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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 148 journals)
Showing 1 - 47 of 47 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acque Sotterranee - Italian Journal of Groundwater     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oceanography and Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
American Journal of Water Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Water Works Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Anales de Hidrología Médica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW. Land Reclamation     Open Access  
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Applied Water Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Aquacultural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Living Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aquatic Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Asian Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Water Resources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Desalination and Water Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Developments in Water Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Science : Water Research & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
EQA - International Journal of Environmental Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European journal of water quality - Journal européen d'hydrologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Groundwater for Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Grundwasser     Hybrid Journal  
Hydro Nepal : Journal of Water, Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Hydrology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14)
Hydrology: Current Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
IDA Journal of Desalination and Water Reuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ingeniería del agua     Open Access  
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Nuclear Desalination     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Salt Lake Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Waste Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Water Resources Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access  
Irrigation and Drainage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Irrigation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Contemporary Water Resource & Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Oceans     Partially Free   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Hydro-environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Hydroinformatics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hydrology (New Zealand)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Natural Resources and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Water Resources Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Water and Climate Change     Partially Free   (Followers: 37)
Journal of Water and Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Water Process Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Water Resource and Hydraulic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Water Resource Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Water Security     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Water Supply : Research and Technology - AQUA     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
La Houille Blanche     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Lake and Reservoir Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Liquid Waste Recovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mangroves and Salt Marshes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Marine Ecology Progress Series MEPS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Marine Ecosystem Stressor Response     Open Access  
Methods in Oceanography : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Osterreichische Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal  
Ozone Science & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Paddy and Water Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Revue des sciences de l'eau / Journal of Water Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
RIBAGUA - Revista Iberoamericana del Agua     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Riparian Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
River Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
River Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
SA Irrigation = SA Besproeiing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SABI Magazine - Tydskrif     Full-text available via subscription  
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access  
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref     Open Access  
Scientia Marina     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Smart Water     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Sri Lanka Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sustainable Technologies, Systems & Policies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Tecnología y Ciencias del Agua     Open Access  
Texas Water Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Urban Water Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Waste Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Water     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Water & Sanitation Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Water and Environment Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Water Environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Water Policy     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Water Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Water Practice and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Water Quality Research Journal of Canada     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Water Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Water Resources and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Water Resources and Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Water Resources and Rural Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Water Resources Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Water Resources Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 80)
Water SA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Water Science : The National Water Research Center Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Water Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Water Science and Technology : Water Supply     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)
Water Wheel     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Water21     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Waterlines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wetlands Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Water     Hybrid Journal  
WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover River Research and Applications
  [SJR: 0.984]   [H-I: 67]   [16 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1535-1459 - ISSN (Online) 1535-1467
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1579 journals]
  • Geomorphic diversity as a river management tool and its application to the
           Ganga River, India
    • Authors: R. Sinha; H. Mohanta, V. Jain, S. K. Tandon
      Abstract: Understanding of geomorphic processes and the determination of geomorphic diversity in catchments are prerequisites for the sustainable rehabilitation of river systems and for reach-scale assessment of river health. The Ganga River system in India is a large, complex system consisting of several long tributaries, some >1,000 km, originating from 2 distinct hinterlands—the Himalaya to the north and the cratons to the south. Traversing through a diverse climatic regime across the Plain and through precipitation zones ranging from 600 mm/year near Delhi to 1,200 mm/year in the eastern plains, the Ganga River system has formed very diverse landform assemblages in 3 major geomorphic domains. We have recognized 10 different river classes for the trunk river from Gangotri (source) to Farakka (upstream of its confluence with the Brahmaputra) based on (a) landscape setting, (b) channel and active floodplain properties, and (c) channel planform parameters. The mountainous stretch is characterized by steep valleys and bedrock channels and is dominated by large-scale sediment production and transport through hill slope processes. The alluvial part of the river is characterized by 8 different river classes of varying reach lengths (60–300 km) many of which show sharp transitions in landscape setting. We have highlighted the application of this approach for the assessment of habitat suitability, environmental flows, and flood risk all of which have been significantly modified during the last few decades due to large-scale anthropogenic disturbances. We suggest that the diversity embedded in this geomorphic framework can be useful for developing a sustainable river management programme to “work with” the contemporary character and behaviour of rivers.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T22:56:06.954358-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3154
       
  • Littoral benthic macroinvertebrate response to water-level fluctuations in
           three reservoirs of the Willamette River Basin, Oregon
    • Authors: M. M. Whitmore; C. A. Murphy, B. Johnson, I. Arismendi, S. L. Johnson
      Abstract: High-head dams throughout the Willamette River Basin, Oregon create deep reservoirs that undergo inter-seasonal and intra-seasonal water-level fluctuations (WLFs). The magnitude of WLFs is dependent on competing objectives of flood control, recreation, and water releases to maintain downstream habitat and facilitate migration of Endangered Species Act–listed salmonids. These reservoirs are drawn down to minimum conservation pool in winter, refilled to full pool by late spring and undergo variable WLFs, typically between 4 and 15 m, throughout summer. Here, we investigate the impact of seasonal WLFs on the density, biomass, and species composition of littoral benthic macroinvertebrates at Fall Creek, Hills Creek, and Lookout Point reservoirs. We sampled the submerged littoral zone during spring and summer using an adapted quadrat sampling method and assessed differences in species assemblages using a non-parametric multivariate statistical technique. Descriptors of variation in substrate, WLF, temperature, and depth were incorporated to identify environmental variables associated with variation in assemblage composition. We hypothesized that density and biomass would decrease and assemblage composition would shift between seasons in response to WLFs. We found statistically significant differences in assemblage composition between seasons and among reservoirs, but density and biomass did not respond similarly. Observed variation in assemblages was associated with surface water temperature, water depth, substrate, and WLF. None of these variables alone explained observed variation. We provide evidence that seasonal WLFs influence macroinvertebrate assemblage composition and alter habitat characteristics. Our procedure effectively quantifies changes in species assemblages in impounded systems with low densities and dynamic littoral zones and can inform water management decisions with relatively modest costs.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19T22:26:05.437523-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3150
       
  • Trends in low flows of German rivers since 1950: Comparability of
           different low-flow indicators and their spatial patterns
    • Authors: H. Bormann; N. Pinter
      Abstract: Climate change, land-use shifts, reservoir storage, and water withdrawals impact low flows in rivers, creating challenges for ecological integrity and human uses. A systematic investigation of river discharges was carried out for 79 stream gauges in Germany. Available time series between 1950 and 2013 were analysed for trends in annual minimum low flows, discharge deficits, and low-flow durations. The application of different low-flow indicators led to similar spatial patterns, although each metric is used for different purposes in water management applications.Statistical tests identified significant discharge trends at more than half of the stations investigated. Low-flow trends since 1950 tended to be catchment specific, suggesting that climate change has not been the dominant driver. Most of the gauges investigated showed statistically significant increases in low flows. This can be mainly attributed to reservoir management. For rivers showing snow- and icemelt-dominated flow regimes, such trends are probably overlain by climate-driven changes (increasing amounts of rainfall, earlier snowmelt in spring). In contrast, stations showing statistically significant decreases in low flows were correlated with areas of decreasing mining activity. Hydrologic impacts of climate change are widespread and significant, but the results here suggest that human river management remains the dominant hydrologic driver on many rivers.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T18:55:39.777555-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3152
       
