- Evaluation of the Socio-Economic Impacts of Gully Erosion in Nkpor and
Authors: Ezeigwe; Patrick C.
Abstract: The study conducted a comparative analysison the socio-economic impacts of soil erosion in Nkpor and Obosi. In doing this, questionnaires were administered randomly to the residents. The data generated were analyzed using cross tabulation, descriptive statistics, two sample T-Test and Z-Tests statistical techniques due to their nature. The results showed there is no serious variation between the socio-economic impacts of erosion in both communities. Furthermore it also showed that erosion have caused serious socio-economic impacts on the inhabitants of the area. Consequent upon the findings, the following recommendations were made: That there is a great need to conscientize the inhabitants of both Nkpor and Obosi and other flood susceptible areas of these environmental and socio-economic effects of flooding and the need for all to join in combating it, there should be development of an Integrated Environmental Management Programme (IEMP) for the state based on the principles of sustainable development to help tackle both the challenges of erosion and other environmental hazards. .
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Evidences of Climate Change in Nepal
Authors: Shree Prasad Devkota Shiba Bagale
Abstract: Climate Change is one of the environmental issues. It is one of the threatening problems to the climate scientists and environmental policy makers. Climate change discussion formally entered in Nepal in 1992 and Nepal was concerned with the upcoming consequences of climate change. There are several evidences of climate change and also consequences are seen. Climate Change is the result of a great many factors including the dynamic processes of the Earths itself. Climate change is not solely an environmental issue; it has implications for achieving economic growth, human security and broader social goals. Furthemore, this paper concern with a new thing and new issue was explored from the field visit December 7-11, 2014 and that was there are environmental changes in different places. It is a change or disturbance of the environment by natural ecological processes and anthropological impact.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Evaluation of Palm Kernel Shell Concrete Strength for Various Mixes and
Water/Cement Ratios using Non Destructive (UPV) Method
Authors: I.T. Yusuf, Y.A. Jimoh
Abstract: Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) measurement is one of the most popular non-destructive techniques used in the indirect assessment of mechanical properties of concrete. This paper investigates the compressive strength-UPV relationship of palm kernel shell concrete (PKSC) to develop strength based quality assurance model for construction of vegetative lightweight concrete pavement. A total of 420 cubes (150mm) and 28 PKSC slabs were casted for nominal mixes of 1:1:1, 1:1:2, 1:11/2:3 and 1:2:4 and varying water/cement (w/c) ratios of 0.3-0.7. The PKSC elements were cured in water at laboratory temperature for 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 56 and 91 days, and then subjected to nondestructive testing using the Pundit apparatus for determination of the respective ultrasonic wave velocity and elastic modulus at the various ages. The unconfined compressive strength of the PKSC was determined after the pulse velocity to establish a velocity-strength data set, which was employed for the development of statistical model. Results show that the UPV and the compressive strength of PKSC increased with age but decreased with increase in w/c ratio and mixes. The strength-UPV models developed for all mixes were in the form of logarithm equation, at R2 values between 94.9 – 99.3 %. The application of the developed model as rigid pavement maintenance/deterioration planning and design was demonstrated in the paper. Keywords: Compressive strength, Palm kernel shell concrete, Nondestructive technique, Rigid pavement maintenance, Ultrasonic pulse velocity.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Hydraulic Relationships of the Ikpoba River for Flood Studies
Authors: E.E Mukoro, S. Agunbiade, M. Yakubu
Abstract: Flooding is a temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of normally dry areas of overflow of inland or tidal waters or from extreme and rapid accumulation of runoff. Flooding phenomenon is considered the world worst global hazard in terms of magnitude, occurrence and geographical spread, loss of life and property, displacement of people and socio-economic activities. In the tropical and sub-tropical regions, severe flooding hazards resulting from heavy thunderstorms, torrential downpours, hurricanes and tidal waves are yearly occurrences. Flood disasters are said to account for one-third of all natural catastrophes throughout the world by number and economic losses and are responsible for more than half of the facility damage (Askew, 1999). In Nigeria, many urban floods occur because of excessive extreme rainfalls improper land use and poor drainages. It has been estimated that more than seven hundred thousand hectares of useful land for agricultural and residential purposes are either lost or rendered useless due to annual floods (David and Aggrawal 2008). The Niger Delta region of Nigeria is mostly flat low lying swampy basin resulting in severe regular flooding which has led to a limited land area for residence. Benin City experiences flash Flood and Flood pondages. Areas are inundated for more than two hours during flood episodes with an average water height of one meter (Ogbonna, et al 2011). As a result of flood events, every year government spends huge sums of money on compensation for flood victims, yet, the problems are unabated. Decision makers need supporting tools such as knowledge of extreme flood magnitudes and probability of re-occurrence, flood stages and river discharge relationships to enable decisions on a particular line of action which would be most adequate in mitigating against flood This study seeks to derive hydraulic relationships for the Ikpoba River which can serve as decision support tools that can be used in evaluating flood damages in suburban-areas of Benin-city metropolis. The specific objectives are to:
i. Determine the exceedance frequency discharge relationship for the Ikpoba River.
