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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 130 journals)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Oceanography and Limnology     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Water Works Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Hidrología Médica     Open Access  
Annals of Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW. Land Reclamation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Applied Water Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquacultural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Living Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aquatic Procedia     Open Access  
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Asian Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Australian Journal of Water Resources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bubble Science, Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Desalination and Water Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Developments in Water Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
EQA - International Journal of Environmental Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European journal of water quality - Journal européen d'hydrologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Grundwasser     Hybrid Journal  
Human Resources for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Hydro Nepal : Journal of Water, Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hydrology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Hydrology: Current Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Nuclear Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Salt Lake Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Waste Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Water Resources Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Irrigation and Drainage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Irrigation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Contemporary Water Resource & Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Oceans     Partially Free   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Hydro-environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Hydroinformatics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Hydrology (New Zealand)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics     Open Access  
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of the American Water Resources Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Water and Climate Change     Partially Free   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Water and Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Water Resource and Hydraulic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Water Supply : Research and Technology - Aqua     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
La Houille Blanche     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Lake and Reservoir Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mangroves and Salt Marshes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Methods in Oceanography : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access  
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Osterreichische Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal  
Ozone Science & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Paddy and Water Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Revue des sciences de l'eau / Journal of Water Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Riparian Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
River Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
River Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
SA Irrigation = SA Besproeiing     Full-text available via subscription  
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientia Marina     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sri Lanka Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Open Access  
Sustainable Technologies, Systems & Policies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)

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Civil and Environmental Research
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2224-5790 - ISSN (Online) 2225-0514
     Published by International Institute for Science, Technology and Education (IISTE) Homepage  [30 journals]
  • The Degree of Using Methods of Quality Management in the Implementation of
           Construction Projects in Jordan

    • Authors: Ahmed Ali Khatatbeh
      Abstract: In light of the renewed activity of construction sector, it shows the need for increased attention to quality as a cultural attitude and an economic necessity at the same time. Although construction industry had prospered since long time ago and achieved advanced degrees in its products and ways to implement them, it has been criticized for its poor performance and productivity in relation to other industries. Quality products in this industry will not be achieved without using appropriate methods of quality management during projects lifecycle.  This study investigates the degree of using methods of quality management in the implementation of construction projects in Jordan. The study sample consisted of (50) managers of construction projects in Jordan. The researcher used descriptive method and develop questionnaire to collect data. The researcher used means, standard deviations the results of the study showed that there are high degrees of using the testing and inspection method, quality control method, the Quality Assurance method, and the Total Quality Management method in the implementation of construction projects in Jordan. This study recommended the founding a Staff from company or outside it for training and employees and to exercises particular programs to contract with the requirements of changes. Keywords: Quality Management, Construction Projects.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Effect on Super Structure of Integral Abutment Bridge under Fixed and
           Pinned Pile Head Connections

    • Authors: Yamuna Bhagwat, R.V. Raikar, Nikhil Jambhle
      Abstract: Integral bridges are recommended as one of the best alternative in the construction of bridges. They are constructed without joints in superstructure and these bridges can be of single span or multi span. Typically integral bridges have stub-type abutments supported on piles and a continuous bridge deck from one embankment to the other. Failure of proper functioning of the expansion joints and abutment bearings due to various reasons leads to highly critical and serious problems. Failure to move properly due to unanticipated movements results in overstress and subsequent structural damage to the bridge elements via split and rupture of abutment bearings, abutment-rotation and abutment-overturning.An attempt is being made in this study to analyse the effect of pile head connection with abutment on super structure under DL, LL and temperature effects on integral abutment bridge by FEM analysis using SAP 2000. The study considers integral abutment bridge with pile head having fixed and pinned connection with single, two and three spans. The variation of different design parameters such as BM, SF, axial force and longitudinal fibre stresses in deck slab and BM and SF in girder bridges have been analysed and compared. It is found that, in integral abutment bridge the design parameters are affected by the pile head to abutment connection. It is found that, in case of only DL, the negative maximum end BM is reduced by 10.5% in case of single span, 28.5% in two spans integral abutment bridge and no change in three spans integral abutment bridge. However the positive BM shows an increasing trend. It is also observed that the all design parameters are reduced with increase in span numbers. On the other hand, the temperature rise enhances negative BM and decreases positive BM. Furthermore, SF in deck slab is increased by 5.9% in two spans integral abutment bridge having pile head with pinned connection but there is no change in SF is observed in single and three spans, similarly in central girder decrease and in external girder increase in SF is observed in single and two spans bridge and there is no change in three spans bridge. Also DL + temperature and DL + LL+ temperature combination with different spans in comparison with single span and in comparison with DL is studied. Keywords: Abutment, Deck, Integral Abutment Bridge, piles, pile head, Finite element method, Abutment pile head connection 
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • The Contending Issues of Domestic Water Supply in Makurdi Metropolis,
           Benue State, Nigeria