  • Comparison of IDW and Physically Based IDEW Method in Hydrological
           Modelling for a Large Mountainous Watershed, Northwest China
    • Authors: L. Zhang; C. He, J. Li, Y. Wang, Z. Wang
      Abstract: Topography and spatial patterns of landscape significantly affect spatial distribution of precipitation and, in turn, hydrological modelling, especially in high elevation, mountainous watersheds of arid regions. This study incorporates a physically based inverse distance and elevation weighted (PBIDEW) method into a distributed conceptual hydrological model, distributed large basin runoff model, and compared with an inverse distance weighted (IDW) method to assess the performances of both methods in precipitation estimation for hydrological modelling at watershed scale. The PBIDEW method considers the impacts of topography using month-dependent parameters in its interpolation of meteorological variables while the IDW method does not. Both the IDW and the PBIDEW methods are evaluated and compared in hydrological modelling at different spatial resolutions in the upper reach of the Heihe River Watershed, Northwest China. Results show that the IDW method underestimated the areal precipitation, and the PBIDEW method produced more realistic precipitation estimations in the study area. Both methods have some limitations, the performance of the IDW method was mainly influenced by the availability of observation data, while that of the PBIDEW method was mainly influenced by the representation of topographical information. Considering more detailed information for precipitation estimates, the PBIDEW method performed better at finer spatial resolution. Overall, the PBIDEW method, using month-dependent physical interpolation parameters, seems more suitable for precipitation estimation in hydrological simulations in data-scarce, high elevation and topographically complex mountainous watersheds in arid area. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T22:35:33.853716-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3147
       
  • Comparison of IDW and Physically Based IDEW Method in Hydrological
           Modelling for a Large Mountainous Watershed, Northwest China
    • Authors: L. Zhang; C. He, J. Li, Y. Wang, Z. Wang
      Abstract: Topography and spatial patterns of landscape significantly affect spatial distribution of precipitation and, in turn, hydrological modelling, especially in high elevation, mountainous watersheds of arid regions. This study incorporates a physically based inverse distance and elevation weighted (PBIDEW) method into a distributed conceptual hydrological model, distributed large basin runoff model, and compared with an inverse distance weighted (IDW) method to assess the performances of both methods in precipitation estimation for hydrological modelling at watershed scale. The PBIDEW method considers the impacts of topography using month-dependent parameters in its interpolation of meteorological variables while the IDW method does not. Both the IDW and the PBIDEW methods are evaluated and compared in hydrological modelling at different spatial resolutions in the upper reach of the Heihe River Watershed, Northwest China. Results show that the IDW method underestimated the areal precipitation, and the PBIDEW method produced more realistic precipitation estimations in the study area. Both methods have some limitations, the performance of the IDW method was mainly influenced by the availability of observation data, while that of the PBIDEW method was mainly influenced by the representation of topographical information. Considering more detailed information for precipitation estimates, the PBIDEW method performed better at finer spatial resolution. Overall, the PBIDEW method, using month-dependent physical interpolation parameters, seems more suitable for precipitation estimation in hydrological simulations in data-scarce, high elevation and topographically complex mountainous watersheds in arid area. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T22:35:33.853716-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3147
       
  • Giant hogweed at its northern distribution limit in North America:
           Experiments for a better understanding of its dispersal dynamics along
           rivers
    • Authors: N. Trottier; E. Groeneveld, C. Lavoie
      Abstract: We studied the reproduction and dispersal of giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) at its northern distribution limit in North America (Québec, 2014–2016) to better understand the invasion dynamics of the species along rivers. Seeds were collected from a riparian population to conduct germination, floatation, and dispersal experiments. Data were analysed in comparison with a real invasion case that was initiated about 10 years ago along a river system. In Québec, giant hogweed individuals produce on average 14,000 to 16,000 seeds with a germination rate of 75–85%. Seeds with endosperm that fall in water likely sink within 5 hr. Along a small brook, most disperse over short distances (
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T22:05:50.88122-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3149
       
  • Giant hogweed at its northern distribution limit in North America:
           Experiments for a better understanding of its dispersal dynamics along
           rivers
    • Authors: N. Trottier; E. Groeneveld, C. Lavoie
      Abstract: We studied the reproduction and dispersal of giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) at its northern distribution limit in North America (Québec, 2014–2016) to better understand the invasion dynamics of the species along rivers. Seeds were collected from a riparian population to conduct germination, floatation, and dispersal experiments. Data were analysed in comparison with a real invasion case that was initiated about 10 years ago along a river system. In Québec, giant hogweed individuals produce on average 14,000 to 16,000 seeds with a germination rate of 75–85%. Seeds with endosperm that fall in water likely sink within 5 hr. Along a small brook, most disperse over short distances (
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T22:05:50.88122-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3149
       
  • Streamflow alteration and habitat ramifications for a threatened fish
           species in the Central United States
    • Authors: K. E. Juracek; K. Eng, D. M. Carlisle, D. M. Wolock
      Abstract: In the Central United States, the Arkansas darter (Etheostoma cragini) is listed as a threatened fish species by the State of Kansas. Survival of the darter is threatened by loss of habitat caused by changing streamflow conditions, in particular flow depletion. Future management of darter populations and habitats requires an understanding of streamflow conditions and how those conditions may have changed over time in response to natural and anthropogenic factors. In Kansas, streamflow alteration was assessed at 9 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in 6 priority basins with no pronounced long-term trends in precipitation. The assessment was based on a comparison of observed (O) and predicted expected (E) reference conditions for 29 flow metrics. The O/E results indicated a likely or possible diminished flow condition in 2 basins; the primary cause of which is groundwater-level declines resulting from groundwater pumping for irrigated agriculture. In these 2 basins, habitat characteristics adversely affected by flow depletion may include stream connectivity, pools, and water temperature. The other 4 basins were minimally affected, or unaffected, by flow depletion and therefore may provide the best opportunity for preservation of darter habitat. Through the O/E analysis, anthropogenic streamflow alteration was quantified and the results will enable better-informed decisions pertaining to the future management of darters in Kansas.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06T01:09:44.284479-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3148
       
