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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 148 journals)
Showing 1 - 47 of 47 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acque Sotterranee - Italian Journal of Groundwater     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oceanography and Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
American Journal of Water Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Water Works Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Anales de Hidrología Médica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW. Land Reclamation     Open Access  
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Applied Water Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Aquacultural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Living Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aquatic Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Asian Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Water Resources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Desalination and Water Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Developments in Water Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Science : Water Research & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
EQA - International Journal of Environmental Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European journal of water quality - Journal européen d'hydrologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Groundwater for Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Grundwasser     Hybrid Journal  
Hydro Nepal : Journal of Water, Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Hydrology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14)
Hydrology: Current Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
IDA Journal of Desalination and Water Reuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ingeniería del agua     Open Access  
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Nuclear Desalination     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Salt Lake Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Waste Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Water Resources Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access  
Irrigation and Drainage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Irrigation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Contemporary Water Resource & Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Oceans     Partially Free   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Hydro-environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Hydroinformatics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hydrology (New Zealand)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Natural Resources and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Water Resources Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Water and Climate Change     Partially Free   (Followers: 37)
Journal of Water and Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Water Process Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Water Resource and Hydraulic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Water Resource Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Water Security     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Water Supply : Research and Technology - AQUA     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
La Houille Blanche     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Lake and Reservoir Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Liquid Waste Recovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mangroves and Salt Marshes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Marine Ecology Progress Series MEPS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Marine Ecosystem Stressor Response     Open Access  
Methods in Oceanography : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Osterreichische Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal  
Ozone Science & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Paddy and Water Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Revue des sciences de l'eau / Journal of Water Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
RIBAGUA - Revista Iberoamericana del Agua     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Riparian Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
River Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
River Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
SA Irrigation = SA Besproeiing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SABI Magazine - Tydskrif     Full-text available via subscription  
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access  
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref     Open Access  
Scientia Marina     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Smart Water     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Sri Lanka Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sustainable Technologies, Systems & Policies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Tecnología y Ciencias del Agua     Open Access  
Texas Water Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Urban Water Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Waste Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Water     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Water & Sanitation Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Water and Environment Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Water Environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Water Policy     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Water Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Water Practice and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Water Quality Research Journal of Canada     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Water Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Water Resources and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Water Resources and Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Water Resources and Rural Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Water Resources Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Water Resources Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 80)
Water SA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Water Science : The National Water Research Center Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Water Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Water Science and Technology : Water Supply     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)
Water Wheel     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Water21     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Waterlines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wetlands Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Water     Hybrid Journal  
WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover Civil and Environmental Research
  [19 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2224-5790 - ISSN (Online) 2225-0514
   Published by IISTE Homepage  [37 journals]
  • Journal coverpage

    • Authors: Journal Editor
      Abstract: Journal coverpage
      Issue No: Vol. 9
       
  • Integrated Watershed Management for Ecosystem Balance & Climate
           Change: Ethiopia

    • Authors: Merkineh Mesene Mena
      Abstract: Increasing weather variability and climate change are contributing to land and natural/env’tal resource degradation by exposing soils to extreme conditions and straining the capacity of existing land management practices to maintain resource quality. Integrated concepts for managing natural resources in a sustainable and environmentally sound manner show encouraging impacts, if applied on a large scale and over a long period. Integrated Watershed management (IWM) implies the judicious use of natural resources such as land, water, biodiversity and overall ecosystem to obtain optimum production with minimum disturbance to the environment. IWM concepts play an important role for local communities to adapt to impacts of climate change. The scaling up of IWM practices means increasing soil fertility and land productivity at the end leads to balanced ecosystem. Protected soil ecosystems with its organisms are very important for soil organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling under natural ecosystem. Thus soil fertility maintained and productivity increases. Policies and strategies can play a decisive role through IWM practices among which PASDEP is the most popular as it underlines awareness creation at individual land user and community level. Opportunities could be utilized for success of management practices such as recognition of the problems by the entire society, progressive new rural development policies, skilled man power, vast experience in IWM practices are notable. Keywords: watershed management, environmental degradation, ecosystem balance, climate change
      Issue No: Vol. 9
       
