Authors:Erol H. Cakmak; Hasan Dudu, Ozan Eruygur, Metin Ger, Sema Onurlu Özlem Tonguç Abstract: Stress on the water resources of Turkey is expected to increase in the near future. This paper presents the results of a case study in one of the most important water basins in Turkey, the Seyhan Basin, where the future of the basin is estimated using a fuzzy cognitive mapping technique applied at a participatory meeting with the stakeholders. Participants envisioned that water supply, water demand and water use would decline in the future in response to the increasing impact of climate change. Improvements in sustainable water management, irrigation efficiency and the use of water-saving technologies will diminish the severity of scarcity that is expected to occur due to climate change. PubDate: 2013-05-08T19:00+00:00 DOI: 10.2166/wcc.2013.029
Authors:Rekha S. Nair; Dr Alka Bharat Manu G. Nair Abstract: Climate change is presently causing a multitude of impacts in various sectors. Studies by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the UN, and other agencies such as the Institute of Physical Geography, University College London show that there will be a significant impact on fresh water availability in the future due to climate change. The Cochin city region is an important port and commercial hub located on the south western coast of India. Average annual rainfall is 3,099 mm, yet there is an acute gap between the demand and supply of potable water. An assessment of the vulnerability of the city to various climate change parameters is important in formulating long-term strategies for sustainable development. This article examines the availability of water resources in the context of future requirements (2051), the expected impacts of climate change and its variability.
99% of supply depends on monsoon fed rivers
100 years temperature shows an increasing trend with significant increase in later years
100 years rainfall shows increasing variability with significant increase in later years
Sensitivity analysis and the environmental water requirement (EWR) approach indicate a 33% drop in reservoir water availability due to a 19% deficit in rainfall
Based on climate change, vulnerability CVI for water availability computed
66% of population highly vulnerable. PubDate: 2013-05-08T19:00+00:00 DOI: 10.2166/wcc.2013.026
Authors:Matthijs Bonte; Boris M. Van Breukelen Pieter J. Stuyfzand Abstract: Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) uses groundwater to store energy for heating or cooling purposes in the built environment. This paper presents field and laboratory results aiming to elucidate the effects that ATES operation may have on chemical groundwater quality. Field data from an ATES site in the south of the Netherlands show that ATES results in chemical quality perturbations due to homogenisation of the initially present vertical water quality gradient. We tested this hypothesis by numerical modelling of groundwater flow and coupled SO4 transport during extraction and injection of groundwater by the ATES system. The modelling results confirm that extracting groundwater from an aquifer with a natural quality stratification, mixing this water in the ATES system, and subsequent injection in the second ATES well can adequately describe the observation data. This mixing effect masks any potential temperature effects in typical low temperature ATES systems (<25 °C) which was the reason to complement the field investigations with laboratory experiments focusing on temperature effects. The laboratory experiments indicated that temperature effects until 25 °C are limited; most interestingly was an increase in arsenic concentration. At 60 °C, carbonate precipitation, mobilisation of dissolved oxygen concentration, K and Li, and desorption of trace metals like As can occur. PubDate: 2013-05-08T19:00+00:00 DOI: 10.2166/wcc.2013.061
Authors:Husam Al-Najar; Ehab K. Ashour Abstract: The presented work analyzes the potential impacts of the temperature, precipitation changes and water salinity on agricultural water demand. The study was carried out on five representative orchard crops (olive, palm, grapes, citrus and guava) that cover around 83% of the orchard farms in Gaza Strip. To achieve this goal, CropWat modeling software version 8.0 is used to calculate the reference evapotranspiration rate and crop water requirement under different temperature and precipitation scenarios. Furthermore, a survey was conducted to evaluate the farmers' current irrigation practices and the impact of water salinity on leaching requirements and production yield. The increased temperatures by 1 or 2 °C caused an increase of the annual average evapotranspiration by 45 and 91 mm relative to the current climate condition and leading to increase of irrigation requirements by 3.28 and 6.68%, respectively. Leaching requirements do not exceed 15% for electrical conductivity (EC) value less than 2 dS/m, while it begins to increase for the EC value between 3 and 4 dS/m and account for 114, 89 and 36% for grape, citrus and guava. Generally, the impact of salinity increase on irrigation requirements is much higher than the impact of evapotranspiration increase due to the temperature increase by 2 °C and 10% precipitation reduction. PubDate: 2013-05-08T19:00+00:00 DOI: 10.2166/wcc.2013.142
