- Skills Developments of Labourers to Achieve the Successful Project
Delivery in the Sri Lankan Construction Industry
Authors: P.G.D. Fernando, Nirodha Gayani Fernando, M.A.C.L. Gunarathna
Abstract: Construction can be identified as a labour intensive industry which carries heavy reliance upon the skills of labourers. Skilful labour force is one of the vital elements for the continuity and successful implementation of construction projects. It has been identified that the performance of labourers neither been measured quantitatively nor qualitatively in the Sri Lankan construction industry. Hence, there is no standard to recruit labour with a perfect understanding of their level of performance and consequently, the industry will face many difficulties in identifying the right crew to complete the project as per the required standard within specified time and money. Hence, this study attempts to address the problems associated with skills of labourers in building projects. Accordingly, the aim of this research is to develop a framework to enhance the skills of labourers to enable the successful project delivery in the Sri Lankan construction industry.The survey approach was selected as the most suitable research approach due to the quantitative nature of the study. Thirty questionnaires and ten semi-structured interviews were conducted by random selection of project managers, quantity surveyors, site engineers for the interviews and labourers for questionnaire survey. Content analysis was used to analyse data collected from interviews and the data collected from questionnaires were analysed using statistical methods such as binomial test and Relative Importance Index (RII). Based on the analysis, the conclusions were drawn and recommendations were put forward.The findings of the study revealed that less guidance, less motivation on labourers and poor examination of their skills are the major hindrances for the skills development. Migration, technology innovation and poor image on employment condition were identified as the root causes of the skilled labour shortage. Moreover, the study revealed that unskilled labourers are working as skilled labourers due to the existing shortage of skilled labourers and it will negatively affect the quality and standard of the outcomes, cause high material wastage and spend long time for project completion. By considering the aforementioned facts, the research ultimately introduced a framework to develop skills of labourers to achieve the successful project delivery in Sri Lankan construction industry. Keywords: Construction Industry; Labourers; Skills Development; Successful Project Delivery.
Issue No: Vol. 8
- Evaluation of Oil and Grease Contamination of Euphrates River during
Authors: Hussein Abdulmuttaleb Ali khan Al Madany
Abstract: The environmental impact of most releases of petroleum wastes would be minimal if the wastes remained at their points of release. However, wastes can migrate away from a release point by a number of pathways. The present study was conducted on Al Manatherah river in Al Manatherah city in the aim of studying the contamination levels of oil and grease, with some water quality parameters (NO3, pH, T.U., Cl,) and selected climatic parameters (precipitated dust particles, temperature, dust storm, and rain) were depended. Samples of raw water were collected and analyzed from Al Manatherah river station during a period of fifteen months, starting from October 2010 to December 2011. The purpose is to assess the level of parameters measured and their effects on the river. Statistical analysis used to describe the relations between oil and grease and the other parameters and a regression analysis was performed by "Data Fit" program version 8.0 Software. This study showed that discharging domestic sewage and industrial waste water from adjacent areas, caused oil and grease contamination of levels more than Iraqi standard limits in 64 times .The highest values of oil and grease recorded in heavy rainy months impacted by runoff from land, the second highest values of oil and grease occurred in May. Finally, oil and grease levels, also increased according to precipitated dust particles, and dust storm which will lead to use more amounts of oil and grease due to different activities, followed by discharging of polluted waters to sewers or into river directly. Keywords: oil and grease, nitrate, hydrogen Ion, turbidity, chloride, precipitated dust particles, regression models.