  • Technical Performance Evaluation of Ketar Medium Scale Irrigation Scheme,
           Southeast of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Dinka Fufa
      Abstract: Evaluation of performance of irrigation systems has been increasingly stressed in recent years by many researchers and managers of irrigation schemes. This study was aimed to contribute to the improvement of irrigation efficiency and crop productivity of the farm. It had been conducted on Ketar medium scale irrigation scheme situated in Arsi zone Oromia Regional State of Ethiopia. Performance indicators used were conveyance, application, storage efficiency, water application uniformity; depletion fraction, runoff ratio, deep percolation, irrigation water use efficiency and scheme sustainability were done. Potato was the selected crop for the experiment. Soil of the study area was found clay loam, moderate acidic, non-saline soil and has 3.44 OM in average.  Average Ec, ,Ea, Eu, Es, DF, RR, DPF, IWUE of Ketar scheme was found as 57.4% , 61.6%, 61.6%, 160%, 70.1%, 27.86%, 10.54% and 2.38kg/m3, respectively. The study was concluded as upper and middle stream users were consuming more water than the lowers with decreased productivity of the scheme and technical support and SWC activities in this watershed and redesign are recommendable for sustained design discharge.
      Issue No: Vol. 9
       
  • Effect of Fire on Confined Concrete Columns under Axial Loading

    • Authors: Ihsan Tarsha, Manar Takla
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to numerically investigate the feasibility of confinement, the load carrying capacity and the temperature at which the confinement become obsolete for a RC column with dimensions of [200x200x
      800 mm] subjected to a standard fire loads (ISO834) from four sides. The study was carried out using the research-oriented FE code ANSYS APDL. ANSYS can integrate the nonlinear behavior of concrete by accounting for both crushing under compression stresses and cracking under tensile stresses, and well as the bilinear behavior of the reinforcing steel.The Numerical program was subcategorized into two major groups. The first one consisted of thirteen models. Those models were analyzed under static loading conditions. The second group consisted of 72 models. The models in this group where subjected to both structural and thermal loading conditions. The structural loading was in a form of static service loads, while the thermal loading was in a form of standard fire curve that has been applied to the four faces of the column.The numerical results were compared with experimental results as far as possible, in order to verify the accuracy of the numerical models used. The numerical analysis aimed to study of the effect of many variables, i.e., the diameter of the lateral reinforcement, the diameter of the longitudinal reinforcement.The results revealed the accuracy of the analytical models when compared to the experimental studies. A positive effect was captured in terms of the load carrying capacity and delaying the failure time, i.e., loss in confinement effect, when increasing 1) the diameter of the longitudinal, 2) the diameter of the transverse reinforcement and Additionally, the results indicated an increase in the column loading time under thermal loading conditions when static design loads are applied. And when the percentage of failure load increased, the time of carrying columns of fire decreased. Keywords: Finite Element Theory, Thermal Analysis, Reinforced Concrete Columns
      Issue No: Vol. 9
       
  • Assessing the Effect of Soil and Water Conservation Practices on Runoff
           and Sediment Yield on Hunde Lafto watershed of Upper Wabi Shebelle Basin

    • Authors: Gamachu Ayala, Shimelis Berhanu, Olkeba Tolesa
      Abstract: A study was carried out at Hunde Lafto watershed to assess effect of Soil and Water Conservation practices on runoff and sediment yield. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to assess the effectiveness of different Soil and Water Conservation (SWC) practices implemented in the watershed based on different scenarios (base line, stone bunds and crop residue management scenarios). The simulated sediment yield shows that soil loss rate range from 0-76.9 t/ha/yr with annual weighted average rate of 45.4 t/ha/yr. Parallel terrace (stone bunds) scenario reduced the total sediment yield from 10,978.7 t/yr to 3,734.26 t/yr relative to base simulation, which is equivalent to 65.9% decrease and reduces the surface runoff by 27% from 410.4 mm to 299.5 mm, increase base flow by 23% and lateral flow by 22.6% at outlet of watershed. While simulation of crop residue management scenario reduced total sediment yield to 4,299.84 t/yr from base simulation, which is equivalent to 60.8% reduction and the surface runoff by 23.5% from 410.4 mm to 313.6 mm, increase base flow by 18.6% and lateral flow by 19.9% at outlet. the benefits of crop residue management practices were more important in the watershed and recommended for farmers. Keywords: Soil and water conservation, Calibration and validation, simulation, Hunde Lafto catchment, Baseline scenario, runoff, sediment yield, watershed management
      Issue No: Vol. 9
       
  • Willingness to Improving Infrastructure (A Focus on Iju Town, Ondo State,
           Nigeria)