ii. Establish depths for longitudinal and cross sectional profiles of the Ikpoba River
iii. Derive the stage discharge relationship of the Ikpoba River
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Influence of Recycled Concrete Aggregate and Crushed Clay Brick on
Mechanical Properties of Concrete
Authors: Garuba Osiregbeme Momoh, Hemavathi Sundaram, Thiru Shanmugam, Deepak Tirumishi Jada
Abstract: Concrete is regarded as the most used construction material and natural aggregates used in concrete must be preserved by any acceptable means. This paper presents the results; compressive strength and tensile strength, of using Recycled Concrete Aggregate (RCA) and Crushed Clay Brick (CCB) as partial replacements for coarse and fine aggregates respectively in concrete. Three factors: RCA, CCB and CD were considered and combined at different levels of replacement in the determination of the compressive and tensile strength of concrete. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to determine the combination of these factors. RCA was used at 30%, 22.5% and 15% representing the high, middle and low replacement levels. Similarly, CCB was replaced at 20%, 15% and 10% which represents the high, middle, and low level respectively. CD was set to 28, 18 and 7 days representing the high, middle and low level. 20 combination set was generated using the RSM. It was found that RCA and CCB included concrete gains compressive strength faster within the first 7 days than the Normal Aggregate Concrete (NAC) but may not gain much more strength afterwards. Keywords: Concrete, Recycled Concrete Aggregate, Crushed Clay Brick, Compressive Strength, Tensile Strength, Response Surface Methodology.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- FACTORS RELATED To The BEHAVIOR OF LABOR SAFETY In LOADING And UNLOADING
Authors: Sulfikar. S, Tjipto Suwandi
Abstract: Work accident happened on labor loading and unloading Dock in Tanjung Perak Surabaya City is the result of unsafe behavior and unsafe conditions in the workplace. Based on the data of Co-operative management loading/unloading labor Tanjung Perak Surabaya in 2013 occurred 27 cases of accidents and increases in the next year by 2014 happened 35 cases of work accident. The results of the accident data is obtained it is known that the main cause of occurrence of accidents by the year 2013-2014 because there are still many loading/unloading labor that do unsafe act while working. This research aims to analyze the factors that are associated with unsafe behavior at loading/unloading labor Dock Jamrud Tanjung Perak in Surabaya. This research is quantitative research with cross sectional design research that was carried out in April-May 2015. Research results known from the 70 respondents, 47 respondents behave is not secure and 23 respondents behave safely. Regulatory factors and work environment is a factor associated with behavioral safety. Environmental regulations and the respective work place has significant (p-value: 0.00) and unsafe behavior loading/unloading labor in Jetty Jamrud Tanjung Perak in Surabaya. Based on the research results, it is recommended in the management of cooperatives loading/unloading labor Tanjung Perak Surabaya service users with various parties of labor and unloading to mutually cooperate to make a good rule K3 and creating a safe working environment for our workforce loading fit so hopefully can lead to a change in the behavior of labor safety and unloading of unsafe being safe Key Words: Behavior, Safety Regulations, Equipment, Loading/Unloading Labor
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Strategies for economical construction of rural roads
Authors: Ajay Swarup Pradeep Kumar Agarwal, Abdul Basit Khan
Abstract: Poor construction and maintenance of rural roads is key component of poverty in rural areas. Rural road network constitutes the highest road network percentage of total road network in India, hence required a great care and huge investment while construction and maintenance. Therefore, there is an urgent need to construct and maintain the rural roads in an optimal manner.This existing huge rural road network is highlighting the need to take some effective measures for controlling and maintaining the deterioration of the rural road network. However, there are various issues like choice of appropriate type of pavement, economical construction of pavements depending upon traffic and sub grade soil requirements, quality assurance during construction and timely and effective maintenance during operation period of road etc. should be taken under consideration. There is a need to develop some innovative strategies for reducing cost of construction of rural roads. These strategies will be useful for achieving the best values possible for the available resources in providing and operating smooth safe and economical