    • Authors: V.D. Chia, S.T. Ijir, R. Iwar, E.L. Ndulue
      Abstract: This research investigates the various sources of water available in Makurdi metropolis, the state capital of Benue State, Its distribution across the various wards, its availability and frequency using both primary and secondary sources of data. A total of 200 respondents (households) were chosen randomly across the various wards of Makurdi. The questionnaire was administered to 200 households, 193 returned the questionnaires while 7 of them were lost. The results of the analysis show that 53.7% of all the respondents had running public taps in their homes while 46.3% do not have such facilities at home and of those that had running taps at home indicates that only 23.8% of them had water running more than three times in a week. Also about 45.4% of the respondents only had water occasionally and 18.8% had water once a week. The remaining 15% had water running in their taps two to three times in a week. More so, this study here shows how sufficient and adequate is water supply from Water Board. This revealed that 7.1% of the household have sufficient and adequate water supply due to storage system in their houses and about 19.2% have not adequate water supply. This confirms that the problem of water supply in the area is affiliated to the increase in the demand for water as against the inadequate supply of water due to insufficient power supply and problem of inadequate pumping infrastructure. Consequently, some parts of the study area which are closer to the Benue State Water Board have water supply more than the area that are far away from the water board who suffer inadequate water availability and abundance. This study therefore suggests some solutions in which if properly implemented will help to a greater extent in solving the problem of water supply in area. Keywords: Domestic Water Supply; Makurdi; Water shortage;  Sources.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • The Effects of Pine (Pinus Canariensis) Tree Bark Extract on the
           Properties of Fresh and Hardened Concrete

    • Authors: John Chege, Walter Oyawa, Geoffrey Mang’uriu
      Abstract: In this research, pine tree bark extract was prepared in a digester by using water, heat, and pressure. In the digester, the ratio of the mass of the bark to that of the water was 1:2, respectively. The temperature in the digester was raised from the ambient level to 121 o C in 15 minutes. At the temperature of 121o C, the pressure inside the digester was 0.1 N/mm2. These conditions of heat and pressure were maintained for a period one hour, resulting in the liquid phase of the mixture turning opaque brown (black liquor). Without further processing, the black liquor was used as a concrete admixture and tests carried out to determine its effects on workability of fresh concrete and strength of hardened concrete. Dosages of the black liquor used, expressed as a mass percentage of the cement content were 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 %, and 47.5 %. In each case, the mixing water was reduced by an amount equal to the mass of the dosage. For each dosage, compressive strength tests were carried out at the ages of 3,7,28, and 61 days. Compared with control concrete, increases of workability were observed for all the dosages. However, consistent improvement in compressive strength only occurred when the dosage of pine bark extract was 20 %. Keywords: Concrete admixture, lignin, pine, strength, workability.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Derivation of Equations for Ground Level, Water Surface Depth and Well
           Depth and Determination of Flow Directions of Shallow Aquifers