Issue No: Vol. 8
- Improvement of Cracking Resistance for the Semi-Rigid Base Layer
Reinforced by Geogrid
Authors: Zhu Yun Sheng, Chimi Tegachouang Nathan
Abstract: Reinforcement using an interlayer system appears nowadays as one of the techniques which is commonly used in asphalt pavement construction to improve its performances, extend its projected service life and reduce its structural cross section. Among a large number of existing interlayer systems, the geogrid has shown an effective use in pavement reinforcement with hot mix asphalt overlay. This article aims to research the mechanism leading to the spread of reflective crack and the anti-cracking effect of geogrid in semi-rigid pavement. The 3D finite element modeling package (ANSYS) has been used as tool to analyze the mechanical response of pavement model unreinforced and reinforced with different numbers of geogrid placed at different positions in the base layer under the influence of axle load. The results obtained from the finite element analysis have shown that, the use of geogrid in the semi-rigid base aids to reduce the stresses and strains both at the bottom of asphalt and base layer. Keywords: Reinforcement, Asphalt pavement, geogrid, Reflective crack, Anti-cracking effect.
Issue No: Vol. 8
- Evaluating the Performance of Bioclimatic Design Building in Nigeria
Authors: Peter Oluwole Akadiri
Abstract: Bioclimatic design is an important strategy toward achieving sustainable building. Through the implementation of bioclimatic concept in buildings, energy demand can be reduced leading to increased users satisfaction. Using a set of questionnaire, a bioclimatic design evaluation was conducted to assess the satisfaction and perception of occupants in a residential building with the best practice of bioclimatic design strategies, particularly natural ventilation and daylighting. The questionnaire was based on a five-point Likert scale, covering various performance criteria of building, specifically on the architectural elements of thermal comfort, indoor air quality, visual comfort, acoustic comfort and landscape elements. Findings showed a positive relationship between perceptions and building performance criteria. Keywords: Bioclimatic design; Performance evaluation; Satisfaction and perception; Nigeria
Issue No: Vol. 8
- Effect of Environmental Disamenities on Property Value: A Hedonic Approach
Authors: Usman Khalid Sheikh
Abstract: Environment or natural environment can be defined as biological, chemical and physical surrounding upon which living organism depend for their basic survival and existence. Economy which is one of the major concerns of modern ages depends upon natural environment in three distinctive ways, first environment provides both renewable and non-renewable raw material which is used as an input for different production processes, second natural environment provides a function of natural depository for the waste generated by humans through production and consumption processes third it provides the function of natural beauty and environmental amenities. The production processes on one hand is beneficial for the economy in a way that goods and services can be produced by firms for profit motives which engages a large number of people from different income groups be it an entrepreneur or a worker. This production processes on the other hand produces pollution as a by-product which has adverse effects on the environment. . These adverse effects can be seen in the form of environmental disamenities which are air pollution, water pollution, ozone depletion by toxic gases and most important of all global warming which is one of the major issues of modern time. This study is based on the hedonic property model with an assumption that environmental disamenities affect property price negatively. Hedonic model is used to analyse the effects of environmental disamenities on the property value of ground floor of houses in Peshawar Pakistan. The study indicates that if there is a presence of an environmental disamenties in an area it leads to adverse effects on the properties of the associated areas. The government authorities need to focus on such issues and design such developmental policies which are beneficial for the consumers living in such area which are affected by environmental disamenities. Keywords: Environment, Renewable, Non-renewable, Amenities. Disamenities, Hedonic, Peshawar.
