Authors:J. U. Ogbuefi, Uche. R.B. Emeasoba, P.C. Ogbuefi Abstract: The topic envisages a discussion on the establishment of criteria for standardized land valuation mechanism within the context of land titling and registration in Nigeria in furtherance of the implementation of the land reform agenda of the Federal government. The imperative to reform the existing land policy in Nigeria presupposes that a more functional, dynamic, development friendly and user/owner security conscious land policy should be articulated. Generally, land valuation mechanism is dynamic and evolves to suit the peculiar motive, time and system in place in a particular society. It is necessary, therefore that methods put in place are such that would ensure success and efficiency in achieving the set objective. It is only through the continuous monitoring and assessment of any existing principle can the long-term favorable strategies be achieved. The work attempts to analyse the different approaches and recommends the most appropriate mechanism towards achieving the set objectives.
Keywords: Criteria, Standardized, Land Valuation, Mechanism, Land Titling, Land Registration Issue No:Vol. 6
Authors:Olufemi O. Fatonade Abstract: This paper presents the concept of training as it relates to the construction industry, and specifically site operatives, that is, the craftsmen and labourers. Training has a systematic undertone with great benefits too. It can determine the effectiveness and efficiency of any organisation. The paper addresses the training policy in place for such operatives in construction firms in Ghana. Literature is reviewed accordingly to provide a framework and direction for the study. The primary data collection was centered on large, medium and small-scale building contractors in six (6) regions in the southern sector of Ghana, seen as a hub of construction activities. From the findings, it is only the large-scale contractors who have some plausible training policies for the site operatives with non-specialists largely doubling as training officers. Training needs are poorly determined and evaluated, and on-the-job instruction is the commonest mode of training site operatives.
Keywords: Site Operatives, Local Building Construction Industry, Training Needs Issue No:Vol. 6
Authors:Nich. I. Obi, Obinna Ubani Abstract: Affordable Housing provision has remained elusive to an average Nigerian, in spite of numerous programs put in action by various government of the country. The situation is similar to other developing countries, thus, it remains a critical issue in socio-economic wellbeing of these countries. The following factors were identified as contributors to poor housing delivery in the country. They include Rapid population growth, rapid urbanization process, rural-urban drift, and high cost of building materials, dearth of indigenous technology and skilled personal, inadequate financial structure as well as poor managerial skill of our mortgage institutions. The past and present housing programs and efforts were reviewed. New solutions were also proposed.
; Housing, Materials, Population, Programs, Urbanization
. Issue No:Vol. 6
Authors:Solomon Ntow Densu Abstract: Seating positions and restraint use influence the severity of injury among child passengers in the event of a crash. In light of this, legislation mandating age-appropriate child restraint use, in suitable seating positions was enacted, yet very little is known about its compliance level. This study therefore aimed to assess restriant use and seating positions among children riding in vehicles. Covert but unobstructed synchronised observations of restriant use and seating positions were conducted at 11 automated signalized intersections in the STM. Overall, 3849 occupants, comprising 1535 motorists and 2314 child passengers were clearly observed. A little over one third of the children were riding in the front seats, of which one-half were younger than 5 years of age. 1 in 5 of the children observed were riding on adults laps, with 42% in the front seats. Motorists’ belt use 50.6% (95% C.I=48.10-53.10) was significantly higher than children 6.6% (95% C.I=5.83-7.37). Restraint use among front-seated child passengers (14.0%; 95% C.I=12.63-15.37) was markedly higher than rear-seated ones (3.7%; 95% C.I=2.80-4.61). Children were twice as more (OR=2; 95%C.I=1.14-2.25) likely to be restrained when motorists were belted; and thrice as more (OR=3.18; 95%C.I=2.15-4.72) while travelling with a female motorist. Restriant use was prevalent in private cars, during rush-hours and increased with child’s age. Restriant use was incredibly generally low among children, with significant proportion riding in front seating positions. Efforts should be directed at elevating the understanding of parents concerning the importance of restraining younger children in the rear seats, alongside the provision of restraints at subsidized rates or preferably free of charge, while encouraging their use through well-planned and adequately resourced extensive public education and enforcement campaigns.
: Child restraint use, legislation, seating position, Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis, Ghana Issue No:Vol. 6
Authors:Walaiporn Laosuksri, Qi Gubo Abstract: The conflict over the necessary use of limestone mountains for supporting economic growth activities has been protested from environmentalists owing to the rich biodiversity and habitats to endemic flora and fauna of the limestone mountains. The Baan Lam Nam Keaw village in Lopburi Province is an example of the newly setup but quite a while practically managed community forestry, and shares the common characteristics of the limestone forests in the Central Thailand areas. The success story proclaims the over two decades of individual-led reforestation and afforestation prior to the setup of community forestry on the Khao Sap Kaeng Kai limestone forest that resulted to the improving ecosystem services especially ground water wells, and rehabilitating local and endemic flora and fauna in the village areas. Local plants Kratin Yak tree Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) and Chan Pha (Dracaena loureiri Gagnep) have been used for forest fire prevention and the forest cover increasing respectively. The key success was the efficient local spiritual leader, Phra Prinya Suprinyo, with his strong professional background, and good connection with the forestry office and local administrative office. Furthermore, the participation in the Royal Forest Department community forestry project in 2010 had brought the villagers into the new learning process of community involvement in the forest management, and consequently created the sense of village ownership. The Khao Sap Kaeng Kai forest management is symbolic for the villager’s cooperation, and now being used as a platform for further sustainable development in forestry community in the future.
