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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 150 journals)
Showing 1 - 47 of 47 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acque Sotterranee - Italian Journal of Groundwater     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oceanography and Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
American Journal of Water Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Water Works Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Anales de Hidrología Médica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW. Land Reclamation     Open Access  
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Applied Water Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Aquacultural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Living Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aquatic Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Asian Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Water Resources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Desalination and Water Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Developments in Water Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Science : Water Research & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
EQA - International Journal of Environmental Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European journal of water quality - Journal européen d'hydrologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Groundwater for Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Grundwasser     Hybrid Journal  
Hydro Nepal : Journal of Water, Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Hydrology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 16)
Hydrology: Current Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IDA Journal of Desalination and Water Reuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Urban and Environmental Technology     Open Access  
Ingeniería del agua     Open Access  
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Nuclear Desalination     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Salt Lake Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Waste Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Water Resources Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access  
Irrigation and Drainage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Irrigation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Contemporary Water Resource & Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Oceans     Partially Free   (Followers: 54)
Journal of Hydro-environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Hydroinformatics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hydrology (New Zealand)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Natural Resources and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Water Resources Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Water and Climate Change     Partially Free   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Water and Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Water Process Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Water Resource and Hydraulic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Water Security     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Water Supply : Research and Technology - AQUA     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia     Open Access  
La Houille Blanche     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Lake and Reservoir Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Liquid Waste Recovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mangroves and Salt Marshes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Marine Ecology Progress Series MEPS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Marine Ecosystem Stressor Response     Open Access  
Methods in Oceanography : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Osterreichische Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal  
Ozone Science & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Paddy and Water Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Revue des sciences de l'eau / Journal of Water Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
RIBAGUA - Revista Iberoamericana del Agua     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Riparian Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
River Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
River Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
SA Irrigation = SA Besproeiing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SABI Magazine - Tydskrif     Full-text available via subscription  
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access  
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref     Open Access  
Scientia Marina     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Smart Water     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Sri Lanka Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sustainable Technologies, Systems & Policies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Tecnología y Ciencias del Agua     Open Access  
Texas Water Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Urban Water Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Waste Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Water     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Water & Sanitation Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Water and Environment Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Water Environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Water Policy     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Water Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Water Practice and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Water Quality Research Journal of Canada     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Water Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Water Resources and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Water Resources and Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Water Resources and Rural Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Water Resources Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Water Resources Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 83)
Water SA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Water Science : The National Water Research Center Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Water Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Water Science and Technology : Water Supply     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)
Water Wheel     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Water21     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Waterlines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wetlands Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Water     Hybrid Journal  
WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)

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Journal Cover River Research and Applications
  [SJR: 0.984]   [H-I: 67]   [16 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1535-1459 - ISSN (Online) 1535-1467
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1589 journals]
  • How do instream flow increase and gravel augmentation impact biological
           communities in large rivers: A case study on the Upper Rhine River
    • Authors: C. Staentzel; F. Arnaud, I. Combroux, L. Schmitt, M. Trémolières, C. Grac, H. Piégay, A. Barillier, V. Chardon, J.-N. Beisel
      Abstract: Actions are being developed to address the adverse consequences of engineering works on large European rivers by developing and implementing restoration activities in order to enhance the functionality and biodiversity of fluvial hydrosystems. However, as has frequently been mentioned in the scientific literature, quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the project benefits, if any, and their sustainability are hindered by the difficulty in assessing the responses of aquatic and riparian communities to the methods employed. A case study was conducted on a by-passed section of the Upper Rhine River (France and Germany) to investigate the effects of instream flow increase and gravel augmentation on selected aquatic and riparian communities (macroinvertebrates, macrophytes, and riparian plants). This paper presents the results of a 6-year interdisciplinary, before-after control-impact design monitoring study. The complexity of the study lies in carrying out a separate assessment of the cumulative effects on a site-based, project-specific basis. The results showed that (a) the instream flow increase resulted in greater richness of macrophyte species in the newly created backwaters, (b) the artificial gravel bar favoured the recruitment of pioneer species, including invasive species, although gravel redistribution by floods prevented their development, and (c) gravel augmentation tended to promote the taxonomic richness of macroinvertebrate communities with the appearance of species adapted to the new substrate areas. These findings should help to fill the knowledge gaps in large-scale restoration and contribute key responses to the most frequently arising issues in this area, especially those concerning the efficiency and sustainability of river restoration projects.
      PubDate: 2018-01-09T19:05:53.298049-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3237
  • Influence of tributaries on the longitudinal patterns of benthic
           invertebrate communities
    • Authors: N.E. Jones; B.J. Schmidt
      Abstract: There has been little effort to understand how tributaries influence mainstem rivers at large scales beyond the immediate influence of the tributary and downstream of the mixing zone. Such knowledge is needed to create breaks in stream networks that can aid in the classification of stream valley segments and conservation studies that rely on the delineation of zones. We use benthic invertebrate assemblages to infer longitudinal gradients and discontinuities and relate these patterns to confluence symmetry ratio (CSR; the size ratio of the tributary basin to the mainstem basin upstream of the confluence). In addition, we briefly explore reach and catchment-scale environmental influences. We found evidence for both gradual and abrupt longitudinal changes in benthic invertebrate communities. There was not a smooth continuous gradient but a sawtooth pattern with an overarching trend. Two major discontinuities were found: one associated with a large CSR = 0.74 and reach scale factors including predominance of sand and an abundance of benthic organic matter that provided a unique habitat; and a second associated with a large CSR = 0.64 and a transition from coarse textured morainal deposits to glaciolacustrine deposits. There were synchronous additions of some benthic invertebrates (e.g., Eukiefferiella brehmi, Antocha, Hydropsyche morosa, and Oligochaeta) showing an affinity for downstream reaches, whereas others showed an affinity for headwater reaches (e.g., Simulium tuberosum, Baetis tricaudatus, and Micropsectra). Benthic invertebrate communities were driven by a combination of confluence symmetry ratio, landscape, and reach scale factors that can confound interpretation.
