(Total: 116 journals)
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia
Advances in Oceanography and Limnology (4 followers)
Advances in Water Resources (10 followers)
African Journal of Aquatic Science (4 followers)
Agricultural Water Management (7 followers)
American Water Works Association (6 followers)
Anales de Hidrología Médica
Annals of Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW. Land Reclamation (2 followers)
Annual Review of Marine Science (8 followers)
Applied Water Science (3 followers)
Aquacultural Engineering (1 follower)
Aquaculture (15 followers)
Aquaculture Research (10 followers)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems (10 followers)
Aquatic Living Resources (3 followers)
Aquatic Sciences (4 followers)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences (12 followers)
Asian Journal of Rural Development (6 followers)
Australian Journal of Water Resources
Bubble Science, Engineering & Technology
Canadian Water Resources Journal (9 followers)
Civil and Environmental Research (4 followers)
CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water (7 followers)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering (1 follower)
Continental Journal of Water, Air, and Soil Pollution (6 followers)
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation (1 follower)
Deep Sea Research Part B. Oceanographic Literature Review (2 followers)
Desalination (6 followers)
Desalination and Water Treatment (4 followers)
Developments in Water Science (3 followers)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S (2 followers)
Environmental Toxicology (8 followers)
European journal of water quality - Journal europÃ©en dâ€™hydrologie (1 follower)
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation (6 followers)
Human Resources for Health (2 followers)
Hydrology Research (4 followers)
International Journal of Climatology (5 followers)
International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology (3 followers)
International Journal of Nuclear Desalination (2 followers)
International Journal of River Basin Management (1 follower)
International Journal of Salt Lake Research (2 followers)
International Journal of Water (7 followers)
International Journal of Water Resources Development (6 followers)
Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering (1 follower)
Irrigation and Drainage (2 followers)
Irrigation Science (2 followers)
Journal of Waste Water Treatment & Analysis (8 followers)
Journal of Contemporary Water Resource & Education (2 followers)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science (3 followers)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Oceans (7 followers)
Journal of Hydro-environment Research (6 followers)
Journal of Hydroinformatics
Journal of Hydrology (New Zealand)
Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics
Journal of Hydrometeorology (1 follower)
Journal of Limnology (1 follower)
Journal of the American Water Resources Association (13 followers)
Journal of Water and Climate Change (17 followers)
Journal of Water and Health
Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology (3 followers)
Journal of Water Resource and Hydraulic Engineering
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (1 follower)
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management (16 followers)
Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination (4 followers)
Journal of Water Supply : Research and Technology - Aqua (5 followers)
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (2 followers)
La Houille Blanche
Lake and Reservoir Management (3 followers)
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management (8 followers)
Large Marine Ecosystems (1 follower)
Mangroves and Salt Marshes (2 followers)
Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology (1 follower)
Methods in Oceanography : An International Journal (1 follower)
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research (1 follower)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology
Osterreichische Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft
Ozone Science & Engineering (1 follower)
Paddy and Water Environment
Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology (2 followers)
Reviews in Aquaculture (6 followers)
Revue des sciences de l'eau / Journal of Water Science
River Research and Applications (4 followers)
River Systems (2 followers)
SA Irrigation = SA Besproeiing
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science (1 follower)
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref
Scientia Marina (1 follower)
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal (8 followers)
Sustainable Technologies, Systems & Policies (5 followers)
Texas Water Journal
Urban Water Journal (4 followers)
W+B - Zeitschrift für Deutsches und Europäisches Wasser-, Abwasser- und Bodenschutzrecht (2 followers)
Water (4 followers)
Water & Sanitation Africa (1 follower)
Water and Environment Journal (7 followers)
Water Environment and Technology (6 followers)
Water Environment Research (18 followers)
Water International (3 followers)
River Research and Applications [6 followers]
Subscription journal ISSN (Print) 1535-1459 - ISSN (Online) 1535-1467 Published by John Wiley and Sons [1587 journals]
THE RETURN OF ATLANTIC SALMON (SALMO SALAR L.) AND IMPROVED WATER QUALITY IN URBAN RIVERS IN OSLO, NORWAY
Authors: S. J. Saltveit; J. E. Brittain, T. Bremnes, Å. Brabrand, T. Bækken Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Most rivers and streams in the city of Oslo, Norway, rise in the surrounding forests, and all run through industrial and urban areas before they reach the sea. Most of these rivers have a long history of poor water quality in the middle and lower reaches until the early 1980s. This was reflected in low benthic diversity and the absence of fish. However, at the end of the 1970s, considerable efforts were made to limit industrial discharges, pollution episodes, and urban runoff, resulting in a substantial improvement in water quality. This improvement in water quality resulted in major changes in the benthos and fish populations of the rivers, especially the river Akerselva, which runs through the city centre. Here Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) became extinct in the mid‐1800s and did not return until 1983. Atlantic salmon and sea trout (Salmo trutta) now spawn in the lower reaches, and the river supports juvenile populations of these salmonids. In line with the improvement in water quality, benthic biodiversity has also increased. These improvements have been documented based on long‐term monitoring of benthos and fish. Increased benthic diversity and presence of fish also enabled the authorities to trace the source of several pollution episodes that led to fish kills. The European Union Water Framework Directive will bring further pressure to maintain a stable and good ecological status for the Oslo rivers, although it may be difficult to attain this goal in an urban environment. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PubDate: 2013-05-15T01:49:04.841206-05: DOI: 10.1002/rra.2670
PATTERNS OF ICHTHYOFAUNAL DISTRIBUTION AND CONNECTIVITY IN NAVIGABLE AND FREE‐FLOWING REACHES OF A MAJOR RIVER SYSTEM: THE ALLEGHENY RIVER IN PENNSYLVANIA
Authors: D. G. Argent; W. G. Kimmel Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Connectivity throughout large riverine networks is often compromised by lock and dam (L/D) structures designed to facilitate year‐round navigation. The resultant interruption of flow inhibits free passage of aquatic biota potentially isolating mainstem and tributary communities. Our objectives were (i) to evaluate the impact of a series of navigational L/D structures on two targeted fish assemblages (TFAs): large‐bodied (>250 mm total length) pelagic and benthic (darter) communities and (ii) to examine patterns of tributary and mainstem connectivity. We systematically captured fishes utilizing gillnets, benthic trawls and backpack electrofishers from an impounded and a free‐flowing reach extending over 203 km of the Allegheny River in Pennsylvania. Species richness among the large‐bodied targeted fish assemblage was distributed somewhat evenly throughout each pool, peaking near dams and in an undredged pool. Depauperate darter assemblages of low species richness characterized most of the navigable reach with diversity and abundance concentrated in L/D tailrace areas. By contrast, darter communities inhabiting the free‐flowing reach were more diverse, abundant and evenly distributed, indicating the influence of uninterrupted connectivity. Community similarity at mainstem/tributary junctions increased with increasing tributary size with 50% of the mainstem species complement also inhabiting the largest tributary. This study underscores the importance of dams as barriers to ichthyofaunal connectivity, particularly to those benthic fishes which are relatively immobile and habitat specific, and the importance of mainstem/tributary junctions as avenues of riverine connectivity. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PubDate: 2013-05-15T01:35:34.930718-05: DOI: 10.1002/rra.2668
THE ECONOMIC VALUE OF MISSOURI RIVER RECREATION: ESTIMATES FROM THE MISSOURI RIVER PUBLIC USE ASSESSMENT
Authors: T. B. Treiman; S. L. Sheriff, R. B. Renken, J. Loomis Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Exit interviews with visitors were used to estimate public use on and along 811 miles of the Missouri River from Gavins Point Dam near Yankton, South Dakota, to the river's mouth near St. Louis, Missouri, during a 13‐month period in 2004 and 2005. We estimated both types and amount of public use and the economic value of the river to the users. Economic values of recreation to the public were estimated using both the Travel Cost Method (TCM) and the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM). For these public access and areas, an estimated 2 042 980 individual visits were made to the river, with total economic benefits of the river to users estimated at $12.79 per individual visit (TCM) and $23.65 per individual visit (CVM).We discuss methodological differences between the two methods and the potential utility of this information to river management. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PubDate: 2013-05-15T01:28:37.821837-05: DOI: 10.1002/rra.2671
HYDRAULIC GEOMETRY AND LONGITUDINAL PATTERNS OF HABITAT QUANTITY AND QUALITY FOR RAINBOW TROUT (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Authors: J. J. Laliberte; J. R. Post, J. S. Rosenfeld Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: We developed predictions of habitat quantity and quality for three life stages of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, across a range of stream sizes characterized by mean annual discharge of 1 to 50 m3 s−1. The physical habitat template was created by nesting a reach‐scale two‐dimensional hydrodynamic model (River2D) within a downstream hydraulic geometry system using published coefficients for low‐gradient and high‐gradient watersheds. This provided both longitudinal and transverse estimates of depth and velocity profiles that, when combined with habitat suitability curves for the life stages, resulted in predictions of habitat quantity (weighted usable area) and habitat quality (the proportion of the stream profile that provided useable habitat) for rainbow trout along the stream continuum. Habitat quantity increased asymptotically for all life history stages but increased more rapidly in the low‐gradient watershed. Habitat quality decreased non‐linearly for young‐of‐the‐year and peaked at intermediate stream sizes for juveniles in both low‐gradient and high‐gradient watersheds. Adult habitat quality peaked in the high‐gradient watershed but increased asymptotically in the low‐gradient watershed, presumably due to lower mean velocities at larger stream sizes. Incorporation of transverse variation in depth and velocity in our physical habitat template provides a more realistic representation of habitat quantity and quality than do earlier assessments based on simple modal estimates of depth and velocity. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PubDate: 2013-05-03T02:29:01.632949-05: DOI: 10.1002/rra.2666
MASS OCCURRENCE OF BLOODSUCKING BLACKFLIES IN A REGULATED RIVER REACH: LOCALIZATION OF OVIPOSITION HABITAT OF SIMULIUM TRUNCATUM USING DNA BARCODING
Authors: Å. Brabrand; T. Bremnes, A. G. Koestler, G. Marthinsen, H. Pavels, E. Rindal, J. E. Raastad, S. J. Saltveit, A. Johnsen Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: In order to understand the factors giving rise to a stable and annual outbreak of the pest blackfly species Simulium truncatum (Lundström, 1911) (Simuliidae), the oviposition habitat has been localized and the egg density quantified at different contour levels in the studied regulated river channel bank. Larvae and adults of 12 blackfly species were identified to species based on morphology. As reference library for subsequent species identification of eggs and small larvae, these specimens were subsequently DNA sequenced for the barcode gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I. Interspecific distance was large between species or species complexes (average nearest neighbour distance: 0.14; range: 0.09–0.20), while intraspecific distance was comparatively low except for the Simulium ornatum and Simulium tuberosum species complexes. S. truncatum was the only species located high up in the channel bank. The core oviposition habitat was a steep moist erosion edge with moss and dead roots and with a continuous supply of groundwater. Egg densities were estimated to 42 773–50 274 eggs cm–2. Humid oviposition areas high up on the riverbank, but within the annual spring flood levels, seem to be the basis for annual outbreaks of S. truncatum. The mass occurrence of S. truncatum is a phenomenon probably created by man, directly related to the river regulation regime and the construction of a dam in 1936, which gave rise to the formation of the channel and the erosion edge. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PubDate: 2013-05-03T02:06:44.994798-05: DOI: 10.1002/rra.2669
INITIAL MOTION AND BEDLOAD TRANSPORT DISTANCE DETERMINED BY PARTICLE TRACKING IN A LARGE REGULATED RIVER
Authors: C. L. May; B. S. Pryor Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Reservoir releases on large regulated rivers are increasingly being used to rejuvenate riverine habitat downstream of dams. Determining the effective flow level is complicated by the trade‐off between mobilizing bed particles and retaining coarse sediment in rivers with low sediment supply. This study determined mobilization and transport distance of bed particles using motion‐sensing radio transmitting particles that approximated the reach‐average D84 grain size. The distribution of shear stress at initial motion varied substantially between flood events, and suggests that the sequence of flood events and the history of under‐threshold flows may be an important determinant of bed strength and thus particle mobility. In addition, particle activity was greatest on the rising limb of each flood and was maximized at near bankfull flow. Travel distances did not vary between floods when scaled by transport event duration, and a negative exponential distribution was a good fit to the data. Results of this study provide important insight into individual particle movement, which can be used to inform flow releases and understand the effects of flood magnitude on particle mobility and transport. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PubDate: 2013-04-26T00:22:30.187454-05: DOI: 10.1002/rra.2665
IMPLEMENTING ENVIRONMENTAL FLOWS IN SEMI‐REGULATED AND UNREGULATED RIVERS USING A FLEXIBLE FRAMEWORK: CASE STUDIES FROM TASMANIA, AUSTRALIA
Authors: C. J. Bobbi; D. M. Warfe, S. A. Hardie Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Despite the many methodologies available for undertaking environmental flow assessments, there are few published examples of environmental flow recommendations that arise from those assessments, and even fewer that evaluate their implementation. This is somewhat surprising considering environmental flow recommendations are effectively testable hypotheses of flow‐ecology responses. We describe a framework to guide the assessment and recommendation of environmental flow regimes in Tasmania, Australia, where environmental values are highly catchment specific and rivers are largely semi‐regulated or unregulated. This means that environmental flows must be focussed on setting water use thresholds to prevent degradation in condition, rather than delivering water to restore condition. The framework retains the philosophy and elements of many other methodologies but differs by having the flexibility to support application across different catchments while catering for catchment‐specific issues. We present two case studies that demonstrate the application of our Framework, its use in the development of scientifically defensible environmental flow recommendations, and their implementation in catchment water management plans. The strengths of the Framework are: (i) using specific ecosystem values to define and communicate the objectives of environmental flows; (ii) using a non‐prescriptive and flexible approach to incorporate catchment‐specific issues; and (iii) framing recommendations in a manner that clearly illustrates flow linkages with ecosystem values so that stakeholders and managers understand the risks associated with water abstraction. Our experience demonstrates the imperative that scientists are not only involved in water planning but also in the implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of plans so that the benefits of adaptive management can be realized. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PubDate: 2013-04-22T02:09:45.075801-05: DOI: 10.1002/rra.2661
EFFECT OF A MAJOR FLOOD ON BREEDING AND HABITAT OF THE CRIMSON FINCH (NEOCHMIA PHAETON): A RIPARIAN SPECIALIST
Authors: W. A. Houston; R. L. Black Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Riparian specialists, such as the Crimson Finch (Estrildidae: Neochmia phaeton), are vulnerable to declines in habitat quality, including alterations of flow regime associated with dam construction. Crimson Finches persisted and bred in substantial numbers following two large floods in the Isaac–Connors catchment in early 2008. Major flooding was not detrimental to nesting and breeding success, although the immediate post‐flood period was identified as a bottleneck in the availability of riparian grass seed. Crimson Finches nested at 16 m or more above the normal river level (compared with an average of 2–3 m elsewhere in Northern Australia); indicating that they have adapted to the extreme flood peaks in the Fitzroy River basin. The tall river‐associated grass Chionachne cyathopoda was a key habitat plant, retaining seed well into the dry season when most other grasses are expended. It also provided abundant seeds following floods, coinciding with peaks in abundance of dependent young finches. The adaptations of both Crimson Finches and Chionachne suggest that increased flooding, predicted by climate change, is unlikely to be a problem. In contrast, a proposed dam on the Connors River may be a threat. River regulation that reduces peaks of major floods may favour introduced riparian grasses over flood adapted native grasses such as Chionachne. Any change in the quantity of this species could be detrimental to persistence of Crimson Finches. Environmental managers should carefully consider the ecology of Chionachne when making decisions about river flows. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PubDate: 2013-04-18T01:21:00.472289-05: DOI: 10.1002/rra.2660
A ROADMAP FOR RIPARIAN INVASION RESEARCH
Authors: SAMANTHA L. Greene Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Riparian habitats provide numerous ecosystem services and support a diversity of ecological processes, yet they are environmentally sensitive landscapes susceptible to species invasion. As the global population grows, urban, exurban, suburban and rural development of riparian landscapes and dependence on the associated ecosystem services will increase. To preserve riparian systems, research should assess causes and consequences of riparian invasion and effective restoration measures across a diversity of biomes. This paper categorizes the types of riparian invasion research studies and investigates research trends in the riparian invasion literature. The analysis shows that research focuses on drivers and patterns of invasion is primarily focused on North America and Europe and is scant in high biodiversity biomes, such as the tropics and humid subtropics. Future population growth is predicted to occur in poorly researched regions. Future riparian invasion research should focus on regions of high biodiversity and identify consequences of invasion and restoration measures. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PubDate: 2013-04-18T01:04:28.366574-05: DOI: 10.1002/rra.2659
USING AN INTEGRATED MODELLING APPROACH FOR RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE ‘KILLER SHRIMP’ Dikerogammarus villosus
Authors: P. Boets; I. S. Pauwels, K. Lock, P. L. M. Goethals Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: The aim of this study was to predict the future distribution of an invasive macroinvertebrate species, Dikerogammarus villosus, under changing environmental conditions. For this, we used an integrated modelling approach. First, a habitat suitability model (HSM) was constructed on the basis of a regression tree model, to determine the preferred chemical water quality conditions. Subsequently, this HSM was combined with a chemical water quality model that makes predictions on future water quality scenarios for the year 2015 and 2027. It was expected that the area of suitable habitat of D. villosus would increase with improving water quality conditions in the future. Finally, migration speed was incorporated to model the spatial–temporal spread of D. villosus based on a network analysis. On the basis of monitoring data of Flanders (Belgium), it was calculated that D. villosus is able to spread with an average speed of 5 km year−1.The model simulations indicate that the species is primarily present in large rivers and canals with a good chemical water quality. With improving water quality, the species will be able to colonize additional watercourses, mainly because of a decrease in chemical oxygen demand and orthophosphate concentration. A validation based on the observed occurrence shows that the model accurately predicts areas with a high suitability that are most likely to be invaded by D. villosus. Our integrated modelling approach is useful as a practical method to perform risk assessment for watercourses that are vulnerable to invasions not only in Flanders but also in the whole world. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PubDate: 2013-04-10T02:04:41.44274-05:0 DOI: 10.1002/rra.2658
FISH ASSEMBLAGE RELATIONSHIPS WITH PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND PRESENCE OF DAMS IN THREE EASTERN IOWA RIVERS
Authors: C. L. Pierce; N. L. Ahrens, A. K. Loan‐Wilsey, G. A. Simmons, G. T. Gelwicks Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Fish assemblages in rivers of the Midwestern United States are an important component of the region's natural resources and biodiversity. We characterized the physical environment and presence of dams in a series of reaches in three eastern Iowa rivers tributary to the Mississippi River and related these characteristics to the fish assemblages present. Some physical characteristics were similar among the 12 study reaches, whereas others differed substantially. We found a total of 68 species across the 12 study reaches; 56 in the Turkey River, 51 in the Maquoketa River and 50 in the Wapsipinicon River. Seventeen species could be described as ‘downstream‐distributed’; 15 being found only in the lowest reach of one or more rivers and the other two being found only in the lowest reaches or two or more contiguous reaches including the lowest reach. Two species could be described as ‘upstream‐distributed’, being found only in an uppermost reach. Non‐metric multidimensional scaling ordination illustrated similarities among reaches, and five physical variables were significantly correlated with assemblage similarities. Catchment area and number of dams between reaches and the Mississippi River were strongly correlated with assemblage similarities, but the directions of their effects were opposite. Catchment area and number of dams were confounded. The collective evidence to date suggests that the pervasiveness of dams on rivers significantly alters fish assemblages, making underlying patterns of species change and relationships with naturally varying and human‐influenced physical characteristics along a river's course difficult to discern. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PubDate: 2013-04-05T03:43:37.346589-05: DOI: 10.1002/rra.2654
Pages: n/a - n/a PubDate: 2013-04-05T03:42:54.959436-05: DOI: 10.1002/rra.2657
ASSESSING THE CUMULATIVE IMPACTS OF HYDROPOWER REGULATION ON THE FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OF A LARGE ATLANTIC SALMON RIVER SYSTEM
Authors: C. Birkel; C. Soulsby, G. Ali, D. Tetzlaff Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: We assessed the influence of hydropower on the flow characteristics of the river Tay, one of the UK's most heavily regulated catchments and important Atlantic salmon fisheries. Hydropower developments in the mid‐20th century preceded flow data collection, resulting in knowledge gaps over how far regulated flows deviate from natural and how ecosystem functioning might have been impacted. We used 29 unregulated catchments in and around the Tay to assess the relationships between hydroclimatic conditions, landscape structure and the overall flow regime, as well as the annual, monthly and daily flow metrics. This allowed the identification of flow characteristics by using an integrated suite of regression approaches (nonlinear, MLR and random forests) to assess likely impacts at 11 regulated sites. The results showed that the impacts of regulation are highly variable in both space and time. Headwater sub‐catchments are most heavily affected, and water imports or exports as part of hydropower schemes can increase or decrease annual runoff by up to 50%, respectively. On a monthly basis, regulation primarily increased summer low flows; winter high flows increased in catchments affected by water imports and reduced where there was a net water export. At larger catchment scales, impacts were relatively small, as unregulated tributaries re‐naturalize the flows and the effects of intra‐basin transfers balance. Non‐stationarity in climate and water use in the catchment dictates that adaptive management of flows may be necessary to protect ecosystems services. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PubDate: 2013-04-05T03:42:24.439504-05: DOI: 10.1002/rra.2656
WATER TEMPERATURE PATTERNS BELOW LARGE GROUNDWATER SPRINGS: MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS FOR COHO SALMON IN THE SHASTA RIVER, CALIFORNIA
Authors: A. L. Nichols; A. D. Willis, C. A. Jeffres, M. L. Deas Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Elevated stream temperature is a primary factor limiting the coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) population in California's Shasta River Basin. Understanding the mechanisms driving spatial and temporal trends in water temperature throughout the Shasta River is critical to prioritising river restoration efforts aimed at protecting this threatened species. During the summer, the majority of streamflow in the Shasta River comes from large‐volume, cold‐water springs at the head of the tributary Big Springs Creek. In this study, we evaluated the initial character of this spring water, as well as the downstream fate and transport of these groundwater inflows during July and August 2008. Our results indicated that Big Springs Creek paradoxically provided both cool and warm waters to the Shasta River. During this period, cool groundwater inflows heated rapidly in the downstream direction in response to thermal loads from incoming solar radiation. During the night time, groundwater inflows did not appreciably heat in transit through Big Springs Creek. These diurnally varying water temperature conditions were inherited by the Shasta River, producing longitudinal temperature patterns that were out of phase with ambient meteorological conditions up to 23 km downstream. Findings from this study suggest that large, constant temperature spring sources and spring‐fed rivers impart unique stream temperature patterns on downstream river reaches that can determine reach‐scale habitat suitability for cold‐water fishes such as coho salmon. Recognising and quantifying the spatiotemporal patterns of water temperature downstream from large spring inflows can help identify and prioritize river restoration actions in locations where temperature patterns will allow rearing of cold‐water fishes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PubDate: 2013-04-01T23:29:25.639951-05: DOI: 10.1002/rra.2655
A VISUAL FRAMEWORK FOR DISPLAYING, COMMUNICATING AND COORDINATING A RIVER RESTORATION MONITORING PROJECT
Authors: C. J. P. Podolak Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: A visual framework to display complex river restoration monitoring plans is proposed. The framework provides for four dimensions of information—spatial coverage, and the frequency, density and type of measurement to be evaluated—in a concise and transparent fashion. It is not only useful as a display and communication tool but also facilitates identification of overlaps, gaps and inefficiencies. The visual framework is particularly useful for coordinating multiple monitoring efforts and for communicating or negotiating modifications. An example application of the framework is presented using the multi‐year monitoring effort surrounding the removal of the Marmot Dam from the Sandy River, OR. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PubDate: 2013-03-26T23:51:18.147361-05: DOI: 10.1002/rra.2651
THE COMBINED EFFECTS OF FLOW REGULATION AND AN ARTIFICIAL FLOW RELEASE ON A REGULATED RIVER
Authors: J. D. Tonkin; R. G. Death Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Damming and regulating the flow of rivers is a widespread issue and can have a significant impact on resident biota. The Tongariro River, central North Island, New Zealand, has a flow regime that is regulated by two hydroelectric dams along its length, and it has been suggested that ‘flushing flows’ would assist benthic communities by removing ‘nuisance’ periphyton growth forms that typically occur in autumn. We assessed whether (i) damming has altered periphyton and macroinvertebrate communities downstream of the Rangipo Dam and (ii) whether the release of a flow pulse equivalent to 50 times the baseflow is sufficient to (a) move the substrate in the section of river downstream of this dam and (b) impact benthic periphyton and macroinvertebrate communities. Downstream macroinvertebrate communities were impacted by the presence of the dam, but periphyton was not. No movement of substrate occurred downstream of the dam as a result of the flow release, which was likely because of naturally high embeddedness and armouring of substrate. Periphyton biomass and macroinvertebrate density were not affected by the release indicating that larger releases would be required to have any effect on benthic communities downstream of this dam. This study highlights the importance of considering natural bed structure and sediment dynamics when using flow releases downstream of dams to control periphyton. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PubDate: 2013-03-20T01:37:45.195194-05: DOI: 10.1002/rra.2650
FISH DEPTH DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI RIVER
Authors: L. E. Miranda; K. J. Killgore Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: A substantial body of literature exists about depth distribution of fish in oceans, lakes and reservoirs, but less is known about fish depth distribution in large rivers. Most of the emphasis on fish distributions in rivers has focused on longitudinal and latitudinal spatial distributions. Knowledge on depth distribution is necessary to understand species and community habitat needs. Considering this void, our goal was to identify patterns in fish benthic distribution along depth gradients in the Lower Mississippi River. Fish were collected over 14 years in depths down to 27 m. Fish exhibited non‐random depth distributions that varied seasonally and according to species. Species richness was highest in shallow water, with about 50% of the 62 species detected no longer collected in water deeper than 8 m and about 75% no longer collected in water deeper than 12 m. Although richness was highest in shallow water, most species were not restricted to shallow water. Rather, most species used a wide range of depths. A weak depth zonation occurred, not as strong as that reported for deep oceans and lakes. Larger fish tended to occur in deeper water during the high‐water period of an annual cycle, but no correlation was evident during the low‐water period. The advent of landscape ecology has guided river research to search for spatial patterns along the length of the river and associated floodplains. Our results suggest that fish assemblages in large rivers are also structured vertically. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PubDate: 2013-03-20T01:10:26.300805-05: DOI: 10.1002/rra.2652
THE DUAL NATURE OF HYDROPEAKING RIVERS: IS ECOPEAKING POSSIBLE?