Keywords: Reforestation; Limestone ecosystem; Community forestry; Limestone forest Issue No:Vol. 6
Authors:Zain Al-Houri, Abbas Al-Omari, Osama Saleh Abstract: Water management and design of irrigation and drainage projects are based on extreme values rather than on average values. Annual daily maximum rainfall corresponding to return periods varying from 2 to 100 years is used by design engineers and hydrologists for economic planning, and design of minor and major hydraulic structures. This research aims at performing frequency analysis of annual daily maximum rainfall in Amman-Zarqa Basin (AZB) which is an important basin in Jordan. Daily rainfall data at 22 stations distributed in Amman-Zarqa Basin with long time series (more than 40 years) were used for this purpose. For each station, the annual 1- day maximum rainfall data were extracted. Daily maximum values have then been statistically analyzed by RAINBOW software using two probability distribution functions, namely: Linear and log normal distributions. The goodness of fit for the selected distributions is tested using the Chi-square and the Kolmogorov–Simrnov tests at three significant levels ('=5%, 10% and 20%). The results of the goodness of fit indicate that the Log normal distribution provides a good fit to the rainfall data in the basin. Frequency analysis is then conducted to extract the magnitude of 1 day annual maximum rainfall corresponding to 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 yr return periods for the 22 stations in AZB. Analysis of rainfall regime would enhance the management of water to prevent floods and droughts as well as an effective design of drainage structures especially in relation to their required hydraulic capacity.
Amman-Zarqa Basin, Extreme Events, Frequency Analysis, Probability Distribution, RAINBOW Software, Return Period Issue No:Vol. 6
Authors:ATA Olugbenga Abstract: This research investigated the effect of different types of mixing water on the compressive strength of concrete. It analysed the effect of impurities such as salts of sodium, manganese, tin, zinc, copper and lead on the compressive strength of concrete. The effects of the presence of some other impurities like silt and suspended particles on concrete strength were also investigated. Samples of water from six sources in Ile-Ife environ were chemically analysed to ascertain their chemical constituents. 100mm cube samples were cast with these water samples. Compressive strength test was carried out on the cubes and the findings were statistically processed. The results indicated that sources of water used in mixing concrete have a significant impact on the compressive strength of the resulting concrete. It concluded by suggesting that river water could be used for mixing where tap water is scarce. However, other properties such as durability and shrinkage should be considered before use.
Keywords: compressive strength, concrete, mixing water Issue No:Vol. 6
Authors:Peter O. Adewale, Ahmid B. Siyanbola, Serifat O. Siyanbola Abstract: One of the targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is to achieve a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers by the year 2020. Nigeria’s commitment to this Declaration has led to a plethora of economic reforms that address housing inadequacy and other development challenges. Among these is a policy shift from direct government participation to private sector participation in housing delivery. Several studies have, however, shown that, despite all these reforms, a great proportion of its population still lives in substandard and poor houses and in deplorable, unsanitary residential environments. The objective of this paper is to review some of these strategies vis-à-vis the socio-economic context of the nation’s polity with a view to finding the reasons they have not delivered as expected. The incompatibility of the market-driven reforms with the social and cultural needs and aspirations of Nigeria society was identified as a major impediment to housing delivery in the country. The paper contends that housing problem as a social good or service will remain intractable if its production is still controlled by the market forces. It then concludes by advocating cooperative approach to housing delivery and the management, maintenance and revitalization of the existing housing stocks.
Keywords: Cooperative housing, Millennium Development Goals, Public Private Partnership, Slum dwellers, Social capital Issue No:Vol. 6
Authors:OLUSOLA Kolapo Olubunmi, ATA Olugbenga Abstract: The study investigated the performance of laterized concrete exposed to drying-wetting cycles of sulphate environments with a view to providing empirical data for laterized concrete specification. It adopted accelerated ageing method to investigate the effect of sulphate attack on laterized concrete exposed to wetting-drying cycle comprising of 4 days of full immersion and 3 days of drying at ambient temperature at two concentrations (3% and 5%) of magnesium sulphate solution for a total exposure period of 24 weeks. The test cubes were first cured by complete immersion in water for 28 days and afterward exposed to wetting-drying cycle of magnesium sulphate solution. The compressive strength was determined by using an ELE 2000kN compression testing machine. Data obtained from the experiments were analysed using percentages, mean, ANOVA and regression analysis. The results of the tests carried out showed that conventional concrete had a better resistance (in terms of compressive strength) to sulphate attack than laterized concrete. Conventional concrete exposed cyclically to sulphate solution of concentrations of 3% and 5% lost 18.91% - 30.34% of its compressive strength, after a period of 24 weeks of exposure. Whereas, laterized concrete similarly exposed for the same period; lost 26.54% - 31.79% (at 20% laterite content) and 36.67% - 51.33% (at 40% laterite content) of its compressive strength. It showed that the compressive strength of the tested laterized concrete specimen decreased significantly between 10% and 50%, each at ' = 0.05 with increasing sulphate concentration, laterite content and exposure period. The study concluded that conventional concrete performed better than laterized concrete in intermittently sulphate-laden environments.
