Authors:John Onwuteaka Abstract: Post Classification sorting was used to extract average spectral response of land cover classes in class boundaries between two images of 1996 and 2010 to generate land use change. A Landuse change extracted from cross-tabulation of classified clusters was observed in about 30,213 hectares in this scene area. Compared with the approximately 1.4 million hectares of land in the scene, a change of about 2.2% in classes of features between 1996 and 2010 were evident. Highly significant change was evident in the change from Scrub/Shrub in 1996 to Forest-Lowland swamp in 2010 which accounted for 31% of the change occurring in this scene. Landuse accounting from remote sensing and GIS can help planners integrate various uses of land for urbanization, industralisation or agriculture.
Keywords: Post Classification sorting, Change detection, Landuse-Landcover, Landuse change Issue No:Vol. 6
Authors:S. S. Charantimath, Swapnil B. Cholekar, Manjunath M. Birje Abstract: Steel-concrete composite construction has gained wide acceptance world wide as an alternative to pure steel and pure concrete construction. However, this approach is a relatively new concept for the construction industry. Steel-concrete composite elements are used extensively in modern buildings. Extensive research on composite column, composite beam and deck slab in which structural steel section are encased in concrete have been carried out. However, for medium to high-rise buildings R.C.C structure is no longer economic because of increased dead load, less stiffness, span restriction and hazardous formwork. The results of this work show that the Composite structures are the best solution for high rise structure as compared to R.C.C structure.
Keywords: Seismic response; composite beam/column; ETAB 13 Software; equivalent static analysis; dynamic analysis; composite floor; shear connector; natural period Issue No:Vol. 6
Authors:JULIUS O. GBAKEJI Abstract: This study examined the distribution and patronage pattern of public health-care facilities in Ughelli-South Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. In doing this, existing location theories were examined for concepts and ideas that provide theoretical guidelines for issues relating to the location and patronage of public facilities. Furthermore, attempts were also made to see how the spatial distribution and patronage pattern of health-care facilities in the study area accord with these theoretical guidelines. Some problems facing the health-care delivery system in the study area were identified and appropriate remedial measures were suggested for implementation.
KEYWORDS: Location, Health-Care Facilities, Patronage, Spatial Distribution. Issue No:Vol. 6
Authors:Peter Abum Sarkodie, Daniel Agyapong, George Obiri Larbi, Ernest Owusu-Ansah Abstract: The proliferation of industrialization has resulted in increased wastewater generation and its disposal has rapidly been of serious concern in recent times to environmental scientists. The discharge of these untreated or partially treated effluents into the environment, especially, surface water poses a great threat to the environment and also causes adverse human health. Industrial wastewater may contain high levels of contaminants such as suspended, colloidal and dissolved minerals, inert organic matter, heavy metals, possible pathogenic bacteria which might be either excessively acidic or alkaline in a way that may have negative impact on all forms of life in the environment. This study was therefore conducted to determine the treated effluent quality of Tema (Ghana) Oil Refinery against the Ghana Environmental Protection Agency (EPA standards and also assess its impact on the environment. Samples of the effluents discharged from the refinery were taken and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters as well as Heavy Metals; lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), chromium(Cr), vanadium (V), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) for three consecutive months and their mean values compared with EPA standard. The results revealed that, all the heavy metals were within the standard of the EPA regulatory standard but mean conductivity was very high with a mean value of 10399.0 as against 1500. Also a high TDS mean value of 5358.67mg/l was recorded as against the EPA standard of 1000mg/l. Unsatisfactory mean levels of BOD and COD which reflected the organic load in the water were recorded. The BOD value was found to be 60mg/l as against the EPA standard of 50mg/l while COD value was 423.7mg/l which was far above the EPA standard of 250mg/l. It is therefore recommended that, the wastewater treatment unit of the Tema Oil Refinery should be revamped to enhance the control of contaminant levels of the final effluent discharged into the environment.
Keywords: Tema Oil Refinery; environment; wastewater; regulatory bodies; waste management; Environmental Protection Agency Issue No:Vol. 6
Authors:OSEGHALE G. E, WAHAB A. B. Abstract: This research provides an analysis of the relationship between preliminary estimate, tender sum and final account of building projects with a view to predicting final account accurately from tender sum and preliminary estimate. To achieve the objectives, the study carried out extensive review of literature and collected data interviews and administration of structured questionnaires. The data collected were analysed using multiple regression, correlation matrix and frequency distribution. The research reveals that there is a significant relationship between preliminary estimate, tender sum and final account of building projects. This research work has contributed to the existing body of knowledge in that it would help to provide reliable estimate for budgeting purposes.
