- Do state traditions matter? Comparing deliberative governance
initiatives for climate change adaptation in Dutch corporatism and British
- Authors: M. J. Vink; D. Benson, D. Boezeman, H. Cook, A. Dewulf C. Termeer
Abstract: In the emerging field of climate adaptation, deliberative governance initiatives are proposed to yield better adaptation strategies. However, introducing these network-centred deliberations between public and private players may contrast with institutionalized traditions of interest intermediation between state and society. This paper shows how these so-called state traditions affect the processes and outcomes of newly set up deliberative governance initiatives. Because of the similarities in geographical characteristics and the differences in state tradition we conducted a qualitative case study comparison of Dutch and British water management. Our comparison is two-fold. First, we compare deliberative governance initiatives in the different state traditions of the Netherlands and UK. Second, we compare the newly set up deliberative governance initiative to an existing policy regime mainstreaming climate adaptation in a similar state tradition, in our case the Netherlands. We find that: (1) deliberative governance initiatives in the corporatist state tradition of the Netherlands yields learning but shows apathy among politically elected decision-makers compared to deliberative governance initiatives in the pluralist state tradition of the UK where clearly defined rules and responsibilities yields negotiation and action; and (2) a typical corporatist policy regime mainstreaming climate adaption in a corporatist state tradition yields effective and legitimate policy formation but lacks learning.
- Reconciling collaborative action research with existing institutions:
insights from Dutch and German climate knowledge programmes
- Authors: Catrien Termeer; Arwin van Buuren, Joerg Knieling Manuel Gottschick
Abstract: Researchers and policymakers increasingly aim to set up collaborative research programmes to address the challenges of adaptation to climate change. This does not only apply for technical knowledge, but for governance knowledge also. Both the Netherlands and Germany have set up large-scale collaborative action research (CAR) programmes for the governance of adaptation to climate change. Despite the collaborative designs, the initial enthusiasm, the available resources and the many positive outcomes, both programmes encountered several stubborn difficulties. By comparing both programmes, this paper explores the difficulties researchers encounter, analyses the underlying mechanisms and presents some lessons. It found that many difficulties are related to the tensions that exist between the assumptions underlying the new collaborative trajectories and the logics of the existing policy and research institutions. These institutional misfits are decisive to explain ultimate difficulties and successes. Furthermore, the paper concludes that risk aversion, stereotyping and scale fixation strengthen institutional misfits; and that these misfits persist due to lacking bridging capabilities. We suggest some lessons that can help to resolve the difficulties and reconcile CAR into existing institutions: organize the knowledge arrangement as a collaborative process; construct boundary objects as focal point for collaboration; and invest in bridging capabilities.
- Corporate social responsibility of regional institutions: save water and
money with an ecological economics perspective in a climate change context
- Authors: Joel Sepúlveda
Abstract: As ecological economic fundamentalists argue, we need a new paradigm for changing current global economic system basics. The real problem is that the limits of ecological economics are based on unrealistic or utopian objectives in the proposed research frameworks. Taking this problem into account, present research demonstrates that the combination of mixed methods creates valid results. In this case, the hydrologic footprint reduction method was created to achieve the main objective: to prove the usefulness of combining environmental science techniques along with economics tools. The most important result of the work is the relationships between export/import product balances in the Basque Country, Spain (among the three most important economic regions along with Cataluña and Madrid) and their implications in maximizing effectiveness in saving water and money thanks to external hydrologic footprint analysis. A comparison was made between global and local consumption patterns using the water footprint method. It demonstrated the importance of making small changes, which imply direct and indirect benefits for the economy and hydrologic resources.
- Adapting flood management to climate change: comparing policy frames and
governance practices in the Low Countries
- Authors: Ann Crabbé; Mark Wiering Duncan Liefferink
Abstract: Belgium and the Netherlands together form the Low Countries. Empirical research in Flanders (the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium) and the Netherlands proves that there are substantive differences in the organization of governance processes regarding flood management in response to climate change. This article answers the question of how Flanders and the Netherlands, confronted with universal challenges and dilemmas in the governance of adaptation to climate change – integration versus differentiation (multi-sector versus sector-based governance), the problem of scaling (multi-level governance) and the division of public and private responsibilities (multi-actor governance) – are designing and structuring their approaches. More specifically, we look at how differences in the framing of climate adaptation can explain why organizational practices differ. For this purpose, a distinction is made between diagnostic framing (what is the problem?), prognostic framing (what could be possible solutions?) and action framing (how to act?). By referring to existing policy frames, the article explains recent policy choices on climate change adaptation in flood management.