Authors: N. E. Jones Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Philosophically, the natural flow regime concept is tremendously appealing; however, its application can be challenging for many biologists without the expertise or resources to handle such approaches on their own. This is particularly true on hydropeaking rivers, where incorporating natural flow is sometimes challenging. Additional challenges include our limited understanding of how individual flow components relate to geomorphic and ecological processes. Supplementary to environmental flow approaches is understanding that many hydropeaking rivers are ecologically two different rivers in one: the low flow and high peaking flow. Taxa that require a narrow range of water velocities or cannot withstand rapid changes in discharge would likely be eliminated or competitively disadvantaged under such harsh environmental conditions. As the low and peak flows diverge, the two rivers become increasingly different ecologically, and there will likely be fewer taxa that can withstand such abiotic variability. Deviations from a natural flow regime may result in new constraints on certain fishes and invertebrates, but this does not necessarily mean a loss of productive fish habitat. Viewing hydropeaking rivers as two rivers in one and the risks associated with high to low flow ratios may serve as a more practical and useful perspective towards maintaining altered yet productive rivers while representing a step towards improving the management river ecosystems. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2013. PubDate: 2013-03-12T03:23:08.360027-05: DOI: 10.1002/rra.2653
A MODEL INCORPORATING DISTURBANCE AND RECOVERY PROCESSES IN BENTHIC INVERTEBRATE HABITAT—FLOW TIME SERIES
Authors: D. A. Olsen; J. W. Hayes, D. J. Booker, P. J. Barter Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: We describe and demonstrate a model (Benthic Invertebrate Time Series Habitat Simulation) for calculating the effect of changes to flow regimes on benthic invertebrate habitat and population dynamics. The following inputs are required: a hydrograph (discharge time series), habitat–discharge relationship, disturbance–discharge relationship, wetted width–discharge relationship and a recolonization time series. Habitat–discharge, disturbance–discharge and wetted width–discharge relationships are common outputs from instream hydraulic habitat models (e.g. Physical Habitat Simulation, River Hydraulic Habitat Simulation and River2D). Hydraulic habitat models calculate a combined habitat suitability index from physical habitat suitability curves for water depth, velocity and substrate composition and weight this by area to give a weighted usable area (WUA). Because conventional invertebrate habitat suitability curves are based on density estimates, the combined habitat suitability index can be treated as an index of density and WUA treated as an index of potential relative abundance (at the reach scale) in the absence of disturbance due to flow variation (flooding and drying) and biotic processes. Our approach begins with WUA and calculates realizable suitable habitat (i.e. relative abundance) by taking into account the resetting of benthic invertebrate densities by floods and drying and recovery (or accrual) rates and times. The approach is intended mainly to compare the relative amounts of productive invertebrate habitat sustained by natural and modified flow regimes, but it also has the potential for investigating the influence of flow variation on invertebrate population dynamics. We anticipate that the model will be particularly useful for assessing effects of changes in flow regimes caused by diversions, abstractions or water storage on annual benthic invertebrate productivity. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PubDate: 2013-03-12T01:52:18.070002-05: DOI: 10.1002/rra.2649
PROJECTED FLOW ALTERATION AND ECOLOGICAL RISK FOR PAN‐EUROPEAN RIVERS
Abstract: Projection of future changes in river flow regimes and their impact on river ecosystem health is a major research challenge. This paper assesses the implications of projected future shifts in river flows on in‐stream and riparian ecosystems at the pan‐European scale by developing a new methodology to quantify ecological risk due to flow alteration (ERFA). The river network was modelled as 33 668 cells (5′ longitude × 5′ latitude). For each cell, modelled monthly flows were generated for an ensemble of 10 scenarios for the 2050s and for the study baseline (naturalized flows for 1961–1990). These future scenarios consist of combinations of two climate scenarios and four socio‐economic water‐use scenarios (with a main driver of economy, policy, security or sustainability). Environmental flow implications are assessed using the new ERFA methodology, based on a set of monthly flow regime indicators (MFRIs). Differences in MFRIs between scenarios and baseline are calculated to derive ERFA classes (no, low, medium and high risk), which are based on the number of indicators significantly different from the baseline. ERFA classes are presented as colour‐coded pan‐European maps. Results are consistent between scenarios and show that European river ecosystems are under significant threat with about two‐thirds at medium or high risk of change. Four main zones were identified (from highest to lowest risk severity): (i) Mediterranean rim, southwest part of Eastern Europe and Western Asia; (ii) Northern Europe and northeast part of Eastern Europe; (iii) Western and Eastern Europe; and (iv) inland North Africa. Patterns of flow alteration risk are driven by climate‐induced change, with socio‐economics as a secondary factor. These flow alterations could be manifested as changes to species and communities, and loss of current ecosystem functions and services. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
RESERVOIR FLOODPLAINS SUPPORT DISTINCT FISH ASSEMBLAGES
Abstract: Reservoirs constructed on floodplain rivers are unique because the upper reaches of the impoundment may include extensive floodplain environments. Moreover, reservoirs that experience large periodic water level fluctuations as part of their operational objectives seasonally inundate and dewater floodplains in their upper reaches, partly mimicking natural inundations of river floodplains. In four flood control reservoirs in Mississippi, USA, we explored the dynamics of connectivity between reservoirs and adjacent floodplains and the characteristics of fish assemblages that develop in reservoir floodplains relative to those that develop in reservoir bays. Although fish species richness in floodplains and bays were similar, species composition differed. Floodplains emphasized fish species largely associated with backwater shallow environments, often resistant to harsh environmental conditions. Conversely, dominant species in bays represented mainly generalists that benefit from the continuous connectivity between the bay and the main reservoir. Floodplains in the study reservoirs provided desirable vegetated habitats at lower water level elevations, earlier in the year, and more frequently than in bays. Inundating dense vegetation in bays requires raising reservoir water levels above the levels required to reach floodplains. Therefore, aside from promoting distinct fish assemblages within reservoirs and helping promote diversity in regulated rivers, reservoir floodplains are valued because they can provide suitable vegetated habitats for fish species at elevations below the normal pool, precluding the need to annually flood upland vegetation that would inevitably be impaired by regular flooding. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
SHIP‐LOCK–INDUCED SURGES IN AN IMPOUNDED RIVER AND THEIR IMPACT ON SUBDAILY FLOW VELOCITY VARIATION
Abstract: The majority of large rivers are fragmented by dams, and navigation is often supported by the installation of ship locks. Despite their ubiquitous existence, the effect of ship locks on river basin hydrodynamics is rarely considered in an environmental context.
Ship‐lock operation induces single‐wave crests or troughs called surges, which propagate along the basin and are subject to reflection at the up‐ and downstream impoundments. We used pressure sensors and acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements to investigate the effects of up‐ and downstream ship locking on the water level and the current velocity dynamics in a 12.9‐km‐long basin of the impounded river Saar (Germany).
Ship lifting at the lower dam and the associated water export from the basin results in a negative surge propagating upstream, whereas a descending ship‐lock operation at the upper dam of the basin creates a positive surge propagating downstream. Both types of waves are subject to positive reflection at the opposing dams. Frequent lock operations lead to a complex pattern of multiple superimposing surges. The resulting water level fluctuations are comparable in magnitude with those associated with discharge variations due to hydropower peaking but occur at much shorter timescales. Associated with the water surface displacement during wave passage is a corresponding increase or decrease of the longitudinal current velocity. The magnitude of wave‐induced velocity fluctuations can exceed mean flow velocities by a factor of three and, depending on wave type and direction, can result in a reversal of the main flow direction of the river. Because of their longevity of several hours and superposition effects, ship‐lock–induced surges govern 66.3% and 45.4% of the subdaily variations in flow velocity and water level, respectively. This article concludes with a discussion of the potential effects of lock‐induced flow dynamics in impoundments on oxygen dynamics and methane ebullition. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
ABUNDANCE AND BODY CONDITION OF SCULPIN (COTTUS SPP.) IN A SMALL FOREST STREAM FOLLOWING RECOLONIZATION BY JUVENILE COHO SALMON ONCORHYNCHUS KISUTCH
Abstract: Recolonization by native species following reintroduction can affect resident species through a variety of processes. We examined the effects of natural recolonization by coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch on sculpin (Cottus rhotus and Cottus gulosus), small benthic fishes, in a small forest stream in Western Washington, USA. Provision fish passage around a small dam allowed coho access to habitat, which had been inaccessible for over 100 years. We found that density (g m−2 and number m−2) was unchanged, and body condition (the slope of the relationship between length and weight) of sculpin tended to increase from before relative to a 5‐year period following recolonization. The proportion of sculpin comprising the total fish assemblage decreased after coho colonization relative to before but remained stable for a 5‐year period after coho reintroduction, whereas coho density increased over fivefold. Additionally, we used Akaike's information criteria to evaluate the relative importance of physical and biological variables to predict sculpin density in pool habitats during the initial coho recolonization period. Physical microhabitat variables had little support for predicting sculpin density, whereas there was a significant support for stream temperature; cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) density and year were the most important predictors of sculpin density. Coho density was not significant in any model. Our results indicate coho introduction and subsequent recolonization have to date had minimal individual or population level effects on sculpin, therefore demonstrating that species reintroductions into their native range can have no measurable effect on resident organisms. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
SEASONALLY DRIVEN VARIATION IN SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN AGRICULTURAL LAND USE AND IN‐STREAM NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS
Abstract: Geographic information system (GIS) based distance weighted models were applied to determine critical areas of agricultural influence in nine agriculturally dominated, prairie subcatchments in southern Manitoba, Canada. Models were generated using a range of coefficients to represent nutrient overland and in‐stream attenuation between agricultural source areas and stream sampling stations. Coefficients were also used to represent increased attenuation during overland travel through areas with natural vegetation. Water samples collected at intervals throughout the open water season were used to establish associations between areas of influence and in‐stream total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in each season and under different flow conditions. Critical areas of influence varied seasonally with areas of influence expanding with individual rainfall events. Inclusion of natural vegetated areas on the landscape resulted in substantial increases in model power for only one scenario. Agriculture in areas within approximately 100 m of the stream channel appears to be the most critical driver of in‐stream nutrient conditions during most seasons and under most flow conditions. Best management practices, such as vegetated buffer strips, should be most effective in controlling nutrient losses to southern Manitoba streams when situated within stream corridor, as opposed to upland areas, which appear to have minimal impact on in‐stream conditions. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
THE MANAGEMENT MODES OF SEASONAL FLOODS AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLIMATE AND STREAMFLOW DOWNSTREAM FROM DAMS IN QUEBEC (CANADA)
Abstract: The goal of the study was to compare the modes of management of seasonal floods for different dams and to constrain their impact on the relationship between climate variables and streamflow downstream from the dams. At the Rawdon dam, downstream from which the Ouareau River is characterized by a natural‐type regulated flow regime, a ‘type A’ flood management mode prevails, in which the same rainfall and/or snowmelt events account for seasonal floods both in the unregulated (natural) stretch of river upstream from the dam and in the river downstream from the dam. As a result, seasonal floods in the natural setting and downstream from the dam are nearly synchronous. In contrast, downstream from the Matawin dam (Matawin River), which produces an inversion‐type regulated flow regime, the prevalent flood management modes are of types B and D, whereby seasonal floods observed upstream and downstream from the dam are not caused by the same rainfall and/or snowmelt events and, as a result, are not synchronous. This difference in seasonal flood management modes affects the interannual variability of the magnitude of seasonal daily maximum flows related to the seasonal floods. Thus, the interannual variability of these flows downstream from the Matawin dam differs significantly from that of flows upstream. No correlation is observed between climate variables and streamflow downstream from the Matawin dam. This absence of correlation disappears gradually at the annual scale, at which streamflow is correlated with rainfall, as is observed upstream from the dam. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
FINE SEDIMENT INFILTRATION DYNAMICS IN A GRAVEL‐BED RIVER FOLLOWING A SEDIMENT PULSE
Abstract: Pulses of fine sediment in gravel‐bedded rivers can cause extensive fine sediment infiltration (FSI) into void spaces in coarse bed material, potentially altering river morphodynamics and aquatic ecosystems. Previous work suggests a conceptual model of FSI whereby FSI occurs to a limited depth as a function of the relative grain size of bed sediment compared with infiltrating sediment and is influenced by fine sediment supply and local flow dynamics. Our study applies this conceptual model to a complex reach of a wandering, medium‐sized, gravel‐bed river to investigate the spatial and temporal controls on FSI. To constrain the timing of FSI, we use the release of contaminated sediment from an upstream dam removal and complementary field methods (bulk sampling, freeze cores and infiltration bags) to capture sediment across varied depositional settings. Our results indicate that, even in a morphologically complex reach, fine‐sediment content in the bed does not vary significantly among deposition settings or vertically below the bed surface. We also found that the most contaminated fine sediments released into our study river by a dam removal are not present within the bed material and that substrate has likely been reworked over the period between the release of contaminated sediment and sampling. Our observations also suggest that seals of fine sediment causing void pore space at depth, which have previously been associated with FSI, are not evident in our field area. This suggests that in natural systems, high sediment supply and mobile beds may limit seal formation and persistence. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
MODELLING CHANGES IN SALMON HABITAT ASSOCIATED WITH RIVER CHANNEL RESTORATION AND FLOW‐INDUCED CHANNEL ALTERATIONS
Abstract: The River2D two‐dimensional hydraulic and habitat model was used to simulate fall‐run Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) spawning and fry and juvenile rearing habitat of the first phase of a stream channel restoration project on Clear Creek, California. Habitat was simulated for a range of stream flows: (1) before restoration; (2) based on the restoration design; (3) immediately after restoration; and (4) after one and two large flow events. Hydraulic and structural data were collected for three sites before restoration, and prerestoration habitat was simulated. Habitat simulated for these sites was extrapolated to the prerestoration area based on habitat mapping. The topographical plan for the restoration was used to simulate the anticipated habitat after restoration. Although the restoration increased spawning habitat, it was less successful for rearing habitat. Channel changes associated with high‐flow events did not entirely negate the benefits of the restoration project. The results of this study point out the need for models that can simulate the changes in channel topography associated with high‐flow events, which could then be used to simulate habitat over time. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
EVALUATING TRADEOFFS BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL FLOW PROTECTIONS AND AGRICULTURAL WATER SECURITY
Abstract: River basin managers responsible for water allocation decisions are increasingly required to evaluate tradeoffs between environmental flow protections and human water security. However, the basin‐scale effects of environmental flow regulations on water users are not well understood, in part because analyses are complicated by the spatial and temporal variation in water availability, human demands, and ecosystem needs. Here, we examine alternative regional environmental flow policies and their effects on a distributed network of water users in a small (182 km2) river basin in coastal California. We use a hydrologic model to simulate water diversion operations under three policy scenarios and quantify potential impacts to bypass flows for adult migrating salmon and agricultural water storage. The results indicate that there are inherent tradeoffs between environmental flows and agricultural water security, with the most restrictive environmental policy associated with the greatest impacts to water users. Surprisingly, the moderate environmental flow policy had larger impacts to bypass flows than the unregulated management scenario, suggesting that ecological benefits of the moderate policy are small relative to the adverse effects on agricultural water users. Conflicts between environmental and human water needs were greatest in upper catchments (
LONG‐TERM MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT OF A STREAM RESTORATION PROJECT IN CENTRAL NEW YORK
Abstract: Monitoring, assessment and reporting of stream restoration projects have historically lagged far behind implementation. However, in recent years, rigorous post‐project assessments (PPAs) of modern stream restoration practices have steadily increased. This has helped to stimulate debate and inquiry regarding the effectiveness of restoration techniques and has provided critical feedback to practitioners and planners useful in restoration design and implementation. Nonetheless, few studies exist that track the performance of modern restoration projects over a protracted period. Instead, most are based on a brief snapshot taken during the initial post‐construction period, which may not always accurately characterize longer‐term project performance. Here, we re‐visit a stream restoration project implemented in 2005 on a third‐order stream in central New York. By repeating several of our quantitative and qualitative evaluation procedures from the original 2007 PPA we demonstrate that (i) despite several recent large flood events and the fact that the current channel geometry differs from the design/as‐built configuration, the project has made substantial progress towards the goals of channel stabilization and habitat enhancement; (ii) this more favourable, mid‐term outcome was not necessarily evident during or well‐predicted by our 2007 PPA; (iii) although continued deformation of in‐stream structures may be a harbinger of future channel instability, riparian vegetation is playing an increasingly important role in maintaining channel stability; and (iv) accurately predicting local scour depths proximal to in‐stream structures, performing a detailed sediment budget analysis, and prescribing adequate bank protection are critical to project success, especially during early stages of a project. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
HYDROLOGIC CONNECTIVITY OF FLOODPLAINS, NORTHERN MISSOURI—IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGEMENT AND RESTORATION OF FLOODPLAIN FOREST COMMUNITIES IN DISTURBED LANDSCAPES
Abstract: Hydrologic connectivity between the channel and floodplain is thought to be a dominant factor determining floodplain processes and characteristics of floodplain forests. We explored the role of hydrologic connectivity in explaining floodplain forest community composition along streams in northern Missouri, USA. Hydrologic analyses at 20 streamgages (207–5827 km2 area) document that magnitudes of 2‐year return floods increase systematically with increasing drainage area whereas the average annual number and durations of floodplain‐connecting events decrease. Flow durations above the active‐channel shelf vary little with increasing drainage area, indicating that the active‐channel shelf is in quasi‐equilibrium with prevailing conditions. The downstream decrease in connectivity is associated with downstream increase in channel incision. These relations at streamflow gaging stations are consistent with regional channel disturbance patterns: channel incision increases downstream, whereas upstream reaches have either not incised or adjusted to incision by forming new equilibrium floodplains. These results provide a framework to explain landscape‐scale variations in composition of floodplain forest communities in northern Missouri. Faust (2006) had tentatively explained increases of flood‐dependent tree species, and decreases of species diversity, with a downstream increase in flood magnitude and duration. Because frequency and duration of floodplain‐connecting events do not increase downstream, we hypothesize instead that increases in relative abundance of flood‐dependent trees at larger drainage area result from increasing size of disturbance patches. Bank‐overtopping floods at larger drainage area create large, open, depositional landforms that promoted the regeneration of shade‐intolerant species. Higher tree species diversity in floodplains with small drainage areas is associated with non‐incised floodplains that are frequently connected to their channels and therefore subject to greater effective hydrologic variability compared with downstream floodplains. Understanding the landscape‐scale geomorphic and hydrologic controls on floodplain connectivity provides a basis for more effective management and restoration of floodplain forest communities. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
A STREAM EVOLUTION MODEL INTEGRATING HABITAT AND ECOSYSTEM BENEFITS
Abstract: For decades, Channel Evolution Models have provided useful templates for understanding morphological responses to disturbance associated with lowering base level, channelization or alterations to the flow and/or sediment regimes. In this paper, two well‐established Channel Evolution Models are revisited and updated in light of recent research and practical experience. The proposed Stream Evolution Model includes a precursor stage, which recognizes that streams may naturally be multi‐threaded prior to disturbance, and represents stream evolution as a cyclical, rather than linear, phenomenon, recognizing an evolutionary cycle within which streams advance through the common sequence, skip some stages entirely, recover to a previous stage or even repeat parts of the evolutionary cycle.