Key Words: Final account, Tender sum and Preliminary estimate Issue No:Vol. 6
Authors:Baba Shehu Waziri, Kabir Bala Abstract: Nigeria’s vision 20:2020 is aimed at placing the country in the league of the first 20 global economies by the year 2020 with a minimum GDP of US$900 billion and per capita income of no less than US$4000 per annum. The Nigerian construction sector provides the much needed physical infrastructure for economic development which is critical toward realizing this laudable vision. The sector’s contribution to overall GDP dropped from 3.76% achieved in 2008 to 3.16% in 2009 and 2.86% in 2010. The Building and Construction sector also recorded a growth rate which slowed down from 12.8% in 2008 to 11.97% in 2009 and 11.85% in 2010. In 2011, the sector recorded a growth rate of 12.26% which is below the target of 19.0% set in the Transformation agenda. The study investigates through empirical means the impacts of the factors influencing the performance of the sector in providing the infrastructural base that contributes to national development. Bret Frischmann’s theory of infrastructure and commons management was adopted to put the work in context. Relative Importance Indices (RII) of 17 relevant factors surveyed revealed that low investment in the construction sector, low involvement of private sector in the provision of infrastructural facilities, lack of policy to promote indigenous contactors, reverse order of industrial development and monumental corruption in the sector with RII of 0.88, 0.84, 0.84, 0.80, and 0.79 respectively are the most significant factors. It is recommended that in order to achieve the vision in the year 2020 there is need for investment in infrastructure development, resuscitation of the decayed infrastructure, private financing of public projects and the need for capacity building.
Keywords: Vision 20:2020, construction sector, economic development, infrastructure, Nigeria. Issue No:Vol. 6
Authors:M. Manjunath, Santosh A. Kadapure, Ashwinkumar A. Kalaje Abstract: This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation carried out to evaluate the influence of Bacillus sphaericus bacteria on the compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength, shear strength, water absorption and chloride permeability of concrete made without and with fly ash. Cement was replaced with two percentages (10 and 20) with fly ash by weight. Three different cell concentration (0, 103,105,107 cells/ml) of bacteria were used in making the concrete mixes. Tests were performed at the age of 28 days. Test results indicated that inclusion of B. sphaericus in fly ash concrete enhanced the compressive strength reduced the water absorption and chloride permeability of fly ash concrete. Maximum increase in compressive strength 15.47% was observed with 105cells/ml of bacteria. This improvement in strength was due to deposition on the bacteria cell surfaces within the pores. The present work highlights the influence of bacteria on the properties of concrete made with supplementing cementing material such as like fly ash. Usage of bacteria like B. sphaericus improves strength and durability and strength of fly ash concrete through self-healing effect. Keywords: Bacterial concrete, Bacillus sphaericus, compressive strength, water absorption, chloride penetration Issue No:Vol. 6
Authors:Yasar Arafath, Praveen Kumar, Vigneshwaran ., Banupriya . Abstract: Water is a gift of nature, but many regions are facing water shortage due to its being polluted by human activities, or increasing demand by industrialization and high population growth. In the present scenario most of the wastes which are discharged into natural water bodies such as lakes and rivers, it also affects the ground water quality. Groundwater is the alternative source of fresh water in areas where surface water is polluted and deficit. However, the ground water that is polluted by various sources e.g. solid waste, Industrial waste etc. The leachate from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills is a highly concentrated, so it can pollute large amounts of groundwater and hence it becomes unsuitable for domestic purposes. In this study we have analyzed the physical and chemical parameters of ground water samples at Thuraipakkam dumpyard located at Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India and the impacts of leachates on ground water is evaluated. In this report we have summarized the laboratory results of all the samples collected from the study area against the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) for drinking water. Spatial maps also created using ArcGIS Software for various parameters. The results of this study demonstrated that, the high concentration of Total Dissolved Solids, Electrical Conductivity, Hardness, Nitrates, Chlorides, Sulphates in ground water near landfill deteriorates the quality of water are compared to the samples away from the dumping yard.