    • Authors: Okosun; Senator Endurance, Ajisola, Kolawole Thomas, Oluwajana, Somope Modupe
      Abstract: In the 21st century of human habitat and global transformation of towns and cities, a nation develops through willingness of stakeholders (i.e. Government, Community Based Organizations, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Individuals) in improving infrastructural facilities that allow a society to function effectively. This study examined the effects of infrastructure on the socio-economic livelihood of the people in Iju community, with a view to enhancing development and alleviating poverty. Data was collected with the aid of structured questionnaire from 180 respondents using stratified sampling. The sample size was the ratio of buildings. The processing of data in the study was carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19. Data collected were analyzed at two levels using univariate and bivariate statistics. The Univariate Analysis was used to present the data on frequency distribution through the use of tables, charts, maps, and percentages. The Bivariate Analysis was used in carrying out the tests of the formulated hypotheses Findings revealed that provisions of infrastructures such as road, water supply, electricity, school and town halls were instrumental in improving the socio-economic activities of the people, however the condition of some facilities in the town was dilapidated and as such had not been adequately maintained. The recommendations called for encouragement of self help programmes and assistance from NGOs and cooperative societies. Keywords: Infrastructure Development, Iju Town, Ondo State, Socio-Economic, Willingness
      Issue No: Vol. 9
       
  • Nanostructured Clay (NC) and the Stabilization of Lateritic Soil for
           Construction Purposes

    • Authors: Onyelowe; K. C., Onuoha, I. C., Ikpemo, O. C., Ekwe, N. P., Okafor, F. O., Maduabuchi, M. N., Kalu-Nchere, J., Aguwa, P.
      Abstract: The use of Nanostructured Clay additive in lateritic soil stabilization and their effect at different percentages on the natural soil was investigated. The preliminary tests on the soil showed it was an A-2-7 soil, according to AASHTO classification. The soil sample was also observed to be silty clayey sand and the general rating as a sub-grade material was ‘GOOD’. The consistency limits result shows that the value of the LL for the natural soil is 47% and 25.15% was recorded for the plastic limit (PL) and finally the PI was 21.85% i.e. highly plastic soil. Further, the effect of the addition of NC in the proportions of 3%, 6%, 9%, 12% and 15% by weight of the stabilized Umuntu Olokoro lateritic soil was investigated. The consistency limits results showed that the addition of variable proportions of NC considerably improved the plasticity of the stabilized soil which gave 13.8%; a medium plastic material at 15% NC addition, compared to the preliminary result of 0% by weight additive which gave 21.85%; a highly plastic material. The strength properties’ test showed significant improvements with the addition of NC; CBR test result recorded 29% at 15% by weight proportion of NC which satisfies the material condition for use as sub-base material and the UCS test results similarly improved consistently and recorded a maximum UCS of 340.18kN/m2 at 15% by weight proportion of NC addition which satisfies “very stiff” material consistency for use as sub-base material. With the foregoing, the addition of various proportions of NC to the stabilized lateritic soil has presented to be a Geotechnical solution to the varied environmental failures on the road pavements. Hence NC satisfies all the material conditions for use as a sub-base material for the stabilization and improvement of the strength characteristics of lateritic soils. Finally, we call on the relevant agencies to use NC as an additive in stabilizing weak lateritic soils for use as either sub-grade or sub-base materials to save both cost and the structural failures on the roads in south eastern Nigeria. Keywords: Environmental Geotechnics; Pavement Geotechnics; Soil Stabilization; Weak Lateritic Soil; South Eastern Nigeria.
      Issue No: Vol. 9
       
  • Determinants of Informal Land Transactions on Land Market in Owerri Urban,
           Imo State, Nigeria

    • Authors: Stanislaus Anabaraonye Okeahialam, Joseph U. Ogbuefi
      Abstract: In Owerri, Imo State, just like other major towns in Nigeria, it has been observed that the government’s land administration technique currently in use (the Land Use Act of 1978) has not been able to meet the demand for urban land when and where needed for its population especially the low, the middle and even some high income earners. This has led to frustration and disappointments to majority of the urban dwellers thereby compelling those who are not able to access land from this formal system to look for an affordable alternative source of land acquisition for their use. This they find in the informal land market (private land market transactions). The situation has made informal land market become a much more patronized avenue of land acquisition by a large proportion of most urban dwellers in Imo State. The aim of this study therefore was to analyse the factors that push for informal land transactions on land market in Owerri urban, Nigeria. The study adopted the survey research. Stratified, systematic and simple random sampling techniques were used to elicit data from three classes of respondents. Six settlements were selected for the study through stratified random sampling method and three key sets of respondents were identified from the six settlements namely; the land owners, the land agents and the land administrators.  The study concentrated on communities in the high and medium residential density areas of Owerri urban. These were areas where informal land transactions thrive. Principal Component analysis was used to identify and classified four factors that caused the predominance of informal land acquisition in Owerri Urban. These four components accounted for 79.75% of the observed variability. The clustered factors are: promptness in processing, low cost in processing, land accessibility and acceptability of title documents. The policy implications of the study was include that the government should harmonize the land market for better land transactions and local land registration and information offices be established at the local government levels. Keywords: Informal Land Markets, Formal Land Markets, Urban.
      Issue No: Vol. 9
       