- The rationales of resilience in English and Dutch flood risk policies
- Authors: Mark Wiering; Colin Green, Marleen van Rijswick, Sally Priest Andrea Keessen
Abstract: We compared the governance of flood risk in England and the Netherlands, focusing on the general policies, instruments used and underlying principles. Both physical and political environments are important in explaining how countries evolved towards very different rationales of resilience. Answering questions as ‘who decides’, ‘who should act’ and ‘who is responsible and liable for flood damage’ systematically, results in a quite fundamental difference in what resilience means, and how this affects the governance regime. In the Netherlands, there is nationwide collective regime with a technocracy based on the merit of water expertise, legitimated by a social contract of government being responsible and the general public accepting and supporting this. In England there also is a technocracy, but this is part of a general-political and economic-rational decision-making process, with responsibilities spread over state, insurance companies, individuals and communities. The rationales are connected to specific conceptions of the public interest, leading to specific governance principles. In both countries, flood risk strategies are discussed in the light of climate change effects, but resilience strategies show more persistence, although combined with gradual adaptation of practices on lower scales, than great transformations.
- The role of leadership in regional climate change adaptation: a comparison
of adaptation practices initiated by governmental and non-governmental
- Authors: Sander Meijerink; Sabina Stiller, E. Carina H. Keskitalo, Peter Scholten, Robert Smits Frank van Lamoen
Abstract: This paper aims to better understand the role of leadership in regional climate change adaptation. We first present a framework, which distinguishes five functions of leadership within inter-organizational networks: the connective, enabling, adaptive, political–administrative and dissemination functions. Next, we compare the role of leadership in two examples of regional adaptation practices which were initiated by governmental actors with two examples which were initiated by non-governmental actors. The case studies are located in the Netherlands, Germany and the UK. Our research question is twofold: to what extent can the five functions of leadership be identified in practices of climate change adaptation, and are there differences in the patterns of leadership between adaptation practices which are initiated by governmental and by non-governmental actors? The study shows that although all leadership functions were fulfilled in all four cases, patterns of leadership were different and the fulfilment of leadership functions posed different challenges to non-governmental actors and governmental actors.
- Editorial: The governance of adaptation to climate change as a
multi-level, multi-sector and multi-actor challenge: a European
- Authors: Art Dewulf; Sander Meijerink Hens Runhaar
- Handling adaptation policy choices in Sweden, Germany, the UK and the
- Authors: Eric Massey; Dave Huitema, Heiko Garrelts, Kevin Grecksch, Heleen Mees, Tim Rayner, Sofie Storbjörk, Catrien Termeer Maik Winges
Abstract: Attention is increasing in academia towards the governance of adaptation, specifically how state and non-state actors are defining the adaptation ‘problematique’ and crafting public policies to address it. Adaptation is the ‘adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities’. The challenge for governments is taking this rather vague concept and turning it into viable and implementable public policies. This implies that they have to make choices as to the types of polices to create, the sectors they should cover, ministerial jurisdictions and funding. This article contributes to the discussion on the adaptation governance by presenting a conceptual framework that outlines policy choices governors need to make, by applying this framework to a number of countries, and starting the debate on which choice or choices were particularly instrumental in shaping adaptation policy in particular countries as a whole. It focuses on four countries traditionally seen to be adaptation leaders: Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
- Water resources and climate change: water managers' perceptions of
these related environmental issues
- Authors: Elisabeth Michel-Guillou
Abstract: The present study focuses on climate change and water resources. Its objectives are: (i) to understand the perceptions of climate change by water managers responsible for the French Water Development and Management Schemes (SAGEs); and (ii) to determine whether or not these managers consider this phenomenon in their management of water resources. The analysis is mainly based on interviewees' spatio-temporal evaluation of these two environmental issues. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 49 people in France. The interviews were transcribed and analysed both manually and via a computer-assisted content analysis. The results show that for water, the major problem is ‘quality’, an issue that is known (i.e. defined by its social, spatial and temporal dimensions), whereas for climate change, this is defined by global warming, drought, or extreme events which are not regularly perceived or locally situated. This indicates that water managers recognize the existence of both issues and the relationships between them. However, because these problems are perceived at different temporal and spatial scales, it seems that these managers find it difficult to incorporate measures into their day-to-day decision-making that take into account the effects of climate change.