Keywords: ground water quality, leachate, ArcGIS, spatial maps. Issue No:Vol. 6
Authors:Sabo; A., Garba, T, Bello, I. D., Mohammed, G. U Abstract: The residuals from Gubi drinking water treatment plant are usually discharged directly into the nearby streams without any form of treatment. The decomposition of the organic materials contained in the untreated sludge has caused the production of malodorous gases and unsightly condition in the area. The disposal of this sludge in an environmentally friendly manner is therefore not only desirable but necessary. The aim of this investigation was to assess the feasibility of utilizing the residuals from Gubi water treatment plant as a source of nutrients for reclamation of degraded lands especially those arising from mining activities. The study was carried out at Gubi water treatment plant located in the vicinity of Gubi Dam water reservoir.Ten sludge samples were collected from each of the three clerifiers. Important sludge properties that are known to aid nutrients status of soil were analyzed using standard laboratory procedures. The means of various soil quality parameters recorded in the WTRs were 6.8, 20.06g/kg, 34.90g/kg, 1.65g/kg, 2.30g/kg, 13.45mg/kg, 2.50Cmol/kg, 2.10Cmol/kg and 28Cmol/kg for pH, Organic C, Organic Matter, K, Total N, Olsen P, Ca, Mg and CEC respectively. The means of all the parameters analysed falls within the ranges considered good for vegetation growth. The heavy metals concentrations recorded in the residual were 1.8mg/kg, 0.1mg/kg, 2mg/kg, 29mg/kg, 66mg/kg, 15mg/kg, 8.7mg/kg, 6.2mg/kg and 0.03mg/kg for As, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr and Hg respectively. The concentrations of all the metals did not exceed the acceptable threshold limits recommended by regulatory authorities. Considering the enormous amount of plant nutrients and absence of excessive toxic metals in Gubi WTRs, it is safe to conclude that the residual can be use as a source of soil nutrients for reclamation of degraded land.
: Sludge, Soil Nutrients, Degraded Land, Reclamation Issue No:Vol. 6
Authors:Najm Obaid Salim Alghazali, Dhelal Adnan Hussein Alawadi Abstract: In this study three statistical distributions were fitted to thirteen Iraqi stations of monthly rainfall observations: Mosul, Kirkuk, Khanaqin, Ramadi, Baghdad, Karbala, Hilla, Najaf, Diwaniya, Samawa, Nasiriyah, Amara and Basrah for the period (1970-2010) for all stations except Ramadi (1981-2010) and Hilla (1980-2010). These distributions were: Normal, Gamma and Weibull distributions. Method of moments was used for estimating parameters and two goodness of fit test were used: Chi-Square and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. Chi-Square test showed that Gamma distribution was suitable for five stations which were Ramadi, Baghdad, Hilla, Najaf and Samawa stations while, Normal and Weibull distributions were not suitable for any station. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed that none of the three distributions was suitable for any station.
Keywords: Rainfall in Iraq, Statistical distributions, Normal distribution, Gamma distribution, Weibull distribution Issue No:Vol. 6
Authors:Najm Obaid Salim Alghazali, Salam M. Jasim Abstract: Flow over a stepped spillway can be divided mainly into three flow regimes that are nappe, transition and skimming depending upon the discharge and the dimensions of the stepped spillway. The determination of the flow regime is a very important aspect in the design of stepped spillway due to the different properties for each flow regime. Experimental work on flow regime limits for stepped spillways has been conducted using twelve stepped spillway models. The models were manufactured with three downstream slope angles: 25, 35 and 45°, and four numbers of steps: 5, 10, 15 and 20. Five configurations of steps were tested, which are conventional Flat, pooled, porous end sills, pooled with gabions and porous end sills with gabions. The results revealed that the end sills highly affect flow regime type; this effect is primarily for the lower limits of skimming flow. Using end sills increases the range of transition flow regime (by increasing the lower limit of skimming flow) as well as increases the instabilities that occur in this flow regime. Gabions reduce the effects of end sills on the lower limit of skimming flow regime to near the limit of flat steps. New empirical equations were suggested based upon the experimental results.