    • Authors: O.S. Awokola, Maku Olakunle, O.D. Akinyemi
      Abstract: Water is essential to maintain and sustain human life, animal and water therefore is important in that it is essential for growing food, for household water uses, as a critical input into industry, for tourism and cultural purposes, and for its role in sustaining the earth's ecosystem. The study is to determine the direction of ground water flow and also establish the parametric relationship of the measured topographical and derived data for the management of exploration and exploitation of groundwater in shallow aquifers of the study area. The methods involve the selection of ten wells within the University campus. The wells were used to obtain information on ground water topographical information. Data was acquired using a Global Positioning System (GPS) Garmin 76csx which is a satellite based equipment for position determination. The data acquired were wells coordinates and the elevation of the well location above mean seal level (amsl), while the water level values of wells as measured with the aid of an Electronic Water Level Indicator was used to measure the water surface depth from the ground surface.The relative positions of the wells were plotted using AutoCAD 2012 version and it was superimposed on the base map of the area. Suffer for window (version 8, topographical analysis software) was used to produce the contour of the Ground Level, Water surface Level and the Well Level water flow direction. Simple regression analysis was applied to the computed values according to their functional relationships, ground level-water surface level, ground level-well level and depth of well-depth of water surface. The derived equations from the measured and derived parameters were of the linear, power, exponential, logarithmic and 2nd degree polynomial types. The coefficient of determination (R2) obtained from the various analysis ranges from 0.8485 to 0.9834. The coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.98 is close to unity which is the highest theoretically possible thus indicating that whenever the values of the independent variables or assigned variables are known exactly, the corresponding values of the dependent or derived variables can be evaluated with a high degree of accuracy. In all the relationships the 2nd degree polynomial is consistent with higher values of the coefficient of determination. The results of the equations derived from this study indicate that there was an explanatory independent variable for ground level in predicting water surface level with a coefficient of determination r2=98% and also the results of well level prediction of r2 of 94% - 95% and depth of well prediction of 85% - 97% for all the five different equations considered in the study. The equations established can be a useful and essential tool in the development of sound groundwater management plans, formulation of policies for exploration and exploitation of shallow aquifers. Keywords: Coefficient of determination, Shallow Aquifer, 2nd degree polynomial, Power equation, Exponential equation
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Wood Waste Generation in the Forest Industry in Nigeria and Prospects for
           Its Industrial Utilization

    • Authors: Ogunwusi; A.A.
      Abstract: The forest industry in Nigeria has traversed a variety of circumstances. Prior to I976, round wood overexploitation for export was rife, and this, coupled with high waste generation by the forest led to significant reduction in industrial round wood availability in the forest reserves.  With an average recovery rate of between 45-55%,  the waste generated in the sawmill industry inform of bark, sawdust, trimming, split wood, planer shavings and sanderdust in year 2010 alone was over 1,000,000m3 . In the furniture industry, this varies from 35-45%. At the upper end of the range were the artisanal furniture makers who use crude implements and outdated process technology while the plywood mills generate about 5,000m3 of residues inform of bark, core, sawdust, lillypads, veener clippings and waste, panel trims and sanderdusts in 2010 alone.  The high quantity of waste generation in the industry is caused by factors which differ from one susector to the other.  However, the general trend indicates that average percentage timber recovery is becoming lower while waste generation is on the increase. This is mainly due to the reduced size of average timber available for processing and the increasing need to utilize lesser used wood species whose properties are not well understood.  Others are utilization of old and obsolete equipment, low technical knowhow, low capital input and adoption of crude hand tools, most especially, in the furniture industry. To ensure that the industry survive, it is imperative that wood waste be put to industrial use. Among the way this may be achieved include the use of wood briquettes inplace of firewood, utilization of wood waste to generate industrial energy, utilization of bark for adhesives and foam production and production of medium density fiberboard and engineered wood products from wood waste generated locally. Keywords: Wood waste, bioproducts, briquettes, sawmill, bark.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Health and Safety Implication of Demolition in Ghana

