- Potential ecological impact of climate change on the water quality of an
intensively managed agricultural watershed in Quebec, Canada
- Authors: Beáta Novotná; Eric van Bochove Georges Thériault
Abstract: This study investigated the effects of climate change (CC) on water redistribution in a micro-watershed of a lowland agricultural area of the Bras d'Henri River in the temperate cold climate of Quebec, Canada. A Water Flow and Balance Simulation Model (WaSiM-ETH) was used to simulate the hydrology using current climatic conditions and land use characteristics, applying Richards’ equation. A one-day temporal resolution was used with a spatial resolution of 2 × 2 m. The CC scenarios Coupled Global Climate Model, version 1 (CGCM1) and Hadley Centre Coupled Model, version 3.1 (HadCM3.1) were downscaled to the regional level and integrated into WaSiM-ETH and evaluated for both current and modified climatic conditions. Mean annual precipitation values (P) increased from 15–33%, evapotranspiration from 7–26%, and discharge (Q) from 16–45%. The identification of the signiﬁcant water quality problem represented by average value of total suspended solids (TSS) 265.29 (kg ha−1), nutrients: nitrogen (NO3-N) 16.83 (kg ha−1) and total phosphorus (TP) 0.59 (kg ha−1) for the whole evaluated period; and (TSS) 148.09 (kg ha−1), (NO3-N) 5.65 (kg ha−1) and (TP) 0.31 (kg ha−1) during the days with surface runoff, in relation to water quantity and CC creates the basis for erosion risk assessment.
- Estimation of the water footprint of sugarcane in Mexico: is ethanol
production an environmentally feasible fuel option'
- Authors: María Eugenia Haro; Ines Navarro, Ralph Thompson Blanca Jimenez
Abstract: Energy policies are taken throughout the world to reduce fossil fuel emissions from transportation sources. Agriculturally based biofuels are currently the only alternatives to liquid fossil fuels. However, as biofuel production spreads, so too do its cascading impacts on environment and food security. This paper analyzes the impact of Mexican ethanol-sugarcane policy on water resources. The water footprint of sugarcane (WFsc) was quantified for an agricultural region in Jalisco, Mexico, and used to estimate anthropologic water demand and stress index. This analysis was performed using historical climate data, and for projected changes under scenarios A2 and B1, using ECHAM and GFDL models. The average historical water footprint of sugarcane was estimated as 104.9 m3/ton, total average water demand as 152.3 Mm3/year and a historical water scarcity index as 59%. Under climate change, the footprint might increase 2% by 2020 and 3–4% by 2050. The available water is predicted to fall 4–7% by 2020, and 6–8% by 2050, with negative effects on water stress. Due to the strong influence of local factors on water footprint and stress, additional research is needed for all Mexican sugarcane regions, in order to evaluate the feasibility of the policy regarding the use of ethanol for transportation.
- Coping with climate change in Amsterdam – a watercycle perspective
- Authors: Jan Peter van der Hoek; Paulien Hartog Eilard Jacobs
Abstract: Amsterdam has the ambition to develop as a competitive and sustainable European metropolis. Water and Amsterdam are closely related, and water and climate change are closely related. Therefore, to be sustainable and economically strong, it is necessary for Amsterdam to anticipate the changes in climate that will take place in the Netherlands during the coming decades. Waternet, the watercycle company of Amsterdam and surroundings, has built a response strategy focusing on water management to contribute to the aim of making Amsterdam ‘waterproof’ for the next decades. This response strategy has two building blocks: adaptation and mitigation. With respect to adaptation the focus is on safety against flooding, discharge of rainwater without nuisance for the public, ecological healthy water in compliance with the European Water Framework Directive, a reliable drinking water supply in compliance with the Dutch Drinking Water Regulations and the European Drinking Water Directive, and an efficient and effective wastewater treatment in compliance with the European Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive. With respect to mitigation the focus is on energy recovery from the watercycle and nutrient recovery from wastewater. The strategy is carried out in close cooperation with partners on a regional level and a national level.
- Development of HydroClimatic Conceptual Streamflow (HCCS) model for
tropical river basin
- Authors: Parag P. Bhagwat; Rajib Maity
Abstract: Combined processes of land-surface hydrology and hydroclimatology influence the response of a watershed to different hydroclimatic variables. In this paper, streamflow response of a watershed to hydrometeorological variables is investigated over a part of two tropical Indian rivers – Narmada and Mahanadi. The proposed HydroClimatic Conceptual Streamflow (HCCS) model is able to consider the time-varying basin characteristics and major hydrologic processes to model basin-scale streamflow using climate inputs at a daily scale. In addition, the proposed model is able to provide additional overall estimates of ground water recharge component and evapotranspiration component from the entire basin. Moreover, ability to consider the time-varying watershed characteristics and hydroclimatic inputs renders the proposed model usable for assessment of future streamflow variation. This application is also investigated for both the study basins. In general, the methodological approach of the proposed model can be applied to other tropical basins for daily streamflow modelling as well as future streamflow assessment.