The hydrologic, hydraulic, morphological and vegetative attributes of the stream during each evolutionary stage provide varying ranges and qualities of habitat and ecosystem benefits. The authors' personal experience was combined with information gleaned from recent literature to construct a fluvial habitat scoring scheme that distinguishes the relative, and substantial differences in, ecological values of different evolutionary stages. Consideration of the links between stream evolution and ecosystem services leads to improved understanding of the ecological status of contemporary, managed rivers compared with their historical, unmanaged counterparts. The potential utility of the Stream Evolution Model, with its interpretation of habitat and ecosystem benefits includes improved river management decision making with respect to future capital investment not only in aquatic, riparian and floodplain conservation and restoration but also in interventions intended to promote species recovery. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
ESTIMATING THERMAL REGIMES OF BULL TROUT AND ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF CLIMATE WARMING ON CRITICAL HABITATS
Abstract: Understanding the vulnerability of aquatic species and habitats under climate change is critical for conservation and management of freshwater systems. Climate warming is predicted to increase water temperatures in freshwater ecosystems worldwide, yet few studies have developed spatially explicit modelling tools for understanding the potential impacts. We parameterized a nonspatial model, a spatial flow‐routed model, and a spatial hierarchical model to predict August stream temperatures (22‐m resolution) throughout the Flathead River Basin, USA and Canada. Model comparisons showed that the spatial models performed significantly better than the nonspatial model, explaining the spatial autocorrelation found between sites. The spatial hierarchical model explained 82% of the variation in summer mean (August) stream temperatures and was used to estimate thermal regimes for threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) habitats, one of the most thermally sensitive coldwater species in western North America. The model estimated summer thermal regimes of spawning and rearing habitats at
ENVIRONMENTAL FLOWS: SAVING RIVERS IN THE THIRD MILLENNIUM, by A.H. Arthington. 2012. University of California Press: Berkeley, 424. (ISBN 978‐0‐520‐27369‐6) Price: £52.00
TRACING GROUNDWATER DISCHARGE IN THE FLOODPLAIN OF THE PARANA RIVER, ARGENTINA: IMPLICATIONS FOR ITS BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES
Abstract: Groundwater discharge can be an important determinant of the functioning of aquatic environments and their associated biological communities. However, the presence and the importance of groundwater have not been considered in the Parana River floodplain owing to the large quantity of surface water. The present study aimed to identify groundwater discharge conditions in a sector of the middle of the floodplain of the Parana River by studying groundwater flow systems. Eight piezometers were installed to record groundwater movement in the vertical plane weekly for 2 years. Water samples were collected in piezometers, domestic wells, the river and other water bodies to study the groundwater flow systems. Rising of the water level during piezometer installation and recording suggested that the study zone represents groundwater discharge conditions. Residence time proxy allowed identification of local flows and intermediate flows. Local rainfall (in Santa Fe) showed an isotopic signature (δD and δ18O) similar to some local flows detected in the study zone, and this suggested local recharge. The chemical characteristics of an intermediate flow suggest that water would have travelled from a recharge area ~30 km from the study zone. Local rainfall and the intermediate flow have different isotopic signature. Results suggest that the willow forest is associated with the recharge area of a local flow, which plurispecific‐canopy forest is related to a transit area of a semi‐intermediate flow, and that tall grassland and marshy community colonize discharge areas of local and intermediate flows, respectively. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
LAND USE AND WATER QUALITY IN A RURAL CLOUD FOREST REGION (INTAG, ECUADOR)
Abstract: The Intag cloud forest region of northwestern Ecuador is characterized by exceptional biodiversity, large known and unknown deposits of copper and other valuable minerals, and a high level of environmental awareness and concern among the human population. Its 1000 km of rivers and streams are essential for household use, crop irrigation, livestock production and sustaining unique ecosystems. However, no published data exist on water quality in the region. This study characterizes water quality in five river systems in Intag and relates it to land use (protected forest, agriculture/pasture, urban development or mining) upstream of the sampling point. Additionally, we sampled 15 community water supply systems. Parameters measured included turbidity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), nitrate, phosphate, ammonium, Ni, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, As, Cr, discharge and aquatic invertebrate diversity. Significant differences in pH, aquatic invertebrate diversity, and the concentrations of FIB, nutrients and dissolved metals were observed between land use groups. Forested streams consistently had the lowest pollutant concentrations, whereas those flowing past population centres or mining areas showed the greatest impairment. Elevated As concentrations were observed in association with abandoned mining boreholes, hot springs and wastewater discharges. FIB, nutrient and metal concentrations in water systems were similar to those in forested streams, indicating that these systems maintain water in an unpolluted condition. To preserve and enhance Intag's generally good water quality, we recommend installing wastewater treatment systems in larger towns and approaching all mining activity, including exploration, with extreme caution. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BASELINE ISOTOPIC VARIABILITY IN RUNNING WATERS
Abstract: Natural abundances of stable isotopes in lotic food webs yield valuable information about sources of organic matter for consumers and trophic structure. However, interpretation of isotopic information can be challenging in the face of variability in organisms at the base of food webs. Unionid and dreissenid mussels, commonly used as baseline organisms in lakes, are uncommon in many river settings and can have variable diets, thus making them unsuitable as a universal baseline for many river food web studies and often forcing reliance on more common benthic insects for this purpose. Turnover rates of body carbon and nitrogen in insects are relatively rapid (1 to 50 days half‐life). These rapid turnover rates in primary consumers can result in considerable temporal variability in δ13C that rivals that of algae (>10‰ range within a site). This suggests that using primary consumers as a surrogate baseline for algae may not circumvent the problem of temporal variability and the resultant mismatch of sources with longer‐lived, slow‐growing secondary and tertiary consumers. There are several strategies for reducing the influence of these confounding factors when bivalves with a known diet are not present. These include sampling over large spatial scales and correlating δ13C of consumers with the source of interest (e.g. benthic algae), sampling baseline organisms multiple times in the weeks preceding sampling of larger consumers (particularly in response to large changes in discharge) and using algal‐detrital separation methods and multiple tracers as much as possible. Incorporating some of these recommendations and further exploring variability at the base of the food web will potentially provide greater insights into consumer–resource coupling in running waters and more robust conclusions about food web structure and energy flow in these dynamic systems. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
EVALUATING STATISTICAL APPROACHES TO QUANTIFYING JUVENILE CHINOOK SALMON HABITAT IN A REGULATED CALIFORNIA RIVER
Abstract: Decisions on managed flow releases in regulated rivers should be informed by the best available science. To do this, resource managers require adequate information regarding the tradeoffs between alternative methodologies. In this study, we quantitatively compare two competing multivariate habitat models for juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha), a highly valued fish species under serious decline in a large extent of its range. We conducted large‐scale snorkel surveys in the American River, California, to obtain a common dataset for model parameterization. We built one habitat model using Akaike Information Criterion analysis and model averaging, ‘model G’, and a second model by using a standard method of aggregating univariate habitat models, ‘model A’. We calculated Cohen's kappa, percent correctly classified, sensitivity, specificity and the area under a receiver operator characteristic to compare the ability of each model to predict juvenile salmon presence and absence. We compared the predicted useable habitat of each model at nine simulated river discharges where usable habitat is equal to the product of a spatial area and the probability of habitat occupancy at that location. Generally, model G maintained greater predictive accuracy with a difference within 10% across the diagnostic statistics. Two key distinctions between models were that model G predicted 17.2% less useable habitat across simulated flows and had 5% fewer false positive classifications than model A. In contrast, model A had a tendency to over predict habitat occupancy and under predict model uncertainty. The largest discrepancy between model predictions occurred at the lowest flows simulated and in the habitats most likely to be occupied by juvenile salmon. This study supports the utility and quantitative framework of Akaike Information Criterion analysis and model averaging in developing habitat models. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
USING OTOLITH CHEMISTRY TAGS AND GROWTH PATTERNS TO DISTINGUISH MOVEMENTS AND PROVENANCE OF NATIVE FISH IN THE GRAND CANYON
Abstract: Fish otolith and water chemistry were assessed in the Grand Canyon reach of the Colorado River and its tributaries. Aqueous strontium and selenium (in ratio to calcium) and carbon stable isotopic ratios were identified as markers with excellent potential to track the provenance and movements of the endangered humpback chub Gila cypha. Although otolith δ13C and Sr/Ca varied proportionately to water chemistry and provided a framework for detailed study of humpback chub movements, otolith Se/Ca showed ambiguous tracking of known water chemistries. As an application, we document the natal source and movement dynamics of n = 10 humpback chub and compare these findings from otolith microchemistry with the current paradigm of humpback chub spawning ecology. We found that seven of ten fish follow the current early life history paradigm and were spawned in the Little Colorado River and subsequently emigrated to the main stem Colorado River as juveniles. However, the otolith markers of three fish suggest an alternative early life trajectory with unknown provenance. Age and growth analyses demonstrate seasonally higher growth rates in the warmer Little Colorado River compared with the Colorado River. Combining natural markers with age and growth reconstructions provides a powerful tool for assessing the habitat use and success of humpback chub in the Grand Canyon. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
CONSEQUENCES OF THE PHYSICAL MANAGEMENT OF AN INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT FOR RIPARIAN PLANT SPECIES RICHNESS AND DIVERSITY
Abstract: Management methods to control or eradicate invasive alien species should be guided by research into their efficacy in relation to the target species as well as their wider effects on the community. Impatiens glandulifera Royle (Balsaminaceae) is an invasive alien species, which has spread rapidly across Europe and North America, particularly colonizing riverbanks, wet woodlands, and wastelands. The effectiveness of two mechanical control measures and their impacts on community plant species richness and diversity within the riparian zone of the urban river Brent, London, England, was assessed.
Over 2 years, an experiment was performed across three sites that exhibited contrasting levels of invasion of I. glandulifera: high, moderate and low. The experiment involved three treatments on replicated plots at all three sites: pruning at 6‐week intervals, weeding at 6‐week intervals, and a control. The effects of these control measures were most clearly seen at the site with the highest level of invasion and, to a smaller extent, at the moderately invaded site. Weeding was more successful in controlling the species than pruning, and the greatest impact of these treatments on community plant species richness and diversity was only apparent after 2 years of the experiment. Although seedlings of 10 other alien species were found, there was no evidence that their presence on the plots was detrimental to native species during the experimental period. Three common native species each approached 10% cover on the weeded plots at the heavily invaded site by the end of the experiment: Poa annua, Rumex obtusifolius, and Urtica dioica.
These assessments provide guidance for implementing mechanical control of I. glandulifera in riparian zones. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
USING A NON‐PHYSICAL BEHAVIOURAL BARRIER TO ALTER MIGRATION ROUTING OF JUVENILE CHINOOK SALMON IN THE SACRAMENTO–SAN JOAQUIN RIVER DELTA
Abstract: Anthropogenic alterations to river systems, such as irrigation and hydroelectric development, can negatively affect fish populations by reducing survival when fish are routed through potentially dangerous locations. Non‐physical barriers using behavioural stimuli are one means of guiding fish away from such locations without obstructing water flow. In the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, we evaluated a bio‐acoustic fish fence (BAFF) composed of strobe lights, sound and a bubble curtain, which was intended to divert juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) away from Georgiana Slough, a low‐survival migration route that branches off the Sacramento River. To quantify fish response to the BAFF, we estimated individual entrainment probabilities from two‐dimensional movement paths of juvenile salmon implanted with acoustic transmitters. Overall, 7.7% of the fish were entrained into Georgiana Slough when the BAFF was on, and 22.3% were entrained when the BAFF was off, but a number of other factors influenced the performance of the BAFF. The effectiveness of the BAFF declined with increasing river discharge, likely because increased water velocities reduced the ability of fish to avoid being swept across the BAFF into Georgiana Slough. The BAFF reduced entrainment probability by up to 40 percentage points near the critical streakline, which defined the streamwise division of flow vectors entering each channel. However, the effect of the BAFF declined moving in either direction away from the critical streakline. Our study shows how fish behaviour and the environment interacted to influence the performance of a non‐physical behavioural barrier in an applied setting. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO BANK STABILITY IN CHANNELIZED, ALLUVIAL STREAMS
Abstract: Bank failure is a common fluvial process and can be a pervasive fluvial response to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Previous research has identified causes and types of bank failure, but the conditions that lead to the cessation of bank failure remain poorly explained. This research examines differences between banks with active bank failure and banks that exhibit evidence of past bank failure that ceased (dormant) throughout three West Tennessee (USA) rivers to provide insight into the processes that cause bank failure to end. Bank characteristics were observed at 68 sites, and data from 55 banks were used to create a logistic regression model. Bank characteristics entered into the model included: vegetative cover, failure location, bar association, bank material, channel width‐to‐depth (w/d) ratio, and average bank angle. Results of the logistic regression suggest that bank angle best explains (p = 0.31 and odds ratio = 8.2) the difference between banks with active and dormant bank failure. Interestingly, vegetative cover and bank material composition, which have been found to be important in bank stabilization by previous researchers, were not significant predictors of bank stability according to the logistic regression model. These results suggest that in absence of drastic differences in bank material resistance (bedrock vs sediment): (1) spatial patterns of bank failure at the system‐scale will be diffuse, (2) bank stability can require a multiple decades, and (3) the potential for vegetation to stabilize banks may be limited in some alluvial systems because of positive feedbacks created by repeated human disturbance. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
ASSESSMENT OF RIPARIAN VEGETATION SENSITIVITY TO RIVER HYDROLOGY DOWNSTREAM OF A MAJOR TEXAS DAM
Abstract: Dams may impact the health of downstream riparian vegetation communities through flow modifications such as decreased flood frequency and duration. Without historical vegetation data, however, it is difficult to relate changes in vegetation composition to hydrology patterns downstream of dams. We studied bottomland hardwood forests downstream of Toledo Bend Dam on the Sabine River in Texas and Louisiana to determine their sensitivity to minor changes in river hydrology with a particular focus on floods. Current riparian vegetation was characterized within three topographic zones at three selected sites below the dam. Using 80 years of hydrologic records from two gauging stations downstream of the dam, we evaluated trends in flood frequency, flood duration, peak discharge and total flood discharge in those periods before (1926−1965) and after (1971−2005) dam construction, as well as related flood stage to floodplain elevations to link topography to flood frequency. Plant species diversity in this system is highly dependent on minor changes in elevation, and the proportion of wetland‐dependent species changes rapidly with only a few centimeters difference in elevation. Although 50% of trees, shrubs and herbs in the sloughs were wetland adapted, their numbers were only 21% in the levees (74–284 cm higher in elevation) and 14% in the mid‐floodplains. Since dam construction, total flood discharge and duration at the most upstream gauge on the Sabine River decreased by 49%. At both gauges, mean discharge was also altered with higher summer flows. Patterns of tree regeneration point to less recruitment by wetland‐dependent species in the years following dam construction. These results suggest that minor changes in flood magnitude might limit occurrence of wetland species to the lowest topographic zones and illustrate the need to analyse sensitivity of plants to minor changes in flood characteristics when historical data for the vegetation community are lacking. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
CONTROLS ON THE LONGITUDINAL DISTRIBUTION OF CHANNEL‐SPANNING LOGJAMS IN THE COLORADO FRONT RANGE, USA
Abstract: Channel‐spanning logjams completely span the active channel and create longitudinal discontinuities of the water surface and stream bed across at least two‐thirds of the channel width. These jams disproportionately affect channel process and form relative to smaller jams that do not span the entire channel width. We analyze a spatially extensive dataset of 859 channel‐spanning jams distributed along 124 km of 16 distinct rivers on the eastern side of Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, with drainage areas spanning 2.6 to 258 km2 and diverse valley geometry and forest stand age. We categorized valley geometry in terms of lateral confinement (confined, partly confined, or unconfined), which correlates with gradient. Jams exhibit substantial downstream variability in spacing at channel lengths of 102–103 m. The number of jams within a reach is explained by a statistical model that includes drainage area, valley type (lateral confinement), and channel width. Longitudinal spacing of jams drops substantially at drainage areas greater than ~20 km2, although jam spacing exhibits tremendous variability at smaller drainage areas. We interpret the lack of jams at larger drainage areas to reflect increasing transport capacity for instream wood. We interpret the variability in jam spacing at small drainage areas to reflect local controls of valley geometry and associated wood recruitment and fluvial transport capacity. Our results suggest that management of instream wood designed to facilitate the formation of channel‐spanning jams can be most effectively focused on smaller drainage areas where these jams are most abundant in the absence of management that alters instream wood recruitment or retention. Unmanaged streams in the study region with drainage area
MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY CONDITION ASSOCIATED WITH THE SEVERITY OF STREAMFLOW ALTERATION
Abstract: Natural streamflows play a critical role in stream ecosystems, yet quantitative relations between streamflow alteration and stream health have been elusive. One reason for this difficulty is that neither streamflow alteration nor ecological responses are measured relative to their natural expectations. We assessed macroinvertebrate community condition in 25 mountain streams representing a large gradient of streamflow alteration, which we quantified as the departure of observed flows from natural expectations. Observed flows were obtained from US Geological Survey streamgaging stations and discharge records from dams and diversion structures. During low‐flow conditions in September, samples of macroinvertebrate communities were collected at each site, in addition to measures of physical habitat, water chemistry and organic matter. In general, streamflows were artificially high during summer and artificially low throughout the rest of the year. Biological condition, as measured by richness of sensitive taxa (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera) and taxonomic completeness (O/E), was strongly and negatively related to the severity of depleted flows in winter. Analyses of macroinvertebrate traits suggest that taxa losses may have been caused by thermal modification associated with streamflow alteration. Our study yielded quantitative relations between the severity of streamflow alteration and the degree of biological impairment and suggests that water management that reduces streamflows during winter months is likely to have negative effects on downstream benthic communities in Utah mountain streams. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
DETERMINING THE INTERACTION BETWEEN THE RIO GRANDE AND RIVERSIDE DRAINS USING AN ADCP
Abstract: The Middle Rio Grande (MRG), located in central New Mexico, is a river that has experienced significant anthropomorphic changes and requires extensive river management to meet all demands for water. To better understand and manage the MRG, the Upper Rio Grande Water Operations Model was developed by several government agencies; however, drain accretion rates, total seepage volumes from the river to the drain network, and salinity were unknown and represented a large data gap. In 2010, a study using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler was conducted to determine drain accretion rates throughout the MRG valley. The use of an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler allowed for a multitude of measurements to be completed in a short‐time span. The total yearly baseline drain accretion determined during the study was 269 630 AF, which represents about 59% of the water that is diverted annually in the MRG. The magnitude of the drain accretion was much higher than expected and represents a tangible water volume that needs to be addressed in water accounting and management decisions. The New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission is currently using the collected data to improve Upper Rio Grande Water Operations Model and results from the study will aid the Middle Rio Grande Conservancy District in improving water delivery operations. The findings of this study indicate that a complex groundwater, drain, and river water interaction is taking place near the San Acacia diversion dam with upwelling saline groundwater increasing drain water salinity to levels as high as 1703 μS. Further detailed study of groundwater and river water interactions is suggested in this area. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
INVERTEBRATE AND FISH ASSEMBLAGE RELATIONS TO DISSOLVED OXYGEN MINIMA IN LOWLAND STREAMS OF SOUTHWESTERN LOUISIANA
Abstract: Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in lowland streams are naturally lower than those in upland streams; however, in some regions where monitoring data are lacking, DO criteria originally established for upland streams have been applied to lowland streams. This study investigated the DO concentrations at which fish and invertebrate assemblages at 35 sites located on lowland streams in southwestern Louisiana began to demonstrate biological thresholds.