Issue No: Vol. 8
- The Evocative Study on Absolute Plumbing Method in a Structure: The
Perspective of Dhaka City
Authors: I. Ar. Farhana Choudhury
Abstract: Water is an integral part of human life. Without water, no living creature or plant on earth would exist. When a house or any building for that matter is built, water supply is always a major part of the design consideration. The plumbing layout is efficiently planned and laid out so that all spaces with water needs are connected to the water system. Aside from water supply, the layout also covers other important aspects like drainage and wastewater management systems. The components in the system would normally include pipes, fittings, valves, and other plumbing accessories. In this study, step by step procedure of supply of fresh water, drainage and wastewater management systems for a single multistory building of Dhaka city will be demonstrated. With an aim to provide more comprehensive information in a user-friendly manner to the practitioners, This study is designed to provide as a ‘Formula’ of plumbing system which can be applied in residential, commercial, industrial or other numerous varieties of buildings. Keywords: Plumbing System, Fresh Water Supply, Drainage System, Fittings, Fixture and so on
Issue No: Vol. 8
- The Workdays Lost of the Brick Kilns Emissions in Peshawar: A Policy
Authors: Shandana ., Salar Rahim
Abstract: Air Pollution caused by Brick Kilns is a major environmental problem in terms of Human health. Pakistan’s 3 biggest cities are ranked in Top ten most polluted Cities. Peshawar is ranked 3rd in the Top Ten most Polluted City in the world. We in our study, try to find out to what extent air pollution has been deteriorating human health and how it effect work days lost. We will establish our analysis by estimating the workdays lost related to the release of PM10 from brick kilns. For our analysis, we collected primary data of 60 households defining the socio economic conditions of the respondents. We have used Health dairy method to collect data regarding health information from the people. We then estimated one function which is Health cost function using Ordinary Least Square Technique (OLS). The Pm10 level to be set as low as 180 ug/m3. Our regression analysis estimated that pm10 released from the brick kilns have an adverse effect on people living close by to the brick kilns and it affects the work days lost Keywords: cost of illness, workdays lost, Peshawar kilns’ emissions, health production function, valuation.
Issue No: Vol. 8
- Influence of Physical Characteristics on the Performance of Office
Properties in Lagos, Nigeria
Authors: Matthew Oluwole Oyewole, Cyril Ayodele Ajayi
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of property physical characteristics on the performance of office properties in Lagos, Nigeria. By recognizing which physical features made significant contribution, market participants will know how physical features influence the performance of office property market. The trend in returns of office property investments is examined by using multiple regressions to establish a relationship between total return and underlying physical characteristics. The impact of age, building size, average floor space, building services, state of repairs, fixtures and fittings and design quality were explicitly considered. The results indicate that age of the property and building services made significant contribution to office property performance. The influence of other physical characteristics such as average floor space, building size, state of repairs, design quality and fixtures and fittings is not statistically significant. Overall, the age of the property could be regarded as giving the highest contribution to the performance of office property market. The study offers evidence of assessment of office properties performance and provides useful information for developers, investors and practitioners in the real estate market. Keywords: Office property, Physical characteristics, Performance, Property investment, Nigeria
Issue No: Vol. 8
- A Study on the Level of Awareness of Sustainability Concepts in
Construction amongst Students: The Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic Experience
Authors: Zaki; Blessed.M., Ibrahim Abubakar, Adamu Amina, Hadiza Lawal Mayere, Maikasuwa Tanimu
Abstract: Sustainability aims at improving human life while balancing environmental, social and economic needs. It calls for the comfortability of all constituents of the ecosystem. It is therefore a tool that caters for the present and future activities of man. But the activities of man such as construction has proved to be a major impediment to sustainable development because of its impact on the environment which results to degradation. This paper presents and discusses the results of a survey that was conducted among construction students of Nuhu Bamalli Polytecnic, Zaria, with the objective of investigating their awareness regarding the understanding of sustainable construction concepts. The results of the survey shows that a high percentage of the sample population have heard about sustainable construction but just a few have an understanding of the concepts. It is therefore concluded that there is a pressing need for inclusion of sustainable/green design courses in the education of students of the construction industry, with an attention also on the industry stakeholders to reflect these concepts in their designs and construction because students easily model their works during their training process. The paper recommends a curriculum redesign for construction related courses and a government intervention in making policies that ensure that the construction industry stakeholders adhere to sustainable strategies in their practice. Keywords: Construction Industry; Sustainable Construction; Sustainability; Nigeria; Sustainable Development; Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic
Issue No: Vol. 8
- Urban Greenry and Its Impact on Cooling Cost in Peshawar
Authors: Ezmeem Hamid Jabbar
Abstract: With progress there is decline in both numbers of trees and jungles, areas converting from rural to urban, more industries leading to more pollution and thus increasing Green House Effect resulting in increase in global temperature. The effects of these industrial wastes and green house can be controlled by decreasing the pollutants production and by more plantations making the areas greener. Greenery not only counter affects the environment but also gives us recreational and picnic spots. The air stays fresh and cooler. This cooling may decrease our dependency on coolants like air conditioners and room coolers in extreme summer temperatures and thus might help us save energy and money as well. And in this study we have showed that greenery does have an effect on bills of areas with more greenery than on bills of area with less greenery.