      PubDate: 2018-01-08T19:40:36.929664-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3240
  • The bright side of linking science and management in large river
           ecosystems: The Hudson River case study
    • Authors: S. Findlay
      Abstract: Large river ecosystems (LRE) are important components of global cycles, influence large parts of the earth's surface, and provide many services in support of human civilization. However, understanding their condition, functioning, and trajectory of change is difficult in part due to their scale and diversity of forcing factors but also due to multiple and potentially conflicting human uses. Although these challenges are generally applicable and probably true to some degree for any large river ecosystem, there are also attributes of LRE that foster scientific understanding, can lead to knowledge-based management, and may catalyse their interaction. The absolute size of LRE means they will be complex, unique and the water quality, physical character, or habitat availability at any particular point may be the result of drivers acting further up the basin or legacies from previous times. On the bright side however, their absolute size also means there will be existing information on many important features, not least land cover and hydrology. Moreover, it is highly likely there will be a sizeable human population in the basin that derives some benefits from the river even if just in a narrow anthropocentric fashion and so there will be some motivation for understanding characteristics and potential change. Large size also suggests that the LRE will be viewed (perhaps with some basis in law) as a national or regional resource making it (at least nominally) worthy of study and management. I provide some examples of how science and management of the Hudson River in New York, USA, have benefitted from some of these perceived difficulties perhaps offering optimism for application in other systems.
      PubDate: 2018-01-08T19:40:25.062236-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3233
  • Kayak drifter surface velocity observation for 2D hydraulic model
    • Authors: J.R. Barker; G.B. Pasternack, P.M. Bratovich, D.A. Massa, J.R. Wyrick, T.R. Johnson
      Abstract: Advances in remote sensing, informatics, software, and microprocessors enable meter-resolution two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic models that produce nearly a census of ecohydraulic conditions over long river segments with 105 to 108 computational elements. It is difficult to test statistical and spatial model performance at such scope using fixed-point velocity measurements, because field methods are so expensive, laborious, slow, and restricted by safety factors. This study evaluated low-cost water surface particle tracking by kayak with real-time kinematic GPS for 2D model validation using 7.2 km of the lower Yuba River in California. Observed flows were between 15 to 140 m3/s, which were in-channel up to and including bankfull conditions. The coefficients of determination between 5,780 observations and 2D model predictions were 0.79 and 0.80 for velocity magnitude and direction, respectively. When surface speed was downscaled and compared to modelled depth-averaged velocity, median unsigned difference was 15.5%. Standard hydrological model performance metrics affirmed satisfactory validation. Surface tracking provided the novel benefit of enabling validation of velocity direction, and that testing found satisfactory performance using all metrics. Having 10 to 1,000 times more data enables robust statistical testing and spatial analysis of both speed and direction, which outweighs the loss of depth-averaged data. Both fixed-point and kayak particle tracking methods are useful tools to help evaluate 2D model performance.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04T18:46:30.80308-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3238
  • Complexity and trends analysis of hydrometeorological time series for a
           river streamflow: A case study of Songhua River Basin, China
    • Authors: M.A. Faiz; D. Liu, Q. Fu, M.U. Qamar, S. Dong, M.I. Khan, T. Li
      Abstract: In China's national economic growth, an important role is being played by the Songhua River because of the river's abundant resources and natural conditions. Therefore, study of hydrometeorological time series is very important to understand the basin behaviour. This research uses the snow cover data derived from MODIS, streamflow, and meteorological records in the Songhua River Basin to evaluate similarity, complexity, and trends in the snow cover, temperature, precipitation, and streamflow. In this paper, we suggest a new method of ranking the statistics symbolic sequences to examine the degree of similarity (distance measurement) between meteorological stations and compare it with non-parametric correlation methods and also investigate the deviations in the complexity of a hydrometeorological time series. Information-based similarity index and multiscale entropy confirm that the hydrometeorological time series of different stations have self-similarity and abundant complexity. Wavelet entropy is also used to investigate the basin behaviour by taking streamflow records and population. It is found that with the increase in population and urbanization, the complexity values are increased. The results also exhibit that due to increase in urbanization, it affects the hydrological process and nature of environment resulting in complex catchment behaviour. Furthermore, the streamflow trend results displayed significant decline (22.21 m3/s × year−1) in the Songhua River. The results also indicated that the seasonal snow cover trend has no impact on changes of the streamflow. However, the decline of the streamflow may be influenced by the significant human activity upstream of the Songhua River.
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T00:21:06.54395-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3236
  • The case of extreme hydrologic drought downstream from reservoirs in
           Quebec (Canada): The intermittent flow
    • Authors: O. Azouaoui; A. A. Assani
      Abstract: Intermittent flow is a hydrological phenomenon observed at all latitudes. This phenomenon is characterized by a complete or partial interruption of flow in time and/or space in channels. In Quebec, even though the climate is humid, intermittent flow occurs downstream from headwater reservoirs. These reservoirs store water during spring and summer (from April to September) and release it in winter to supply hydroelectric power plants located downstream. During the water storage period, intermittent flow is common (discharges falling to
      PubDate: 2017-12-13T03:41:32.290657-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3235
  • What factors affect the suspended sediment concentrations in rivers' A
           study of the upper Warta River (Central Poland)
    • Authors: K. Skolasińska; B. Nowak
      Abstract: The suspended sediment concentration (SSC) of the Warta River was analysed using data collected at the Sieradz gauging station (Central Poland) during the period of 1961–1980. The aim of the study was to characterize the trend in the suspended sediment transported over this multi-annual period and search for possible correlations between the suspended sediment values and the discharge and thermal seasonality factors. This study also investigated whether the SSC is affected by anthropogenic factors. The SSC in the river water increased over the analysed 20-year period. It was caused mainly by the training works in the Warta valley upstream of Sieradz and the opening of the Bełchatów lignite mine. No direct relationship between the SSC and fluctuations in the discharge was noted. A connection existed between the SSC and ice phenomena on the river. The river ice breakup was often coincident with increases in SSC; however, the SSC increased rapidly during the freezing of the river. There was also a positive correlation between the SSC and the temperature of the water during the summer half-year, which resulted from the growth of phytoplankton. This process was supported by the general warming trend observed in the river water and by an increase in the quantity of nutrients noted since the early 1970s. It is worth emphasizing that the relationships established between the SSC and the studied factors are not always unequivocal and repetitive. It follows that, as a rule, the SSC is influenced by more factors than are actually considered in this study.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T05:07:02.841328-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3234
  • Characterizing aquatic habitats for long-term monitoring of a
           fourth-order, regulated river in the Pacific Northwest, USA
    • Authors: C.P. Konrad; K. Burton, R. Little, A.D. Gendaszek, M.D. Munn, S.W. Anderson
      Abstract: A pragmatic approach to the long-term monitoring of rivers leverages available information with targeted field investigations to address key uncertainties relevant to management decisions. An over-arching management issue for many rivers is how reservoir operation affects the amount and location of in-channel sediment and the resulting distribution of aquatic habitats. We integrate remotely acquired and field-survey morphologic data for the Cedar River, Washington, to constitute the current status of aquatic habitats and benchmarks for long-term monitoring that will inform streamflow management. Four key habitats (river edge, side channels, riffles, and pools) are feasible to monitor with high-resolution aerial imagery, a longitudinal profile of the river, and a side channel inventory, but full characterization of the functional differences within these habitats requires additional information. Habitat use information such as redd surveys will continue to be important for long-term monitoring where it cannot be inferred reliably from physical habitat characteristics.