Average threshold values for taxa richness, diversity and abundance metrics were 2.6 and 2.3 mg/L for the invertebrate and fish assemblages, respectively. These thresholds are approximately twice the DO concentration that some native fish species are capable of tolerating and are comparable with DO criteria that have been recently applied to some coastal streams in Louisiana and Texas. DO minima >2.5 mg/L were favoured for all but extremely tolerant taxa. Extremely tolerant taxa had respiratory adaptations that gave them a competitive advantage, and their success when DO minima were
EVALUATION OF SPAWNING SUBSTRATE ENHANCEMENT FOR WHITE STURGEON IN A REGULATED RIVER: EFFECTS ON LARVAL RETENTION AND DISPERSAL
Abstract: Site‐specific habitat alterations have improved spawning success and early life stage survival of different fish species, including sturgeon, in regulated rivers. We modified the substrate within a section of river at the only known spawning site used by white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in the Mid Columbia River, Canada. Existing armoured riverbed conditions were modified using a mixture of larger and smaller angular rock with the assumption that the larger material would remain in place at higher discharges and help retain the smaller material. This increased substrate complexity and the amount of available interstitial spaces. We stocked 2‐day posthatch larvae over both the modified site and at an adjacent control site that represented existing substrate conditions. Our objectives were to determine (i) the extent that stocked larvae remained in both the modified and control sites immediately after release, (ii) the timing of subsequent dispersal of larvae from both sites and (iii) how total length of dispersing larvae changed over time and by site. Results from this work indicated that the modified section of riverbed retained significantly higher numbers of larvae after release compared with the control site. Larvae at the modified site were able to hide and remain within the substrate and initiated downstream drift 15 days after release. With the exception of the first day after release, dispersal from both sites occurred at night. There was a significant effect of time after release and site on the total length of dispersing larvae. The larger variation in total larval length observed at the control site compared with the modified site indicated greater difficulty in hiding within the control substrate. Larvae initiated dispersal from the modified site at a mean size of 17.5 mm, which may indicate an important growth threshold before drift. Results from this work are important for future mitigative efforts for sturgeon in regulated rivers where changes to spawning substrates have occurred. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
ECOSYSTEM ENGINEERS MODULATE EXOTIC INVASIONS IN RIPARIAN PLANT COMMUNITIES BY MODIFYING HYDROGEOMORPHIC CONNECTIVITY
Abstract: Patterns of native and exotic plant species richness and cover were examined in relation with ecosystem engineer effects of pioneer vegetation within the Mediterranean gravel bed river Tech, South France. The floristic composition was characterized according to two distinct vegetation types corresponding to two habitats with contrasted conditions: (i) open and exposed alluvial bars dominated by herbaceous communities; and (ii) islands and river margins disconnected from annual hydrogeomorphic disturbances and covered by woody vegetation. A significant positive correlation between exotic and native plant species richness and cover was observed for both vegetation types. However, significant differences in native and exotic species richness and cover were found between these two vegetation types. Higher values of total species richness and Shannon diversity were attained within the herbaceous vegetation type than within the woody type. These differences are most likely related to changes in local exposure to hydrogeomorphic disturbances driven by woody engineer plant species and to vegetation succession. A lower exotic species cover within the woody vegetation type than within the herbaceous type suggested an increase of resistance to invasion by exotic species during the biogeomorphic succession. The engineer effects of woody vegetation through landform construction resulted in a decrease of alpha (α) diversity at the patch scale but, in parallel, caused an increase in gamma (γ) diversity at the scale of the studied river segment. Our study corroborates recent investigations that support the theory of biotic acceptance of exotic species by native species at the local scale (generally
DRIVERS OF RIPARIAN TREE INVASION ON A DESERT STREAM
Abstract: Understanding mechanisms of exotic species' invasions is essential to managing riparian landscapes throughout the world. In the southwestern USA, the two most dominant invaders of riparian habitats are the exotic tree species tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima, Tamarix chinensis, and their hybrids) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia). These plants were introduced around 1900, and their success may be facilitated by river regulation, river channel changes, and precipitation patterns. We hypothesized that riparian invasion in Canyon de Chelly, Arizona, was initiated by a change point event such as plantings, dam construction, or channel incision and that establishment near a change point was tied to flood events. We aged tamarisk, Russian olive, and native cottonwood trees from study sites in Canyon de Chelly and used tree ring analysis to determine the year of establishment and the elevation of the germination point relative to the channel. We used Bayesian Poisson regression and information theoretics to identify change points and precipitation variables driving annual tree establishment. We found that most tamarisk and Russian olive trees established in the late 1980s, and most cottonwoods established in 1930‐1950 and 1980‐2000. Regression models indicated that change points occurred in 1983 for Russian olive and 1988 for tamarisk, and precipitation was important for establishment. Although plantings and river regulation probably played a role in tree invasion, our results suggest that these species required precipitation and stream channel change for widespread establishment in Canyon de Chelly. The factors driving riparian invasions may not be those often associated with degraded rivers, such as altered hydrographs and land management changes, thus requiring analyses of the full range of ecological and physical processes. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF PERCEPTIONS AND FEEDBACKS FOR EFFECTIVELY MANAGING WOOD IN RIVERS
Abstract: This article reports a survey of 196 river managers in seven states across the USA assessing their perceptions of in‐stream wood. This survey followed corresponding questionnaires given to undergraduate students representing non‐expert views in the same states and in 10 countries around the world. Whereas most students registered predominantly negative views of in‐stream wood (i.e. not aesthetically pleasing, dangerous and needing improvement), American managers perceive rivers with wood as significantly more aesthetically pleasing, less dangerous and needing less improvement than rivers without wood. These views were consistent across different types of managers (conservation, fisheries, forestry, recreation and water), suggesting that because of education, training and field experience beyond the undergraduate degree, managers gain more positive views of in‐stream wood. Analysis of manager responses grouped by years in the profession suggests that professional experience or information within professional networks plays a role. As years worked in the profession increase, managers' responses to photos with and without wood became significantly different, showing sharper discernment in viewing in‐stream wood more positively. We conceptualize evolving management strategies involving wood in American rivers as a series of iterative states within changing human–landscape systems produced by interacting impacts and feedbacks. In this example application, the Interactive, Integrative, and Iterative (III) Framework for Human Landscape Change highlights the importance of public education and policy as necessary feedback linkages to close the gap between people's perceptions of wood and scientific advances that recognize the significant role of wood in rivers. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
POTENTIAL LARGE WOODY DEBRIS RECRUITMENT DUE TO LANDSLIDES, BANK EROSION AND FLOODS IN MOUNTAIN BASINS: A QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION APPROACH
Abstract: In‐depth knowledge of the fluvial corridor and surrounding slopes and forest vegetation is needed for a better understanding of wood recruitment or inputs to rivers. The information available in Central Spain on hydrogeomorphic processes and forest distribution enabled the evaluation of potential wood recruitment from three sources: landslides, bank erosion and fluvial transport during floods on a regional scale. The method presented here is based on a geographical information system (GIS) and on multi‐criteria and multi‐objective assessment using fuzzy logic principles. First, the areas potentially affected by landslides, bank erosion and floods were delineated, and a vegetation analysis was carried out to obtain the vegetation resistance and forest density. Several scenarios were proposed based on the process frequency and severity. Using this method, the volume of potentially available wood can be estimated for each scenario.
Fourteen river basins in populated areas were selected for further analyses and field survey. Observations of in‐stream storage of woody debris and tree disturbances were used to interpret the woody debris dynamics throughout the watershed and validate the obtained results.
This method offers a suitable approach to define a watershed's capacity to recruit wood material to streams by delineating the source areas and estimating the order of magnitude of the wood volume in each case. The results may be useful to characterize the dynamics of woody debris from the perspective of the potential hazard of its transport during floods, and they can also be used for forest and river management and restoration. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
MOMENTUM, ENERGY AND DRAG COEFFICIENTS FOR ICE‐COVERED RIVERS
Abstract: A lack of reliable hydraulic parameters has been a main factor hindering the progress in predicting ice‐covered river flows; the predictions need input hydraulic parameters such as the energy, momentum and drag coefficients (α, β and CD). In this paper, a large volume of winter measurements of flow velocity collected from 26 ice‐covered rivers is analysed to determine the coefficients. Using cross‐sectionally distributed streamwise velocities, α and β are evaluated directly. They are also derived from empirical relationships. For both the riverbed and ice cover, CD is evaluated on the basis of turbulent boundary‐layer theory and the quadratic law for friction. The results show that ice‐covered river flows feature a number of velocity distributions: a single core of high velocities in the thalweg, a single core of high velocities off the thalweg and multiple cores of relatively high velocities at the cross section. The velocity distributions are significantly non‐uniform. Direct evaluations give overall averages of α = 1.23 and β = 1.08. They represent 22% and 8.3% corrections to the literature values (overestimates). An examination of the velocity distributions reveals that the ratio of the maximum velocity to the cross‐sectionally averaged velocity equals 1.356. It is recommended that values of CD = 0.004 ± 0.0005 and 0.002 ± 0.0005 be used for the riverbed and ice, respectively. This paper discusses turbulence shear stress and the associated length scale in the boundary layer as well as winter discharges. The results have applications to aquatic ecology, water resources development and flood prevention. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
LONG PROFILE RESPONSES OF ALPINE BRAIDED RIVERS IN SE FRANCE
Abstract: Channel elevation change since the early 20th century was characterized for 31 alpine braided river reaches (total length of 129 km), representing about 20% of the braided river network length in SE France. Present‐day long profiles were surveyed in the field and compared with historical profiles measured between 1894 and 1930. Forty‐four cross sections of active channels including terrace boundaries were also surveyed to study morphological signatures of braided channels characterized by different channel responses (aggradation or degradation). Results show that 56% of the sampling river length is characterized by degradation, 24% by stability and 20% by aggradation. Gravel mining is recognized as the main factor explaining degradation of braided channels. It is also demonstrated that aggrading braided channels are those where sediment supply from active torrents and bank erosion have been best preserved. The comparison of morphological signatures associated with aggrading and degrading channels reveals significant differences in cross‐section morphometry. A normalized bed relief index is proposed as a reliable indicator of the channel response. Field observations show that long‐term aggraded braided channels have a lower bed relief index than degraded channels, as already established by some laboratory experiments. This index can be used to determine the position of the braided channel in the cycle of degradation‐recovery following the cessation of gravel mining. It is also established that aggraded channels develops wider active channels than degraded channels for a same drainage area. This study provides new insights for the assessment of spontaneous recovery potential of braided channels impacted by gravel mining. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
HYDROPOWER COSTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FLOWS AND CLIMATE WARMING IN CALIFORNIA'S UPPER YUBA RIVER WATERSHED
Abstract: Understanding the trade‐offs between water for the environment and water for hydropower in regulated rivers can inform decision making about hydropower system planning, policy and operations, especially with anticipated climate warming–induced changes in runoff. This study used a multireservoir optimisation model to assess the hydropower effects of increasing minimum instream flows (MIFs) and imposing weekly scale down ramp rates (DRRs) in three locations in California's Upper Yuba River (UYR). The UYR is currently used for hydropower generation yet has high potential for freshwater habitat restoration. Trade‐offs between DRRs, MIFs and hydropower generation and revenue are explored with uniform air temperature increases of 0 °C, 2 °C, 4 °C and 6 °C to approximate anticipated regional climate warming. With 6 °C warming, the most ecologically beneficial MIF and DRR reduced hydropower generation by 7.9% and revenue by 5.5% compared with base case management and a historical climate. This has important implications for licensure of the UYR project and other hydropower projects, where multiple benefits under current and potential future conditions must be balanced. This study provides a methodological approach that can be used by water managers, regulators and stakeholders to better understand inherent trade‐offs in allocating water for multiple beneficial uses in a nonstationary hydroclimate. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
GEOMORPHOLOGY AND FLOODING SHAPE FISH DISTRIBUTION IN A LARGE‐SCALE TEMPERATE FLOODPLAIN
Abstract: Natural river‐floodplain systems are characterized by their dynamic hydrology and diverse geomorphology resulting in a wide range of habitats that support high fish diversity and production. Various factors (e.g. hydrological dynamics, water quality, and biotic processes) have been proposed to explain fish distribution in large river floodplains, but it is still widely acknowledged that the mechanisms involved may vary in diverse floodplain systems and that they are not fully understood. To determine how flooding dynamics and floodplain geomorphology influence fish species distributions across the Volga‐Akhtuba floodplain, Russian Federation, we examined the distributions of eight species with respect to variables reflecting floodplain hydrology and geomorphology. On the basis of fish catches in 40 floodplain water bodies at the end of summer in 2006–2008, we found that frequency of occurrence of most fish species remained stable along the time. The distribution of fish species was strongly influenced by the size and shape of water bodies as well as flood extent. Therefore, the long‐term flood variability that drives the geomorphic heterogeneity of the floodplain creates suitable habitats across ranges of fish flow guilds (rheophilic, eurytopic, and limnophilic), resulting in high diversity of the floodplain ichthyofauna. We conclude that this diverse habitat availability is a highly significant factor influencing fish distribution in the Volga‐Akhtuba floodplain. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
MULTIPLICATIVE LOSS OF LANDLOCKED ATLANTIC SALMON SALMO SALAR L. SMOLTS DURING DOWNSTREAM MIGRATION TROUGH MULTIPLE DAMS
Abstract: Relatively little is known about the downstream migration of landlocked stocks of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. smolts, as earlier migration studies have generally focused on upstream migration. However, in watersheds with many hydroelectric plants (HEPs), multiplicative loss of downstream‐migrating salmon smolts can be high, contributing to population declines or extirpations. Here we report the results from a study of wild landlocked Atlantic salmon smolts in the River Klarälven. Salmon smolts, tagged with acoustic transmitters, were released at different locations and followed as they passed 37 receivers along a 180‐km‐long river segment, including eight dams as well as free‐flowing control stretches. We found that 16% of the smolts successfully migrated along the entire river segment. Most losses occurred during HEP passages, with 76% of the smolts being lost during these passages, which contrasts with the 8% smolt loss along unregulated control stretches. Migration speed was 83% slower along regulated stretches than along unregulated stretches. The observed lower migration speed at regulated stretches was dependent on fish size, with large fish moving slower than small fish. Discharge affected migration speed but not losses. As previously shown for anadromous populations, our study of landlocked salmon demonstrates similar negative effects of multiple passages of HEPs by downstream‐migrating smolts. On the basis of this and previous migration studies, we advocate using a holistic approach in the management and conservation of migratory fish in regulated rivers, which includes safe passage for both upstream‐ and downstream‐migrating fish. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
SPATIAL VARIATION OF STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL INDICATORS IN A LARGE NEW ZEALAND RIVER
Abstract: The ecological responses of large rivers to human pressure can be assessed at multiple scales using a variety of indicators, but little is known about how the responses of ecological indicators vary over small spatial scales. We sampled phytoplankton, zooplankton and macroinvertebrates and measured river metabolism and cotton strip breakdown rates (loss in tensile strength) in contrasting habitats along a 21‐km urban‐industrial reach on a constrained section of the Waikato River, New Zealand's longest river. Rates of gross primary production (2.8–7.8 g O2/m2/d) and ecosystem respiration (3.5–12.7 g O2/m2/d) did not differ consistently between near‐shore (2–3 m from river side) and far‐shore (ca. 10 m from side) locations, urban and industrial reaches or between autumn and spring sampling occasions. Rates of cotton decay (−k) ranged from 0.014 to 0.112 per day and were typically faster at far‐shore locations and in the section of river receiving industrial inputs, but slower in spring compared with autumn. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis of phytoplankton and zooplankton data did not reveal spatial patterns relating to pressure or location (embayment, edge, mid‐river). However, the macroinvertebrate ordination suggested distinct communities for the mid‐river benthos compared with near‐shore communities and a distinction between sites in the urban reach and the industrial reach. Our results suggest that large‐river macroinvertebrate communities and cotton decay rates can be influenced to varying degrees by reach‐scale pressures and local habitat conditions. Monitoring designs in spatially complex rivers should account for habitat heterogeneity that can lead to differences in structural and functional indicator responses. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
LONG‐TERM VEGETATION DYNAMICS AFTER HIGH‐DENSITY SEEDLING ESTABLISHMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR RIPARIAN RESTORATION AND MANAGEMENT
Abstract: Human disturbances have contributed to the deterioration of many western US rivers in the past century. Cottonwood‐willow communities, present historically along the Colorado River, protect watersheds and provide wildlife habitat, but are now among the most threatened forests. As a result, restoration efforts have increased to re‐establish and maintain cottonwood‐willow stands. While successful establishment has been observed using multiple strategies with varying investments, few projects are evaluated to quantify efficacy and determine long‐term sustainability. We monitored a seeded cottonwood‐willow site over a five‐year period beginning in 2007, with particular interest in how density affected vegetation diversity and stand structure over time. Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) and volunteer tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissma) were the only abundant riparian trees at the site after one year. P. fremontii, compared to T. ramosissma, had higher growth rates, lower mortality, and dominated overstory and total cover each year. Vegetation diversity decreased from 2007–2009, but was similar from 2009–2011 as a result of decreased herbaceous and increased shrub species richness. Diversity was highest in the lowest density class (1‐12 stems/m2), but similar among all other classes (13–24, 25–42, 43+). High initial woody species densities resulted in single‐stemmed trees with depressed terminal and radial growths. Allometry, relating height to DBH at different densities, could prove to be an important tool for long‐term restoration management and studying habitat suitability. Understanding long‐term trends at densely‐planted or seeded sites can benefit restoration managers who aim to establish specific community structure and vegetation diversity for wildlife habitat. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Spawning of the endangered Australian lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri) in a heavily regulated river: a pulse for life
Abstract: The Australian lungfish is an endangered native species currently protected under various state, federal and international agreements. Scarce information on their early life history is available due to the absence of juveniles collected in the wild. This has led to concerns about the sustainability of the species and become a driver for the conservation effort for Australian lungfish. This study aimed to consolidate knowledge on the critical hydraulic habitat requirements of this species within a water resource management context. In this study, spawning of Australian lungfish was found to be a seasonal strategy that is highly reliant on a variable low‐flow regime within riverine habitat. Suitable conditions for spawning were characterized by small flow events in early‐to‐mid spring when water temperatures are between 18 and 28 °C, leading to oviposition on short dense macrophytes in shallow water. Importantly, many of the key environmental factors driving the ecological response are manageable through existing water resource infrastructure. Specifically, releases from water storages within the current distribution of Australian lungfish should mimic the natural inflow and temperature regime within the spawning period, and also provide suitable riverine habitat within projected full supply limits. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
GEOMORPHOLOGICAL CONTROLS ON VEGETATION RESPONSES TO FLOW ALTERATIONS IN A MEDITERRANEAN STREAM (CENTRAL‐WESTERN SPAIN)
Abstract: The expected recovery of the natural conditions of large regulated rivers over the distance downstream from a dam is limited by relative tributary size according to the Serial Discontinuity Concept; however, geomorphology may also influence the recovery process. We examined the woody vegetation of the riparian zone in seven river segments distributed along the regulated reach of the Tiétar River in central‐western Spain, which flows through two distinct geomorphic templates. Whereas the annual runoff has decreased by 30% on average along the entire studied reach following the construction of the Rosarito Dam and the initiation of field irrigation in the region, the magnitude and frequency of the peak flows decreased by 30% immediately downstream from the dam but recovered the natural values with the distance downstream. We evaluated the recovery patterns toward the natural riparian conditions by comparing woody species composition, diversity and distribution of vegetation patches established prior to and after dam completion. Our results did not indicate a recovery gradient of any of the analysed vegetation attributes downstream from the dam. Instead, we found that the difference in the slope of the stream channel and banks, the width of the valley and the size of substratum particles among the surveyed patches were factors that significantly mediated dam and tributary effects on vegetation and influenced the degree of vegetation recovery. Hence, the maintenance of the intensity of the flow alteration scheme by the numerous water withdrawals and the low tributary contributions, coupled with differential geomorphological characteristics along the reach, overwhelmed the natural tendency for the river to restore its natural conditions with distance downstream. Improving water management and, particularly, restoring endangered riparian ecosystems require a detailed understanding of existing and potential woody species behaviour across the geomorphological settings of rivers. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
GEOMORPHIC RESPONSES TO CHANGES IN INSTREAM FLOWS: THE FLOW‐CHANNEL FITNESS MODEL
Abstract: The flow‐channel fitness model is a conceptual and practical model for predicting the qualitative response of alluvial channels to modifications of flow regimes. ‘Fitness’ refers to the size of channels compared with the flows they convey, with the terminology derived from traditional geomorphic concepts of overfit and underfit streams. The qualitative predictions refer to whether channels experience aggradation, degradation or relative stability, and whether aggradation or degradation is dominated by width or depth. The model is based on transitions among seven possible fitness states, triggered by key thresholds of sediment supply versus transport capacity and shear stress versus shear strength, and requires that potential changes in sediment supply and water surface or energy‐grade slope also be accounted for. The fitness approach can be used where only relative values and changes are known, as is illustrated in three example applications from Texas. The flow‐channel fitness model synthesizes key elements from several existing approaches to predicting geomorphic responses to changes in flow and is intended to augment rather than replace quantitative approaches, providing a predictive tool where the data requirements and assumptions for quantitative models cannot be fully met. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
FISH RECRUITMENT IS INFLUENCED BY RIVER FLOWS AND FLOODPLAIN INUNDATION AT APALACHICOLA RIVER, FLORIDA