Keywords: Laterized concrete, Sulphate, Durability, Compressive strength. Issue No:Vol. 6
Authors:Chinwuba Arum, Grace Oluwaseun Mark Abstract: This paper presents the results of investigation on the potentials of cupola slag as a partial replacement option for ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in applications requiring low permeable concrete. The chemical analysis of granulated cupola furnace slag (GCFS), its fineness, bulk density, specific gravity, and the standard consistency and setting times of binary OPC and GCFS pastes were conducted. Furthermore, concrete mixes of 0.55 water/cement ratio were produced using 1:2:4 ratio (volume basis) at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% replacement levels of OPC by GCFS and the workability and permeability of the fresh concrete were determined. Thirty six (36) standard 150mm cubes were cast from the various concrete mixes, cured for 7, 21 and 28 days and crushed to determine their compressive strengths. The results of the tests showed that within the OPC replacement range investigated, the compressive strength of concrete progressively increased at all curing ages as the replacement level of OPC increased and attained a maximum value of 29.8 N/mm2 at 28 days for 15% OPC replacement, which amounted to a 31.9% increase above the compressive strength of the reference concrete. In addition, the porosity of concrete decreased as the replacement level of OPC by GCFS increased. The chemical analysis of GCFS also indicated that it has pozzolanic properties. The above results indicate the suitability of granulated cupola furnace slag for use in concrete for which reduced permeability is an essential performance requirement.
Keywords: cupola slag, low permeable concrete, compressive strength, chemical analysis, sustainable Issue No:Vol. 6
Authors:A.H. Patil Abstract: The potentiality of rice husk as a good source of high technological materials in road construction is the subject of this research. Every year approximately 600 million tons of paddy (after- M. Ahiduzzaman, Rice husk Technologies In Bangladesh) are produced globally. This gives around 120 million tons of rice husk (RH) and 21 million tons of rice husk ash (RHA) annually. Major four uses of rice husk ash are in the steel, cement, refractory bricks and semiconductor industry. Besides these, it can be utilized in several other applications. Emerging trend of using waste material in soil stabilizing or soil strengthening is being working out all over the world in present days. The main reason behind this trend is the excessive production of waste like fly ash, plastics, rice husk ash (RHA) which is not only hazards but also creating deposition problems. Using some of these waste materials in construction practice will reduce the problem in a great extent. This paper will let us study how husk waste can be used in construction of roads. Step by step procedure of various tests conducted on the experimental model section of road block. This project will also conclude about how the use of rice husk in road construction increases the strength, flexibility, durability etc. of the road. Implementation of new innovative technology in construction of roads. (after- Effect of Rice Husk Ash on Cement Stabilized Laterite) Keywords— Rice husk, paddy, hazards, implementation Issue No:Vol. 6
Authors:Kwadwo Twumasi-Ampofo, Ernest Osei -Tutu, Isaac Decardi-Nelson, Prince Abrokwa Ofori Abstract: In Ghana, the housing deficit is not well known. However, the root causes which are improper planning and incoherent political activities, mismanagement and consequently, abandonment of public housing projects are easily identifiable. Even projects established in the colonial period to provide shelter were abandoned. Some housing projects initiated for mere selfish politics, (face-saving purpose) only to be abandoned along the way. Worse still, others were commenced to please electorates so as to avert threats and disloyalty from them, whiles the politicians well know that, the government’s finances cannot complete those projects. This paper examines the root causes of public housing project abandonment, with the aid of “root cause analysis”, to identify the causes of public housing project abandonment in four well-documented cases of abandoned public projects drawn mainly from literature. The findings are synthesized into a Cause-Effect Summary (CES), culminating in a model for reactivating the abandoned housing projects. The findings identify three major categories of causes for public housing project abandonment, namely (1) poor project implementation, (2) negative politics practiced by the governments that culminate in abandonment of public projects (3) lack of proper structures that ensure the continuation of public projects when there is a change in government. These three major categories of causes are iteratively refined and eventually, the root causes emerge. This information is then used as a guide, with the aid of “Cause and Effect Diagram”, to generate a model that could be used to revive abandoned housing projects as well as ensure its sustenance. The model presented three main factors that when adopted could lead to project restoration. They are (a) proper implementation of public housing project, (b) positive politics practiced by government, (c) adequate structures that ensure continuation of public housing projects when there is a change in government.
Key words: Housing Deficit, Sustainability of Public Projects. Issue No:Vol. 6