pavements for rural roads in India. However, there are various issues like choice of appropriate type of pavement, economical construction of pavements depending upon traffic and sub grade soil requirements, quality assurance during construction and timely and effective maintenance during operation period of roads etc. Various factors are there that affects the construction cost like subgrade characteristics, drainage characteristics, material characteristics etc. All these factors are dependent upon availability of fund. Non-availably of the required standardized material for construction is the mostly seen in many states. Therefore, transportation of standardized material causes high increment in construction cost. To achieve economy, use of locally available materials will be more emphasized and strategies will be suggested to utilize locally available material more efficiently for construction of pavements. Thus, it is expected that such a study will be very useful to reduce the cost of construction, and thus well leads to economy in providing huge rural road infrastructure in the country. Keywords:Reducing cost of construction, Rural roads, Economical, Strategies
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Evaluation of Road Safety Hazardous Conditions in a Road Network
Authors: Uma Bhawsar Pradeep Kumar Agarwal, Rahna Beevi T R Abdul Basit Khan
Abstract: The paper presents a methodology to evaluate safety hazardous condition in a road network. Poor and delayed maintenance of roads leads to road accidents. Several maintenance components like poor surface condition (pothole, rutting, shoulder drop-off), improper traffic signs, road marking, poor lighting etc. affects road safety. Road maintenance is generally limited to improving carriageway surface condition like filling pothole etc. without replacing missing traffic signs, road marking and other safety features essential for a safe road network. Maintaining the roads in safe condition require huge resources in form of man machine and materials. Thus, Identification and evaluation of maintenance components effects on road safety is very important task for assessing the maintenance needs for improving road safety. Limited studies are available on identification of effects of maintenance components on road safety. A methodology is developed based on the identification of effect of poor maintenance on road safety and by considering inter-relationship between various maintenance components. Also a methodology is developed to evaluate the effects of these components on road safety. It is expected that this study will be useful in assessing the maintenance needs and effectiveness of various maintenance components in improving road safety. Keywords: Road Maintenance, Road Safety, Maintenance Components, Safety Hazardous Conditions.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Non-Deterministic Analysis of Wind Loads Effects on High-Rise Buildings
Authors: Salah R. Al Zaidee, Ashraf Al Salmani
Abstract: This paper studies the effect of wind turbulence component that should be described and analyzed in a stochastic form on tall building. Wind turbulence has been modeled as a random process. Root mean squares (RMS) for building tip displacement has been determined for different heights and different aspect ratios of building plan. Based on computed RMS, it has been noted that different margins of safety should be used for different design parameters (i.e. building height and different aspect ratios). Keywords: Root mean squares, frequency.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Evaluation of Treated Wastewater Quality Changes through the Vadose Zone
Authors: Heba Abd el-Aziz, Mustafa Elkhedr, Ashraf Ghanem, Abdallah Sadek Bazaraa
Abstract: Due to water challenges in arid and semi-arid regions including water scarcity and increasing demands, wastewater reuse in irrigation is becoming more widely practiced. This paper presents a case study for Sadat City, Egypt, to assess the impacts of using treated wastewater (TWW) in irrigation on soil and evaluating the natural attenuation of the TWW in the vadose zone. A field and laboratory program was conducted to identify the hydraulic properties of the soil and the contaminant concentration in water and soil. Water flow and solute transport are simulated in the vadose zone using HYDRUS 1D for five soil profiles in the study area through 50 years from 1992 to 2042. Six contaminants of concern were selected to simulate (Mg, Cl, Fe, NH3, NO3 and Fecal Coliform to study the bio-clogging effect on the soil). Six irrigation scenarios were selected to simulate flow and transport according to thewastewater treatment (primary, secondary, oxidation pond, tertiary treated wastewater, tertiary for double field water duty and irrigation with two year rotation(primary treated wastewater and groundwater)). The results show the concentration of contaminants of concern which will reach to groundwater aquifer after the purification and soil leaching.The results indicate that the concentrations of contaminants of concern were affected sensitively by the initial concentration of soil columns. Keywords: Wastewater, groundwater, vadose zone, HYDRUS 1D