Abstract: High human demand for limited water resources often results in water allocation trade‐offs between human needs and natural flow regimes. Therefore, knowledge of ecosystem function in response to varying streamflow conditions is necessary for informing water allocation decisions. Our objective was to evaluate relationships between river flow and fish recruitment and growth patterns at the Apalachicola River, Florida, a regulated river, during 2003–2010. To test relationships of fish recruitment and growth as responses to river discharge, we used linear regression of (i) empirical catch in fall, (ii) back‐calculated catch, via cohort‐specific catch curves, and (iii) mean total length in fall of age 0 largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, redear sunfish Lepomis microlophus and spotted sucker Minytrema melanops against spring–summer discharge measures in Apalachicola River. Empirical catch rates in fall for all three species showed positive and significant relationships to river discharge that sustained floodplain inundation during spring–summer. Back‐calculated catch at age 0 for the same species showed positive relationships to discharge measures, but possibly because of low sample sizes (n = 4–6), these linear regressions were not statistically significant. Mean total length for age 0 largemouth bass in fall showed a positive and significant relationship to spring–summer discharge; however, size in fall for age 0 redear sunfish and spotted sucker showed no relation to spring–summer discharge. Our results showed clear linkages among river discharge, floodplain inundation and fish recruitment, and they have implications for water management and allocation in the Apalachicola River basin. Managed flow regimes that reduce the frequency and duration of floodplain inundation during spring–summer will likely reduce stream fish recruitment. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
UNCERTAINTY IN PREDICTING THE FISH‐RESPONSE TO TWO‐DIMENSIONAL HABITAT MODELING USING FIELD DATA
Abstract: Both water managers and researchers have the same goal when it comes to fish conservation, namely, to sustain, to improve or to restore aquatic habitat. To this aim, two‐dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic models have been widely used in aquatic habitat studies because they simulate flow with high accuracy and can predict habitat dynamics. The River2D model is able to integrate the habitat suitability curves for fish life stages with the simulated depth and velocity fields and the riverbed characteristics of substrate and cover, thereby estimating the corresponding weighted usable area, and thus predicting the potential distribution of fish species in the river. However, little is known about the in situ variability associated with such predictions both for hydraulic and biological data, whereas ecological responses are known to be driven by variability. Moreover, when calculating habitat availability, differences can be found by considering in the weighted usable area formulation substrate or cover or even both. To test the level of predictive accuracy of hydraulic and biological simulations, we modelled the habitat use by two fish species, the Iberian barbel Luciobarbus bocagei and the Iberian straight‐mouth nase Pseudochondrostoma polylepis, according to their requirements for depth, velocity, substrate and cover and then compared measured and simulated hydraulic and biological outcomes using the River2D model. Results indicate that 2D simulation depends on data collection, especially the density and location of bed topography points. Substantial differences were found in the biological responses. Results may differ when choosing different habitat availability variables. Similarly, habitat use may also be influenced by other biotic and abiotic interactions occurring in ecosystems, and restoration planning should be aware of such variability. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
STREAM HABITAT MODELLING FOR CONSERVING A THREATENED HEADWATER FISH IN THE UPPER CUMBERLAND RIVER, KENTUCKY
Abstract: The conservation of stream biodiversity requires more explicit knowledge on the distribution of aquatic species within the context of their specific environmental settings and stresses. Although species distribution models (SDMs) have been widely used for organisms occupying contiguous spatial extents, the implementation of SDMs in relatively complex and segmented riverine networks is still at its early stage. In this study, we explicitly modelled the headwater stream habitat for the threatened blackside dace (Phoxinus cumberlandensis) endemic to the upper Cumberland River, Kentucky, USA. An occurrence record data set, along with variables describing stream properties and land use impacts, was used to predict the fish habitat suitability at the stream segment level. An approach combining geographic information systems and the maximum entropy species distribution modelling (MaxEnt) was adopted. Results demonstrated that natural conditions and land use disturbances, respectively, form the primary and secondary environmental constraints on the species' habitat. We generated regional‐scale management‐friendly maps showing subwatershed habitat suitability and locations of the clustered suitable habitats (hotspots) and thus set an example for spatially explicit management of threatened and endangered riverine species. This study demonstrates the usefulness of SDMs for stream network–based environments in the facilitation of biogeographic conservation efforts and studies. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
DIEL CHANGES OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN STREAMS OF VARYING WATERSHED LAND USE
Abstract: We examined diel changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) under summer low‐flow conditions for six streams selected across a gradient of agricultural land use intensity (21%–73% cropland). Trends in concentration [dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration] and optical properties of DOM showed a high degree of synchrony. During a 24‐h period, DOC changed by between 2.9 and 4.3 mg L−1. For all sites, the highest DOC was observed during dark periods and the lowest concentration during light periods. DOM sampled during daylight hours was more complex (humic) as determined using specific absorbance. DOM source, measured using fluorescence spectroscopy, usually varied during the 24‐h period, but few similarities in temporal fluorescence trends were identified between sites. Human landscape alterations appear to have little direct influence on the temporal nature of diel DOM dynamics in our study region. However, our results indicate that landscape characteristics are likely more broadly important in defining the magnitude temporal change in DOC. Woodland areas were negatively correlated with early afternoon DOC (r2 = 0.89, p = 0.005), positively correlated with diel percent change in DOC (r2 = 0.87, p = 0.007) and positively with diel change in discharge (r2 = 0.64, p = 0.054). Together, these results indicate the likely influence of differing riparian transpiration rates and changing subsurface inputs on DOC loading. Reduced DOC and discharge rates during daylight hours resulted in a mean underestimation of DOC export rate by 61% for early afternoon versus early morning sampling. Variation in the dominant source of DOM entering theses streams was strongly related to agricultural land use, and DOM in high cropland streams was more microbially derived. In addition, high cropland streams also exhibited the lowest minimum dissolved oxygen concentrations, a pattern related to high rates of productivity at these sites. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
EVALUATION OF IN SITU FLUOROMETRY TO DETERMINE CYANOBACTERIAL ABUNDANCE IN THE MURRAY AND LOWER DARLING RIVERS, AUSTRALIA
Abstract: A Yellow Springs Instruments water quality sonde fitted with fluorometric probes for phycocyanin and chlorophyll a was trialled at sites along the Murray and Lower Darling Rivers, Australia, during 2008–2009. The project examined whether the in situ quantification of phycocyanin by fluorometry could be used to determine the abundance of cyanobacteria present. Abundance was measured in the laboratory as biovolume from samples collected at the same time as the phycocyanin measurements. The study found a strong positive relationship between the two measurements. However, it was found that the use of in situ phycocyanin fluorometry was not effective in turbid water higher than 50 Nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) as this produced false‐positive readings for phycocyanin. There was a considerable amount of variance within the data, much probably caused by error in estimating cyanobacterial biovolumes. Some variability may also be attributed to error involved in the in situ measurement of phycocyanin, especially when cyanobacterial abundance was close to the lower limit of quantification of the instrument. This is likely to be greatest when total cyanobacterial biovolume is less than 0.4 mm3 L−1. The relationship between phycocyanin measured in situ by fluorometry and total cyanobacterial biovolume varied spatially between sites along the Murray River, probably caused by differences in cyanobacterial abundance and in the species composition of the cyanobacterial communities in different sections of the river. No relationship was found between total cyanobacterial biovolume and chlorophyll a measured by in situ fluorometry. However, in situ fluorometry has the potential to be a useful rapid assessment tool for cyanobacterial bloom management. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Classification of Natural Flow Regimes in the Ebro Basin (Spain) by using a Wide Range of Hydrologic Parameters
Abstract: This paper presents a classification of different natural flow regimes found in Ebro basin, one of the largest in the Mediterranean region. Determination of flow regimes was based on multivariate analyses using long‐term discharge series of unaltered flow data. Mean monthly discharges of the 30 ‘best’ flow series and a total of 52 flow series containing unaltered flow data were selected to represent baseline flow conditions for tributaries throughout the basin. Metrics representing magnitude, duration and frequency components of flow were used to identify hydrologic differences across the basin. A total of six natural flow regimes were identified in the Ebro Basin, using a Ward cluster method. The flow patterns identified and their spatial distribution largely corresponded with climatic zones previously reported for the Ebro Basin, with regime types ranging from pluvio‐oceanic in the western part of the basin to Mediterranean in the eastern region. Geologic characteristics of the catchment and altitude of headwaters were also found to play an important role in defining flow regime type. A 19‐hydrologic variable subset was used to explain main hydrologic differences among groups (such as magnitude and frequency of extreme flow conditions or magnitude and variance of average flow conditions). However, stepwise discriminant analysis was not able to identify consistent subsets of hydrologic variables that adequately identified the six natural flow regime types in this basin. Canonical discriminant analysis was useful to understand class separation and for the interpretation of results. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
SHORT‐TERM IMPACTS OF LATERAL HYDROLOGICAL CONNECTIVITY RESTORATION ON AQUATIC MACROINVERTEBRATES
Abstract: In floodplain ecosystems, the lateral hydrological connectivity between the main river channel and the secondary channels plays a major role in shaping both the habitat conditions and the macroinvertebrate diversity. Among other threats, human activities tend to reduce the lateral connectivity, which increases floodplain terrestrialization and induces a loss of aquatic biodiversity. Consequently, the restoration of lateral connectivity is of growing concern. We studied four secondary channels of the Rhône floodplain that were subjected either to no restoration or to three different restoration measures (river flow increase only, flow increase plus dredging and flow increase plus reconnection to the river). Macroinvertebrate and environmental data were analysed one year before and during a period of five years after restoration. We expected a progressive increase of lateral connectivity according to the type of restoration. Changes in macroinvertebrate assemblages were predicted to be towards more rheophilic communities and proportionally related to the changes in lateral connectivity.In the reconnected channel, lateral connectivity increased and remained high five years after restoration. In the dredged channel, the immediate increase of the lateral connectivity metric induced by sediment removal was followed by a rapid decrease. In the unrestored channel and the channel only influenced by flow increase, the metric remained constant in time. The macroinvertebrate composition and the rarefied EPT richness changes were proportionally related to the changes in lateral connectivity. Alien species richness and densities increased progressively in all channels after restoration. Our results showed that modifications of the lateral connectivity lead to predictable changes in macroinvertebrate diversity. Synergistic interactions between restoration and longer‐term changes (e.g. climatic change, invasion of alien species) encourage long‐term monitoring to assess the durability and trends of restoration measures. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
MORPHOLOGICALLY RELATED INTEGRATIVE MANAGEMENT CONCEPT FOR RECONNECTING ABANDONED CHANNELS BASED ON AIRBORNE LiDAR DATA AND HABITAT MODELLING
Abstract: Most of the large rivers are heavily degraded and lack near‐natural conditions due to high human pressure (agricultural use and settlements) especially on former inundation areas. Hence, it is rarely possible to ‘restore’ predisturbance conditions of rivers and their floodplains. Further, river or floodplain restoration programs are often based on type‐specific reference conditions. Those reference conditions are mainly determined on the basis of historical maps not giving any information of, for example, sediment supply, flood frequency and vegetation cover (density). Especially for improving the ecological status of rivers with abandoned channel features, key habitats for target fish species have to be restored by reconnecting floodplains and their secondary channel system. In addition, because of the necessity of improving the ecological status, there is growing interest in interdisciplinary river restoration techniques. Within the presented article, an integrative concept is derived based on Light Detection and Ranging measurements and numerical modelling with respect to river dynamics (hydrologic and morphological). Further habitat modelling, based on unsteady depth‐averaged two‐dimensional hydrodynamics, is applied with a focus on the mesounit scale. For testing the conceptual model, various river reaches at the Morava River were selected, featuring different morphological characteristics. It was found that the applied management concept allows considering the important issues of river dynamics (morphological/hydrologic) using a flow‐ and flood‐pulse approach for identifying bottlenecks of target species at the Morava River. The reconnection of abandoned channels will result in an increase of hydromorphological heterogeneity and/or woody debris within the study reach. This might be of high relevance for habitat features (e.g. backwater habitats) especially for flow pulses between low flow and mean flow and/or in reaches without abandoned channels between low‐flow and the bankfull stage. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
LONG‐TERM COTTONWOOD FOREST DYNAMICS ALONG THE UPPER MISSOURI RIVER, USA
Abstract: The upper Missouri River bottomland in north‐central Montana, USA, retains much of the physical character it had when traversed by Lewis and Clark around 1805. We used geospatial data to quantify long‐term changes in the distribution of bottomland vegetation, land use patterns and channel planform for a 257‐rkm segment of the Missouri River above Fort Peck Reservoir. This segment is less ecologically altered than downstream segments, but two dams completed in the mid‐1950s have decreased the frequency and magnitude of floods. The area of forest is sparse because of geomorphic setting but, contrary to public perception, has remained relatively constant during the past century. However, the stability of forest area obscures its spatial and temporal dynamics. We used state and transition models to quantify fates and sources of forest during two periods: 1890s–1950s and 1950s–2006. Total forest area was 6% greater in 2006 than it was in the 1890s, largely due to reduced forest loss to erosional processes and gains related to progressive channel narrowing. Channel narrowing resulted in part from human‐caused peak flow attenuation. A modified transition matrix, used to examine future steady‐state conditions, projected little change in forest area; however, these projections are likely an overestimate. The extent to which 2006 forest area represents a transient adjustment to a new flow regime versus a dynamic, quasi–steady state will be determined by the long‐term interplay among hydrologic factors, channel processes, water management and land use practices. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
LIFE HISTORY DOES MATTER IN ASSESSING POTENTIAL ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF THERMAL CHANGES ON AQUATIC MACROINVERTEBRATES
Abstract: Thermal alteration is associated with ecological change in freshwater systems. Global climate change is likely to amplify thermal stresses on aquatic systems. We used cumulative daily heat units to examine potential impacts of temperature changes on selected aquatic organisms using scenario analyses. We selected two species of aquatic macroinvertebrates to test our hypotheses of thermal effects on life history pattern, viz. a univoltine stenothermic ephemeropteran species of conservation importance, and a multivoltine dipteran pest species. A combination of spreadsheet probability and logistic regression models was used to model probabilities of hatching and breeding success, plus population sizes and generation numbers per month, under current and projected 2 °C warmer water temperature scenarios. We propose that cold‐adapted Gondwanaland relic species are likely to become increasingly vulnerable and range limited, whereas multivoltine pest species are likely to become more abundant under scenarios of increased water temperatures. We propose management options that include maintaining river connectivity and dam re‐operation as potential mitigation measures. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
AN INVADER WITHIN AN ALTERED LANDSCAPE: ONE CATFISH, TWO RIVERS AND AN INTER‐BASIN WATER TRANSFER SCHEME
Abstract: African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus has become established as a non‐native invasive species in Eastern Cape, South Africa, where it was translocated primarily through an inter‐basin water transfer scheme into the Great Fish and Sundays rivers. This study examined the patterns in catfish distribution and abundance, and compared trophic niches in relation to the ichthyofauna of the two rivers. Correspondence analysis revealed upstream to downstream gradients associated with the spatial distribution in species richness for most species within the mainstream and mainstream to tributary gradients that were associated mostly with the spatial distribution of native minnows in both rivers. Catfish was predicted to occur widely within the mainstream habitats and to decrease progressively from mainstreams to tributaries. Based on classification and regression trees, the physico‐chemical environment was found to be a good proxy for predicting the occurrence and abundance of catfish. Although non‐significant relationships were observed between catfish and other native fish species abundances, the study suggests potential impact due to predation and interference in habitats where the invader co‐occurs with other fishes. Comparisons of trophic niches indicated higher trophic diversity for the mainstream ichthyofauna than the tributary communities in both rivers, suggesting an upstream to downstream continuum in community structure and resource availability. Catfish within the invaded mainstream had comparable trophic niches and similar dispersion patterns among individuals for both rivers, but indicated differences in shapes of scatter. This suggests that the catfish exhibited a differential response, probably in relation to resource availability, that may be indicative of its dietary plasticity. The study suggests the proliferation of catfish and its probable impact within the mainstream flow‐altered habitats where invasion resistance was possibly reduced. Comparisons of trophic niches provided information on its probable impact at different scales and the potential risk of invasion of tributaries inhabited by native minnow species. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF SMALL‐SCALE HYDROELECTRIC POWER GENERATION ON DOWNSTREAM MOVING LAMPREYS
Abstract: Small‐scale hydropower is developing rapidly in many countries in response to policies of encouraging renewable energy and reducing reliance on fossil fuels. This rapid increase in the construction of hydroelectric turbines provides a substantial risk to migrating biota, especially fish. Some turbines, such as the Archimedes screw design, are regarded as relatively friendly to fish but have not yet been assessed for their potential impacts on threatened lamprey species. To assess the risk of impingement and the patterns of movement by emigrating river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis transformers and drifting larval ammocoetes at the site of an Archimedes screw turbine in north‐east England, drift nets were set over the periods of January to June 2009 and November 2009 to May 2010. Drifting Lampetra sp. larvae were recorded in all sampling months, November to June, while emigrating lampreys were recorded in all months but June (93% captured between December and April), reflecting a higher period of impingement risk than expected. Night‐time catches were 24‐ and 8‐fold higher for transformers and larvae, respectively, than daytime catches. Catch per unit water volume data in different channel areas suggest that lamprey larvae behaved as passive particles within the river flow but that transformers selected areas of higher flow. Damage rates of lampreys passed through the screw were low (1.5%), suggesting minor impacts on downstream‐moving larval and juvenile lampreys. However, the cumulative potential impacts of multiple hydropower sites on downstream fish passage, including lampreys, should be considered by regulatory agencies when planning hydropower development within catchments. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
FLOOD INUNDATION MAPPING FOR INTEGRATED FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT: UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER SYSTEM
Abstract: Natural hydrogeomorphic characteristics and hydrologic alterations are important ecological drivers, and hydrology is also a common ecological, flood control and navigation system indicator. Hydrologic characteristics change dramatically from one end of the Upper Mississippi River System to the other, and hydraulic characteristics also differ spatially across the river channels and floodplain in response to dams, levees and diversions. Low flow surface water spatial change in response to navigation and flood control has been well known for many years, but little information was available on the spatial distribution of frequent floods. The flow frequency data presented here were developed to better estimate contemporary floods after historic flooding in 1993. Flood stage estimates are enhanced in GIS to help quantify and map potential floodplain inundation for more than 1000 river miles on the Upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers. Potential flood inundation is mapped for the 50% to 0.2% annual exceedance probability flood stage (i.e. 2‐ to 500‐year expected recurrence interval flood) and also for alternative floodplain management scenarios within the existing flood protection infrastructure. Our analysis documents: (i) impoundment effects, (ii) a hydrologic gradient within the navigation pools that creates repeating patterns of riverine, backwater and impounded aquatic habitat conditions, (iii) potential floodplain inundation patterns for over 2 million acres and (iv) several integrated floodplain management scenarios. Extreme flood events are more common in recent decades, and they are expected to continue to occur at greater frequency in response to climate change. Floodplain managers can use the results presented here to help optimize land management and flood damage reduction on the Upper Mississippi River System. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
RESTORING SALMON HABITAT FOR A CHANGING CLIMATE
Abstract: An important question for salmon restoration efforts in the western USA is ‘How should habitat restoration plans be altered to accommodate climate change effects on stream flow and temperature'’ We developed a decision support process for adapting salmon recovery plans that incorporates (1) local habitat factors limiting salmon recovery, (2) scenarios of climate change effects on stream flow and temperature, (3) the ability of restoration actions to ameliorate climate change effects, and (4) the ability of restoration actions to increase habitat diversity and salmon population resilience. To facilitate the use of this decision support framework, we mapped scenarios of future stream flow and temperature in the Pacific Northwest region and reviewed literature on habitat restoration actions to determine whether they ameliorate a climate change effect or increase life history diversity and salmon resilience. Under the climate change scenarios considered here, summer low flows decrease by 35–75% west of the Cascade Mountains, maximum monthly flows increase by 10–60% across most of the region, and stream temperatures increase between 2 and 6°C by 2070–2099. On the basis of our literature review, we found that restoring floodplain connectivity, restoring stream flow regimes, and re‐aggrading incised channels are most likely to ameliorate stream flow and temperature changes and increase habitat diversity and population resilience. By contrast, most restoration actions focused on in‐stream rehabilitation are unlikely to ameliorate climate change effects. Finally, we illustrate how the decision support process can be used to evaluate whether climate change should alter the types or priority of restoration actions in a salmon habitat restoration plan. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PATTERNS OF BENTHIC INVERTEBRATE RICHNESS AND DIVERSITY IN THE REGULATED MAGPIE RIVER AND NEIGHBOURING NATURAL RIVERS
Abstract: Fluctuating flows common in hydropeaking operations present biota with contrasting and challenging environments. Taxa that require a narrow range of water velocity or are not adapted to withstand sudden changes in discharge will likely be eliminated or competitively disadvantaged under such circumstances, perhaps leading to reduced biodiversity. I investigated the whole river, longitudinal and lateral patterns of benthic invertebrate abundance, Shannon–Wiener diversity, and rarefied taxa density and richness in the hydropeaking Magpie River and 16 neighbouring natural rivers. The Magpie River had greater abundances of benthic invertebrates than natural rivers, particularly near the dam. General differences in benthic community characteristics were largely based on the near absence of Odonata and Plecoptera and an abundance of snails and worms in the Magpie River. Family density, richness and diversity were greater in the regulated Magpie River and unregulated upper Magpie River than found in natural rivers. Longitudinally, family density, diversity and particularly richness increased downstream in the Magpie River. Laterally, diversity did not show any trends with increasing depth along transects, except at near the dam where it decreased sharply with depth, velocity, and an abundance of filter feeding invertebrates. Taxa density did not show any lateral trends in natural rivers, whereas in the Magpie River, it increased with water velocity and depth. The results of this study are contradictory to the general findings of others implying reduced biodiversity below hydropower facilities. Possible explanations are examined and contrasted with other examinations of benthic invertebrate response below hydropeaking dams. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2012.