      PubDate: 2017-11-30T21:20:58.833461-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3230
  • Soundpeaking – Hydropeaking induced changes in river soundscapes
    • Authors: A.E. Lumsdon; I. Artamonov, M.C. Bruno, M. Righetti, K. Tockner, D. Tonolla, C. Zarfl
      Abstract: Underwater soundscapes and their unique acoustic signatures are mainly generated through movement of streambed sediment, subsequent particle collisions, and turbulence created by water flowing over submerged obstructions such as rocks and woody debris. This study characterized river soundscapes in Alpine rivers of Trentino, (North East Italy) with the combined use of hydrophones and a new microelectricalmechanical systems based device (Hydroflown) that is capable of measuring particle velocity components of the sound field. Pool and riffle habitats affected and unaffected by hydropeaking were characterized in terms of their particle velocity and sound pressure levels across 10 octave bands (acoustic signature) to assess temporal variations in overall sound levels, changes in frequency composition, and relationship to hydromorphological habitat parameters. Data revealed that soundscapes affected by hydropeaking are highly homogenized, and sound pressure levels are strongly correlated with turbine discharge, which results in rapid, multiple-fold spikes in low frequency amplitude levels within the typical hearing range of common teleost fish species. The outcomes of this study provide the basis for further examination of the resulting behavioural and physiological responses of organisms to anthropogenic changes in river soundscapes.
      PubDate: 2017-11-28T19:05:31.060745-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3229
  • To swim or to jump' Passage behaviour of a potamodromous cyprinid over
           an experimental broad-crested weir
    • Authors: S.D. Amaral; P. Branco, C. Katopodis, M.T. Ferreira, A.N. Pinheiro, J.M. Santos
      Abstract: Physical stressors, such as man-made obstacles, are considered one of the main causes that negatively affect freshwater fish. Even small weirs may impact fish populations, including potamodromous cyprinids, by partially or totally blocking upstream migratory movements. Some studies have addressed the effect of key hydraulic parameters on upstream movements past small weirs, but little is known on how these parameters interact to induce swimming or jumping behaviour in negotiating such obstacles. This study aims to evaluate the passage behaviour (swimming vs. jumping) of Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus bocagei), a potamodromous species, over an experimental small broad-crested weir, considering the effect of different plunge pool depths (D), waterfall heights (H), and weir discharges (Q). Results revealed that passage behaviour was highly dependent on combinations of plunge pool depths and waterfall heights. Barbel navigated most configurations by swimming (overall outcomes: 81.5% swimming vs. 18.5% jumping), except the ones with the higher waterfall heights (25 cm) tested. Therefore, higher waterfalls proved to be preponderant in the switching of passage behaviour from swimming to jumping. Regarding the discharge over the 1-m-wide weir (overall outcomes: 85% swimming vs. 15% jumping), contrary to what was expected, there was no evidence that passage behaviour was discharge-related, for the range of discharges tested (25–100 L/s). These results are useful to identify potential migration obstacles and should be taken into consideration in river restoration projects and when designing fishways for potamodromous cyprinids.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T04:10:56.813695-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3232
  • A novel SON2-based similarity index and its application for the
           rationalization of river water quality monitoring network
    • Authors: D. Antanasijević; V. Pocajt, J. Antanasijević, A. Perić-Grujić, M. Ristić
      Abstract: In this paper, a novel self-organizing network (SON) based similarity index and its application for the optimization of sampling locations in an existing river water quality monitoring network (WQMN) is presented. A rationalization of the River Danube WQMN on its stretch through Serbia was performed using the proposed SON2-based similarity index. A high-dimensional dataset was used, which is composed of 18 water quality parameters that were collected during the period 2002–2010 at 17 monitoring locations. The SON-based seasonal classification that divides 12 months into the cold, moderate, and warm seasons was employed, whereas its second application on each seasonal class yielded subclasses that were used to compare the monitoring locations. The obtained SON2-based similarity index can be utilized for analysing seasonal variations, as well as overall similarities among neighbouring sites. Based on the calculated similarities of locations and characteristics of the River Danube basin a rationalized WQMN, which uses 30% less monitoring sites, has been proposed.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T04:06:56.796934-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3231
  • Application of the Proportion of Sediment-sensitive Invertebrates (PSI)
           biomonitoring index
    • Authors: C.A. Extence; R.P. Chadd, J. England, M. Naura, A.G.G. Pickwell
      Abstract: Sedimentation of river beds is a key pressure impacting riverine ecological communities. Research has identified the need for new approaches to help demonstrate and quantify the impacts of excessive fine-sediment deposition on benthic macroinvertebrate populations. To help meet this requirement, the Proportion of Sediment-sensitive Invertebrates (PSI) methodology was developed and has been in operational use in the United Kingdom for several years. This paper presents a number of case studies, at both national and local scales, showing how the method can be used to identify point and nonpoint fine-sediment pollution, as well as demonstrating the analysis of a national dataset to describe the relationship between PSI and a channel substrate index. A novel approach to displaying PSI data alongside local ecological and hydrological information is also presented and interpreted, to illustrate how improved understanding of biotic and abiotic relationships and interactions can be readily accomplished. Excessive fine-sediment accumulation on river beds results in impaired ecosystem health globally. The case studies and examples presented here will provide confidence that the PSI method can form the basis for evidence gathering and analysis, both within and beyond the United Kingdom. The paper concludes with an overview of the use of PSI in catchment research and management, a consideration of the relationship of the metric with other macroinvertebrate indices, and a summary of refinements recently applied to the index.