    • Authors: Kportufe Sena Gladstone, Arthur-Aidoo Bernard Martin
      Abstract: Today, demolition projects undertaking are complex in nature, demanding greater skill, experience and precision than ever before. Demolition works are associated with a lot of dangerous activities, which in one way or the other has a great hazardous influence on operatives and surroundings in respect to the adjoining properties. The risk involved in this activity is extremely high, which are concerned with various accidents in its process. The aim of this paper is to investigate into the health and safety implication of demolition in Ghana. The objectives are to the health hazard  associated with the demolition operations, to identify the health implication of demolition on the site. To determine the precautions implemented during demolition of works on site. Observation and questionnaires were adopted to collect the data. Descriptive statistics involving the use of tables and percentages were used to analyse the data. The analysis of the data once again revealed that, noise pollution recorded 71.43% as the highest impact  during demolition of works, followed by dust generation with 57.14%. Vibration also recorded 42.86% followed by hazardous substance and materials with 25%. Flying particles and debris, inhalation of toxic and unintentional collapse of structure recorded 21.43%, 14.29% and 7.14% respectively. It is also recommended that, all the workers goes through a proper job safety training and be informed of the potential hazards by attending sessions as well as on-the-job-training. Keywords: Health, Safety, Implication, Demolition, Ghana
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Assessing the Potential Hazards of Demolishing Operation

    • Authors: Arthur-Aidoo; Bernard Martin, Kportufe, Sena Gladstone, Yeboah Patrick
      Abstract: Demolition is regarded as a dangerous and complex activity. It requires sound knowledge of various construction techniques, each of which has its own demolition method. This study aim at investigating the dangers and problems associated with the execution of demolition works. It contains an extensive analysis of the data gathered from a field survey and questionnaires issued. Thirty-five (35) questionnaires were distributed to various sites where demolition works were ongoing. Analysis drawn from structural questionnaires and observation revealed that, most demolition operators are often not provided with safety clothing or protective equipment on some demolition site. The study further revealed that, the general public is mostly exposed to excessive noise, dust or flying particles. These result in operatives experiencing injury in the process especially with the manual method. Also, most of these associated hazards or problems occur as a result of inadequate measures taken in ensuring safety on some demolition sites and its surroundings, workers not abiding by the necessary roles in ensuring a safe operation. This study concludes that, hazards in demolition works can never be prevented yet basic safety measures and the need for constant vigilance on site can reduce most of these hazards.  Recommendations to this study prompt that, all workers on demolition sites must be made aware of the kind of dangers or hazards that they could be exposed to with the method employed in the demolition. Trained personnel with the full knowledge of various techniques of demolition should be allowed to carry out the work. Keywords: Health, Safety, Potential, Hazards, Demolition,
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Assessing Households’ Fuel Wood Tree Species Preference, The Case of
           Desa’a Afro Alpine Forest, Tigray

    • Authors: Gebreslassie Teklay
      Abstract: Desa’a forest is a remnant forest of northern Ethiopia, Tigray, which is currently heavily exploited for fuel wood and charcoal processing. Although the forest is gazeted to be protected area, it is not immune from illegal cutting and grazing, resulting reduction of forest cover and biodiversity loss. Hence, the study was intended to assess the species type and parts of the species mostly preferred by fuel wood collectors from the forest area. Purposive stratified random sampling technique was employed to select respondents for interviewing and questionnaire distribution. Field observations and discussion with key informants were also employed to validate the data generated.  As the result revealed,  woody vegetation species like O. europaea, J. procera and A. etibyca were the most extracted species from the forest with 62.34 % (22.85 tone/day), 13.95 % (5.11 tone/day) and 10.12 % (3.71 tone/day) coverage, respectively. More than 93% of fuel wood extraction from the forest area was only stem/ split wood part leading to whole cutting of the tree species. Hence, the species degradation on the forest area was expected to be more intensive on O. europaea, J. procera and A. etibyca than other species which invite purposive intervention by concerned body. Keywords: Desa’a , remnant forest , fuel wood
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Investigation on Concrete Properties for Nano Silica Concrete by using
           Different Plasticizers