  • Effects of Suspended Sediment Transport on Invertebrate Drift
    • Authors: M. Béjar; C. N. Gibbins, D. Vericat, R. J. Batalla
      Abstract: Invertebrate drift plays an important role in river ecosystems. Although drift has been studied extensively, the relative importance of the various factors that initiate drift during disturbances remains unclear. Instream gravel mining releases fine sediment and so provides an opportunity to assess the influence of suspended sediment on drift, without the confounding effects of hydraulic changes and bed-material entrainment associated with floods. This paper examines invertebrate drift responses to increases in suspended sediment during an episode of mining in a Pyrenean river. During short periods of mining activity, suspended sediment concentrations and thus suspended sediment loads (SSLs) increased one order of magnitude at downstream monitoring sections, with maxima similar to those observed during natural floods in the river. Maximum SSLs were recorded at the sections closest to the mining, with downstream transport patterns suggesting that the majority of suspended material was deposited within 1.5 km. Invertebrate drift rates, the number of taxa drifting and the taxonomic structure of the drift changed at sections close to the mining when suspended sediment concentrations and SSLs were high; such changes were not observed at the section 1.5 km downstream. There were significant relationships between SSL and drift, positive for some groups (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera) and negative for others (Chironomidae). Our work shows that increases in suspended sediment alone are sufficient to trigger changes in drift, although further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms, and especially to explain the varying responses shown by different taxonomic groups. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T22:10:36.738-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3146
       
  • Response of Microcystis and Stephanodiscus to Alternative Flow Regimes of
           the Regulated River Nakdong (South Korea) Quantified By Model Ensembles
           Based on the Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm (HEA)
    • Authors: F. Recknagel; D.-K. Kim, G.-J. Joo, H. Cao
      Abstract: This study demonstrates the use of inferential models for scenario analyses by simulating direct and indirect effects of predictor variables on state variables through model ensembles. Two model ensembles have been designed to predict the response of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and the diatom Stephanodiscus hantzschii to modified flow regimes of the River Nakdong (Korea) by a scenario analysis. Whilst flow-independent predictor variables of growth of Microcystis and Stephanodiscus such as water temperature and pH remain unchanged during the scenario analysis, flow-dependent predictor variables such as turbidity, electrical conductivity, phosphate, nitrate, silica and chlorophyll a are forecasted by inferential models. In the course of scenario analysis, flow-independent and flow-dependent predictor variables feed into the Microcystis and Stephanodiscus models to make sure that both direct and indirect effects of altered flow regimes are taken into account. The eight inferential models that were incorporated into the model ensembles have been developed by the hybrid evolutionary algorithm based on 19 years of time-series monitored in the River Nakdong between 1993 and 2012. The models achieved good accuracy in terms of timing and magnitudes reflected by coefficients of determination r2 = 0.94 for Microcystis and r2 = 0.83 for Stephanodiscus. The scenario analysis revealed that extreme summer blooms of Microcystis as observed between 1994 and 1997, and winter blooms of Stephanodiscus as observed between 1994 and 1997 and in 2004 can be prevented in the River Nakdong by adaptive management of seasonal water release from adjacent dams. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22T03:05:35.320921-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3141
       
  • Ecological Assessment of a Sediment By-pass Tunnel on a Receiving Stream
           in Switzerland
    • Authors: E. J. Martín; M. Doering, C. T. Robinson
      Abstract: Reservoir siltation is a major problem worldwide, decreasing reservoir storage capacity, trapping entrained sediment, and altering the natural sediment regime. Sediment By-pass Tunnels (SBTs) are used to connect reservoirs with downstream receiving waters during high flows to reduce sediment accumulation in the reservoir. When operating, large volumes of sediment-laden waters are released into the receiving river for short periods of time (h). The aim of this study was to assess the impact of SBT events on the downstream riverine ecosystem. We measured physico-chemical properties, sediment respiration, periphyton biomass and chlorophyll-a, and macroinvertebrate assemblages along a 5-km stretch of river during the first two years of SBT operation. During the study, five major SBT events occurred. Few changes were found in physico-chemical properties, mainly due to the input of tributaries entering the system. Results showed a clear reduction in sediment respiration, an indicator of ecosystem metabolism, especially after large SBT events. Periphyton levels and macroinvertebrate density/richness also decreased after SBT events. A non-metric multidimensional scaling distinguished both temporal and spatial shifts in macroinvertebrate assemblages after SBT events, being related to downstream distance and SBT event magnitude. In summary, SBT events acted as a pulse disturbance, similarly to natural floods, followed by recovery of measured ecosystem indicators. Sediment By-pass Tunnel events can enhance sediment and flow connectivity, although the magnitude and frequency of operations should be controlled to prevent catastrophic disturbances. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22T02:18:14.151969-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3145
       
  • Assessing the Mechanistic Basis for Fine Sediment Biomonitoring:
           Inconsistencies among the Literature, Traits and Indices
    • Authors: M. A. Wilkes; M. Mckenzie, J. F. Murphy, R. P. Chadd
      Abstract: Classification of species sensitivity for biomonitoring has been approached under two different frameworks, using either empirical data or expert opinion. Two tools for fine sediment (i.e. clogging and colmation) biomonitoring in the UK tend towards these contrasting approaches. The Proportion of Sediment-sensitive Invertebrates (PSI) index was developed using expert judgement. Empirical weightings were subsequently added at genus or species (EPSI) and mixed (EPSImixed) taxonomic levels, but scores remain constrained by the original categories. In contrast, the Combined Fine Sediment Index, composed of separate taxon scores along organic matter and total fine sediment gradients, was developed using a purely empirical approach. We tested the mechanistic bases for these indices by relating taxon scores to species traits. We compared the results with those for the well-established Whalley Hawkes Paisley Trigg index of organic pollution. After controlling for varying sample sizes, Whalley Hawkes Paisley Trigg could be better predicted by a linear combination of all available traits (mean R2 = 0.92) than any of the fine sediment indices (0.68 
      PubDate: 2017-03-22T02:07:29.623696-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3139
       
  • A Seasonal Study Reveals the Occurrence of Exotic Rotifers, the River
           Antigua, Veracruz, Close to the Gulf of Mexico
    • Authors: S. Nandini; S. S. S. Sarma, R. D. Gulati
      Abstract: Zooplankton studies in Mexican rivers are few despite the fact that Mexico has >200 rivers. We present data on the seasonal diversity of rotifers during 2013–2014 from the river La Antigua, near Veracruz. We collected samples from 15 stations along a horizontal gradient of ~5 km, from the upper reaches to about 2 km from the sea. The physico-chemical variables analysed were temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, nitrates, phosphates, Secchi depth and salinity. From each site, 80 L of water was filtered with a 50-μm plankton net. Rotifers were identified and quantified using a Sedgewick Rafter cell. The river is shallow (maximum depth 2.5 m during the rainy season). Our observations indicated that the phytoplankton community was dominated by diatoms; the chlorophyll a concentrations ranged from 0.55 to 26.1 μg L−1 over the study period. We found >125 rotifer species belonging to 21 families, mostly from the Lecanidae, Brachionidae, Notommatidae and Lepadellidae. The density of rotifers was low,
      PubDate: 2017-03-20T05:35:50.596578-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3140
       