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T21:45:45.996243-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3227
  • Habitat fragmentation has interactive effects on the population genetic
           diversity and individual behaviour of a freshwater salmonid fish
    • Authors: Casper H.A. Van Leeuwen; Kristine Dalen, Jon Museth, Claudia Junge, L. Asbjørn Vøllestad
      Abstract: Sufficient genetic diversity can aid populations to persist in dynamic and fragmented environments. Understanding which mechanisms regulate genetic diversity of riverine fish can therefore advance current conservation strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate how habitat fragmentation interacted with population genetic diversity and individual behaviour of freshwater fish in large river systems. We studied a population of the long-distance migratory, iteroparous freshwater salmonid European grayling (Thymallus thymallus) in south-eastern Norway. Genotyping (n = 527) and radio-tracking (n = 54) of adult fish throughout a 169-km river section revealed three major migration barriers limiting gene flow and depleting genetic diversity upstream. Individuals from upstream areas that had dispersed downstream of barriers showed different movement behaviour than local genotypes. No natal philopatry was found in a large unfragmented river section, in contrast to strong fidelity to spawning tributaries known for individuals overwintering in lakes. We conclude that (a) upstream sub-populations in fragmented rivers show less genetic variation, making it less likely for them to adapt to environmental changes; (b) fish with distinct genotypes in the same habitat can differ in their behaviour; (c) spawning site selection (natal philopatry) can differ between fish of the same species living in different habitats. Together this implies that habitat loss and fragmentation may differently affect individual fish of the same species if they live in different types or sections of habitat. Studying behaviour and genetic diversity of fish can unravel their complex ecology and help minimize human impact.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26T23:45:42.623435-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3226
  • Spatial and temporal distribution of ichthyoplankton during an unusual
           period of low flow in a tributary of the São Francisco River, Brazil
    • Authors: G.R. Rosa; G.N. Salvador, A. Bialetzki, G.B. Santos
      Abstract: Flow-dependent fish specialists require specific conditions for reproduction, so the success and reproductive intensity of these animals are determined by the flood regime. Thus, this study investigated the spatial and temporal reproductive patterns of fish, especially migratory Prochilodus species (flow-dependent specialists) in an unusual period of low flow in the Pará River sub-basin, one of the main tributaries of the upper São Francisco River. For this, ichthyoplankton collections were carried out between November 2013 and February 2014. Data were analysed considering the spatial and temporal variations in density of eggs and larvae for the upper, middle, and lower portions of the Pará River sub-basin, and correlating this to some environmental variables. The results showed that the small headwater stretch of the Pará River is one relevant spawning area for migratory fish species. However, this area is isolated by the Cajuru reservoir, which makes it uncertain the recruitment of these embryos, due to interruption of natural drift between spawning/nursery areas caused for reservoirs. Larvae of newly hatched migratory species found in tributaries of the lower Pará River sub-basin also indicate these species use these tributaries as spawning grounds and migratory routes. The period in which the research was conducted represented the most atypical low flow, one in the last 75 years, resulting in the low variability in the environmental parameters. Although few parameters increased briefly in this low flow period influenced by greater rainfall in December, this precipitation was possibly responsible for the final gonadal maturation and spawning of migratory species.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26T21:15:58.407971-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3225
  • The magnitude and significance of sediment oxygen demand in gravel
           spawning beds for the incubation of salmonid embryos
    • Authors: D. A. Sear; I. Pattison, A. L. Collins, D. J. Smallman, J. I. Jones, P. S. Naden
      Abstract: Globally, salmon populations are under pressure and in those where numbers are severely depleted, density independent factors such as the accumulation of fine sediment and subsequent mortality of incubating embryos are critical factors in their conservation. Although progress has been made in identifying the processes by which fine sediment can lead to embryo mortality, this has focussed on the physical blockage of gravel pores. This paper presents new knowledge on the role of sediment-associated organic matter in controlling the supply of dissolved oxygen to incubating salmon embryos within gravel river beds. We report a new approach to the measurement of sediment oxygen demand (SOD) from interstitial sediments accumulated within salmon redds and demonstrate this across a range of salmon river types. The effects of varying SOD on dissolved oxygen supply to incubating salmon embryos are quantified for the first time, using the physically based Sediment Intrusion and Dissolved Oxygen (SIDO-UK) model. The results reveal the importance of the mass of accumulating sediment and sediment consumption rates (sediment oxygen consumption [SOC]), which constitute the overall SOD over time for a particular sediment sample. Higher SOC result in reductions in dissolved oxygen that are deleterious to salmonids; however, these are subordinate to the effects of sediment mass. Larger quantities of sediment accumulating within the redd not only create a higher SOD but also physically block the pores within the gravels, leading to a more drastic decline in oxygen supply through the combined effects of reduced seepage velocity and dissolved oxygen concentration. We seek to generalize the results by exploring the influence of catchment characteristics on field measures of SOD and SOC. This work makes a significant and novel contribution to improving our fundamental understanding of hyporheic processes within salmonid spawning gravels whilst providing resource managers with evidence of the deleterious effects of sediment-associated organic matter on salmon recruitment.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T22:35:37.924166-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3212
  • The scale problem in tackling diffuse water pollution from agriculture:
           Insights from the Avon Demonstration Test Catchment programme in England
    • Authors: M. Biddulph; A.L. Collins, I.D.L. Foster, N. Holmes
      Abstract: Mitigation of diffuse water pollution from agriculture is of concern in the United Kingdom, so that freshwater quality can be improved in line with environmental objectives. Targeted on-farm mitigation is necessary for controlling sources of pollution to rivers; a positive impact must also be delivered at the subcatchment and catchment scales before good ecological status can be achieved. A farm on the River Sem in the Hampshire Avon Demonstration Test Catchment was selected for monitoring due to its degraded farmyard, track, and drainage ditch, which was targeted by the Demonstration Test Catchment programme for improvement using a treatment train of interventions. The river was monitored before and after, upstream and downstream, of the potential sources of pollution and subsequent mitigation, both locally at farm scale, and downstream at the subcatchment scale. Sediment was obtained from the riverbed using a conventional disturbance technique, and source samples were collected from across the subcatchment. Samples were analysed for geochemistry, mineral magnetism, and environmental radionuclide activity using the
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T06:31:58.191421-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3222
  • Responses of fishes and lampreys to the re-creation of meanders in a small