    • Authors: El-Sayed Abdel Raouf, Hala Elkady, Mohamed Ragab, Amr H. Badawy
      Abstract: This paper presents results of the optimal dosage levels of polycarboxylate-based (PSP) (0.4 and 0.8%) and naphthalene-based (NSP) (0.8 and 1.6%) super plasticizers and different water to binder (w/b) ratios (0.4 and 0.45 ) that produce an adequate balance between strength and workability for concrete containing nano-SiO2 (NS) of 1%, 2%, and 3% as cement replacement. These results indicate that For two types super plasticizers mixes. Increasing the w/c ratio from 0.40 to 0.45 increased the slump of all mixes. Either those containing polycarboxylate or naphthalene sulphonate super plasticizer or the control mixes. For polycarboxylate super plasticizer mixes. Decreasing the w/c ratio from 0.45 to 0.40 increased the compressive strength of all mixes. Either those containing polycarboxylate super plasticizer. For naphthalene sulphonate super plasticizer mixes. Increasing the w/c ratio from 0.40 to 0.45 increased the compressive strength of all mixes. Either those containing 0.8 % naphthalene super plasticizer or the control mixes. While decreasing the w/c ratio from 0.45 to 0.40 increased the compressive strength of all mixes. Either those containing 1.6 % naphthalene sulphonate super plasticizer. the use of (1.6 %) sulphonated naphthalene super plasticizer (NSP) with 0.4 w/c ratio reached a gain in strength equivalent to the  use of  (0.8 %) polycarboxylic super plasticizer (PSP) for mix containing 3 % nano silica . the use of (1.6 %)  naphthalene super plasticizer (NSP) with 0.45 w/c ratio reached a gain in strength equivalent to the  use of  (0.8 %) polycarboxylic super plasticizer (PSP) for mix containing 2 % nano silica. Keywords: Nano silica, concrete, plasticizers, workability, strength.
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Impact of Solid Waste Management on Ado Ekiti Property Values

    • Authors: ADENIRAN Ayo A, ADEWOLE A.A, OLOFA S.A.
      Abstract: This paper seeks to assess the implication of the dangers posed by haphazard disposal of solid waste on the built environment cum property values by examining its impact on the inhabitants, the building structures as well as the neighborhood with particular reference to Ado Ekiti Nigeria. A review of literature which is hinged on the framework of healthy city concept is used as a standard for quality. Closed and open ended questions were administered on randomly sampled 298 residents of Ado Ekiti randomly and analyzed using simple descriptive analysis. Findings show that values of buildings as well as the physiological well-being of individuals cannot be considered in isolation without considering the building and the environment in which they live vis a vis their waste disposal methods. The study recommends rigorous public enlightenment, re introduction of hygiene studies from primary education, enforcement of environmental and waste disposal protection laws with corresponding policy statements to help achieve the Healthy City Concept of the United Nations. Keywords: building structure, solid waste, property, values.  
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Environmental Implications of Groundwater Quality in Irrigated Agriculture
           in Kebbi State, Nigeria

    • Authors: O.I. Ojo, Graham; W.B.R, I.W. Pishiria
      Abstract: The quality of groundwater used for irrigation in Kebbi State, northwestern Nigeria was evaluated. Open-well, tube-well and borehole water samples were collected from various locations in the State. The water samples analyzed had pH values below the normal range for irrigation water and very low to moderate salinity (electrical conductivity 0.05-0.82 dS.m-1). The adjusted sodium adsorption ratio values in all the samples were also very low (<0.2), indicating very low sodicity hazards. However, irrigation water of very low salinity (<0.2dS.m-1) and low SAR can lead to problems of infiltration into soils. The Ca: Mg ratio (<1) in most of the samples may lead to Ca deficiency in soils after long term use. The nitrate concentration in most of the samples was high ranging from 4.5 to >50mg/L. Keywords: Ground water quality, irrigation, characteristics, soil drainage, salinity, fadama
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Development of a Pavement Management System to be Used in Highway Pavement
           Evaluation in Jordan