  • Gradients in Catostomid Assemblages along a Reservoir Cascade
    • Authors: L. E. Miranda; K. R. Keretz, C. R. Gilliland
      Abstract: Serial impoundment of major rivers leads to alterations of natural flow dynamics and disrupts longitudinal connectivity. Catostomid fishes (suckers, family Catostomidae) are typically found in riverine or backwater habitats yet are able to persist in impounded river systems. To the detriment of conservation, there is limited information about distribution of catostomid fishes in impounded rivers. We examined the longitudinal distribution of catostomid fishes over 23 reservoirs of the Tennessee River reservoir cascade, encompassing approximately 1600 km. Our goal was to develop a basin-scale perspective to guide conservation efforts. Catostomid species composition and assemblage structure changed longitudinally along the reservoir cascade. Catostomid species biodiversity was greatest in reservoirs lower in the cascade. Assemblage composition shifted from dominance by spotted sucker Minytrema melanops and buffalos Ictiobus spp. in the lower reservoirs to carpsuckers Carpiodes spp. midway through the cascade and redhorses Moxostoma spp. in the upper reservoirs. Most species did not extend the length of the cascade, and some species were rare, found in low numbers and in few reservoirs. The observed gradients in catostomid assemblages suggest the need for basin-scale conservation measures focusing on three broad areas: (1) conservation and management of the up-lake riverine reaches of the lower reservoirs, (2) maintenance of the access to quality habitat in tributaries to the upper reservoirs and (3) reintroductions into currently unoccupied habitat within species' historic distributions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T00:35:57.995399-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3144
       
  • Building Hydrologic Foundations for Applications of ELOHA: How Long A
           Record Should You Have?
    • Authors: J. G. Williams
      Abstract: The Ecological Limits of Hydrologic Alteration framework for making regional assessments of environmental flows requires a ‘hydrologic foundation’ of flow data for current and undeveloped conditions. This raises the question how long a record is needed for an adequate hydrologic foundation? The answer depends on the variance in the flow record and on how much uncertainty is tolerable in metrics developed from the flow data. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T00:31:16.77729-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3143
       
  • Application of the Stream Evolution Model to a Volcanically Disturbed
           River: The North Fork Toutle River, Washington State, USA
    • Authors: S. Zheng; C. R. Thorne, B. S. Wu, S. S. Han
      Abstract: In this study, a recently revised version of the channel evolution model, named the Stream Evolution Model (SEM), was applied to the upper North Fork Toutle River disrupted by the deposition of a 2.5-km3 debris avalanche during the catastrophic eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980. The results show that, in the first few years following the eruption, upstream channel reaches generally incised, evolving in SEM Stage 4 (i.e. degradation and widening), while downstream reaches aggraded, evolving in Stage 5 (i.e. aggradation and widening). However, starting in the late-1980s, this simple pattern was disrupted by incision in the downstream reaches, which seemed to propagate upstream. Since the 1990s, lateral channel adjustments have become predominant as rates of vertical adjustment have slowed and river valley top widths relaxed to asymptotic values. Spatial and temporal sequences of channel evolution have tended to follow the sequences of stages expected according to the SEM, although these sequences have been frequently disrupted by renewed incision, secondary cycles of adjustment and the impacts of local geologic, geomorphic and hydraulic conditions. Within the quasi-full SEM cycles, stages 4 and 5 were sometimes repeated, while stage 6 (quasi-equilibrium) was sometimes omitted, and stage 8 (anabranching) only occurred in the downstream braided/anabranching reaches. According to the SEM, degradation, widening and lateral activity (stages 4 and 7) are forecast to continue until transverse valley profiles and channel planforms stabilize and floodplain and terrace surfaces are fully colonized by vegetation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T00:16:09.616329-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3142
       
  • An Evaluation of CMIP5 GCM Simulations over the Athabasca River Basin,
           Canada
    • Authors: G. H. Cheng; G. H. Huang, C. Dong, J. X. Zhu, X. Zhou, Y. Yao
      Abstract: Long-term hydrological forecasting, water resources management and other climate change impacts or adaptation analysis studies on large continental river basins, for example, the Athabasca River Basin (ARB) in Canada, desire a reliable climatic projection. This usually relies on general circulation models (GCMs) in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). However, there is a lack of a systematic evaluation of CMIP5 GCM performances over the ARB that vary with multiple factors, for example, statistical metrics, temporal scales and spatial locations, challenging the reliability of water-related or other studies over the ARB. For this gap to be filled, six CMIP5 GCMs, namely, IPSL-CM5A-LR, IPSL-CM5A-MR, MIROC-ESM-CHEM, MIROC5, GFDL-ESM2G and GFDL-ESM2M, and their ensemble mean are selected according to data availabilities of representative climate variables: Tmin, Tmax and Prec (TTP). Accuracies of the selected CMIP5 GCMs in reproducing TTP over the ARB are evaluated comprehensively. The ensemble mean cannot outperform any GCM in all cases in the ARB, although its overall accuracy seems to be higher in consideration of all cases. These accuracies vary with TTP, locations, metrics and scales. For instance, ESM2G shows the highest accuracies in reproducing monthly/seasonal variability and magnitudes of grid-averaged TTP and inter-annual variability of grid-averaged annual means of Tmax; CM5A-LR in multi-year-averaged spatial variability of TTP and magnitudes of spatially distributed multi-year-averaged Tmax; while the ensemble mean only in some aspects, for example, intraseasonal variability and magnitudes of TTP and inter-annual variability and magnitudes of grid-averaged annual means of TTP. GCMs should be systematically integrated according to accuracy variations. Multiple statistical metrics are recommended in GCM evaluations. These findings facilitate water resources systems analyses and other related studies in the ARB. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T05:25:54.620183-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3136
       
  • Restoration Versus Invasive Species: Bigheaded Carps' Use of A
           Rehabilitated Backwater
    • Authors: A. A. Coulter; D. Schultz, E. Tristano, M. K. Brey, J. E. Garvey
      Abstract: Knowledge of how invasive species use invaded habitats can aid in developing management practices to exclude them. Swan Lake, a 1100-ha Illinois River (USA) backwater, was rehabilitated to restore ecosystem functions, but may provide valuable habitat for invasive bigheaded carps [bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix)]. Use (residency and passages) of Swan Lake by invasive bigheaded carps was monitored using acoustic telemetry (n = 50 individuals/species) to evaluate the use of a large, restored habitat from 2004 to 2005. Passages (entrances/exits) by bigheaded carps were highest in winter, and residency was highest in the summer. Bighead carp backwater use was associated with the differences in temperature between the main channel and backwater, and passages primarily occurred between 18:00 h and midnight. Silver carp backwater use was positively correlated with water level and main channel discharge, and fewer passages occurred between 12:00 h and 18:00 h than during any other time of day. Harvest occurring during summer or high main channel discharge could reduce backwater abundances while maintenance of low water levels could reduce overall backwater use. Conclusions from this study regarding the timing of bigheaded carps' use of backwater habitats are critical to integrated pest management plans to control invasive species. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T02:45:27.286987-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3122
       