           English chalk stream
    • Authors: J. D. Champkin; G. H. Copp, C. D. Sayer, H. M. Clilverd, L. George, L. Vilizzi, M. J. Godard, J. Clarke, A. M. Walker
      Abstract: River rehabilitation initiatives have become commonplace in European water courses as a result of European Union Water Framework Directive requirements. However, the short-term responses of fishes to such work have thus far been varied, with some river rehabilitation efforts resulting in demonstrable improvements in diversity and size structure, whereas others have resulted in little or no change. Electrofishing and channel character surveys were conducted annually between 2009 and 2014 on a reach of the River Glaven (North Norfolk, UK) before and after rehabilitation work (embankment removal in 2009 and re-meandering in 2010) as well as on a control reach immediately upstream. To assess the effects of rehabilitation work, before-after-control-impact analysis tested for changes in channel character (geomorphology, substratum composition, and mesohabitat structure) and in fish species richness, relative abundance, population density, and size structure (calculated after fish data entry into the UK Environment Agency's National Fisheries Population Database). Following re-meandering work (i.e., treatment), habitat heterogeneity and depth variation increased in the treatment reach, but fish responses were not significant except for biomass and density increases of brown trout Salmo trutta and abundance decreases of European eel Anguilla anguilla, in the treatment but not the control reach. These results are consistent with comparable river rehabilitation initiatives elsewhere, and they suggest that larger-scale rehabilitations are probably needed to produce greater increases in fish density and diversity. It is recommended that future rehabilitation initiatives address catchment-scale factors that can enhance ecosystem recovery, for example, removal of barriers to colonization, and increases in connectivity and water quality issues linked to eutrophication, elevated fine sediment inputs, and various pollutants.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T06:26:07.236483-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3216
  • Abiotic factors controlling the seasonal and spatial patterns of
           phytoplankton community in the Tigris River, Turkey
    • Authors: M. Varol; B. Şen
      Abstract: In this study, the seasonal and spatial dynamics of the phytoplankton community in the Tigris River (Turkey) and the relationships with environmental factors were analysed. Bacillariophyta were the most important taxonomic group both in terms of abundance and species number. Phytoplankton abundance increased from winter to autumn associated with a decline in discharge and an increase in nutrient concentrations and water temperature. There was a downstream increase in phytoplankton abundance and species number in the river. Similar spatial and seasonal patterns were observed in chlorophyll-a concentration and phytoplankton abundance. Redundancy analysis and correlation analysis revealed that chemical variables, mainly nutrients were the most important abiotic factors controlling phytoplankton abundance in the Tigris River.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T06:21:22.414732-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3223
  • Pacific lamprey recolonization of a Pacific Northwest river following dam
    • Authors: J.C. Jolley; G.S. Silver, J.E. Harris, T.A. Whitesel
      Abstract: Recolonization of Pacific lampreys Entosphenus tridentatus into historically used freshwater habitats in the United States Pacific Northwest was evaluated in the White Salmon River basin after removal of Condit Dam. Pacific lamprey population declines are of concern, and passage barrier removal is often recommended for conservation. Condit Dam on the White Salmon River in Washington was a complete barrier to fish migrating upstream for nearly 100 years, was breached in 2011, and was removed by 2012. Distribution of larval Pacific lampreys was estimated before and after removal of Condit Dam using either backpack or deepwater electrofishing. Larval detection probabilities were calculated for the basin, and sample efforts were refined to ensure at least 80% confidence that larvae were absent when not detected. Pacific lampreys were not present upstream of Condit Dam before it was removed but were present in areas downstream of the dam. After dam removal, Pacific lamprey larvae were collected upstream of the former dam site from four reaches of the mainstem White Salmon River, indicating a recent recolonization event. Pacific lampreys were absent from the river mouth area before the dam was removed but were found in newly created habitat at the mouth after dam removal. Pacific lampreys naturally recolonized the White Salmon River basin within a few years after dam removal. Removing dams and providing passage opportunity can allow Pacific lampreys to distribute into vacant areas and may help reverse population declines.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T07:25:30.56612-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3221
  • Mortality of silver eels migrating through different types of hydropower
           turbines in Lithuania
    • Authors: J. Dainys; S. Stakėnas, H. Gorfine, L. Ložys
      Abstract: Hydropower plants (HPP) are considered to be one of the major threats to the survival of European eels when they migrate downstream along inland water bodies during the early part of their annual journey to the spawning area in the Sargasso Sea. There are 98 HPPs in Lithuania and thousands throughout Europe. Numerous studies describe HPP induced mortality rates among European eels as variable depending on local, environmental, and technical factors. This heterogeneity in effect complicates theoretical extrapolation to eel mortality arising from specific types of HPP, necessary for effective management of local stocks. Silver eel mortality was estimated for 4 different HPPs in Lithuania. Mortality was estimated using RFID (Radio Frequency Identification, passive integrated transponders) tags and acoustic telemetry in a large HPP (>100 MW) with Kaplan turbines, a small HPP (
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T07:15:21.053251-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3224
  • Stakeholder-enhanced environmental flow assessment: The Rufiji Basin case
           study in Tanzania
    • Authors: J. O'Keeffe; S. Graas, F. Mombo, M. McClain
      Abstract: Environmental flows are now a standard part of sustainable water management globally but are only rarely implemented. One reason may be insufficient engagement of stakeholders and their priority outcomes in the environmental flow-setting process. A recent environmental flow assessment (EFA) in the Kilombero basin of the Rufiji River in Tanzania concentrated on a broad-based investigation of stakeholders' use and perceptions of the ecosystem services provided by the river as a framework for the assessment of flow regimes that would maintain them.The EFA process generally followed the Building Block Methodology but within an enhanced stakeholder engagement framework. Engagement began with the involvement of institutional stakeholders to explain the purpose of the EFA and to elicit their priority outcomes. Extensive interactions with direct-use stakeholders followed to investigate their uses of and priorities for the rivers. Results were used by the EFA specialist team in choosing flow indicators and defining measurable environmental objectives. The specialists then met to reach a consensus of the flow requirements. The EFA results were lastly reported back to stakeholders.During the Kilombero EFA, we learned that stakeholders at all levels have a good awareness of the natural services provided by a healthy river and can contribute to the setting of environmental objectives for the rivers and floodplain. These can be factored into the biophysical assessments of river flows required to maintain habitats, processes, water quality, and biodiversity. It is therefore important to allocate significant resources to stakeholder engagement. It now remains to be seen if enhanced stakeholder engagement, including the increased understanding and capacity built among all stakeholders, will increase support for the implementation of the recommended flows.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T22:00:30.334448-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3219