Issue No: Vol. 8
- Spiral Lane Markings: A Review of Lane Discipline
Authors: Ezenwa Chinenye Amanamba
Abstract: Roundabouts are quite effective as junction control measures; reducing crashes by eliminating certain conflict points and managing capacity by virtue of its self-regulating ability. Amongst other forms of circulatory carriageway markings, spiral markings have been acknowledged as a way of reducing a driver’s decision-making responsibilities and leading drivers to their choice exit lanes hence improved safety. Conversely, signalization becomes imperative as it offers an equitable means of controlling right-of-way at all arms of the roundabout especially where problems of unbalanced flows exist. Considering these issues a question comes to mind; “what proportion of drivers contravene the principles of lane discipline which several authors claim to be the highlight of spiral markings?” It was on this premise that this research was borne with specific objective of observing the lane discipline at a roundabout. This was achieved by installation of video cameras at strategic locations around the circulatory carriageway of the roundabout, with an observational study (survey); analysis of same, considering class of vehicles, traffic and light conditions being carried out. The transgressions observed were classified as minor and major transgressions and full lane changes; analyzed using simple statistical analysis. Following an hourly average for a three-day period, there were 33%, 23%, 17% car transgressions and 55%, 43%, 42% truck transgressions at unsaturated, partially saturated and saturated periods respectively. It was therefore concluded that there are more transgressions at unsaturated periods and transgressions generally are of the minor form, trucks are more involved in the observed transgressions, and that transgressions increase when roundabouts get busier which was quite a surprising finding as the reverse was expected. Keywords: Roundabout, Transgression, Traffic, Markings.
Issue No: Vol. 8
- The Application of Partial Least Square Regression to Develop a Model for
Reliable Investment Valuation Estimates in South-East Nigeria
Authors: Udobi; Alexander Nnamdi, Egolum, Charles Chukwunweike, Ugonabo, Celestine Udoka
Abstract: Against the increasing criticism of the reliability of the conventional investment method of property valuation practice in Nigeria, this study examine the ability of the Estate Surveyors and Valuers to estimate accurately the selling prices of residential properties in South-East Geopolitical Zone of the country with a view to formulate a model for reliable value estimates. Questionnaires were administered in a sample of randomly selected forty (40) Estate Surveyors and Valuers in the four selected towns of (Aba, Enugu, Onitsha and Owerri) in the South-East Geopolitical Zone. From the analysis of variance, the total of degree of freedom is seventeen, while the sum of square is 2682.44 and P-value in the table is 0.00, meaning that there is a statistically significant relationship between the Prices and Valuer estimates. The study further used the application of partial least square (PLS) regression model to develop model for perfect reliable price estimates. The model is thus: P=2.250.13v10.23v20.08v30.17v40.17v5+0.1v60.03v70.25v8+0.14v90.02v10+0.07v11+0.26v12+0.37v13+0.07v14+0.07v15+0.09v16+0.1v17+0.06v18+0.08v19+0.2v20+0.2v21. The model developed has the highest independent (X) variance, lowest level of the predicted error and highest coefficient of determination (R-square) between the value estimates and market prices and gives optimal and reliable result. Keywords: Partial least square, regression analysis, investment method of valuation, Valuation reliability, South-East Zone of Nigeria.