Keywords: Flow Regimes, Gabions Steps, Nappe Flow Regime, Pooled Steps, Skimming Flow Regime, Stepped Spillway, Transition Flow Regime. Issue No:Vol. 6
Authors:Chinwuba Arum, Oladeji Abiodun Tayo Abstract: The design of single span fixed-feet portal frames was optimized using MSExcel solver, a multi-disciplinary optimizing ad-in in MSExcel spreadsheet formulated using Generalised Reduced Gradient (GRG2) method of optimization. Portal frames of different geometries with two sets of different loading arrangements were designed using structural design software - PROKON (version W2.0.11) and the resulting design sections were mass-optimized based on the area of member cross section, using Excel solver. In the optimization exercise, the objective function (area of cross section) was minimized subject to the satisfaction of the constraints in accordance with the relevant British Standard. After the optimization process, the portal frame structural members (two vertical members and one horizontal member) for the first set of loading were 21.86%, 19.65% and 27.22% lighter than their initial sections thereby giving an average of 22.91% lighter section, and the second set of loading results show that the optimized sections were 30.31%, 31.27% and 30.29% lighter than their initial sections giving an average of 30.62% lighter section.
Keywords: optimization, excel solver, generalised reduced gradient, portal frame. Issue No:Vol. 6
Authors:Yaw Agyeman Boafo, Alex B. Asiedu, Kwasi Appeaning Addo, Kwabena Effah Antwi, John Boakye-Danquah Abstract: As a major driver of landcover change, tourism-based developments are growing rapidly along different part of Ghana’s 560 km coastline. Kokrobite and Bortianor, with their serene environment, relatively clean, and pristine sandy beaches, have become popular coastal tourism destinations for tourists, recreationist, and holiday seekers in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. This study assesses how landcover changes emanating from coastal tourism establishments such as hotels, resorts, restaurants, and recreational facilities are affecting the socio-ecological landscape of the area. In this study, we utilize the maximum likelihood supervised classification along with post classification change detection techniques to analyze Landsat images for the years 1990, 2000 and 2010. Landcover maps of the different years were created and used to analyze changes occurring along the coastline of Kokrobite and Bortianor. Assembled results showed that built-up areas associated largely with tourism-based establishments have increased substantially from 1.02 km2 (16%) to 2.20 km2 (34.6%) between 1990 and 2010. Approximately 60% of the Kokrobite and Bortianor coastline’s natural ecosystem has been converted into different forms of tourism-based facilities such as hotels, resorts and settlements. Conversely, all forms of vegetative cover–riverine, dense active, and shrub/herbaceous cover are declining significantly. Increased tourist and recreationist demands along with the rapid urban growth in Accra is a preeminent cause of the current trends of developments. Regrettably, majority of the tourism-based establishments are unplanned, lacking authorization from development institutions and agencies, a reflection of the lack of a coherent integrated coastal zone management plan and functional urban landuse policy in Ghana. The result is a significant encroachment and degradation of the coastal ecosystems. Considering the already vulnerable state of most coastal areas in Ghana including Kokrobite and Bortianor, such developments could aggravate social and ecological vulnerability if left unchecked. In line with this, this study recommends the urgent need for a functional integrated coastal zone management plan and resourced institutions and agencies to enable effective management and regulation of developments in coastal zones in Ghana. Ultimately, coastal tourism, with all its recognized and potential socio-economic benefits to local and national economies can only be sustained with an ecologically productive coastal zone.
Keywords: Tourism, Coastal tourism, Landcover, Kokrobite and Bortianor, Erosion Issue No:Vol. 6
Authors:Hasan Hamouda, Nadine Abu-Shaaban Abstract: The concept of Sustainability is vigorously introduced into the curriculum of Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP) due to worldwide concerns over increasing energy demand coupled with growing volumes of sewage sludge. This paper evaluates anaerobic digestion of bio-sludge as a method for alleviating environmental, economic and social challenges surrounding current energy source, demand and strict sludge disposal standards. Gaza Strip has been selected as a case study area to assess the applicability of such approach; as AD is proposed to be integrated into Wastewater Treatment Plants in the Gaza Strip to reduce the volume of sludge produced as well as recovering biogas. Results show that AD is an attractive strategy along the path of sustainably managing WWTPs delivering the two key objectives of recovering enough energy to make WWTPs self sufficient and minimizing waste generation.
Keywords: key words, anaerobic digestion, sludge reduction, sustainability, wastewater treatment plant Issue No:Vol. 6