  • The complexities of measuring fine sediment accumulation within gravel-bed
    • Authors: S.E. Harper; I.D.L. Foster, D.M. Lawler, K.L. Mathers, M. McKenzie, G.E. Petts
      Abstract: Fine sediment storage within gravel beds is a key component of catchment sediment budgets and affects the health of benthic and hyporheic habitats. Here, we assess the performance of two substrate infiltration traps for the characterization of fine sediment (
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T05:50:45.648552-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3198
  • Can macroinvertebrate biological traits indicate fine-grained sediment
           conditions in streams'
    • Authors: J. F. Murphy; J. I. Jones, A. Arnold, C. P. Duerdoth, J. L. Pretty, P. S. Naden, D. A. Sear, A. L. Collins
      Abstract: Excessive inputs of fine-grained sediment can damage aquatic ecosystems both by degrading habitat condition and by directly impairing biota. Recent research has improved our understanding of how benthic macroinvertebrates respond to fine-grained sediment stress, leading to the development of a variety of bioassessment indices based on changes in taxonomic composition and biological trait composition. Use of biological traits as indicators of stress has been advocated on the basis of a better mechanistic understanding of the biotic and abiotic factors acting on benthic communities. We quantified changes in the macroinvertebrate biological trait assemblage from a large number of river reaches spanning a national-scale gradient of increasing agricultural fine sediment delivery and retention, having first factored out variation associated with the natural environmental gradient, with the aim of robustly testing predictions of trait response. We found strong support for 2 of 18 predictions of how macroinvertebrate traits would respond to fine sediment stress. Furthermore, using an independent dataset, we were able to confirm the response of 5 of 6 trait classes that partial RLQ-fourth corner analysis found to be significantly associated with the fine sediment gradient. Prevalence of eggs as a resistant form, in combination with either an adult aquatic life stage or crawling, provided the best indication of fine sediment conditions in streams, approaching the performance of taxonomic composition-based sediment indices, CoFSIsp and EPSImtl. This study has robustly confirmed the potential of macroinvertebrate biological traits as indicators of fine sediment impacts.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T04:05:46.903255-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3194
  • Are source groups always appropriate when sediment fingerprinting' The
    • Authors: S. Pulley; B. Van Der Waal, A.L. Collins, I.D.L. Foster, K. Rowntree
      Abstract: The classification of sediment source groups is often the least thoroughly considered part of a sediment fingerprinting methodology; however, the use of inappropriate source groups can be the cause of significant uncertainty. In many catchments, source groups based on land use or geology are a poor fit for their geomorphological processes and the nature of the tracers used. Against this context, this study directly compared the average percentage difference in the standardised concentrations of all tracers between a sediment sample and each individual source sample, to map the similarity between the properties of sources and sediment in 3 study catchments. The environmental significance of individual tracers and their similarity between individual samples were also examined in order to identify functionally important source groups. In the River Nene, UK, the mean percentage differences between source and sediment tracer concentrations were primarily controlled by the presence of distinctive ironstone and urban sources, which had very dissimilar properties to the target sediment. However, a generally consistent trend of certain source samples having more similar properties to multiple target sediment samples than others was also found; a finding that could not be identified when using conventional source groups. In the Sywell reservoir catchment, UK, sediment originated from throughout its catchment, apart from in the case of damaged road verges, and there was little indication of any major change in sediment sources through recent time. In the Vuvu catchment, South Africa, there was a larger contribution from distal igneous sources during high-flow events. The trialled method, however, provided little advantage over the standard fingerprinting approach in this case, due to the existing good fit between catchment geomorphology, the tracers used, and the geological source groups. The method trialled herein can provide distinct advantages over the conventional fingerprinting approach and, although it should not replace it, provides a useful supplement by permitting an assessment of whether potential source groupings make best environmental sense and providing increased resolution of sediment provenance.
      PubDate: 2017-08-31T00:41:00.167923-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3192
  • Effect of morphologic and hydraulic factors on hysteresis of sediment
           transport rates in alluvial streams
    • Authors: Etta Haley Gunsolus; Andrew D. Binns
      Abstract: Unsteady flow events, such as those caused by extreme precipitation events or reservoir flushing, can result in hysteresis of sediment transport rates in alluvial streams. Over the past 20 years, several experimental studies have been conducted that monitored sediment transport rates in response to unsteady flow event hydrographs. Previous literature has identified numerous morphological and hydraulic factors, including sediment composition, sediment supply, hydrograph characteristics, bed morphology, and mode of sediment transport, that affect hysteresis of sediment transport rates. This manuscript reviews and evaluates the degree of influence of these factors on hysteresis in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of the dominant factors responsible for this phenomenon. This systematic evaluation suggests that the mode of sediment transport and sediment composition are the most dominant factors influencing the resulting type of hysteresis. Further research is required to investigate the effect of other factors, such as non-uniform stream bed composition and planform geometry, and develop predictive models to assess the sediment transport response to unsteady flow events.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T02:45:41.069218-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3184
  • How much groundwater can we pump and protect environmental flows through
           time' Presumptive standards for conjunctive management of aquifers and
    • Authors: T. Gleeson; B. Richter
      Abstract: Groundwater is a critically important source of water for river, wetland, lake, and terrestrial ecosystems, yet most frameworks for assessing environmental flows have ignored or not explicitly included the potential impacts of groundwater pumping on environmental flows. After assessing the processes and existing policies for protecting streamflow depletion from groundwater pumping, we argue that a new groundwater presumptive standard is critical as a placeholder to protect environmental flows in rivers lacking detailed assessments. We thus extend the previous presumptive standard to groundwater pumping, a different and important driver of changes to streamflow. We suggest that “high levels of ecological protection will be provided if groundwater pumping decreases monthly natural baseflow by less than 10% through time.” The presumptive standard is intended to be a critical placeholder only where detailed scientific assessments of environmental flow needs cannot be undertaken in the near term. We also suggest a new metric, the environmental flow response time, that allows water managers to quantify the timescales of the impacts of groundwater pumping on the loss or gain of environmental flows.
