Authors:Beetseh; C.I.|Anza M K Abstract: Chemical characterization of local black by using cassava peels ashes (alkali base) and palm oil in North Central Zone of Nigeria is essensially crude soap made by using cassava peels ashes (alkali base) and palm oil . These peels were burnt to ashes and the alkali extracted from it by dissolving in water and later filtered. This Soap( Chahul Mtse ) made extract is made to react with hot oil and the resultant mixture is black soap. This soap is often disregarded due to its color and mode of preparation .The values for total fatty matter (TFM), total free alkali (TFA), free carbonate alkali (FCaA), free caustic alkali (FCA), pH, lather volume and foam analysis were 62% (w/w), 6.7% (w/w), 3.8% (w/w), 2.95% (w/w), 9.0, 300ml and 6.33 hrs respectively while the wash-active-substance was found to be 35.78% compared to the modern soap. The chemical characterization however has revealed this soap has a quality very close to any standard soap These results showed the potency as well as the inadequacies of black soap which can be improved upon . Key words- , analysis crude, cleansing, , domestic surfactant. Issue No:Vol. 3
Authors:Nyiutsa Samson Apebo|Aondowase John Shiwua Abstract: The research was conducted to study the effect of water-cement ratio on the compressive strength of gravel-crushed over burnt bricks concrete. Trial mixes were prepared using the crushed over burnt bricks as coarse aggregates only (control), mixture of crushed over burnt bricks and river wash gravel as coarse aggregates and river washed gravel as coarse aggregates only (control) at water – cement ratios of 0.4, 0.5,0.55 and 0.6. Cubes of concrete were prepared and tested to study the compressive strength in relation to the water-cement ratio. The results indicate that the concrete having over burnt bricks as aggregates may be termed as medium light weight concrete having a density between 2000-2200 kg/m3 and that by reducing the water-cement ratio from 0.6 to 0.4 increases the compressive strength from by more than 30%. Use of broken over burnt bricks as coarse aggregate for structural concrete is recommended when natural aggregate is not easily available, high strength of concrete is not required and the bearing capacity of the soil is low. Key words: Aggregates, concrete, compressive strength, water-cement ratio, crushed over burnt bricks Issue No:Vol. 3
Authors:Sigit Pranowo Hadiwardoyo Abstract: The damage path beginning at the surface layers of the failure receives the load of the traffic and a change in temperature of 20-50 °C. Structural changes in the asphalt mixture cause an increase in the temperature of the surface of the road, approaching the softening point of asphalt. Short coconut fibers are waste from coconut processing, with a length of 5-12.5 mm. The addition of 0.5%, 0.75%, 1%, 1.25%, and 1.50% coconut fiber changed the characteristics of the asphalt. The fiber size was varied (5, 7.5, 10, and 12.5 mm) to determine its effect on the asphalt characteristics. The fiber size variation was also conducted to determine its effect on the asphalt-aggregate mixture at 60 °C using the Marshall immersion test. The addition of 0.75% 5-mm fibers by weight of the asphalt increased the value of the Marshall stability by 10-15% and produced a lower penetration-grade bitumen. The temperature of the mixing fibers in the asphalt must be below the flash point of the fibers during the heating of the asphalt-fiber mixture. Keywords: coconut fiber, temperature, resilient modulus, asphalt mixtures, Marshall test Issue No:Vol. 3
Authors:Ekong Daniel|Uwem Ituen Abstract: Abstract The study was conducted in Akwa Ibom State, a fast emerging State in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. The aim of the study was to model future patterns of trips in the study region. To achieve this, types and volumes of trips generated weekly on the inter-city roads of the region were determined; the influence of the socio-economic development factors on the various trips generated was analyzed. Data on trip were obtained from travel survey while data on the socio-economic development factors were derived from existing records. Multiple regression analysis was used. Eleven types of trips were identified namely; work, school, recreation, religious, medical, wedding, burial, market, personal business, visit to friends/relations and other trips. Models for future estimate of the trips were generated. Establishment of Surveillance Transportation Programme to constantly generate and maintain trip data for update was recommended. Keywords: Inter-urban, Trip generation, Models, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Issue No:Vol. 3