Issue No: Vol. 8
- Assessment of the Use of Subcontracting Options for Construction Project
Authors: Samuel Olusola; Olatunji, Douglas Omoregie, Aghimien, Ayodeji Emmanuel, Oke, Taiwo Marcus, Akinpelu
Abstract: In most developing countries around the world, construction projects are carried out on a daily basis, using diverse means of contracting. One of such means is the process of subcontracting which is gaining popularity as a result of specialization among construction participants. This research therefore assessed the use of various subcontracting options for construction project delivery. Using a survey design, 43 registered construction firms were sampled. Data gathered were analyzed using percentage, frequency and mean item score. Findings showed that nominated and domestic subcontracting options are the mostly used subcontracting options. Planned construction time, time taken to implement variation order and time taken to rectify defects are the major time related factors capable of causing poor project delivery, while contractor’s expected profit, contractor’s cash flow and the cost of materials and equipment are the major cost related factors capable of causing poor project delivery if not properly evaluated by the parties involved. The study further recommends that the level of awareness and usage of the other subcontracting options which are not widely known and used presently can be improved through seminars, meetings, conferences organized by construction professional’s supervisory bodies and relative agencies for construction stakeholders. Also effective monitoring and coordination of the activities of subcontractors by the main contractor is necessary so that the outline programme of works can be achieved on time and within budget. Keywords: Cost, Nigeria, Project delivery, Subcontracting, Time
Issue No: Vol. 8
- Analytical Study of Reinforced Concrete Horizontally Curved Beam of
Rectangular Hollow Section
Authors: Hayder M. K. Al-Mutairee, Dolfocar A. U. Witwit
Abstract: This research is devoted to study the behavior of Horizontally Curved Reinforced Concrete Beam (HCRCB) of hollow and solid section theoretically by finite element method, the 20-node isoparametric brick element has been used to represent the concrete and the reinforcement idealized as an axial members imbedded within the concrete elements, a parametric study of 210 beams with different cross sections had been done included the effect of wall thickness, and the effect of flange depth on the behavior of HCRCB as well as two techniques of rearrangement the concrete in the hollow core to strengthen the beam. From the analytical results it was concluded that rearranging the core area improved the ultimate load capacity for beams with shear span to effective depth ratio (a/d) more than 2 and the effect is reversed for beams with (a/d) less than 2. Also the technique of adding the hollow core area to the top and bottom flange represent the optimal and produce the maximum increment in the ultimate load which equal to 57%. While the technique of adding the hollow core area to the outside perimeter produced 20% increase in the ultimate load. Keywords: Three Dimensional Analysis, Reinforced Concrete Horizontally Curved Beam, Hollow Section
Issue No: Vol. 8
- Developing Conceptual Land Grade Model for Bench Mark Lease Price
Determination using Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process and GIS Approach: A
Case of Woldiya City, Ethiopia
Authors: Abraha Tesfay
Abstract: Land grading plays a crucial role to develop appropriate benchmark lease prices. An efficient land grading system brings transparent and clear land marketing system. However, the existing land grading system of urban centers of Ethiopia has not been very successful in allowing the urban centers to benefit from the advantages of having an efficient land grading system. The major reasons for those limitations emanates from three main factors. The first reason is due to the fact that some major factors that have paramount importance for developing urban land grading had been left out. The second limitation is related to a methodological approach how land grade is prepared. In Ethiopia land grading is developed in the context of traditional urban land uses models. Yet, the notion of mono centric city concept (Burger’s 1925 model) is dominant. However, currently this model does not reasonably represent real land value patterns in urban Ethiopia. Thirdly, in Ethiopia, the conventional method used to prepare land grade map is manual and labor intensive due to this limitations most municipals are not in position to prepare predictable and flexible land grade map.Taking this gap into account, the objective of this research was to develop a predictable and flexible conceptual land grading model for improved land management system in urban areas. In this study three -stage methodologies were used. The first stage was focused in identifying influential factors that are used as input to develop conceptual land grading model. The second was about determining preference weight of criteria using FAHP method. The third method was aggregating the factor maps in arc GIS10.2 (map algebra) so as to create prototype land grading map. The developed conceptual model was found to be effective and has improved information gain compared to previous works. The study concluded that GIS approach is not only facilitate the organization and management of digital data layers but it also enable municipals to take full advantage of location information contained in databases that can support spatial decision making in land grading. The study also confirmed that FAHP model allows decision makers to give interval judgments, which can capture a human‘s appraisal of ambiguity when complex multi-attribute decision making approaches like land grade are involved. Keywords: Fuzzy; GIS; land grade; valuation; benchmark price.