      PubDate: 2017-08-25T04:07:39.204678-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3185
  • A hydroecological model to assess the relative effects of groundwater
           abstraction and fine sediment pressures on riverine macro-invertebrates
    • Authors: D.C. Bradley; M.J. Streetly, D. Cadman, M. Dunscombe, E. Farren, A. Banham
      Abstract: To ensure that the environment is adequately protected and abstractors are fairly regulated, hydroecological assessment tools are needed that give local interpretation, indicate where ecological communities might not be resilient to current or future abstraction pressures, and take account of the effect of other stressors. These tools should ideally be transferrable across different river catchments. This study presents a hydroecological model indicating that macro-invertebrates were not resilient to long-term, steady-state levels of groundwater abstraction when flows at Q75 were reduced by more than 50% in unpolluted streams in the West Midlands of England. The proportion of silt and clay covering the substratum and distance from source were also significant predictors of ecological condition, but did not interact with the abstraction effect. Combinations of different biotic indices and supplementary field observations of catchment land use gave additional evidence of the impacts of excessive inputs of fine sediment overriding the effects of abstraction at some locations. This study has shown that regional hydroecological models can be used with existing environmental flow indicators and other local environmental information as a weight of evidence to identify where abstraction and excessive inputs of fine sediment need to be mitigated separately or together to achieve the full ecological benefits. Such regional hydroecological models can increase the certainty of regulatory decisions made at the local scale for licencing abstraction at current use and predicted future levels.
      PubDate: 2017-08-16T19:35:41.892279-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3191
  • Fingerprinting source contributions to bed sediment-associated organic
           matter in the headwater subcatchments of the River Itchen SAC, Hampshire,
    • Authors: Y. Zhang; A.L. Collins, S. McMillan, E.R. Dixon, E. Cancer-Berroya, C. Poiret, A. Stringfellow
      Abstract: Excessive accumulation of sediment-associated organic matter in river beds has detrimental impacts on aquatic ecology, including fish. Sediment and source samples were collected from 3 headwater tributaries of the River Itchen, in southern England. Near infrared spectra and bulk stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes were employed as fingerprint properties to quantify the relative contributions from catchment-based (farmyard manures/slurries, damaged road verges, and septic tanks) and channel-based (decaying instream vegetation, watercress farms, and fish farms) sources. The findings suggested that over the duration of the sampling period, the final estimated median relative contributions in the Candover Stream subcatchment were in the order: farmyard measures/slurries 74% > decaying instream vegetation 15% > watercress farms 6% > septic tanks 3% > damaged road verges 2%. For the River Arle subcatchment, corresponding estimated median relative contributions were in the order: watercress farms 40% > farmyard manures/slurries 28% > decaying instream vegetation 21% > fish farms 7% > damaged road verges and septic tanks 2% each. Similar contributions were estimated for the Tichborne Stream subcatchment: watercress farms 36% > farmyard manures/slurries 26% > decaying instream vegetation 26% and damaged road verges and septic tanks at 6% each. These source apportionment estimates will contribute to stakeholder engagement and targeted management interventions.
      PubDate: 2017-08-09T21:20:47.780737-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3172
  • Linking ecological science with management outcomes on New Zealand's
           longest river
    • Authors: K.J. Collier; C. Baker, B.O. David, K. Górski, M.A. Pingram
      Abstract: New Zealand's Waikato River has had a short but intense history of development, primarily through land-use change and flow regulation in the upper river, and in the lower river through flood control works, non-native species invasion, and land-use intensification. The river undergoes sharp transitions across montane-flood plain-coastal environments over a short distance and under similar climate. Together with specialized life-history requirements of many native fish, these features provide valuable insights into large river ecology and management. Testing approaches to determine outcomes of water quality changes have highlighted the value of functional indicators over traditional biotic measures for monitoring anthropogenic impacts. Initiatives to enhance native fish populations in the lower river have included remediation of migration barriers to improve access to tributary habitat, enhancement of tidal spawning habitat, and traps and gates to limit movement of large pest fish into flood plain lakes for spawning. This example of a southern temperate large river system highlights the importance of recruitment habitat and connectivity for native fish communities dominated by migratory species. Their slender bodies provide opportunities to create semipermeable barriers that enable access to flood plain habitats while restricting larger invasive fish. Recent initiatives have increased momentum to restore the ecological health of this river, but the underpinning science to guide priority actions is often lacking, and there is limited monitoring over the scales and time frames required to evaluate effectiveness.
      PubDate: 2017-07-21T05:27:40.025255-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3181
  • The importance of a small ephemeral tributary for fine sediment dynamics
           in a main-stem river
    • Authors: B. Marteau; R. J. Batalla, D. Vericat, C. Gibbins
      Abstract: Studies of ephemeral streams have focused mainly in arid and semi-arid regions. Such streams also occur widely in temperate regions, but much less is known about their influence on fluvial processes in main-stem rivers here. In this paper, we present evidence of the importance of a small ephemeral temperate stream for main-stem fine sediment dynamics. The paper focuses on a restoration project (River Ehen, North West England) which involved the reconnection of a headwater tributary to the main-stem river. We present data on suspended sediment transport 2 years prior to and 2 years following the reconnection. Despite the small size and non-perennial flow of the tributary, its reconnection resulted in an increase of 65% in the main-stem sediment yield. During both the pre-reconnection and post-reconnection periods, a higher proportion of the annual yield was conveyed during short events with relatively high suspended sediment concentrations. Following the reconnection, the magnitude and frequency of such events increased, primarily due to sediment being delivered from the tributary at times when main-stem flows were not elevated. Overall, the main-stem remains supply limited and so is highly dependent on sediment delivered from the tributary. The study helps stress that even non-perennial tributaries yielding only a small increase in catchment size (+1.2% in this case) can have a major influence on main-stem fluvial dynamics. Their role as sediment sources may be especially important where, as in the case of the Ehen, the main-stem is regulated and the system is otherwise starved of sediment.