  • Effects of Urban Sprawl on Riparian Vegetation: Is Compact or Dispersed
           Urbanization Better for Biodiversity?
    • Authors: B. Guida-Johnson; A. M. Faggi, G. A. Zuleta
      Abstract: Compact urbanization is the main strategy for sustainable urban development. However, it is yet unclear whether compact urban forms are ecologically more favourable than dispersed ones. In this paper, we studied the effects of urban sprawl on the riparian vegetation condition in one of the most degraded watersheds in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area, Argentina. We conducted random sampling of the riparian vegetation at sites along streams in the basin and assessed urban indicators at the reach and sub-watershed scales for each of those sites in a geographic information system: urban area, impervious surface, population density and two landscape metrics of dispersion. The indicators assessed explained a high proportion of the variability of the vegetation response variables, thereby confirming the importance of urban sprawl pressure in shaping riparian communities in fluvial ecosystems. Dispersed urbanization had more positive than negative effects on the vegetation in the study area. Riverbanks associated with dispersed urbanization had more plant species, including exotics, when urban sprawl was assessed at the local scale. At the sub-watershed scale, dispersed urbanized areas were richer in native plants and most of the functional groups, and poorer in exotic species. The model of the compact city, including bio-corridors along watercourses, has been proposed for the Buenos Aires conurbation process for the next decades. Our results showed that the quality of existing river corridors across the compact matrix was not desirable and best practices for redesigning a more sustainable landscape structure are necessary, including the restoration of habitats for wetland species. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T02:35:41.140531-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3138
       
  • Streambed Disturbance over a Long Flood Series
    • Authors: J. K. Haschenburger
      Abstract: Flooding and channel characteristics control the occurrence, spatial extent, and depth of streambed disturbance. This research quantifies the frequency and depth of streambed disturbance in a small, coastal salmon-spawning stream resulting from 249 floods. Bed disturbance was documented by monitoring the three-dimensional positions of gravel tracers and producing cellular maps within a geographic information system (GIS). The most active areas make up about 1% of the streambed. Undisturbed areas constitute between 31 and 53% of the bed. Maximum disturbance depths exceed 20 cm in more than half of the active bed. Logistic regression equations based on two bed characteristics correctly describe disturbance frequency and depth over most of the bed. Results provide insight into the active zone of bedload transport, correspond with expectations of partial sediment transport, and document potential refugia that persist over many life cycles of the stream community. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20T05:55:27.607503-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3134
       
  • Intake Approach and Dam Passage by Downstream-migrating Atlantic Salmon
           Kelts
    • Authors: D. Nyqvist; E. Bergman, O. Calles, L. Greenberg
      Abstract: Studying fish behaviour at hydropower dams is needed to facilitate the design and improvement of fish passage solutions, but few studies have focused on Atlantic salmon kelts. Here, we used radio telemetry (n = 40, size range = 50–81 cm) and acoustic sonar to study kelt movements in the forebay as well as their dam passage survival and subsequent migration success past multiple dams. We also compare radio telemetry and acoustic sonar observations of fish behaviour and used acoustic sonar to measure the depth distribution of fish approaching the turbine intake zone. Passage success at the dam was 41%, and mortality was largely associated with turbine passage (62%). The two fish that passed via the spill gates survived and continued their downstream migration. At the dam, all but one radio-tagged kelt approached the intake zone shortly after arrival to the forebay, and sonar data showed that approaching fish were predominantly surface oriented (72%, 88% and 96% of the observations were less than 1, 2 and 3 m deep, respectively). Turbine passage rate from the intake zone was higher at night than at day, indicating that the lack of visual cues may reduce the barrier effect of the 70-mm conventional trash rack. Turbine passage rate also increased with increasing hydropower generation. The percentage of observed upstream movements away from the intake zone compared with the total number of observations was considerably greater in the radio telemetry data (41%) than in the sonar data (4%). Only one fish survived passage of all eight hydropower dams to reach the lake. This low-passage survival underscores the need for remedial measures to increase the survival of migrating kelts, and the fish's surface orientation as well as their rapid approach to the intake rack should be taken into account when designing such measures. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20T05:46:10.478154-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3133
       
  • Local-scale Benefits of River Connectivity Restoration Planning Beyond
           Jurisdictional Boundaries
    • Authors: A. W. Milt; P. J. Doran, M. C. Ferris, A. T. Moody, T. M. Neeson, P. B. McIntyre
      Abstract: Conservation planning aims to optimize outcomes for select species or ecosystems by directing resources toward high-return sites. The possibility that local benefits might be increased by directing resources beyond the focal area is rarely considered. We present a case study of restoring river connectivity for migratory fish of the Great Lakes Basin by removing dams and road crossings within municipal jurisdictions versus their broader watersheds. We found that greater river connectivity could often be achieved by considering both intra-jurisdictional and extra-jurisdictional barriers. Focusing on jurisdictional barriers alone generally forfeited 75% (median = 100%) for planners who value larger-scale habitat gains. Similarly, cost savings tended to be between −50% and +50%, but in some cases were very negative. Our study underscores the local-scale benefits of broadening restoration investments, especially for decision makers of the Great Lakes Basin and contributes to a discussion of appropriate and efficient scales of conservation planning. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20T05:45:53.234254-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3135
       
  • Regional Controls on Physical Habitat Structure of Amazon Streams
    • Authors: N. L. Benone; M. C. Esposito, L. Juen, P. S. Pompeu, L. F. A. Montag
      Abstract: Drainage basins are inherently hierarchical and are composed of a series of nested subsystems, in which the functions and structure of lower levels depend on the features of higher levels. For a comprehensive understanding of the functioning of river systems, it is necessary to identify which factors are important at different scales and how they interact. Considering the importance of assessing lotic systems in the Amazon, our aim was to answer the following question: how do regional features at catchment scale constrain local physical habitat of streams? We sampled 55 streams distributed among six protected river basins of the Amazon, examining the associations of 11 catchment metrics with 146 local variables describing physical habitat structure derived from field measurements. Multivariate analyses showed that basins were structured according to different factors at both scales; variables related to substrate, cover for aquatic organisms and fast channel habitats were explained by altitude, catchment slope and proportion of coarse fragments in soils. Altitude was the most important catchment variable, strongly affecting flow velocity and regulating channel morphology and sediment transport. Spatial differences in environmental heterogeneity indicate that different processes act at each scale; this emphasizes how difficult it is to choose the most relevant spatial scale in ecological studies. Our results highlight the importance of regional variables, especially altitude and slope, as drivers of local-scale environmental heterogeneity. We hope these results will help in developing more efficient monitoring projects and restoration practices to better understand and conserve aquatic resources in the Amazon Basin. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T23:40:31.010004-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3137
       
  • Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Suspended Particle Characteristics and
           Composition in Navigation Pool 19 of the Upper Mississippi River
    • Authors: A. S. Milde; W. B. Richardson, E. A. Strauss, J. H. Larson, J. M. Vallazza, B. C. Knights
      Abstract: Suspended particles are an essential component of large rivers influencing channel geomorphology, biogeochemical cycling of nutrients, and food web resources. The Upper Mississippi River is a large floodplain river that exhibits pronounced spatiotemporal variation in environmental conditions and biota, providing an ideal environment for investigating dynamics of suspended particles in large river ecosystems. Here we investigated two questions: (i) How do suspended particle characteristics (e.g. size and morphology) vary temporally and spatially? and (ii) What environmental variables have the strongest association with particle characteristics? Water sampling was conducted in June, August, and September of 2013 and 2014 in Navigation Pool 19 of the Upper Mississippi River. A FlowCAM® (Flow Cytometer and Microscope) particle imaging system was used to enumerate and measure particles 53–300 μm in diameter for size and shape characteristics (e.g. volume, elongation, and symmetry). Suspended particle characteristics varied considerably over space and time and were strongly associated with discharge and concentrations of nitrate + nitrite (NO3−) and soluble reactive phosphorus. Particle characteristics in backwaters were distinct from those in other habitats for most of the study period, likely due to reduced hydrologic connectivity and higher biotic production in backwaters. During low discharge, phytoplankton and zooplankton made up relatively greater proportions of the observed particles. Concurrently during low discharge, concentrations of chlorophyll, volatile suspended solids, and total phosphorus were higher. Our results suggest that there are complex interactions among space, time, discharge, and other environmental variables (e.g. water nutrients), which drive suspended particle dynamics in large rivers. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T22:55:33.71448-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3131
       
  • Do Alluvial Sand Dunes Create Energetic Refugia for Benthic Fishes? An
           Experimental Test with the Endangered Pallid Sturgeon
    • Authors: A. P. Porreca; W. D. Hintz, J. E. Garvey
      Abstract: River modifications have altered critical habitats for fishes at a variety of spatial scales and caused global declines of many fluvial species. At small spatial scales (
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T22:41:22.300232-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3132
       
  • Predicted Native Fish Response, Potential Rewards and Risks from Flow
           Alteration in a New Mexico Arid Mountain Stream
    • Authors: W. E. Pine; J. Caldwell, M. Allen, C. Stropki
      Abstract: Water and natural resource managers are concerned with evaluating how fish habitat and populations may respond to water diversions and small-scale flow augmentations. We used two-dimensional hydraulic models, habitat suitability curves and an individual-based population viability model to assess whether flow augmentations of about 0.28–0.57 m3/s would create suitable habitat for federally listed native fish loach minnow Rhinichthys cobitis and spikedace Meda fulgida in a reach of the Gila River, New Mexico, and then examined how fish population viability may change under a variety of colonization and extinction scenarios. These simulations help to inform water management decisions in a reach of the Gila River where river diversions currently exist and new diversions and augmentations are being proposed. Our results suggest that the flow augmentations evaluated will result in small changes (on average across life stages, −0.22% to 4.06%) in suitable habitat for loach minnow and spikedace depending on augmentation scenario and fish life stage. While these percent changes are small, they would result in a reduction in the dewatering of the river channel in a river reach where native fish abundance is thought to be low. Actual native fish responses to these habitat changes are unknown; however, these flow augmentations could potentially allow these native species to re-colonize this river segment from upstream or downstream sources increasing species distribution and likely population viability. Maintaining viable populations of native fish in this river reach is dependent on complex factors including persistence of suitable habitat for multiple life stages, connectivity with other populations and minimizing risk of invasion from non-native species. We recommend that these predictions from the habitat and population models be tested and verified in an adaptive management framework linking modelling, experimental management, monitoring and reassessment to inform water management decisions in the Gila River. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10T01:42:13.648482-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3120
       
  • Spatial and Temporal Relationships Between the Invasive Snail Bithynia
           tentaculata and Submersed Aquatic Vegetation in Pool 8 of the Upper
           Mississippi River
    • Authors: A. M. Weeks; N. R. De Jager, R. J. Haro, G. J. Sandland
      Abstract: Bithynia tentaculata is an invasive snail that was first reported in Lake Michigan in 1871 and has since spread throughout a number of freshwater systems of the USA. This invasion has been extremely problematic in the Upper Mississippi River as the snails serve as intermediate hosts for several trematode parasites that have been associated with waterfowl mortality in the region. This study was designed to assess the abundance and distribution of B. tentaculata relative to submersed aquatic vegetation as macrophytes provide important nesting and food resources for migrating waterfowl. Temporal changes in both vegetation and snail densities were compared between 2007 and 2015. Between these years, B. tentaculata densities have nearly quadrupled despite minor changes in vegetation abundance, distribution and composition. Understanding the spatial distribution of B. tentaculata in relation to other habitat features, including submersed vegetation, and quantifying any further changes in the abundance and distribution of B. tentaculata over time will be important for better identifying areas of risk for disease transmission to waterfowl. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01T01:56:53.932044-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3123
       
  • A Histogram Comparison Approach for Assessing Hydrologic Regime Alteration
    • Authors: F. Huang; F. Li, N. Zhang, Q. Chen, B. Qian, L. Guo, Z. Xia
      Abstract: The histogram comparison approach (HCA) is proposed to assess the alteration of hydrologic regimes, which are characterized by the hydrologic metrics, for example, the indicators of hydrologic alteration. The HCA method considers alterations within the whole range of the hydrologic regime and estimates the alteration degree by comparing the pre-impact and post-impact histograms. A key parameter of the HCA method is the similarity degree, which considers both the class-by-class and cross-class information of histograms and reflects how many features of the pre-impact histogram remain in the post-impact histogram. The alteration degree is defined as the mathematical maximum similarity degree, that is, 100%, subtracted by the actual similarity degree in the HCA method. Comparing the HCA method to the existing range of variability approach and histogram matching approach through theoretical analysis and case studies, the HCA method can eliminate some limitations of the range of variability approach and histogram matching approach methods and can more accurately and effectively assess the hydrologic regime alteration. The Ob and Yangtze Rivers, which are located in different climatic zones, are used as case studies. Hydrologic regime alterations impacted by reservoirs with different regulation abilities (daily, seasonally and yearly) were assessed using the HCA method, the results of which verified its rationality and practicability. More sites with a wider range of flow variations will be examined in the future to assess the applicability of the HCA method. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-27T07:35:47.025193-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3130
       