Genotoxicity in Chironomus kiiensis (Chironomidae: Diptera) after exposure to polluted sediments from rivers of north peninsular Malaysia: implication for ecotoxicological monitoring
Abstract: Rapid industrialization and urbanization has led to increasing input of chemical contaminants into the aquatic environment of Malaysia. Despite the threat civilization poses to the biota, there are still very few relevant studies on ecotoxicological testing of river ecosystems. To overcome this knowledge gap, we examined lethal and genotoxic effects of sediments from different rivers of the northern Malaysia against Chironomus kiiensis, a group well represented in the aquatic fauna of this region. We exposed the larvae to sediments from Selama River (SR), Permatang Rawa River (PRR) and Kilang Ubi River (KUR) at various durations (0, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h). The larval mortality was monitored, whereas DNA damage in survivors' cells was determined using the comet assay. Pollution level indexed by the amounts of heavy metals and other organic contaminants in the sediment showed progressive increases from SR to PRR to KUR. Highly polluted sediments (PRR to KUR) were detrimental to C. kiiensis larvae, most of which did not survive following exposure for long periods. DNA analyses revealed greater damages in nuclei derived from larvae maintained on polluted sediments, in particular, those from KUR. The effects on the genomic material of C. kiiensis larvae occurred in a time‐dependent manner, with damage level increasing as exposure time progressed. Our results highlight the genotoxic properties of polluted sediments. More importantly, this study showed that C. kiiensis larvae could respond to different levels of pollution with respect to exposure time. It is concluded that C. kiiensis larvae is a potential candidate for river ecotoxicological monitoring. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Fish assemblages in non‐regulated and regulated rivers from permanent and temporary Iberian systems
Abstract: The effects of river regulation on the hydrological cycle of a river and on the respective fish assemblage may differ according to dam operation purpose and type of river analysed. To assess the spatial and temporal variation of fish assemblages and their response to the hydrological changes caused by two different types of flow regulation, we selected three sampling sites in four rivers with different levels of regulation, two in a permanent river system and another two on a temporary one, which we sampled in four different annual seasons. In the permanent system, hydroelectrical regulation decreased hydrological variability, which affected fluvial specialist species, benefitting the generalist ones, and created a more homogeneous community that presented less intra‐annual variation. In the temporary system, agricultural regulation caused an inversion of the hydrological cycle, maintaining a moderate flow volume throughout the drought period that benefited the introduced, generalist and more tolerant species. Monthly volume was recognized, in a temporal scale, as the most important hydrological feature for assemblages' structure, predicting the intra‐annual variation of several ecological guilds. This study provides important considerations for dam management and riverine ecosystems conservation. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
HOW PROXIMITY OF LAND USE AFFECTS STREAM FISH AND HABITAT
Abstract: This study quantified the unique variation in stream fish and habitat and a land use disturbance index (LDI) at a variety of spatial scales: catchment, eight riparian polygons that varied in width and length (e.g. 50 m to all upstream reaches), upstream polygons of 1.6 and 3.2 km and the residual upland area of each site watershed not accounted for by each polygon. The analyses confirmed a hockey stick‐shaped relationship between the fish community and the LDI, with sensitive species only present below an LDI of 11. The largest variation for most metrics was explained by the largest polygons, suggesting that local riparian conditions were not as important predictors of stream condition. LDI in upland areas, where zero‐order streams occur, was also an important predictor of fish biomass and taxa richness. Contrary to expected, additive models with both catchment and riparian corridors provided minimal increases in predictive power, and no improvement in model performance occurred when data sets were stratified into sites below the LDI threshold. Finally, there was considerable covariation in the template and stressor predictor variables that made it difficult to quantify the unique variation in biological and physical responses accounted for by land use. That the 1600‐m proximal polygon provided the best predictor of the fish community and temperature is supportive of there being some proximal effects of land use. Overall, our findings suggest that stream management must consider processes that occur in the entire upstream catchment and the entire riparian corridor, including the headwaters for success. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
LONG‐TERM TAXON‐SPECIFIC RESPONSES OF MACROINVERTEBRATES TO DAM REMOVAL IN A MID‐SIZED SWEDISH STREAM
Abstract: Dam removal to restore ecologically impaired rivers is becoming increasingly common. Although the target often is to facilitate fish migration, dam removal has also been assumed to benefit other types of organisms. Because few studies thus far deal with effects of dam removal on stream macroinvertebrates and because results have been equivocal, we investigated both short‐ and longer‐term dam‐removal effects on downstream macroinvertebrate communities. We did this in a before‐and‐after study of the removal of a dam located in a south Swedish stream. We sampled the benthic fauna 6 months before dam removal and both 6 months and 3.5 years after the dam was removed. We compared species composition, taxonomic richness, total densities and densities of macroinvertebrate groups before and after dam removal and between downstream and reference sites. We found that dam removal reduced some macroinvertebrate taxa at the downstream site, but we found no effect on community composition. Although this corroborates results from previous short‐term studies, we also found a reduction of taxonomic richness and that some dam‐removal effects persisted or even increased over time. The most likely explanation for the suppression of benthic macroinvertebrate richness following dam removal is a significantly increased sediment transport from the former reservoir and a subsequent loss of preferred substrates. Our results indicate that adverse dam‐removal effects may be long lasting but taxon specific. We therefore call for longer‐term studies on a variety of organisms to better understand how dam removal may influence downstream macroinvertebrate communities. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
LARGE‐WOOD LOADING FROM NATURAL AND ENGINEERED PROCESSES AT THE WATERSHED SCALE
Abstract: Large wood, both live and dead, is essential for producing complex habitat in many streams, especially in forested watersheds that support salmonid populations. The addition of engineered wood structures is a common approach taken in many streams where past watershed management practices have resulted in reduced wood loading. We examined six 300‐m stream reaches in the Lagunitas Creek watershed, Northern California, to determine (i) the distribution of large wood in the bankfull channel and 10‐year floodplain, (ii) the influence of large wood on the size and distribution of pools and (iii) whether streams with engineered wood structures had greater diversity of pool habitat to support salmonid populations. We found that the amount of large wood in the bankfull channel and the amount available for recruitment from the 10‐year floodplain were highly variable among and within reaches examined and largely dependent on the local geomorphic setting. Stream reaches with engineered wood structures had elevated pool frequencies relative to reaches without these structures, suggesting a higher capacity to support salmonids during critical life stages. Among large wood pieces that had a strong influence on pool formation, 23% had an attached root wad and 66% were part of a cluster. All of the study reaches we examined had lower volumes of large wood in their bankfull channels than similar stream types with natural wood‐loading levels, suggesting that increased additions of large wood could provide ecosystem benefits over time. These principles can be understood and transferred effectively to other watersheds using a framework of wood‐loading process domains. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
MULTISTAGE ANALYSIS OF HYDROLOGIC ALTERATIONS IN THE YELLOW RIVER, CHINA
Abstract: Natural river flow regimes provide an array of ecological and social functions by sustaining the health of riverine ecosystems. To identify the hydrologic alterations in the lower Yellow River basin caused by natural factors and human activities, we developed multistage hydrologic analysis to investigate the temporal variability of the river's flow regimes. We used a cumulative departure curve and Mann–Whitney–Pettitt nonparametric tests to determine possible change points based on hydrologic data from 1950 to 2006. We then used the range of variability approach to characterize and to quantify the temporal variability of the hydrologic regimes that were associated with perturbations such as dam operation, flow diversions or intensive conversion of land use within the watershed. In the case study, three stages in hydrologic alterations of the flow regime were found: a stage without human impacts, a stage with excessive human impacts and a reservoir‐regulation stage. Our results indicated that (i) after 1997, dam operation efficiently achieved flood control using sediment regulation activities; (ii) although effective in flood control, the Xiaolangdi Reservoir could not handle situations with extremely low flow, such as during droughts; and (iii) under the arid climate of the Yellow River basin, water consumption by agriculture was the main cause of water shortages. The current study shows that multistage hydrologic analysis can greatly assist regional water resources management and the restoration of riparian eco‐environmental systems affected by dam construction under a changing environment. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
SHOVELNOSE STURGEON SPAWNING IN RELATION TO VARYING DISCHARGE TREATMENTS IN A MISSOURI RIVER TRIBUTARY
Abstract: Many lotic fish species use natural patterns of variation in discharge and temperature as spawning cues, and these natural patterns are often altered by river regulation. The effects of spring discharge and water temperature variation on the spawning of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus have not been well documented. From 2006 through 2009, we had the opportunity to study the effects of experimental discharge levels on shovelnose sturgeon spawning in the lower Marias River, a regulated tributary to the Missouri River in Montana. In 2006, shovelnose sturgeon spawned in the Marias River in conjunction with the ascending, peak (134 m3/s) and descending portions of the spring hydrograph and water temperatures from 16 °C to 19 °C. In 2008, shovelnose sturgeon spawned in conjunction with the peak (118 m3/s) and descending portions of the spring hydrograph and during a prolonged period of increased discharge (28–39 m3/s), coupled with water temperatures from 11 °C to 23 °C in the lower Marias River. No evidence of shovelnose sturgeon spawning was documented in the lower Marias River in 2007 or 2009 when discharge remained low (14 and 20 m3/s) despite water temperatures suitable and optimal (12 °C−24 °C) for shovelnose sturgeon embryo development. A similar relationship between shovelnose sturgeon spawning and discharge was observed in the Teton River. These data suggest that discharge must reach a threshold level (28 m3/s) and should be coupled with water temperatures suitable (12 °C−24 °C) or optimal (16 °C−20 °C) for shovelnose sturgeon embryo development to provide a spawning cue for shovelnose sturgeon in the lower Marias River. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
EPISODIC SUSPENDED SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AND ELEVATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATIONS IN A SMALL, MOUNTAINOUS RIVER IN COASTAL CALIFORNIA
Abstract: Suspended sediment and organic contaminants were measured during a period of 2 years in the San Lorenzo River, central California, which discharges into the Pacific Ocean within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, in an effort to quantify the potential environmental effects of storm events from a steep, mountainous coastal urban watershed. Most suspended sediment transport occurred during flooding caused by winter storms; 56% of the total sediment load for the 2‐year study was transported by the river during one storm event in January 2010. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can exceed regulatory criteria during high‐flow events in the San Lorenzo River, and total annual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon load was on the order of 10 kg in water year 2010. These results highlight the importance of episodic sediment and contaminant transport in steep, mountainous coastal watersheds and emphasize the importance of understanding physical processes and quantifying chemical constituents in discharge from coastal watersheds on event‐scale terms. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
COMPARISON OF THE HYDROMORPHOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF THE L'ASSOMPTION AND OUAREAU RIVER CHANNELS (QUEBEC, CANADA)
Abstract: The monitoring station method, which is based on comparing data before and after dam construction, is commonly used to quantify the hydromorphological impacts induced by dams. However, in the absence of pre‐dam construction data, other analytical methods may be used to detect changes downstream from dams that remain more or less constant over time. The study used one such method, the control station method, to constrain changes which may be linked to construction of the Rawdon Dam, in 1913, on the Ouareau River. Thus, a comparison of the hydrological (seasonal daily maximum flows) and morphological (mean bankfull width and sinuosity) evolution of the Ouareau and L'Assomption Rivers during the period 1930 to 2008 was carried out. The surface area as well as the climatic, lithological, land use and physiographic features of the two watersheds are nearly identical in the study area. The comparison revealed three changes that may be linked to the Rawdon Dam: an increase in the magnitude of daily maximum flows downstream from the dam for all four seasons, which is inferred to have resulted in extensive widening and low sinuosity of the Ouareau river channel downstream from the Rawdon Dam relative to the L'Assomption river channel. These types of morphological changes are consistent with changes observed downstream from some dams. The Rawdon Dam had no effect on the interannual variability of daily maximum flows, which are characterized by a significant increase in mean in winter in both watersheds. This increase, which is abrupt, occurred in 1973 for both rivers. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
NATURAL FLOW REGIME CLASSIFICATIONS ARE SENSITIVE TO DEFINITION PROCEDURES
Abstract: The correspondence and performance of six classifications of flow regimes of New Zealand rivers that were all mapped onto the same digital river network were assessed. Classification 1 was defined deductively, based on expert‐defined rules. Classifications 2 to 6 were defined inductively using hydrological indices calculated from 321 natural daily flow records. Classifications 2 to 4 were defined by first clustering the gauges based on the hydrological indices and then predicting the class of each segment of the network using a Random Forest classifier. Classifications 5 and 6 were defined by first predicting the indices for each segment of the network using Random Forest regression models. Cluster analysis was then used to group the network segments into classes. Further differences between classifications were due to differences in the standardisation of the hydrological indices and clustering algorithms. Correspondence (extent to which the patterns defined by the classifications were similar) was assessed formally using the adjusted Rand index and visually. The performance of the classifications was assessed using classification strength calculated using the hydrological indices and ANOVA calculated for individual indices. Correspondence between the classifications was low (adjusted Rand index range, 0.1–0.5). Classification strength and ANOVA statistics assessed using cross validation indicated that the inductive classifications performed better than the deductively defined classification and that there were some significant differences in performance between the inductive classifications. However, these differences were not large from a practical point of view. Our results indicate that there are many credible classifications of the flow regimes of a study region. When considering methods for defining flow regime classifications, aspects other than the predictive performance, such as flow data requirements and how easily the final classification can be explained, should be considered. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
DYNAMICS OF IN‐STREAM WOOD AND ITS IMPORTANCE AS FISH HABITAT IN A LARGE TROPICAL FLOODPLAIN RIVER
Abstract: The recruitment of wood from the riparian zone to rivers and streams provides a complex habitat for aquatic organisms and can influence both aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem function. The Daly River in the wet–dry tropics of northern Australia is a highly seasonal, perennially flowing sand‐bed river where surveys of river wood aggregations at the reach scale (~2 km) in 2008 and 2009 recorded densities of 37–78 km−1 and identified distinct types of river wood aggregations: key pieces, standing trees, fallen trees, wrack and single pieces. After larger than average flows in the 2008/2009 wet season, between 46% and 51% of the surveyed river wood had moved. The distribution of wood age classes indicated continual recruitment and slow turnover of wood within the river. Surveys of fish and habitat characteristics at the mesohabitat scale (~100 m) showed fish species richness; diversity and fish abundance were not correlated to the proportion of wood present. Fish assemblage structure was associated with wood cover as well as other environmental variables such as stream width and depth. The importance of in‐stream wood also varied for different species and age classes of fish. This study documents the dynamic nature of river wood aggregations and their complex and variable distribution and suggests their importance as fish habitat in this tropical river. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
THE SOLAR‐TO‐STREAM POWER RATIO: A DIMENSIONLESS NUMBER EXPLAINING DIEL FLUCTUATIONS OF TEMPERATURE IN MESOSCALE RIVERS
Abstract: The diel variation of temperature in mesoscale river reaches (catchment area > 1000 km2) is analysed using concurrent measurements of water temperature and of those meteorological (incident short‐wave radiation, air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed variables) and hydraulic variables (streamflow, top width, channel slope and flow depth) controlling the thermal regime. Measurements were taken along two river reaches located in central Chile, on the Itata (11 290 km2, Strahler's order 6, reach length 30 km, Qbankfull = 400 m3 s−1) and Vergara (4340 km2, Strahler's order 5, reach length 20 km, Qbankfull = 85 m3 s−1) rivers. The measuring frequency was 15 min. The relevant energy fluxes at the air–water interface, that is, atmospheric long‐wave radiation, net short‐wave radiation, radiation emitted by the water body, evaporation (latent heat) and conduction heat are computed and analysed for four scenarios of 12 days duration each, representing typical conditions for the austral winter, spring, summer and autumn. We find large differences in the diel river temperature range between the two sites and across seasons (and thus, flows and meteorological conditions), as reported in previous studies, but no clear relationship with the controlling variables is overtly observed. Following a dimensional analysis, we obtain a dimensionless parameter corresponding to the ratio of solar‐to‐stream power, which adequately explains the diel variation of water temperature in mesoscale rivers. A number of our own measurements as well as literature data are used for preliminary testing of the proposed parameter. This easy‐to‐compute number is shown to predict quite well all of the cases, constituting a simple and useful criterion to estimate a priori the magnitude of temperature diel variations in a river reach, given prevailing meteorological (daily maximum solar radiation) and hydrologic–hydraulic (streamflow, mean top width) conditions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
TRANSFERABILITY OF HYDRAULIC PREFERENCE MODELS FOR AQUATIC MACROINVERTEBRATES
Abstract: Quantifying the transferability across stream reaches and sampling occasions of models relating the density of aquatic taxa to microhabitat hydraulics are important for increasing our understanding of the mechanisms explaining microhabitat selection. We revisited data collected at multiple occasions in two regions, that is, in nine reaches of seven German streams and in four reaches of a large French river, to provide detailed information by taxon on the transferability of hydraulic preferences of aquatic macroinvertebrates. In each region and for each taxon, we tested the statistical significance of a regional preference model relating density to microhabitat hydraulics simultaneously in all surveys (i.e. reach–occasion combinations). The transferability of hydraulic preferences was assessed using cross‐validation procedures within each region. The regional models showed significant associations with microhabitat hydraulics for 56% of the 151 taxa collected in Germany and for 67% of 66 taxa in France. Cross validations indicated that regional models significantly explained density variations within independent surveys for 60% of the cases in Germany and 54% in France. We conclude that both regional and survey‐specific models are useful in specific studies, depending on the taxa considered and the spatial extent and objectives of the application. Graphs of all raw data and models are supplied as supporting information. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
MORE EXOTIC AND FEWER NATIVE PLANT SPECIES: RIVERINE VEGETATION PATTERNS ASSOCIATED WITH ALTERED SEASONAL FLOW PATTERNS
Abstract: Natural flow regimes are important for sustaining riverine vegetation. The regulation of river flows to provide water for agriculture often results in changes to flow timing. This study assesses the impact of altered seasonal flow patterns on riverine flora.Within temperate Australia, we surveyed the vegetation of five lowland rivers, three of which have large dams that alter their seasonal flow patterns; the other two are unregulated. From four to six sites were selected on each river, and these were classified into three levels of regulation based on the extent to which the timing of their seasonal flow patterns were altered. Sites were surveyed in winter and the following summer. Permanent quadrats were also established at a number of the surveyed sites and resurveyed every 3 months.Of the 267 plant taxa identified, 145 were exotic (non‐native). More exotic taxa and fewer native taxa were associated with increasing level of seasonal flow inversion (regulation). In particular, greater numbers of short‐lived exotic terrestrial taxa and fewer native woody taxa were associated with increasing level of regulation. Some exotic woody species (e.g. willows) were more common in the unregulated rivers and may have life‐history traits favoured by the natural seasonal flow patterns of study area. Multivariate analyses showed that level of regulation had a significant effect on the overall composition of the riverine vegetation.Our results provide support for the hypotheses that flow regulation adversely affects native species diversity and increases the vulnerability of riparian zones to invasion by exotic species; however, these effects are dependent on plant species' life‐history strategies. Our study highlights the importance of natural seasonal flow patterns for sustaining native riverine plant communities. Flow management aimed at maintaining or restoring ecological values should consider seasonal flow patterns. Winter/spring flow peaks may be particularly important for the recruitment of native riverine plants, especially trees and shrubs, and reducing the extent of exotic annuals and grasses. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Erosion of river sandbars by diurnal stage fluctuations in the Colorado River in the Marble and Grand Canyons: full‐scale laboratory experiments
Abstract: This research examines the mass failure and seepage erosion of sandbars due to rapid fluctuations in river stage using a full‐scale laboratory model. Hydroelectric dams operated to provide electricity at peak demand produce rapid river stage fluctuations. During decreasing river stage, the groundwater table becomes higher than the river stage, increasing pore water pressures and exfiltrating groundwater. This can cause seepage erosion and mass failures in the banks and bars. In the Colorado River in the Marble and Grand Canyons, maximal downramp and upramp rates have been imposed on the Glen Canyon Dam operations. Our experiments research the efficacy of these discharge ramp rate restrictions to reduce sandbar erosion. The laboratory model consists of a two‐dimensional sandbar face (8 m long, 2.5 m high and 0.5 m wide). Multiple experiments were conducted in a range of slopes, varying from 12° to 26°. An analysis of historical and current ramp rates at 47 locations along the river provided the basis of laboratory downramp rates in the range from 0.1 to 0.6 m h−1. Results show that bank stability is reached at a slope of approximately 14°. The erosion of intermediate slopes (18° – 22°) is controlled by seepage erosion, whereas the erosion of steep slopes (26°) is governed by mass failures. Erosion rates per diurnal cycle do not depend on ramp rates, but they increase with sandbar steepness. Therefore, steep sandbar faces would rapidly erode by mass failure and seepage erosion to shallower stable slopes in the absence of other erosion processes, regardless of dam discharge ramp rates. Our experiments only address seepage erosion and mass failure; increasing the daily magnitude and/or duration of peak discharge may increase the erosion of bars by turbulent sediment transport. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
DEVELOPMENT OF A STOCHASTIC WATER TEMPERATURE MODEL AND PROJECTION OF FUTURE WATER TEMPERATURE AND EXTREME EVENTS IN THE OUELLE RIVER BASIN IN QUÉBEC, CANADA
Abstract: A stochastic model is proposed to reproduce daily water temperature at 18 observation sites (11 main stem and 7 tributary sites) in the Ouelle River basin located in southern Quebec, Canada, using meteorological variables as predictors. A random sampling procedure without replacement was adopted for the model calibration and validation to overcome the limited length of the observed water temperature series. The predicted water temperature series were then submitted to variance inflation to reproduce the observed variability of the water temperature series. Historical water temperature series were obtained from observed meteorological predictors, whereas reference and future water temperature series were obtained from stochastic water temperature model using five reference (1970–1999) and future (2046–2065) meteorological predictors simulated by five different climate model runs. The reference series reproduced summer mean water temperature and the number of consecutive days with water temperature higher than 21 °C or 25 °C fairly well. On the basis of the historical series, it can be assumed that the seven tributaries of the Ouelle River provided thermal refugia for native salmon between 1970 and 1999. Future water temperature series projected by the stochastic model show that the seven tributaries could still be used as refugia to prevent lethal stress, whereas the temperature in the main stem and in three tributaries will be high enough to constitute stressful conditions for feeding juvenile Atlantic salmon. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
LINKING RIVER MANAGEMENT TO SPECIES CONSERVATION USING DYNAMIC LANDSCAPE‐SCALE MODELS