      PubDate: 2017-07-21T05:20:34.967968-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3177
  • Sediment-associated organic matter sources and sediment oxygen demand in a
           Special Area of Conservation (SAC): A case study of the River Axe, UK
    • Authors: A. L. Collins; Y. Zhang, S. McMillan, E. R. Dixon, A. Stringfellow, S. Bateman, D. A. Sear
      Abstract: Oxygen demand in river substrates providing important habitats for the early life stages of aquatic ecology, including lithophilous fish, can arise due to the oxidation of sediment-associated organic matter. Oxygen depletion associated with this component of river biogeochemical cycling, will, in part, depend on the sources of such material. A reconnaissance survey was therefore undertaken to assess the relative contributions from bed sediment-associated organic matter sources potentially impacting on the River Axe Special Area of Conservation (SAC), in SW England. Source fingerprinting, including Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis, suggested that the relative frequency-weighted average median source contributions ranged between 19% (uncertainty range 0–82%) and 64% (uncertainty range 0–99%) for farmyard manures or slurries, 4% (uncertainty range 0–49%) and 35% (uncertainty range 0–100%) for damaged road verges, 2% (uncertainty range 0–100%) and 68% (uncertainty range 0–100%) for decaying instream vegetation, and 2% (full uncertainty range 0–15%) and 6% (uncertainty range 0–48%) for human septic waste. A reconnaissance survey of sediment oxygen demand (SOD) along the channel designated as a SAC yielded a mean SOD5 of 4 mg O2 g−1 dry sediment and a corresponding SOD20 of 7 mg O2 g−1 dry sediment, compared with respective ranges of 1–15 and 2–30 mg O2 g−1 dry sediment, measured by the authors for a range of river types across the UK. The findings of the reconnaissance survey were used in an agency (SW region) catchment appraisal exercise for informing targeted management to help protect the SAC.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T21:11:32.07018-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3175
  • Effects of Suspended Sediment Transport on Invertebrate Drift
    • Authors: M. Béjar; C. N. Gibbins, D. Vericat, R. J. Batalla
      Abstract: Invertebrate drift plays an important role in river ecosystems. Although drift has been studied extensively, the relative importance of the various factors that initiate drift during disturbances remains unclear. Instream gravel mining releases fine sediment and so provides an opportunity to assess the influence of suspended sediment on drift, without the confounding effects of hydraulic changes and bed-material entrainment associated with floods. This paper examines invertebrate drift responses to increases in suspended sediment during an episode of mining in a Pyrenean river. During short periods of mining activity, suspended sediment concentrations and thus suspended sediment loads (SSLs) increased one order of magnitude at downstream monitoring sections, with maxima similar to those observed during natural floods in the river. Maximum SSLs were recorded at the sections closest to the mining, with downstream transport patterns suggesting that the majority of suspended material was deposited within 1.5 km. Invertebrate drift rates, the number of taxa drifting and the taxonomic structure of the drift changed at sections close to the mining when suspended sediment concentrations and SSLs were high; such changes were not observed at the section 1.5 km downstream. There were significant relationships between SSL and drift, positive for some groups (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera) and negative for others (Chironomidae). Our work shows that increases in suspended sediment alone are sufficient to trigger changes in drift, although further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms, and especially to explain the varying responses shown by different taxonomic groups. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T22:10:36.738-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3146
  • Assessing the Mechanistic Basis for Fine Sediment Biomonitoring:
           Inconsistencies among the Literature, Traits and Indices
    • Authors: M. A. Wilkes; M. Mckenzie, J. F. Murphy, R. P. Chadd
      Abstract: Classification of species sensitivity for biomonitoring has been approached under two different frameworks, using either empirical data or expert opinion. Two tools for fine sediment (i.e. clogging and colmation) biomonitoring in the UK tend towards these contrasting approaches. The Proportion of Sediment-sensitive Invertebrates (PSI) index was developed using expert judgement. Empirical weightings were subsequently added at genus or species (EPSI) and mixed (EPSImixed) taxonomic levels, but scores remain constrained by the original categories. In contrast, the Combined Fine Sediment Index, composed of separate taxon scores along organic matter and total fine sediment gradients, was developed using a purely empirical approach. We tested the mechanistic bases for these indices by relating taxon scores to species traits. We compared the results with those for the well-established Whalley Hawkes Paisley Trigg index of organic pollution. After controlling for varying sample sizes, Whalley Hawkes Paisley Trigg could be better predicted by a linear combination of all available traits (mean R2 = 0.92) than any of the fine sediment indices (0.68 
      PubDate: 2017-03-22T02:07:29.623696-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3139
  • Building Hydrologic Foundations for Applications of ELOHA: How Long A
           Record Should You Have?
    • Authors: J. G. Williams
      Abstract: The Ecological Limits of Hydrologic Alteration framework for making regional assessments of environmental flows requires a ‘hydrologic foundation’ of flow data for current and undeveloped conditions. This raises the question how long a record is needed for an adequate hydrologic foundation? The answer depends on the variance in the flow record and on how much uncertainty is tolerable in metrics developed from the flow data. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T00:31:16.77729-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3143
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 1507 - 1508
      Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12T21:01:10.746786-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3094
  • The fine sediment conundrum; quantifying, mitigating and managing the
    • Authors: K.L. Mathers; A.L. Collins, J. England, B. Brierley, S.P. Rice
      Pages: 1509 - 1514
      Abstract: Excess fine sediment is a global cause of lotic ecosystem degradation. Despite historic interest in identifying sediment sources and quantifying instream dynamics, tackling fine sediment problems remains a key challenge for river managers and a continued focus of international research. Accordingly, a national meeting of the British Hydrological Society brought together those working on fine sediment issues at the interface of hydrology, geomorphology, and ecology. The resulting collection of papers illustrates the range of research being undertaken in this interdisciplinary research arena, by academic researchers, environmental regulators, landowners, and consultants. More specifically, the contributions highlight key methodological advancements in the identification of fine sediment sources, discuss the complexities surrounding the accurate quantification of riverbed fine sediment content, demonstrate the potential utility of faunal traits as a biological monitoring tool, and recognize the need for improved mechanistic understanding of the functional responses of riverine organisms to excess fine sediment. Understanding and mitigating the effects of fine sediment pressures remains an important and multifaceted problem that requires interdisciplinary collaborative research to deliver novel and robust management tools and sustainable solutions.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12T21:01:08.716824-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/rra.3228
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