    • Authors: Majed Msallam, Orabi Shareef Al Rawi, Dana Abudayyeh, Ibrahim Assi
      Abstract: Since year 2000, the main road network in Jordan has witnessed large developments in the fields of design, construction, evaluation and maintenance. This development aimed at keeping up with the socio-economical and social development and to accommodate the large increase in the number of vehicles of heavy loads and to contribute in reducing traffic accidents through constructing more corridors around the capital city of Amman. In addition, to rehabilitate and develop the present main roads and construct more new roads that link isolated areas with industrial centers and residential communities.The road network length in Jordan has increased to reach up to 8200km of major and minor roads. During the last ten years, expenditure on roads rose up to 547 million JD. This means that 76% of the allocated budget for roads was spent on road construction.The Ministry of Public Works and Housing (MPW&H) has paid a particular attention to road maintenance with the purpose of conserving this national wealth in spite of the limited allocated amounts for maintenance and rapid increase in maintenance costs. MPW&H took the initiative and awarded maintenance of some of the major roads to Private Sector so that they could contribute in improving this sector. This helped in opening up the opportunity to exchange experiences and to be aware of the sate- of –the- art in road maintenance. The total expenditures on road maintenance for the same period rose up to 173 million JD representing 24% of the road financial budget. Road maintenance includes periodical maintenance, rehabilitation, improvement and reconstruction. This study aims at introducing the presently adopted pavement management system by MPW&H, showing its positive and negative points, along with suggestions for development. Keywords: Pavement management, Road maintenance, Pavement evaluation, Roughness, Serviceability, Cracks
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Using a GIS-Based Network Analysis to Determine Urban Greenspace
           Accessibility for Different Socio-Economic Groups, Specifically Related to
           Deprivation in Leicester, UK

    • Authors: Abdullahi Ahmed Kuta, Joseph Olayemi Odumosu, Oluibukun Gbenga Ajayi, Nanpon Zitta, Hassan A. Samail-Ija, Ekundayo. A. Adesina
      Abstract: Accessibility to greenspace by different socio-economic groups specifically related to deprivation in English city of Leicester was done using Geographical Information System (GIS) network analysis. The result was compared with ANGSt standard which provided the benchmark for accessing greenspace in UK. The result shows that greater percentage of socio-economically deprived group in Leicester lack access to greenspace within 300m from home. For distances of 2000m and 5000m, 70% do have access. This work has explored the use of GIS network analysis to assess the accessibility of greenspace among socio-economically deprived groups which will help those saddled with the responsibility of providing greenspace in carrying out their duties to ensure equity. This analysis can be extended to other groups in Leicester e.g. the handicap, elderly etc to assess how accessible greenspace is to them. Keywords: GreenSpace, GIS Network Analysis, ANGSt Standards, Deprivation
      Issue No: Vol. 6
  • Identify the Characteristics of the Urban Forest for Improvement of
           Environmental Quality in the City of Surabaya with Canopy Structure,
           Interception, Throughfall, and Stemflow

    • Authors: Khambali .
      Abstract: Increasingly dense urban activity indirectly cause environmental degradation in urban areas, especially in the city of Surabaya. Characteristics of a good urban forest in improving the environmental quality in the city of Surabaya can be seen to from  canopy structure, interception, throughfall, and stemflow. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of the urban forest as environmental quality improvement planning in the city of Surabaya in homogeneous and heterogeneous forests for canopy structure, interception, throughfall, and stemflow. This research method uses a simple regression to find the value of determination or R2. The results show the identification of the characteristics of the urban forest in the city of Surabaya, is; 1) the structure of the canopy can be seen from the value of the index on the density of the canopy of each tree, tamarind at 0.16, mahogany at 0.13, angsana at 0.07, landi acid at 0.16, and tamarind in heterogeneous forest at 0.16 , 2) interception of rainfall indicated by the R2 value of 0.92 on a tamarind, mahogany at 0.9, angsana at 0.88, landi acid at 0.979, and 0.936 for the heterogeneous forests, 3) throughfall in homogeneous forest trees tamarind at 4.13 mm, mahogany at       4.45 mm, angsana at 3.14 mm, and landi acid at 2.99 mm, and 4) stemflow in the forest is homogeneous tamarind at 4.35 mm, mahogany at 3.61 mm, angsana at 5.34 mm, landi acid at 2 mm, and heterogeneous forest (tamarind) at  3.35 mm Keywords; urban forest, canopy structure, interception, throughfall, stemflow
      Issue No: Vol. 6
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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