  • Comparison of Taxon-Specific and Taxon-Generic Risk Screening Tools to
           Identify Potentially Invasive Non-native Fishes in the River Neretva
           Catchment (Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia)
    • Authors: B. Glamuzina; P. Tutman, V. Nikolić, Z. Vidović, J. Pavličević, L. Vilizzi, G. H. Copp, P. Simonović
      Abstract: The Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Screening Kit (FISK) v2 and Aquatic Species Invasiveness Screening Kit (AS-ISK) risk identification screening tools were used to assess the invasiveness potential of 24 non-native (NNS) freshwater fish species in the River Neretva catchment (Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia), a risk assessment (RA) area that is an important Mediterranean hotspot for fish endemism. The two assessors assigned similar scores for the invasiveness potential of the NN fishes, and both screening tools successfully distinguished invasive from non-invasive species. Mean calibrated threshold scores were 10.25 for FISK and 10.00 for AS-ISK, with the latter increasing to 12.62 when questions that assess the likely impact of predicted future climate conditions on the RA were taken into consideration. These relatively low threshold values are characteristic of areas with an elevated number of translocated species and suggest that NN fishes pose a considerable threat to native species and ecosystems. FISK ranked 50.0–62.6% of the species as being of ‘high risk’ compared with 58.4–59.3% using AS-ISK. The highest scores (‘very high risk’) were attributed to gibel carp Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782) and pikeperch Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus, 1758). The generic screening tool for aquatic species (AS-ISK) provided similar risk rankings to its predecessor, FISK, as regards invasiveness potential. For this reason, it is likely to be an effective tool for evaluating the potential invasion risk of NNS freshwater fishes for other RA areas in the Balkans. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-24T00:00:34.847615-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3124
       
  • Low-Head Dam Impacts on Habitat and the Functional Composition of Fish
           Communities
    • Authors: S. C. F. Smith; S. J. Meiners, R. P. Hastings, T. Thomas, R. E. Colombo
      Abstract: The natural flow regime of many rivers in the USA has been impacted by anthropogenic structures. This loss of connectivity plays a role in shaping river ecosystems by altering physical habitat characteristics and shaping fish assemblages. Although the impacts of large dams on river systems are well documented, studies on the effects of low-head dams using a functional guild approach have been fewer. We assessed river habitat quality and fish community structure at 12 sites on two rivers; the study sites included two sites below each dam, two sites in the pool above each dam and two sites upstream of the pool extent. Fish communities were sampled from 2012 to 2015 using a multi-gear approach in spring and fall seasons. We aggregated fishes into habitat and reproductive guilds in order to ascertain dams' effects on groups of fishes that respond similarly to environmental variation. We found that habitat quality was significantly poorer in the artificial pools created above the dams than all other sampling sites. Fast riffle specialist taxa were most abundant in high-quality riffle habitats farthest from the dams, while fast generalists and pelagophils were largely restricted to areas below the downstream-most impoundment. Overall, these dams play a substantial role in shaping habitat, which impacts fish community composition on a functional level. Utilizing this functional approach enables us to mechanistically link the effects of impoundments to the structure of fish communities and form generalizations that can be applied to other systems. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-20T06:11:06.912842-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3128
       
  • Uncertainty Estimation in Flood Inundation Mapping: An Application of
           Non-parametric Bootstrapping
    • Authors: M. Faghih; M. Mirzaei, J. Adamowski, J. Lee, A. El-Shafie
      Abstract: Disaster prevention planning is affected in a significant way by a lack of in-depth understanding of the numerous uncertainties involved with flood delineation and related estimations. Currently, flood inundation extent is represented as a deterministic map without in-depth consideration of the inherent uncertainties associated with variables such as precipitation, streamflow, topographic representation, modelling parameters and techniques, and geospatial operations. The motivation of this study is to estimate uncertainties in flood inundation mapping based on a non-parametric bootstrapping method. The uncertainty is addressed through the application of non-parametric bootstrap sampling to the hydrodynamic modelling software, HEC-RAS, integrated with Geographic Information System (GIS). This approach was used to simulate different water levels and flow rates corresponding to different return periods from the available database. The study area was the Langat River Basin in Malaysia. The results revealed that the inundated land and infrastructure are subject to a flooding hazard of high-frequency events and that the flood damage potential is increasing significantly for residential areas and valuable land-use classes with higher return periods. The proposed methodology, as well as the study outcomes, of this paper could be beneficial to policymakers, water resources managers, insurance companies and other flood-related stakeholders. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-18T03:45:26.76018-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3108
       
  • Macro-invertebrate Community Response to Multi-annual Hydrological
           Indicators
    • Authors: Visser A; Beevers L, Patidar S.
      Abstract: Flow is widely considered one of the primary drivers of instream ecological response. Increasingly, hydroecological models form the basis of integrated and sustainable approaches to river management, linking flow to ecological response. In doing so, the most ecologically relevant hydrological variables should be selected. Some studies have observed a delayed macro-invertebrate (ecological) response to these variables (i.e. a cumulative inter-annual effect, referred to as multi-annual) in groundwater-fed rivers. To date, only limited research has been performed investigating this phenomenon. This paper examines the ecological response to multi-annual flow indicators for a groundwater-fed river. Relationships between instream ecology and flow were investigated by means of a novel methodological framework developed by integrating statistical data analysis and modelling techniques, such as principal component analysis and multistep regression approaches. Results demonstrated a strong multi-annual multi-seasonal effect. Inclusion of additional antecedent flows indicators appears to enhance overall model performance (in some cases, goodness of fit statistics such as the adjusted R-squared value exceeded 0.6). These results strongly suggest that, in order to understand potential changes to instream ecology arising from changing flow regimes, multi-annual and multi-seasonal relationships should be considered in hydroecological modelling. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-18T03:40:25.375823-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3125
       
  • Bioaccumulation of Inorganic Elements in Dreissena polymorpha from the
           Ebro River, Spain: Could Zebra Mussels Be Used as a Bioindicator of the
           Impact of Human Activities?
    • Authors: M. Benito; R. Mosteo, E. Rubio, D. LaPlante, M. P. Ormad, P. Goñi
      Abstract: Dreissena polymorpha is among the top 100 most harmful invasive species in aquatic habitats. European Directive 2013/39/UE establishes Environmental Quality Standards for biota because it has been demonstrated that pollutants bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. This study evaluated bioaccumulation of inorganic elements in the soft tissues of D. polymorpha in order to assess the usefulness of zebra mussels as a bioindicator of contaminant presence in superficial waters. Concentrations of 66 elements were measured in order to evaluate their relationship with nearby anthropogenic activity and to the values recommended by Environmental Quality Standards for biota. Bivalves were collected from four sample points along the Ebro River Basin (Spain), where diverse human activities are carried out. Zebra mussels accumulate toxins in soft tissue during their life cycle, including Al, Cr, Fe, Hg, Pb, Th, Cd and U. The highest levels of accumulation corresponded to elements associated with human activity in the area, showing the impact of anthropogenic actions on biota. D. polymorpha not only supplies information about current water quality but also acts as a witness of past water quality by bioconcentrating toxic elements present in the environment and providing relevant results about historical water contamination. In conclusion, D. polymorpha is a harmful and dangerous invasive species, but its pervasiveness means that it can be used as a bioindicator to assess current and past presence of elements in water. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-17T07:05:38.178585-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3126
       