- Detection of regional climate change effects on alpine hydrology by daily
resolution trend analysis in Tyrol, Austria
- Authors: Christoph Kormann; Till Francke Axel Bronstert
Abstract: Owing to average temperature increases of at least twice the global mean, climate change is expected to have strong impacts on local hydrology and climatology in the Alps. Nevertheless, trend analyses of hydro-climatic station data rarely reveal clear patterns concerning climate change signals except in temperature observations. However, trend research has thus far mostly been based on analysing trends of averaged data such as yearly, seasonal or monthly averages and has therefore often not been able to detect the finer temporal dynamics. For this reason, we derived 30-day moving average trends, providing a daily resolution of the timing and magnitude of trends within the seasons. Results are validated by including different time periods. We studied daily observations of mean temperature, liquid and solid precipitation, snow height and runoff in the relatively dry central Alpine region in Tyrol, Austria. Our results indicate that the vast majority of changes are observed throughout spring to early summer, most likely triggered by the strong temperature increase during this season. Temperature, streamflow and snow trends have clearly amplified during recent decades. The overall results are consistent over the entire investigation area and different time periods.
- Hydrology and flood probability of the monsoon-dominated Chindwin River in
- Authors: Zaw Zaw Latt; Hartmut Wittenberg
Abstract: As the third largest river of Myanmar, the Chindwin River has great importance as a water resource and transport artery. At 113,800 km2 the basin is comparable in size to the Elbe basin in Europe, although with higher rainfall and runoff. During the southwest monsoon high rainfall intensities with spatial and temporal variation causing severe floods are threatening the region. The study aims to analyze the hydrologic aspects of monsoon floods using statistical and frequency analysis. Flood responses vary due to the complex topography and rainfall distribution over the catchment. Time series of annual maximum floods shows no trend of the mean value. The deviation of annual maxima from the respective mean values, however, has increased significantly in recent decades. Flood quantiles are determined for return periods of 2 to 1,000 years using the data covering the period 1966 to 2011. Flood probability analysis shows that the upper and middle parts of the basin have particularly high flood risks. To analyze the change in flood values, the relative differences of flood quantiles in two time phases, 1966–1990 and 1991–2011, with respect to the entire observation period are compared. The expected floods of the latter period are the highest.
- Assessment of climate change impacts in a semi-arid watershed in Iran
using regional climate models
- Authors: Hamid R. Solaymani; A. K. Gosain
Abstract: This paper aims to summarize in detail the results of the climate models under various scenarios by temporal and spatial analysis in the semi-arid Karkheh Basin (KB) in Iran, which is likely to experience water shortages. The PRECIS and REMO models, under A2, B2 and A1B scenarios, have been chosen as regional climate models (RCMs). These regional climate models indicate an overall warming in future in KB under various scenarios. The increase in temperature in the dry months (June, July and August) is greater than the increase in the wet months (January, February, March and April). In order to perform climate change impact assessment on water resources, the Arc-SWAT 9.3 model was used in the study area. SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model results have been obtained using present and future climate data. There is an overall reduction in the water yield (WYLD) over the whole of the KB. The deficit of WYLD is considerable over the months of April to September throughout KB due to the increase in average temperature and decrease in precipitation under various emission scenarios. Statistical properties in box-and-whisker plots have been used to gain further understanding relevant to uncertainty analysis in climate change impacts. Evaluation of uncertainty has shown the highest uncertain condition under B2.