Authors:Dennis Collentine; Holger Johnsson Abstract: Current international agreements call for a significant reduction of nitrogen loads to the Baltic Sea. New measures to reduce nitrogen loads from the agricultural sector and an increased focus on cost efficiency will be needed to meet reduction targets. For policy design and evaluation it is important to understand the impact of weather on the efficiency of abatement measures. One new proposed policy is the use of crop permits based on weather normalized average leaching. This paper describes the use of the Spearman method to determine the efficiency of this policy with annual weather variation. The conclusion is that the values of the Spearman correlation coefficients in the study indicate that using average leaching for the individual crops on specific soil types for calculating crop permit requirements is an efficient policy. The Spearman method is demonstrated to be a simple useful tool for evaluating the impact of weather and is recommended for use in new studies. PubDate: 2013-05-08T19:00+00:00 DOI: 10.2166/wcc.2013.057
Authors:E. Klaversma; A. W. C. van der Helm J. W. N. M. Kappelhof Abstract: Waternet, the water cycle company of Amsterdam and surrounding areas, uses the life cycle assessment (LCA) method to evaluate the environmental impact of investment decisions and to determine the potential reduction of direct and indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of different alternatives. This approach enables Waternet to fulfil its corporate objective to improve sustainability and to become climate neutral by 2020. Three example studies that give a good overview of the use of LCAs at Waternet and problems encountered are discussed: phosphate removal and recovery from wastewater, pH correction of drinking water with carbon dioxide (CO2) and materials for drinking water distribution pipes. The environmental impact assessments were performed in SimaPro 7 using the ReCiPe method and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Global Warming Potential (IPCC GWP) 100a method. The Ecoinvent 2.0 and 2.2 databases were used for the material and process data. From the examples described, it can be concluded that only the phosphate removal case had a significant effect on the climate footprint. The article discusses applications and limitations of the LCA technique. The most important limitation is that the impact of water consumption and the possible impact of effluent compounds to surface water are not considered within the used methods. PubDate: 2013-05-08T19:00+00:00 DOI: 10.2166/wcc.2013.007
Authors:Razak Seidu; Thor Axel Stenström Owe Löfman Abstract: This study assesses the effect of temperature and rainfall on diarrhoea incidence in sludge and non-faecal sludge applying farming communities in Northern Ghana. Diarrhoea episode data were obtained through an open cohort survey involving 1,341 and 1,323 individuals from the sludge and non-faecal sludge communities, respectively. The effects of temperature and rainfall variables on diarrhoea incidence were assessed using autoregressive Poisson regression models. Maximum rainfall events in the same bi-week increased the risk of diarrhoea in the sludge (relative risk, RR: 1.034; confidence interval, CI: 1.02–1.05) and non-sludge (RR: 1.003; CI: 0.99–1.01) communities. However, this was not significant in the non-sludge communities (p > 0.05). Minimum rainfall occurring in the same bi-week decreased the risk of diarrhoea in both communities. Maximum temperature decreased the risk of diarrhoea in the sludge communities (RR: 0.50; CI: 0.38–0.65), but increased the risk in the non-sludge communities (RR: 1.19 CI: 1.02–1.40). Minimum temperature increased diarrhoea disease risk (RR: 3.50; CI: 2.10–5.80) in the sludge communities, but decreased the risk (RR: 0.70; CI: 0.54–0.84) in the non-sludge communities. The study stresses the need to account for weather variables when developing schemes for the land application of faecal sludge. PubDate: 2013-05-08T19:00+00:00 DOI: 10.2166/wcc.2013.032
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