Issue No: Vol. 8
- A Review Study of the Role of the Corporate Sector in Disaster Management
Authors: Chakunda Vincent
Abstract: The paper seeks to explore the level of involvement of the corporate sector in disaster management. This is against a background of increasing disaster risk in the developing world where 90% of the total disasters and 95% of the total disaster related deaths is recorded (Allardce 2009). In the past in most countries round the globe it was the government through its various arms that played a major role in disaster relief and rehabilitation. As the concept of disaster management gradually took root, encompassing not merely disaster relief and rehabilitation, but also preparedness and mitigation, the need to involve the community at large was also realized. Thus the ever expanding extend and scale of natural disasters have made it imperative for the corporate sector to initiate and integrate disaster risk prevention and mitigation measures in the various facets of their functions and operations with the objective of safeguarding the built environment, protecting investments and ensuring the sustainability of communities. With corporate entities investing in disaster prone regions in Africa it is also important to observe that the companies thrive on the health, stability and prosperity of communities in which they operate. Therefore, it becomes imperative for the corporate sector to initiate disaster risk management programmes in their operations as part of their CSR initiatives. The purpose of this paper is to explore and justify the role of the corporate sector in disaster management doth as a measure of safeguarding their investments against disaster risk and as part of corporate social responsibility. Keywords: Natural disaster, disaster management, corporate sector, corporate initiatives
Issue No: Vol. 8
- Change Detection of Vegetation Cover Using Remote Sensing Data as a Case
Study: Ajloun Area
Authors: Majed Ibrahim, Atef Al-Mashagbah
Abstract: Remote sensing data in combination with the appropriate multispectral bands such as Landsat OLI/TIR and TM data were used to change detection of vegetation cover using vegetation indices for the periods of 1990 – 2015 in Ajloun area, where this study area has the highest forest cover in Jordan. The results indicate that overall increase in Unclassified area (urbanization, land degradation and agricultural activities) in the study area between 1990 and 2015 is approximately 146.84 km2. Despite the fact that the cultivation and urbanization caused significant changes in the study area. and the percentages to removal of vegetation in the study area reached up to 5.84 of overall area annually which refer to the risk situation which mean that the study area reach to the high level degradation of the vegetation cover. Keywords: NDVI, Satellite image, Landsat TM, Forest and Classification
Issue No: Vol. 8
- Retrofit of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams with Different Shear
Reinforcement by Using CFRP
Authors: Mohammed Mohammed Rasheed
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to study the experimental behavior and efficiency for retrofitted of reinforced concrete deep beams by carbon fiber reinforced polymer sheets, CFRP. An experimental program was conducted to retrofit nine failed deep beams by external CFRP sheets. Horizontal and vertical transverse reinforcement and shear span to depth ratios, were the main studied parameters in this paper. It was concluded that using this retrofitted method is very efficient and a gain in the ultimate load capacity of the deep beams was obtained. This gain was due to the efficiency of the external carbon fiber sheets to resist an extra applied load after failure. The failure in most of the retrofitted specimens was due to separate carbon fiber sheets from concrete or due to concrete crushing. Keywords: Deep beams, Retrofit, CFRP sheets, Web reinforcements, Shear span/depth ratio.
Issue No: Vol. 8