- Proposing a new semi-parametric weather generator algorithm and comparison
of six algorithms for non-precipitation climatic variables
- Authors: Behnam Ababaei; Teymour Sohrabi Farhad Mirzaei
Abstract: Six different weather generator models were compared. The first two models (M1 and M2) use a first-order autoregressive daily model and the third model (M3) uses a newly proposed semi-parametric method to reproduce the correlation and autocorrelation of the variables. Three other models (M1-2, M2-2 and M3-2) are the combinations of these models with an adjustment algorithm for the low-frequency variances (SL). The comparison revealed that M1-2 model (daily weather generator with the SL adjustment algorithm) and the M2-2 model (daily weather generator in combination with a monthly weather generator and the SL adjustment algorithm) are the best models in the study area. All the studied models have acceptable performance in relation to the shape of the probability distribution functions. Three first models have deficiencies in relation to the inter-annual standard deviations. The M2 and M3 models, in which the high-frequency standard deviation (SH) is used instead of the total standard deviation values (ST), slightly underestimated these inter-annual variations. But, the performance of the M1 model is considerably poorer than the other two models. The results revealed that the adjustment of the inter-annual standard deviations improves model performance. Moreover, the newly proposed algorithm has the potential for multi-station simulations.
- A critical comparison of using a probabilistic weather generator versus a
change factor approach; irrigation reservoir planning under climate change
- Authors: Michael Green; Edward Keith Weatherhead
Abstract: In the UK, there is a growing interest in constructing on-farm irrigation reservoirs, however deciding the optimum reservoir capacity is not simple. There are two distinct approaches to generating the future daily weather datasets needed to calculate future irrigation need. The change factor approach perturbs the observed record using monthly change factors derived from downscaled climate models. This assumes that whilst the climate changes, the day-to-day climate variability itself is stationary. Problems may arise where the instrumental record is insufficient or particularly suspect. Alternatively, probabilistic weather generators can be used to identify options which are considered more robust to climate change uncertainty because they consider non-stationary climate variability. This paper explores the difference between using the change factor approach and a probabilistic weather generator for informing farm reservoir design at three sites in the UK. Decision outcomes obtained using the current normal practice of 80% probability of non-exceedance rule and simple economic optimisations are also compared. Decision outcomes obtained using the change factor approach and probabilistic weather generators are significantly different; whether these differences translate to real-world differences is discussed. This study also found that using the 80% probability of non-exceedance rule could potentially result in maladaptation.
- Spatial and short-term temporal distribution of fugitive methane and
nitrous oxide emission from a decentralised sewage mining plant: a pilot
- Authors: Peter W. Schouten; Ashok Sharma, Stewart Burn Nigel Goodman
Abstract: The decentralisation of wastewater treatment operations exposes several environmental consequences. This includes the fugitive emission of two greenhouse gases, nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). The magnitude of these emissions is presently unclear. Therefore, it is necessary to measure the extent of the release of N2O and CH4 gas from decentralised wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in order to quantify the impact these emissions will have on the environment and to determine strategies to reduce them. Specifically, this pilot study employed an online non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) gas analyser and flux hood to evaluate the spatial and short-term temporal distribution of N2O and CH4 flux over half a day, from an aeration tank system within a decentralised sewage mining plant. The aeration tank system was able to emit N2O fluxes of up to 11.6 g N2O m−2 day−1 and CH4 fluxes of up to 1.1 g CH4 m−2 day−1. The N2O and CH4 fluxes varied rapidly over short time intervals in the same position (as high as 45% for N2O and 36% for CH4) and could almost triple in magnitude between two different positions across the surface of the aeration tank (within a distance no greater than 1.5 to 2 m).
- Erratum: Journal of Water and Climate Change 4(4), 317–337:
Evaluating the cumulative rainfall deviation approach for projecting
groundwater levels under future climate, I. Emelyanova, R. Ali, W. Dawes,
S. Varma, G. Hodgson and D. McFarlane
- PubDate: 2014-03-25T19:00+00:00
- Process design and management for integrated flood risk management:
exploring the multi-layer safety approach for Dordrecht, The Netherlands
- Authors: Sebastiaan van Herk; Chris Zevenbergen, Berry Gersonius, Hans Waals Ellen Kelder
Abstract: New flood risk management policies account for climate and socio-economic change by embracing a more integrated approach. Their implementation processes require: collaboration between a group of stakeholders; combining objectives and funding from various policy domains; consideration of a range of possible options at all spatial scale levels and for various time horizons. Literature provides limited guidance on how to organise a collaborative planning process to devise integrated flood risk management (IFRM) plans. This paper presents a case study where a recently developed framework for process design and management has been used and evaluates whether or not the collaborative planning process led to an IFRM plan. The case study is Dordrecht (NL) where the new multi-layer-safety (MLS) approach has been applied in the context of the Delta Programme. The Delta Programme investigates how the Netherlands can adapt to the effects of climate change. MLS comprises three flood safety layers to reduce flood risk: flood protection, spatial planning, and emergency response. The framework has been shown to be effective in the delivery of an IFRM plan, it has been enriched by defining the interfaces between and phasing of planning activities, and can be further improved to better guide implementation and governance activities.