Abstract: Efforts to conserve stream and river biota could benefit from tools that allow managers to evaluate landscape‐scale changes in species distributions in response to water management decisions. We present a framework and methods for integrating hydrology, geographic context and metapopulation processes to simulate effects of changes in streamflow on fish occupancy dynamics across a landscape of interconnected stream segments. We illustrate this approach using a 482 km2 catchment in the southeastern US supporting 50 or more stream fish species. A spatially distributed, deterministic and physically based hydrologic model is used to simulate daily streamflow for sub‐basins composing the catchment. We use geographic data to characterize stream segments with respect to channel size, confinement, position and connectedness within the stream network. Simulated streamflow dynamics are then applied to model fish metapopulation dynamics in stream segments, using hypothesized effects of streamflow magnitude and variability on population processes, conditioned by channel characteristics. The resulting time series simulate spatially explicit, annual changes in species occurrences or assemblage metrics (e.g. species richness) across the catchment as outcomes of management scenarios. Sensitivity analyses using alternative, plausible links between streamflow components and metapopulation processes, or allowing for alternative modes of fish dispersal, demonstrate large effects of ecological uncertainty on model outcomes and highlight needed research and monitoring. Nonetheless, with uncertainties explicitly acknowledged, dynamic, landscape‐scale simulations may prove useful for quantitatively comparing river management alternatives with respect to species conservation. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
CATCHMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND PLANT RECRUITMENT FROM SEDIMENT IN STREAM AND MEADOW HABITATS
Abstract: Streams and rivers constitute a dense network with a large interface to the surrounding landscape and are thus highly susceptible to anthropogenic pressures related to land‐use activities in adjacent riparian and upland areas. In the present study, we investigated the influence of catchment characteristics on potential propagule and species recruitment from sediment in lowland stream ecosystems. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) catchment characteristics affect species recruitment from stream sediment in both stream and riparian habitats and (2) recruitment of species associated with undisturbed fen‐meadow habitats is higher in places with natural vegetation in the riparian zones. A large number of wetland species emerged from the stream sediment and sediment recruitment and therefore can act as an important dispersal corridor for common species in stream ecosystems. The recruited propagules were dominated by terrestrial species, but amphibious and aquatic species also appeared, particularly in the artificial stream channels. These included among others species within the genera Ranunculus sp., Callitriche sp. and Potamogeton sp. The large between‐site differences in land‐use characteristics in the riparian zones of the studied stream reaches, both locally and along upstream reaches, were not reflected in species recruitment from the stream sediments. Thus, most recruited species were common and widely distributed, and they were dominated by species with ruderal and competitive life history strategies, whereas only few species associated with fen‐meadow vegetation were recruited. From these findings, we infer not only that hydrochorous dispersal of species can be a potential efficient dispersal vector in agricultural landscapes but also that limitations can exist as to which species can be recruited. We suggest that further studies are performed to elucidate this issue further. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
ASSESSING THE GEOMORPHIC EFFECTS OF A FLUSHING FLOW IN A LARGE REGULATED RIVER
Abstract: The lower Ebro River experiences long‐term hydrological and sedimentary adjustments following major regulation. Alterations in water and sediment fluxes have enhanced a massive macrophyte colonization that, in turn, generates a series of ecological and socio‐economic problems. Controlled water releases, so‐called flushing flows (FFs), have been designed and implemented since 2002 in this part of the river with the objectives of controlling macrophyte populations and maintaining sediment transport in the channel. FFs may produce adverse geomorphic effects, such as bed incision driven by the increased sediment transport capacity and the lack of sediment replacement from upstream. It is thus important to evaluate the potential geomorphic responses to a specific FF design, and redesign FFs regularly to maximize macrophyte removal while minimizing the undesired consequences. Geomorphic responses associated with FFs can be assessed using hydraulic and sediment transport models. In this paper, we use the hydrodynamic model CCHE2D® to evaluate the role of a monitored FF on a river's geomorphology. The designed FF had a duration of 13 h, attaining a maximum discharge of 1350 m3 s−1. A total of 3375 t of fine material were transported during that event. CCHE2D® model performance is evaluated in terms of hydraulics and sediment transport by comparing observed with modelled values (i.e. discharge, water surface elevation, sediment loads). Overall, objective functions indicate that simulations are in agreement with field observations. For instance, the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between the observed and modelled FF hydrograph was 93 m3 s−1, whereas the RMSE of the total load was 71 t. The example modelled here shows that the FF design typically implemented in the lower Ebro does not cause severe geomorphic impacts. The model provides visualization of the spatial patterns of erosion and deposition for the first time, allowing identification of critical zones where degradation or aggradation may occur. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PREDICTING THE LIKELIHOOD OF ALTERED STREAMFLOWS AT UNGAUGED RIVERS ACROSS THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES
Abstract: An approach is presented in this study to aid water‐resource managers in characterizing streamflow alteration at ungauged rivers. Such approaches can be used to take advantage of the substantial amounts of biological data collected at ungauged rivers to evaluate the potential ecological consequences of altered streamflows. National‐scale random forest statistical models are developed to predict the likelihood that ungauged rivers have altered streamflows (relative to expected natural condition) for five hydrologic metrics (HMs) representing different aspects of the streamflow regime. The models use human disturbance variables, such as number of dams and road density, to predict the likelihood of streamflow alteration. For each HM, separate models are derived to predict the likelihood that the observed metric is greater than (‘inflated’) or less than (‘diminished’) natural conditions. The utility of these models is demonstrated by applying them to all river segments in the South Platte River in Colorado, USA, and for all 10‐digit hydrologic units in the conterminous United States. In general, the models successfully predicted the likelihood of alteration to the five HMs at the national scale as well as in the South Platte River basin. However, the models predicting the likelihood of diminished HMs consistently outperformed models predicting inflated HMs, possibly because of fewer sites across the conterminous United States where HMs are inflated. The results of these analyses suggest that the primary predictors of altered streamflow regimes across the Nation are (i) the residence time of annual runoff held in storage in reservoirs, (ii) the degree of urbanization measured by road density and (iii) the extent of agricultural land cover in the river basin. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
RECRUITMENT AND SUCCESSIONAL DYNAMICS DIVERSIFY THE SHIFTING HABITAT MOSAIC OF AN ALASKAN FLOODPLAIN
Abstract: We measured plant recruitment patterns, successional dynamics, and biophysical processes on laterally expansive floodplains of the Kwethluk River, Alaska. The main channel of this gravel‐bed river frequently avulses and possesses an anabranching plan form. Fluvial processes were interactive with life history processes of riparian plants in determining initial stages of primary succession. Reproductive strategies and herbivory became important factors later in succession. We conducted plant age and compositional surveys to assess patterns of propagule deposition. We found that dispersal strategies of species were an important factor influencing recruitment patterns. Flood‐dispersed seeds resulted in even‐aged cohorts of species persistently segregated in space, based on age data. Sediment characteristics and inundation potential had little influence on seedling distributions. Recruitment was also segregated on the basis of dispersal strategy. At the heads of bars, where vegetative propagules (live drift wood) were entombed during floods, the distributions of species were random. This size‐selective nature of recruitment persisted through time. Vegetation age and distribution patterns were further diversified by the river's legacy of gravel deposition that diversified the primary successional pathway: one associated with ridges and another with swales. Interactions between these pathways and beaver herbivory initiated secondary succession. We used satellite imagery to quantify the extent of floodplain influenced by herbivory and to assess the importance of this driver of secondary succession. We also used high‐resolution aerial imagery and randomly selected sites to provide an unbiased analysis. We classified this imagery to quantify the spatial extent of herbivory and its influence on the initiation of secondary succession. The results showed, in addition to recruitment and successional dynamics, the flood‐plain habitat mosaic was diversified by the initiation of secondary succession. Patch and species composition within the vegetation mosaics were significantly different than those portions of the floodplain engaged in primary succession. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN RIVER DISCHARGE AND ABUNDANCE OF AGE 0 REDHORSES (MOXOSTOMA SPP.) IN THE OCONEE RIVER, GEORGIA, USA, WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR ROBUST REDHORSE
Abstract: Robust redhorse (Moxostoma robustum) and notchlip redhorse (M. collapsum) are two species of redhorses that reside in the lower Oconee River, Georgia. Robust redhorse is listed as a state endangered species in Georgia and North Carolina, and attempts to investigate factors affecting its reproductive success have met with limited success. Therefore, catch of robust redhorse young were combined with catch of notchlip redhorse to increase sample size. These congeners with similar spawning repertoire were assumed to respond similarly to environmental conditions. River discharge during spawning and rearing seasons may affect abundance of both redhorses in the lower Oconee River. An information‐theoretic approach was used to evaluate the relative support of models relating abundance of age 0 redhorses to monthly discharge statistics that represented magnitude, timing, duration, variability and frequency of river discharge events for April through June 1995–2006. The best‐approximating model indicated a negative relationship between the abundance of redhorses and mean maximum river discharge and the number of high pulses during June as well as a positive relationship with intermediate duration of low flows during April–June. This model is 9.6 times more plausible than the next best‐fitting model, which revealed a negative relationship between the abundance of redhorses and mean maximum river discharge during May and the number of high pulses during June as well as a positive relationship between abundance and intermediate duration of low flows during April–June. Management implications from the results indicate low‐stable flows for at least a 2‐week period during spawning and rearing may increase reproductive success of robust and notchlip redhorses. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PREDICTING ECOLOGICAL FLOW REGIME AT UNGAGED SITES: A COMPARISON OF METHODS
Abstract: Nineteen ecologically relevant streamflow characteristics were estimated using published rainfall–runoff and regional regression models for six sites with observed daily streamflow records in Kentucky. The regional regression model produced median estimates closer to the observed median for all but two characteristics. The variability of predictions from both models was generally less than the observed variability. The variability of the predictions from the rainfall–runoff model was greater than that from the regional regression model for all but three characteristics. Eight characteristics predicted by the rainfall–runoff model display positive or negative bias across all six sites; biases are not as pronounced for the regional regression model. Results suggest that a rainfall–runoff model calibrated on a single characteristic is less likely to perform well as a predictor of a range of other characteristics (flow regime) when compared with a regional regression model calibrated individually on multiple characteristics used to represent the flow regime. Poor model performance may misrepresent hydrologic conditions, potentially distorting the perceived risk of ecological degradation. Without prior selection of streamflow characteristics, targeted calibration, and error quantification, the widespread application of general hydrologic models to ecological flow studies is problematic. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
PATCH CHANGE AND THE SHIFTING MOSAIC OF AN ENDANGERED BIRD'S HABITAT ON A LARGE MEANDERING RIVER
Abstract: The yellow‐billed cuckoo is a state‐listed endangered bird in California. The largest population of cuckoos in California is on the meandering portion of the middle Sacramento River. I studied two time periods (1952 and 1987) of a 127‐km study reach of the Sacramento River to document regeneration and spatial shifts in yellow‐billed cuckoo habitat patches due to fluvial geomorphic processes, vegetation recruitment and succession over a 35‐year period. The spatial co‐occurrence of natural riparian vegetation and floodplain age
IMPORTANCE OF FLOODPLAIN CONNECTIVITY TO FISH POPULATIONS IN THE APALACHICOLA RIVER, FLORIDA
Abstract: Floodplain habitats provide critical spawning and rearing habitats for many large‐river fishes. The paradigm that floodplains are essential habitats is often a key reason for restoring altered rivers to natural flow regimes. However, few studies have documented spatial and temporal utilization of floodplain habitats by adult fish of sport or commercial management interest or assessed obligatory access to floodplain habitats for species' persistence. In this study, we applied telemetry techniques to examine adult fish movements between floodplain and mainstem habitats, paired with intensive light trap sampling of larval fish in these same habitats, to assess the relationships between riverine flows and fish movement and spawning patterns in restored and unmodified floodplain distributaries of the Apalachicola River, Florida. Our intent is to inform resource managers on the relationships between the timing, magnitude and duration of flow events and fish spawning as part of river management actions. Our results demonstrate spawning by all study species in floodplain and mainstem river habitat types, apparent migratory movements of some species between these habitats, and distinct spawning events for each study species on the basis of fish movement patterns and light trap catches. Additionally, Micropterus spp., Lepomis spp. and, to a lesser degree, Minytrema melanops used floodplain channel habitat that was experimentally reconnected to the mainstem within a few weeks of completing the restoration. This result is of interest to managers assessing restoration activities to reconnect these habitats as part of riverine restoration programmes globally. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
MACROINVERTEBRATE–PRESSURE RELATIONSHIPS IN BOATABLE NEW ZEALAND RIVERS: INFLUENCE OF UNDERLYING ENVIRONMENT AND SAMPLING SUBSTRATE
Abstract: Responses of macroinvertebrate communities to human pressure are poorly known in large rivers compared with wadeable streams, in part because of variable substrate composition and the need to disentangle pressure responses from underlying natural environmental variation. To investigate the interaction between these factors, we sampled macroinvertebrates from the following: (i) submerged wood; (ii) littoral substrates < 0.8 m deep; and (iii) inorganic substrates in deep water (> 1.5 m) benthic habitats in eleven 6th‐ or 7th‐order New Zealand rivers spanning a catchment vegetation land cover gradient. Cluster analysis identified primary site groupings reflecting regional environmental characteristics and secondary groupings for moderate gradient rivers reflecting the extent of catchment native vegetation cover. Low pressure sites with high levels of native vegetation had higher habitat quality and higher percentages of several Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera taxa than sites in developed catchments, whereas developed sites were more typically dominated by Diptera, Mollusca and other Trichoptera. Partial regression analysis indicated that the combination of underlying environment and human pressure accounted for 77–89% of the variation in Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera taxa richness, %Diptera and %Mollusca, with human pressure explaining more variance than underlying environment for %Mollusca. Analysis of replicate deepwater and littoral samples from moderate gradient sites at the upper and lower ends of the pressure gradient indicated that total Trichoptera and Diptera richness and %Diptera responded to land use differences in these boatable river catchments. Responses to human pressure were substrate specific with the combination of littoral and deepwater substrates providing the most consistent response and yielding the highest number of taxa. These results indicate that multiple substrate sampling is required to document the biodiversity and condition of boatable river macroinvertebrate communities and that spatial variation in the underlying natural environment needs to be accounted for when interpreting pressure–response relationships. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELLING: A NOVEL STATISTICAL FRAMEWORK FOR EXPLORING THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES IN RIVERINE ECOSYSTEMS
Abstract: Benthic macroinvertebrates have been used widely as bioindicators to assess the condition of riverine ecosystems. However, understanding and modelling the spatial distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates within these ecosystems remain significant challenges for research and management. Statistical analyses of multivariate data sets offer opportunities to explore the ecological systems controlling the distribution of biota. This article reports a novel statistical analysis of a national‐scale data set from England and Wales using the structural equation modelling (SEM) framework. Relationships between water quality, physical habitat structure and indices reflecting benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were analysed using SEM. On the basis of data from 219 monitoring sites, structural equation models were built. These models explained 87% of the spatial variation in the average score per taxon index and 76% of the spatial variation in the Lotic Invertebrate Index for Flow Evaluation. Significant direct and indirect effects on these indices were exerted by water quality variables, particularly the concentrations of dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand and orthophosphate. Independent of water quality conditions, both biotic indices were directly affected by variables describing the structure and the degradation of physical habitat. The strengths of the SEM framework include (i) direct evaluation of a priori models against observed data, thereby supporting confirmatory analysis of theoretical models of ecological systems; (ii) specification of latent variables representing unmeasured constructs; and (iii) simultaneous assessment of multiple direct and indirect paths between variables within a model. These strengths define a framework with the potential to be applied widely in the development and testing of hypotheses regarding the processes operating within riverine ecosystems. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
NATURAL REGENERATION OF FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN THE PILICA RIVER AFTER A REDUCTION OF POINT‐SOURCE POLLUTION
Abstract: Electrofishing was conducted along the Pilica River, the biggest West tributary of the Vistula, Poland. This paper presents a comparison between the 1990s (1994–1995, 63 sites) and 2000s (2003–2005, 64 sites), that is, because the water quality started improving after 1989. In the Pilica, there is an increased risk of masking relationships between fish distribution and abiotic factors because a dam without a fish pass was constructed in the middle course of the river in 1973, perhaps resulting in fewer possibilities for potential colonizers reaching river fragments fit for colonization. The main aim of this study was to check if natural fish fauna regeneration took place in the river following a significant sewage input reduction. The fish samples were classified with a Kohonen artificial neural network and assigned to two main clusters (X and Y) and, respectively, two pairs of subclusters (X1, X2; Y1, Y2) of neurons. No species attained its significantly highest biomass and/or frequency (expressed as IndVal) in X2 (in which samples from the 1990s dominated), whereas 21 species did so in Y1 or Y2 (containing almost all of the samples from the 2000s), better testifying to the aquatic environment at the sites where the samples assigned to two latter subclusters come from. Moreover, significantly higher values for Y1 and/or Y2 when compared with X2 were recorded in the richness of the fish species, the total fish biomass and total rheophilic fish biomass. In summary, the positive reaction of ichthyofauna to the improvement of the water quality, stated after 1989, was not recorded during the sampling in 1994–1995, but with a considerable delay in 2003–2005. It should be emphasized that the improvement in fish assemblages was recorded in the Pilica both upstream and downstream from the dam reservoir. A good ecological status was recorded even for some samples from the 1990s. They were collected in the lower river course, where the fish could move freely from the Vistula. This testifies the combined role of the presence of potential colonizers and the functioning ecological corridors for fish assemblages in a river system under human impact. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
REDD DEWATERING EFFECTS ON HATCHING AND LARVAL SURVIVAL OF THE ROBUST REDHORSE
Abstract: Riverine habitats have been altered and fragmented from hydroelectric dams and change spatially and temporally with hydropower flow releases. Hydropeaking flow regimes for electrical power production inundate areas that create temporary suitable habitat for fish that may be rapidly drained. Robust redhorse Moxostoma robustum, an imperiled, rare fish species, uses such temporary habitats to spawn, but when power generation ceases, these areas are dewatered until the next pulse of water is released. We experimentally simulated the effects of dewatering periods on the survival of robust redhorse eggs and larvae in the laboratory. Robust redhorse eggs were placed in gravel in eyeing‐hatching jars (three jars per treatment) and subjected to one of four dewatering periods (6, 12, 24 and 48 h), followed by 12 h of inundation for each treatment, and a control treatment was never dewatered. Egg desiccation was observed in some eggs in the 24‐ and 48‐h treatments after one dewatering period. For all treatments except the control, the subsequent dewatering period after eggs hatched was lethal. Larval emergence for the control treatment was observed on day 5 post‐hatching and continued until the end of the experiment (day 21). Larval survival was significantly different between the control and all dewatering treatments for individuals in the gravel. These findings support the need for hydropower facilities to set minimum flows to maintain inundation of spawning areas for robust redhorse and other species to reduce dewatering mortality. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
COMPLEX RESPONSE OF CHANNEL FILL–SCOUR BEHAVIOR TO RESERVOIR CONSTRUCTION: AN EXAMPLE OF THE UPPER YELLOW RIVER, CHINA
Abstract: The influence of a reservoir on downstream hydrological regime and channel adjustment depends on the operational mode of the reservoir. The Liujiaxia and Longyangxia Reservoirs were completed in 1968 and 1985, respectively, both above Lanzhou. The former controls most suspended sediment supply from the drainage area above Lanzhou station, and the latter controls most runoff generated from the same area; the former has relatively small storage capacity and is used for interseasonal regulation of river flow, and the latter has much larger storage capacity and is used for multiannual regulation of river flow. Thus, the former changes sediment regime greatly, whereas the latter changes flow regime significantly. Of the runoff of the upper Yellow River, more than 95% comes from the drainage area above Lanzhou and less than 5% from below Lanzhou; of the sediment supply, 46% comes from the drainage area above Lanzhou and 56% from below Lanzhou, which cannot be regulated by the two reservoirs. Influenced by these factors, channel fill–scour behaviour after the reservoir construction exhibited a complex response, which can be separated as two stages. The response at the first stage was dominated by the Liujiaxia Reservoir and at the second by the Longyangxia Reservoir. The first stage of response can be generalized as follows: completion of the Liujiaxia Reservoir → large quantity of sediment trapped → downstream channel scour → sediment trapping attenuating due to the decrease of storage capacity → channel scour declining. The second stage of response can be generalized as follows: completion of the Longyangxia Reservoir → significant reduction of high‐flow season flow → downstream river flow incapable of carrying sediment supplied below the dam → downstream channel sedimentation enhanced. The changes induced by the two reservoirs occurred successively, and a cycle of complex response occurred during the river channel adjustment. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
RIVERBED DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELS AS A TOOL FOR HOLISTIC RIVER MANAGEMENT: MOTUEKA RIVER, NELSON, NEW ZEALAND
Abstract: River management in New Zealand's laterally active gravelly rivers has permitted floodplain development and protection of agricultural resources and infrastructure. Management of these dynamic systems has been hailed as a success for the approaches adopted, namely straightening and confining the river using bank protection and managing riverbed levels by gravel extraction. However, this activity also impacts river morphological/habitat diversity and potential gravel resource, by replacing broad riparian corridors with narrower channels and reducing lateral connectivity with the floodplain. This paper quantifies river behaviour in three laterally confined reaches in the upper Motueka River over a 7‐year period, using annual high‐resolution ground surveys to address the nature of morphological change and associated sediment flux in these reaches with a view to informing management of the gravel resource. Surveys between 2004 and 2010 acquired data to construct digital elevation models (DEMs) of the active riverbed in three ~1‐km‐long reaches. Morphological budgeting based on differencing between successive DEM surfaces reveals complex spatial and temporal patterns of erosion and deposition, demonstrating complex reach dynamics. Overall, volumetric changes suggest these narrowed reaches have been net exporters of sediment, associated with continued channel degradation. This has left bar features, traditionally the focus of gravel extraction in the reaches, relatively isolated from all but extreme flows, limiting replenishment of the gravel resource. The paper demonstrates the utility of riverbed DEMs as a potential tool to frame river character and behaviour at the reach scale in gravel‐bed rivers, thereby providing an important contribution to holistic river management in these systems. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
MAPPING RIVER DEPTH FROM PUBLICLY AVAILABLE AERIAL IMAGES
Abstract: Remote sensing could facilitate efficient characterization of river systems for research and management purposes, provided that suitable image data are available and that the information derived therefrom is reliable. This study evaluated the utility of public domain multispectral images for estimating flow depths in a small stream and a larger gravel‐bed river, using data acquired through a task‐oriented consortium and the National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP). Field measurements were used to calibrate image‐derived quantities to observed depths and to assess depth retrieval accuracy. A band ratio‐based algorithm yielded coherent, hydraulically reasonable bathymetric maps for both field sites and three different types of image data. Applying a spatial filter reduced image noise and improved depth retrieval performance, with a strong calibration relationship (R2 = 0.68) and an observed (field‐surveyed) versus predicted (image‐derived) R2 of 0.6 for tasked images of the smaller stream. The NAIP data were less useful in this environment because of geo‐referencing errors and a coarser spatial resolution. On the larger river, NAIP‐derived bathymetry was more accurate, with an observed versus predicted R2 value of 0.64 for a compressed county mosaic easily accessible via the Internet. Comparison of remotely sensed bathymetric maps with field surveys indicated that although the locations of pools were determined accurately, their full depth could not be detected because of limited sensor radiometric resolution. Although a number of other constraints also must be considered, such as the need for local calibration data, depth retrieval from publicly available image data is feasible under appropriate conditions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