Authors:R. E. Olagunju|S. C. Aremu|J. Ogundele Abstract: Collapse in Buildings could be total or partial failure of one or more components of a building leading to the inability of the building to perform its principal function of safety and stability. Collapse of buildings is a universal problem that has eaten deeply into the fabrics of the construction industry, of which very little has been done to curb the menace. Nigeria like many other countries is witnessing building collapse at alarming rate. In Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory, Lagos, Lagos State, Port–Harcourt, Rivers State, Ibadan, Oyo State and Kaduna, Kaduna State to mention but few, many cases of collapsed buildings have been noted. The incessant collapse of buildings in Nigeria is a major concern not only to the professionals that are associated with construction industry, but also to the clients and the eventual users. In an attempt to find lasting solution to some of the causes and effects of building collapse, this paper examines types of collapse, some of the major causes of building collapse, such as bad design, faulty construction, foundation failure, and fire problem as well as remedial measures. Finally, useful suggestions were proffered towards successful implementation of the corrective measures. Key Words: architect, buildings, collapse, construction, design Issue No:Vol. 3
Authors:A. R. Kuffour|E. Awuah|D. Sarpong|F. O. K. Anyemedu|D. Koné Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate which Solid Loading Rate (SLR) of faecal sludge will best improve the dewatering performance of selected sand with particle sizes range of (? 0.1 ? 0.5) mm raised on bench scale filter beds. Public toilet sludge and septage collected from suction trucks discharging at Dompoase stabilisation ponds in Kumasi , Ghana, mixed in the ratio of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 by volume representing SLR1, SLR2 and SLR3 respectively, were used for the dewatering. Percolate volume was measured every 24 hour. The faecal sludge of SLR1, SLR2 and SLR3 dewatered at average dewatering times of 7, 5 and 4 days respectively. Removal efficiencies of the different solid loading rates though very high for TS, SS, TVS, COD, DCOD, NH3-N, did not show any significant difference. Organic matter build up in the top 10cm of the filter bed was least in SLR3. Again SLR3 showed the highest potential for annual generation of biosolids at 438, 421 and 379 (kg/m2 year) for SL3, SLR2 and SLR1 respectively. Therefore SLR3 of faecal sludge is recommended for dewatering on the selected filter bed. Key words: Faecal sludge, solid loading rate, dewatering time, filter bed, percolate. Issue No:Vol. 3
Authors:Muibat Diekola Yahya|I.A. Mohammed-Dabo|A.S. Ahmed|A.S. Olawale Abstract: This study investigated the utilization of modified shea butter cake for the removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution. Instrumental analysis such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) was used for the characterisation of the solid sorbent. Batch equilibrium study was carried out to evaluate the adsorption capacity, and process parameters such as initial metal ion concentration, time, pH, and adsorbent dosage. An optimum pH of 5, equilibrium time of 30mins and adsorbent dosage of 40 beads was obtained. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to fit the experimental data and values fits the Langmuir more adequately with correlation coefficient unity (1.000) at 10mg/l of initial metal ion concentration. The Kinetic study using the Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second were used to determine the rate constants and experiments data best fits the pseudo-second –order with calculated amount adsorbed approximately equal to the experimental values. The results indicate that modified shea butter cake could be employed as an adsorbent for the removal of copper (II) ions in an aqueous solution. Keywords: Shea butter cake, process parameters, kinetics, Copper (II), Issue No:Vol. 3
Authors:Celestine U. Ugonabo|Fidelis I. Emoh Abstract: This paper examines the major challenges militating against housing development and delivery in Anambra State of Nigeria with a view to stimulating relevant agencies of government and other stakeholders into designing appropriate strategies for effective housing delivery in the state. The study has identified a multiplicity of factors inhibiting effective housing development and delivery in Anambra State to include lack of secure access to land, high cost of construction, limited access to finance, bureaucratic procedures, high cost of land registration and titling, uncoordinated policies and implementation at Federal and State levels, ownership rights under the Land Use Act, lack of critical infrastructure, affordability gap, inefficient development control, youths harassment of developers, inelegant revocation and compensation process among others. In order to comprehensively address the challenges the study recommended the need for a holistic approach to housing development and delivery that will involve the Federal Government, the State Government and the private sector (both formal and informal). In view of the fact that the private sector has displayed greater flexibility and potential for housing production, we are of the opinion that in line with the provisions of 2012 National Housing Policy, government should provide the enabling environment for the private sector to provide safe, adequate and affordable housing for the citizens. Keywords: Access to land, Affordable Housing, Cost of Construction, Housing Delivery, Housing Development, National Housing Policy. Issue No:Vol. 3
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