  • The Transferability of Terrestrial Water Balance Components under
           Uncertainty and Nonstationarity: A Case Study of the Coastal Plain
           Watershed in the Southeastern USA
    • Authors: S. Z. Samadi; M. E. Meadows
      Abstract: The challenges posed by nonstationarity in predicting catchment water balance components motivated this study to test the stationary versus nonstationarity hypothesis and detect changes in the watershed response to land use land cover (LULC) alterations, and climate variability and change. The focus is on a two-step procedure that includes model calibration of Soil and Water Assessment Tool using a sequential Bayesian uncertainty algorithm (i.e. sequential uncertainty fitting), followed by nonstationary assessment of water balance component using extreme value analysis over an Atlantic coastal plain watershed in the southeastern USA. Analysis suggests that the uncertainty of Soil and Water Assessment Tool model is statistically aligned with LULC alterations that increased the sensitivity of Manning's roughness coefficient, transmission loss and the resistance of the soil matrix to water flow. Changes in LULC along with variability in the magnitude, timing and frequency of precipitation diminished surface runoff and groundwater contribution to the river system whereas it increased evapotranspiration with a substantial decline in water storage capacity. Nonstationary assessment of water balance using extreme value analysis model further revealed a functional form of stationary behaviour (no trends) prior to LULC alteration while large amplification was detected during post-changes. The results and findings presented in this paper confirm our hypothesis about a combined effect of climate and LULC changes on hydrological functions and that variation of these fingerprints elucidates the presence of nonstationarity in the watershed system. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-16T01:00:41.792877-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3127
       
  • Borders and Barriers: challenges of Fisheries Management and Conservation
           in Open Systems
    • Authors: S. F. Siddons; M. A. Pegg, G. M. Klein
      Abstract: Large rivers often bisect geopolitical boundaries where management goals may be at odds for a shared fishery, creating fragmented management zones. Fragmentation due to physical barriers may further impact the fishery by reducing fish passage. Our goal was to estimate basin-wide parameters (i.e. movement, survival and capture probabilities) of a large-river species known to move throughout watersheds. We tagged13 892 Channel Catfish in the Red River of the North (Red River) and Lake Winnipeg in Manitoba, Canada, and collected 553 recaptures. We estimated 2.2% of catfish are moving from the Red River to Lake Winnipeg each month and 9.4%, primarily large (>600 mm) individuals, moved upstream through a dam (monthly). Approximately 5.6% of catfish moved to the USA each month, and only one fish returned. Our results suggest the lower reaches of the Red River may be a source population for the USA, where survival is lower, and Lake Winnipeg. The complex movements of Channel Catfish throughout the Red River, across barriers and international boundaries, suggest conservation and management of fish populations should be watershed wide. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-11T17:10:25.174777-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3118
       
  • Evaluating the Framework of a New River Bird Survey Method
    • Authors: E. M. Call; M. L. Hunter
      Abstract: River bird assemblages can serve as beacons of environmental change associated with restoration or degradation. River birds regularly rely on riverine resources at some point in their life cycle, vary in the scale of temporal and spatial of use and forage at multiple levels of the food web (e.g. fish, aquatic plants, aquatic or emergent insects). We present a novel river bird survey method that is more easily employed and less intrusive than riverbank transect or boat surveys and encompasses a wide suite of species and a year-round time frame. We evaluate the relative efficacy of different levels of survey duration (20, 15, 10 or 5 min), number of surveys (every 2 weeks in spring and fall and every 3 weeks in summer and winter) and number of sites on the survey's ability to document species richness and bird abundance. We used two statistical approaches, species accumulation curves (for duration, number of surveys and number of sites) and first-order Jackknifes (for duration). We conclude that a biweekly or triweekly survey, 25 sites in the focal river, and a survey duration of at least 15 min are sufficient to meet our objectives. This logistically efficient survey approach facilitates monitoring complex and long-term change such as that associated with river restoration and dam removal. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-09T13:45:38.098021-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3119
       
  • Quantifying Fish Habitat Associated with Stream Simulation Design Culverts
           in Northern Wisconsin
    • Authors: A. Timm; D. Higgins, J. Stanovick, R. Kolka, S. Eggert
      Abstract: This study investigated the effects of culvert replacement design on fish habitat and fish weight by comparing substrate diversity and weight at three stream simulation (SS)-design and three bankfull and backwater (BB)-design sites on the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Wisconsin. Stream channel cross-sections, Wolman substrate particle counts, and single-pass backpack electro-fishing survey data were used to quantify fish habitat and fish weight in 50-m upstream and downstream sample reaches at each site. We applied generalized linear mixed models to test the hypothesis that substrate size and fish weight did not differ according to stream-crossing design type (SS or BB) and location (upstream or downstream). Substrate particle sizes were significantly greater upstream of the stream crossing when compared to downstream of the stream crossing at both SS and BB sites for riffles and pools. Substrate particle sizes were also significantly greater upstream of BB sites when compared to upstream of SS sites. Results of this study indicated statistically greater individual fish weights upstream of SS-design sites in comparison to upstream of BB-design sites in first- to third-order low gradient streams. These results suggested that the SS-design approach appears to be more effective at transporting sediment downstream, and illustrated the value of using fish weight as an indicator of biological success for stream-crossing designs. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
      PubDate: 2017-01-06T01:36:12.598349-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3117
       
  • Evaluating the Effects of Culvert Designs on Ecosystem Processes in
           Northern Wisconsin Streams
    • Authors: J. C. Olson; A. M. Marcarelli, A. L. Timm, S. L. Eggert, R. K. Kolka
      Abstract: Culvert replacements are commonly undertaken to restore aquatic organism passage and stream hydrologic and geomorphic conditions, but their effects on ecosystem processes are rarely quantified. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of two culvert replacement designs on stream ecosystem processes. The stream simulation design, where culverts accommodate bankfull width and streambeds are reconstructed through the culvert, was compared with the bankfull and backwater design, where streambeds were left to fill naturally, as well as to non-replaced culverts. We predicted that stream simulation culverts would best preserve water velocity and coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) retention within the culvert relative to upstream reaches, and that both replaced culvert styles would exhibit rates closer to upstream reaches than non-replaced culverts. In addition, we predicted that ecosystem processes (CPOM retention, transient storage and nutrient uptake) would be similar in reaches upstream and downstream of both replaced culvert styles, because both designs are constructed to maintain stream slopes and bankfull widths through the structure. We found that stream simulation design better maintained CPOM retention through culverts compared with non-replaced and bankfull and backwater design culverts, but observed no differences in ecosystem processes between reaches located upstream or downstream of replaced culverts. Although the stream simulation design requires additional streambed construction relative to the bankfull and backwater design, this step may lead to additional improvement if maintaining ecological conditions through the culvert is an important restoration goal. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-04T20:06:15.283385-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3121
       
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 303 - 304
      Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T01:58:48.528432-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3087
       
 
 
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