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Fire Protection: Architect’s Role during Construction of Buildings
Authors: Arc. Nich. I. Obi
Abstract: With technological advancement each year and improved awareness of fire safety measures, fires needlessly cause many casualties as well as material damages. Contractors and consultants can utilize past experiences and involvement whenever a property becomes a building site. The past knowledge of existing buildings especially those that have fire certificate and fire safety systems will be invaluable to the architects and contractors. Advance planning for fire protection and vigilance in construction safety can greatly reduce the risk of disasters. Actions necessary to minimize the chances of fire loss lies in recognizing probable causes, implementing adequate prevention measures, and preparing a plan for battling a fire should it strike. Undertaking construction work increases the risk of fire. Some are caused by tools and products used during the construction process, while others are due to carelessness on the job. Most fires can be prevented by taking routine safety precautions and eliminating the opportunities for a fire to start. Keywords: construction, building, fire, safety, site.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Fire Protection Measures in Buildings: The Architect’s Design Role
Authors: ARC. N. I. OBI
Abstract: The key elements of any fire protection system involve prevention, retardations, detection, extinguishments as well as rescue. Major advances have been made in all these elements and are continually improved and made increasingly effective by improvement in technology advancement. Advancement in Building design and construction can have significant improvement in fire safety, therefore, architects, need to adapt new techniques and new materials and incorporate them in their designs. They also need to liaise with fire professionals and engineers across the globe in order to update their knowledge in fire safety. In many countries, safety standards and laws were made as a guide to prevent fire conflagration, loss of assets or buildings, as well as protection of individual life, and architects follow such regulations during design. The fire protection codes, laws and standards are as such effectively implemented in advanced countries. Here in Nigeria there seem to be no adequate statutes in place, except the draft National fire Code. Architects in the country have to rely a lot on their personal fire protection knowledge and design dexterity to provide in building fire prevention and protection measures. Statutory Fire Safety Provisions should be established and administered by the 3 tiers of our government and such document must serve as a guideline in all architectural designs. This paper therefore tries to give an insight into the role of architects as it relates to fire protection during design of buildings. Keywords: buildings, fires, prevention, safety, standards.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Climate Change Effect on Sediment Yield at King Talal Dam (Jordan)
Authors: Fayez Abdulla, Tamer Eshtawi
Abstract: With a yearly precipitation of 200 mm in most of the country, Jordan is considered one of the least water-endowed regions in the world. Water scarcity in Jordan is exacerbated by growing demands driven by population and industrial growth and rising living standards. Major urban and industrial centers in Jordan including the Capital Amman are concentrated in the northern highlands, mostly contained within the boundaries of the Zarqa River Watershed (ZRW). The ZRW is the third most productive basin in the greater Jordan River System. King Talal Dam was built few kilometers upstream of the Zarqa-Jordan confluence to regulate its input mostly for the benefit of agricultural activities in the Jordan Valley. King Talal Dam (KTD) is the most important one in Jordan. It lies at the outlet of Zarqa River watershed (ZRW). This dam has a capacity of 86×106 m3, which serves irrigation purposes in the Jordan Valley. However, the dam suffers from accelerated annual sedimentation. Concerns regarding the sensitivity of the ZRW to potential climate change have prompted the authors to carry out the current study. The methodology adopted is based on simulating the hydrological response of the basin under alternative climate change scenarios. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a powerful time-variable hydrologic model that has rarely been applied in arid environments. In this paper, the performance of SWAT in the semi-arid Zarqa River watershed (ZRW) was assessed. The SWAT model was calibrated for Zarqa basin using records spanning from 1980 through 1994. The model was validated against an independent data record extending from 1995 through 2002. Calibration and verification results were assessed based on linear regression fitting of monthly and daily flows. Monthly calibration and verifications produced good fit with regression coefficient r values equal to 0.928 and 0.923, respectively. Annual volume predictions correlated well with measured flow in both the calibration (r = 0.94) and validation (r = 0.93) periods. For model validation the simulation results were compared to the measured values over 12 years period. Good agreement was obtained in some of the years. Utilizing the SWAT modeling environment, scenarios representing climate conditions with ±20% change in rainfall, and 1oC , 2oC and 3.5oC increases in average temperature were simulated and assessed. Unique relationship between the percent change in precipitation scenarios and the parallel change in sediment yield has been studied at different change in temperature to evaluate the degree of sediment sensitivity with temperature and precipitation. The study shows that climate warming can dramatically impact runoffs, groundwater recharge and sediment yield in the basin. However the impact of warming can be greatly influenced by significant changes in rainfall volume. Keywords: Zarqa River, Climate change, Sediment, SWAT
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Journal Coverpage
Authors: Journal Editor
Abstract: Journal Coverpage
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Accessibility of Low-Income Earners to Public Housing in Ado-Ekiti,
Authors: Abiodun Olukayode Olotuah
Abstract: There are three major sources of housing provision in Nigeria; namely public, private and popular sectors. The popular sector has provided the larger proportion of houses in the country and its activities mostly benefit the urban poor. Public sector intervention in housing with particular regard to low-income earners has been largely unsuccessful. Low-income earners hardly have access to houses provided by the public sector. This paper examines the access of low-income earners to public housing in Ado-Ekiti, the capital city of Ekiti State Nigeria. Two public housing schemes in Ado-Ekiti; namely, the Federal Low Cost Housing Estate and the State Housing Estate were studied. The research findings show glaringly that low-income earners were almost schemed out regarding access to the buildings. This is a negation of the original intention of government especially as most of the buildings in the housing estates were conceived as low-cost houses for low-income earners. The paper recommends a number of strategies to enhance greater accessibility to public housing by low-income earners. Keywords: accessibility, housing, low-income, provision, public.
Issue No: Vol. 7
- Applications of Synthesized Nanocomposite Membranes for Water Purification
in Iraqi Brackish Water
Authors: Abdulkhalik K. Mahmood, Riyad Hassan Alanbari, Fadhil Abd Rasin
Abstract: The objective of this research is to study the properties of salt water in Wassit Province (Iraq), represented by water of general downstream river( TDS 4054 mg/L), that established to be channel tanker salt water to the Gulf and means to revive more than 6 million acres of farmland in order to increase the yield produced by this land. Trying purified, using nanoscale membranes containing MWCNTs and MCM-41 nanomaterial. Poly sulfone support layers were containing (0.0, and 0.4w. %) MWCNTs are used as ultrafiltration membranes and two types of synthesis membranes, TFC (thin film composite membrane) and 0.05TFN0.4 (nanocomposite membrane containing 0.4w. %MWCNTs in support layer and 0.05w. % MCM-41 in thin layer) were used in this study. All types of membranes were synthesized in laboratory of Building and Construction Engineering Department – University of Technology- Baghdad using chemical ACS reagents grade. The application of the synthesized nanocoposite membrane shows good capability of producing purified water from general downstream salt water (TDS 256 mg/L). As a result (0.05TFN0.4) membrane show it is more stable and less losses in pure water flux than (TFC) membrane. These properties explained due to antifouling properties of MWCNTs and its formation of macro voids in support layer in addition the pore structure of MCM-41 in the thin film. It was expected that collection of detailed information about the characteristic of downstream raw water with pilot study of the raw water pretreatment with perfect choice of TFN materials make possible to produce a good quality of water with economic price. Keywords: application, nanocomposite, water, brackish, Iraq
Issue No: Vol. 7