  • Leachate Quality Characteristics and Groundwater Contamination around
           Active and Closed Landfills in Lagos, Nigeria

    • Authors: Akinranti S. Ajibola
      Abstract: Landfilling is widely applied as a disposal method for solid wastes in most developed and developing countries. However, in many developing nations many landfills are not properly managed, and pose a serious threat to the environment due to leachate run-off. The risk of groundwater contamination by leachate is considered a significant environmental concern associated with landfilling. This study evaluated the quality characteristics of leachates from four landfills (two closed and two active landfills) in Lagos, Nigeria. The quality characteristics of groundwater samples near the landfills were also assessed. Leachate and groundwater samples were analyzed for some physicochemical properties, trace and major elements. The obtained results revealed that the total hardness in the leachates from all the landfills exceeded the regulatory limits in Nigeria. COD values in all the leachates were above the limit set by the Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA) which is an indication of gross organic pollution of the leachates. Generally, the concentrations of trace and major elements in the leachates were low. The presence of high concentrations of Pb in raw leachates of Abule-Egba (1.037 mg/L) and Olusoshun (1.680 mg/L) is a matter of concern because Pb is known to be one of the highly toxic environmental pollutants. Moreover, the total hardness level in groundwater near Soluos 3 landfill (190 mg/L) exceeded the limits by the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) and World Health Organization (WHO). Trace metals concentrations in the groundwater samples were generally low. Finally, the leachate quality characteristics of the closed and active landfills in this study and the associated groundwater quality characteristics did not follow any specific pattern but might have been largely influenced by the composition and type of solid wastes disposed at each of the landfill sites. Keywords: Leachate, groundwater, landfill, physicochemical characteristics, trace and major elements, Lagos
      Issue No: Vol. 9
       
  • Influence of Using Packing Materials on the UASB Performance

    • Authors: Amr Saad, Ehab Rozaik
      Abstract: A lot of researchers studied the main factors affecting the performance of using the Up flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors for domestic wastewater treatment. The previous researches and experiments to investigate some parameters which affecting the treatment process using UASB reactors such as Hydraulic retention time, sludge blanket thickness, mode of operation (Continues and feed – feed less), feed less period and internal media inside the reactor.This paper investigate the influence of using pieces of sponge used as an internal media (packing materials) on the UASB performance in treating the municipal wastewater. The main purpose of using the internal media inside the reactor is to allocate large surface area for bacterial community growth.A pilot scale setup was designed and constructed at Zenien wastewater treatment plant (Zenien WWTP) in Giza Governorate, Egypt. It was operated under ambient environmental conditions.The experimental works shows increment at the UASB performance of the main parameters COD, BOD, TSS and VSS. Keywords: Sewage treatment, Packing Materials, UASB
      Issue No: Vol. 9
       
  • Cost Evaluation and Management for Adopting Reinforced Earth Retaining
           Structures in Jordan

    • Authors: Orabi Al Rawi, Maale Al Abade
      Abstract: Globally, different studies and investigations in the field of new technologies and alternative building materials are continuously performed to decrease the cost and time of carrying out construction projects. In this research, a geotechnical and management investigations were conducted to evaluate (primarily) the cost of adopting reinforced earth retaining structures in Jordan and then to compare this technology with conventional concrete retaining walls. In Jordan, the reinforced earth technique is relatively performed, since 2005; however, it is still not popular among the construction engineering sectors. The methodology of this research consisted of two stages. The first stage included collecting for literature of previous investigations and the required information related to the above subject; whereas, the second stage focused on the idea of adopting reinforced earth structures for a proposed project in Jordan, then considering it as a case study for this research. Briefly, the study project was a proposed retaining wall that to be executed along one side of an existing road located at Al Fuhais City (about five kilometers from the Capital Amman). Accordingly, a comparison study for implementing two alternatives of retaining structures had been conducted for this project (i.e., reinforced earth & reinforced concrete retaining walls). The engineering evaluation of carrying out this project has been studied during performing a comprehensive analysis for each alternative considering the structural cost, labor and equipment's costs, quality and availability of the required materials, applicability, and the construction management. Considering the results of this research, it was concluded that conducting reinforced earth retaining structures in Jordan has more benefits considering their lower cost, less duration of execution, the availability of materials, the presence of workers with good experience, in addition to other several factors concerning the structure's durability, and serving as projects with most convenient to local environment. Keywords: Reinforced Earth Walls, Engineering Management, Cost Evaluation, Planning, R.C Walls.
      Issue No: Vol. 9
       
 
 
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