P<0.05) in two brands at outdoor storage environment in odour, and in taste. A significant difference existed at the four brands stored. There was also a significant difference (P<0.05) in the mean values of coliform. Mould count also had significant difference (P<0.05) in their mean values. From the findings, it was established that all brands of sachet water produced in the zone had E. coli at day one, which is an indication of faecal contamination and indoor had the best taste and odour at two weeks and also better in microbial content. Key words: Preservation, Quality, Sachet, Potable
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Evaluation of Groundwater Quality of Coastal Aquifer Systems in Buguma
           City, Rivers State South-Southern Nigerian

    • Authors: Uzoije A.P; , Onunkwo-A. A., Uche, C.C, Ashiegbu , D
      Abstract: Saline intrusion has been a major source of groundwater contaminant in coastal regions. The situation has adversely affected groundwater quality . Being an essential source of freshwater for the teeming population over the world and indeed Nigeria and its suitability for various uses is largely dependent on physico-chemical quality, this study therefore  selected for its quality  assessment, the coastal aquifer of Buguma in rivers state Nigeria. Water samples collected from various locations using systematic random sampling were subjected to physico-chemical analysis .  sodium (Na2+) (288mg/l) chloride(Cl-)(414.7mg/l) and  nitrate (N03-)(64.45 mg/l) ions dominated the major ions of sample results and also exceeded  the  Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality NSDWQ 2007 and WHO drinking water standard 2006. Among the trace elements, Fe2+ and  As ions  were above the drinking water regulatory limits of  NSDWQ and WHO. Classification techniques were employed  to  provide  an assessable information on the chemical composition  of the water samples  like  the major ions  in the analysis. The high proportion ofNa2+, K+ and Cl- as  typified by the graphs  classified the water  as Na-K, Cl- type which confirmed saltwater intrusion. The  water therefore needs adequate treatment  to raise it to portable standard. Keywords;  Groundwater, Water Quality,  Buguma,  Major ions, Trace Elements, Geochemistry.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
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Heriot-Watt University
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