MULTISPECIES FISH PASSAGE BEHAVIOUR IN A VERTICAL SLOT FISHWAY ON THE RICHELIEU RIVER, QUEBEC, CANADA
Abstract: A shift from target species to ecosystem restoration has generated interest in developing fishways that are capable of passing entire fish communities. Although a number of multispecies fishways now exist in North America, evaluations of these fishways are lacking. We used a passive integrated transponder antenna array to quantify passage success and passage duration of fish using a vertical slot fishway (85 m in length, 2.65 m elevation rise, 12 regular pools and 2 turning basins) at a low head dam on the Richelieu River in Quebec, Canada. Fourteen of the 18 tagged species re‐ascended the fishway, and passage efficiency was highly variable among species (range 25%–100%); however, it was >50% for five of the species well represented in this study (n > 10) (Atlantic salmon, channel catfish, smallmouth bass, walleye and white sucker). Passage duration was likewise highly variable both among and within species (e.g. 1.0–452.9 h for smallmouth bass, 2.4–237.5 h for shorthead redhorse). Although this fishway design was not uniformly successful in passing fish of all species, this study does reveal the species that have problems with ascent and provides an estimate on the time spent in the fishway that is an important component of passage delay. Such information could be used to inform future design refinements to facilitate passage of the entire assemblage with minimal delay. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
CARBON FROM PERIPHYTON SUPPORTS FISH BIOMASS IN WATERHOLES OF A WET–DRY TROPICAL RIVER
Abstract: The identification of the dominant sources of carbon supporting consumer biomass in aquatic food webs is often difficult but essential to understanding the limits to aquatic secondary production. Stable isotope analysis (SIA) is a powerful tool to estimate the contribution of different sources to consumers, but most food web studies using this approach limit analyses to a few key consumer taxa rather than measuring biomass‐weighted contribution of sources to the entire community. Here we combined stable isotope analysis with standardized measurements of abundance and biomass of fishes and invertebrates in seven waterholes of a wet–dry tropical river sampled early and late in the dry season. We showed that periphyton (as opposed to phytoplankton and terrestrial C3 plant detritus) was responsible for most standing fish biomass (range 42%–97%), whereas benthic invertebrates were reliant on a mixture of the three sources (range 26%–100%). Furthermore, larger, older fishes at high trophic levels (catfish Neoarius spp., sleepy cod Oxyeleotris lineaolatus and barramundi Lates calcarifer) were supported almost exclusively by periphyton. Phytoplankton and detritus supported a considerable biomass of benthic and pelagic invertebrates, but only in taxa that occupied low trophic levels (e.g. snails). These measurements provide further evidence that although periphyton is relatively inconspicuous relative to other sources, it contributes disproportionately to metazoan biomass in wet–dry tropical rivers. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PERSISTING EFFECTS OF RIVER REGULATION ON EMERGENT AQUATIC INSECTS AND TERRESTRIAL INVERTEBRATES IN UPLAND FORESTS
Abstract: River regulation can alter the structural complexity and natural dynamics of river ecosystems substantially with negative consequences for aquatic insects. However, there have been few studies of regulation effects on the export of emergent insects into terrestrial ecosystems. In northern Scandinavia, we compared emerged aquatic insect and terrestrial invertebrate biomass between four strongly regulated and four free‐flowing rivers using fortnightly measurements at three upland‐forest blocks in each over one summer. The biomass of emerged aquatic insects was significantly lower along regulated rivers than free‐flowing rivers. Biomass in Linyphiidae, Opiliones, Staphylinidae, total Coleoptera, Formicidae and total terrestrial invertebrates was also lower along regulated rivers. Aquatic insect biomass did not explain the entire regulation effect on terrestrial invertebrates but did explain significant variations among Linyphiidae, total Coleoptera, Formicidae and total terrestrial biomass. Variations in Formicidae also explained significant variance among several terrestrial taxa, suggesting some keystone role in this group. Overall, our results suggest that river regulation affects upland‐forest invertebrate communities, with at least some of these effects arising from links between aquatic emergence and terrestrial predators. The data highlight the need to consider areas beyond the riparian zone when assessing the effects of river regulation. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
On the importance of considering channel microforms in groundwater models of hyporheic exchange
Abstract: The infiltration of stream water in the sediment and its return to the stream—a process known here as hyporheic exchange flows (HEF)—is a critical control of the structure and functions of the stream ecosystem. River restoration programmes will increasingly require quantitative methods for evaluating this influence. Previous studies have already shown the potential of numerical groundwater models to characterize HEF and compare restoration scenarios. Although various sources of uncertainty are acknowledged, the potential effect of small streambed structures (or microforms), such as grains or ripples, embedded in channel‐unit scale structures (or macroforms), such as riffle‐pool sequences, is commonly ignored. Here, a simple conceptualization through a 2‐D vertical model is used to test whether (i) ignoring microforms in groundwater models at the macroform scale can impact estimations of residence times; (ii) microforms can influence HEF patterns driven by macroforms; and conversely (iii) the uncertainty of head measurements in stream piezometers can affect our understanding of HEF patterns. Results show that (i) residence times and flux estimations can be strongly affected by the modeller's choice to represent microform‐induced HEF or not; (ii) the interaction of the microform and macroform scales can induce various subsurface flow patterns; and (iii) the perceived significance of microform‐induced HEF is highly sensitive to the uncertainty of in‐stream measurements of subsurface heads. Little is known about the relative efficiency of these microform and macroform scales, which are effectively influencing exchange at different depths and interacting with each other. Future studies that consider biogeochemical cycling or streambed ecology should be placed in this context. It is also necessary to find ways of including this source of uncertainty in groundwater models of HEF. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
USING LOW‐COST SIDE‐SCAN SONAR FOR BENTHIC MAPPING THROUGHOUT THE LOWER FLINT RIVER, GEORGIA, USA
Abstract: An efficient, low‐cost approach for mapping habitat features in navigable streams is needed to support the research and management of aquatic ecosystems at the landscape level. We developed a method that uses high‐resolution (455 kHz) side‐scan sonar imagery obtained with the inexpensive (~$2000) Humminbird® Side Imaging system and ArcGIS to produce sonar image maps (SIMs) used to interpret and map habitat features such as substrates and large woody debris, in addition to continuously recording depth along the survey route. This method was recently demonstrated and evaluated in several small streams in southwestern Georgia (30–50 m width, 40 km mapped). To evaluate the feasibility of this method for mapping substrate and depth in larger rivers and over greater spatial extents, we conducted a sonar survey and generated SIMs for 124 km of the lower Flint River (85–140 m width). We interpreted the SIMs to digitize and classify substrate and bank boundaries. To assess classification accuracy, we visually inspected substrate at randomly assigned reference locations. A comparison of reference and map data revealed an overall classification accuracy of 84%. These results were consistent with previous findings and indicate that low‐cost side‐scan sonar is also an effective mapping tool for larger rivers. The sonar survey did, however, result in more missing and unsure substrate data and a lower map accuracy for fine‐textured substrates than previously achieved when mapping smaller streams. We found a strong, positive relationship (r2 = 0.89) between the sonar range and the proportion of unsure substrate in the map, suggesting that a multi‐pass, parallel‐transect sonar survey could be used to maintain high‐image resolution when stream widths exceed 100 m and/or obstructions, such as islands, are encountered. Applications for sonar‐based habitat maps are widespread and numerous. The ability to produce these maps efficiently at low‐cost is within the grasp of researchers and managers alike. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL INSTABILITY OF GROUNDWATER‐FED STREAMS ON HYPORHEIC FAUNA, ON A GLACIAL FLOODPLAIN, DENALI NATIONAL PARK, ALASKA
Abstract: Macroinvertebrate community distributions were investigated within the benthic and hyporheic zone of five groundwater‐fed streams, on a floodplain terrace, in a glacierized catchment in Alaska, in summer 2008. The streams were characterized by a distinct gradient in environmental instability and provided an opportunity to determine whether the local variability in environmental instability of groundwater‐fed streams (reflecting differences in lengths of groundwater flow pathways) are of sufficient magnitude and frequency to influence macroinvertebrate community distribution. Individual measures of surface‐water temperature, streamflow, streambed stability and sediment size were incorporated into a multivariate index of environmental instability (IEI), using principal components analysis. In the hyporheic zone, a logarithmic association was observed between macroinvertebrate diversity and IEI and a quadratic association between abundance and IEI. The increase in diversity along the gradient of instability reflected a greater evenness of taxa caused by reduction in abundance of Chironomidae, combined with an increase in abundance of several less dominant taxa (Limnephilidae, Empididae, Baetidae and Simuliidae). At the surface, a quadratic association between diversity and IEI was observed, consistent with the intermediate disturbance hypothesis.Chironomidae, Nemouridae and Empididae presented contrasting surface and hyporheic distributions, indicating use of the hyporheic zone as a refuge. Moreover, covariance in the surface and hyporheic distribution of Limnephilidae and Chloroperlidae suggested the use of the hyporheic zone as an extension of the benthic habitat. The data indicate that local variability in environmental conditions between groundwater‐fed streams is sufficient to induce differences in macroinvertebrate communities and in the response of individual taxa. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
HOW DOES RESTORED HABITAT FOR CHINOOK SALMON (ONCORHYNCHUS TSHAWYTSCHA) IN THE MERCED RIVER IN CALIFORNIA COMPARE WITH OTHER CHINOOK STREAMS'
Abstract: The amount of time and money spent on restoring rivers for declining populations of salmon has grown substantially in recent decades. But despite the infusion of resources, many studies suggest that salmon populations are continuing to decline, leading some to question the effectiveness of restoration efforts. Here we examine whether a particular form of salmon restoration—channel reconfiguration with gravel augmentation—generates physical and biological habitat that is comparable with other streams that support salmon. We compared a suite of habitat features known to influence the various life stages of Chinook salmon in a restoration project in California's Merced River with 19 other streams that also support Chinook that we surveyed in the same geographic region. Our survey showed that riffle habitats in the restored site of the Merced River have flow discharge and depth, substrate and food web characteristics that cannot be distinguished from other streams that support Chinook, suggesting that these factors are unlikely to be bottlenecks to salmon recovery in the Merced. However, compared with other streams in the region, the Merced has minimal riparian cover, fewer undercut banks, less woody debris and higher water temperatures, suggesting that these factors might limit salmon recovery. After identifying aspects in the Merced that differ from other streams, we used principal components analysis to correlate salmon densities to independent axes of environmental variation measured during our survey. These analyses suggested that salmon densities tend to be greatest in streams that have more undercut banks and woody debris and lower water temperatures. These are the same environmental factors that appear to be missing from the Merced River restoration effort. Collectively, our results narrow the set of candidate factors that may limit salmon recovery in channel reconfiguration restoration efforts. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
HIGH‐HEAD DAMS AFFECT DOWNSTREAM FISH PASSAGE TIMING AND SURVIVAL IN THE MIDDLE FORK WILLAMETTE RIVER
Abstract: Many high‐head dams in Oregon's Willamette River basin were constructed without fish passage facilities for downstream migrants. Instead, fish pass dams via hydroelectric turbines, surface spillways or deep‐water regulating outlets. The availability of these routes varies seasonally with dam operations and reservoir depth, which can fluctuate by tens of meters.To assess how dam and reservoir operations affect fish movement timing and survival, we used rotary screw traps below three Willamette basin dams and at two riverine sites above reservoirs. Traps were operated 2950 days over 8 years, and >195 000 fish were collected. Samples above reservoirs were primarily native salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.), daces (Rhinichthys spp.) and sculpins (Cottus spp.), while those below dams were often dominated by non‐native Centrarchidae. Capture rates at riverine sites were highest from late winter to early summer, coincident with juvenile Chinook salmon emigration. Conversely, collection below dams was largely restricted to late fall and winter when reservoirs were drawn down to annual lows and discharge was high. We hypothesize that winter operations facilitated fish access to dam turbines and regulating outlets, whereas spring–summer operations entrapped fish in reservoirs and restricted volitional downstream passage.Total fish mortality was ≤2% at riverine sites and was 36–69% below dams. Estimates were highest for non‐native species and juvenile Chinook salmon. Fatal injuries were consistent with traumas related to pressure, shear and contact and there were size‐related and morphology‐related risk differences. Mitigation opportunities include fish bypass system development, retrofits for existing routes and seasonally appropriate reservoir draw down to allow fish passage. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
ECOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF FISH BYPASS CHANNELS IN STREAMS: MIGRATION CORRIDOR AND HABITAT FOR RHEOPHILIC SPECIES
Abstract: The introduction of weirs into stream ecosystems resulted in modifications of serial continuity and in the decline of riverine fish species. Successful river restoration requires information on the ecological functionality of fish bypass channels that are considered an ecological improvement according to the European Water Framework Directive. In this study, we compared the functionality of three nature‐oriented fish passes as compensatory habitats and migration corridors for fishes. Fish passes differed significantly from upstream and downstream reaches of the weirs, revealing higher current speed, lower water depth, smaller channel width and greater habitat variability. Following these structural differences, they provided key habitats for juvenile, small and rheophilic fishes that are typically underrepresented in highly modified water bodies. All fish passes were used as migration corridors, with increased fish movements during high discharge and at spawning periods. Because river stretches with high variability of current speed and water depth are scarce in highly modified water bodies, fish passes can play an important role as compensatory habitats and should thus be considered more intensively in habitat assessments and river restoration. Ideally, fish bypasses should mirror the natural discharge dynamics and consider all occurring fish species and sizes. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hydrologic Modification from Hydroelectric Power Operations in a Mountain Basin
Abstract: The natural flow paradigm suggests that components of the natural streamflow regime and variability should be managed to maintain important ecosystem functions and services. Mountain rivers can exhibit extreme flow variability and provide critical aquatic habitat and ecosystem services but can be severely impacted by hydroelectric power (HEP) development and operations that will likely increase in the future. The hydrologic modification from HEP operations in the Upper San Joaquin River Basin, California, was evaluated across 15 river and stream locations throughout the basin. Flow modifications in Bear Creek, an otherwise unimpacted high‐elevation subbasin, were evaluated in detail using a number of hydrologic metrics, including Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA), environmental flow components of IHA, flow duration curves, ecodeficit and comparisons using equivalence testing. The uncertainty of the metrics based on confidence intervals was also evaluated for unimpaired (upstream) and existing (impaired or downstream) conditions. Results showed that metrics for median values changed considerably for most locations under impaired conditions, but the direction and extent of change varied depending on the location and flow metric. Metrics for variability (coefficients of dispersion) changed even more. Most metrics showed that flow modifications in Bear Creek were substantial, including decreases in high flows and increases in most low‐flow metrics. However, some flow variability metrics increased because of large flood flows during several years overwhelming and bypassing the dam/diversion structure. Uncertainty in metrics varied considerably throughout the basin but generally increased for impaired conditions. Uncertainty should be explicitly considered when evaluating hydrologic modification from HEP in mountain watersheds. A number of metrics should be used depending on objectives and spatial scale, including a subset of key IHA metrics across multiple sites and other methods to provide detailed information on flow modification in conjunction with other environmental flow assessment techniques at key locations. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Influence of Scale on Thermal Characteristics in a Large Montane River Basin
Abstract: This study monitored stream temperatures over two hydrological years at various nested scales within the large, unregulated river Dee catchment (North East Scotland). These scales were (i) the whole catchment (11 sites along main stem Dee); (ii) the tributary (single sites in main tributaries); (iii) the Girnock (five sites in one subcatchment); and (iv) the reach (26 points across single reach). The aim was to characterize the thermal regime of all locations and compare the magnitude of variation between each scale. The controls on this variation were assessed via a multiple linear regression model using Geographic Information System‐derived catchment data. Temperatures were collected at 15‐min resolution and for further analysis and discussion combined to daily means. At the catchment and subcatchment scales, a west to east gradient in mean and minimum temperatures was observed, largely paralleling changes in altitude. Temperature differences between subcatchments were generally greater than between the sites along the main stem of the Dee. Differences between tributaries reflected differences in their morphology and land use. However, some tributaries had similar thermal regimes, despite different catchment and riparian characteristics. Subcatchment differences in thermal regimes of one of the tributaries corresponded to riparian vegetation reduced diurnal variability in sections dominated by broadleaf woodland. Compared with the larger scales, reach differences in thermal regime were small (e.g. mean temperatures of riffle, pool and margin habitats were within 0.3°C). The most noticeable difference was in relation to the point samples within the backwater area, which has a more constant thermal regime, most probably reflecting its groundwater source. The regression analysis indicated that monthly mean temperatures can be predicted well using elevation and catchment area. Forest cover was a significant explanatory variable during the summer months. However, some of the empirical temperature data from the Dee indicate that similar thermal regimes can result from different physical controls and processes that have important implications for the extrapolation of such predictive models. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Implementing environmental flows in complex water resources systems – case study: the Duero river basin, Spain
Abstract: European river basin authorities are responsible for the implementation of the new river basin management plans in accordance with the European Water Framework Directive. This paper presents a new methodology framework and approach to define and evaluate environmental flow regimes in the realistic complexities that exist with multiple water resource needs at a basin scale. This approach links river basin simulation models and habitat time series analysis to generate ranges of environmental flows (e‐flows), which are evaluated by using habitat, hydropower production and reliability of water supply criteria to produce best possible alternatives.With the use of these tools, the effects of the proposed e‐flows have been assessed to help in the consultation process. The possible effects analysed are impacts on water supply reliability, hydropower production and aquatic habitat. After public agreements, a heuristic optimization process was applied to maximize e‐flows and habitat indicators, while maintaining a legal level of reliability for water resource demands. The final optimal e‐flows were considered for the river basin management plans of the Duero river basin.This paper demonstrates the importance of considering quantitative hydrologic and ecological aspects of e‐flows at the basin scale in addressing complex water resource systems. This approach merges standard methods such as physical habitat simulations and time series analyses for evaluating alternatives, with recent methods to simulate and optimize water management alternatives in river networks. It can be integrated with or used to complement other frameworks for e‐flow assessments such as the In‐stream Flow Incremental Methodology and Ecological Limits of Hydrologic Alteration. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
HISTORIC CHANGES (1941–2008) IN SIDE CHANNEL AND BACKWATER HABITATS ON AN UNCHANNELIZED REACH OF THE MISSOURI RIVER
Abstract: Flow regulation has had pervasive effects on aquatic ecosystems within the world's large rivers. While channelization on the lower Missouri River has led to major changes in the river and its floodplain, including the loss of shallow water habitats, effects of upstream dams on unchannelized reaches on the Missouri have not been formally assessed. We quantified changes in the number and size of off‐channel habitats, specifically backwaters and side channels, on the 95‐km unchannelized reach of the Missouri below Gavins Point Dam (Yankton, South Dakota) using historical (1941, 1983–1985, 2008) aerial imagery. Total and mean areas of side channels declined by 77% and 37% and total and mean length decreased by 79% and 42% from 1941 to 2008. Total area of backwaters increased by 40% from 1941 to 2008, whereas mean area decreased by 36%. Our findings suggest that sharp declines in the area and length of side channels have occurred on this unchannelized remnant reach of the Missouri River, with likely significant impacts on aquatic ecosystem processes. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PAST AND PREDICTED FUTURE CHANGES IN THE LAND COVER OF THE UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER FLOODPLAIN, USA
Abstract: This study provides one historical and two alternative future contexts for evaluating land cover modifications within the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) floodplain. Given previously documented changes in land use, river engineering, restoration efforts and hydro‐climatic changes within the UMR basin and floodplain, we wanted to know which of these changes are the most important determinants of current and projected future floodplain land cover. We used Geographic Information System data covering approximately 37% of the UMR floodplain (3232 km2) for ca 1890 (pre‐lock and dam) and three contemporary periods (1975, 1989 and 2000) across which river restoration actions have increased and hydro‐climatic changes have occurred. We further developed two 50‐year future scenarios from the spatially dependent land cover transitions that occurred from 1975 to 1989 (scenario A) and from 1989 to 2000 (scenario B) using Markov models.Land cover composition of the UMR did not change significantly from 1975 to 2000, indicating that current land cover continues to reflect historical modifications that support agricultural production and commercial navigation despite some floodplain restoration efforts and variation in river discharge. Projected future land cover composition based on scenario A was not significantly different from the land cover for 1975, 1989 or 2000 but was different from the land cover of scenario B, which was also different from all other periods. Scenario B forecasts transition of some forest and marsh habitat to open water by the year 2050 for some portions of the northern river and projects that some agricultural lands will transition to open water in the southern portion of the river. Future floodplain management and restoration planning efforts in the UMR should consider the potential consequences of continued shifts in hydro‐climatic conditions that may occur as a result of climate change and the potential effects on floodplain land cover. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Magnitude, frequency and duration of instream flows to stimulate and facilitate catadromous fish migrations: Australian bass (Macquaria novemaculeata Perciformes, Percichthyidae)
Abstract: The migratory response and behaviour of catadromous Australian bass with regard to hourly mean river flows and water temperatures was assessed over 15 months. Fish movement was assessed using a 75‐km passive acoustic telemetry array in the regulated Shoalhaven River below Tallowa Dam, NSW, Australia. The majority (62%) of downstream pre‐spawning migrations from freshwater to estuarine habitats were stimulated by a series of flow pulses from April to September, but a proportion of fish (38%) commenced downstream migrations under regulated baseflow conditions after a sustained decrease in water temperature to below 15°C in late autumn. Equal numbers of fish undertook post‐spawning upstream return migrations during flow pulses and during regulated baseflow conditions, with regulated baseflow migrants exhibiting a preference for dusk–dawn passage through freshwater pool–riffle sequences. The median magnitude of flow pulses at the time of commencement of downstream and upstream freshwater migrations by Australian bass was not large, equivalent to natural (in the absence of river regulation) flows equalled or exceeded for 56% and 48% of time, respectively. There was no evidence for increased numbers of migrants with increasing flow pulse magnitude, with individual fish ignoring some flow pulses but responding to subsequent events. In regulated rivers, the release of more frequent flow pulses with peak magnitudes approximating the natural 50th flow duration percentile may be more effective in stimulating greater numbers of Australian bass to undertake pre‐spawning and post‐spawning migrations between freshwater and estuarine habitats than the release of a single, larger event. The propensity of Australian bass to also undertake spawning migrations under regulated baseflow conditions emphasizes the need for provision of baseflow regimes in regulated rivers that can facilitate migrations by large bodied fishes. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.