- OPTIMIZING A STANDARDIZED ELECTROFISHING SAMPLING PROTOCOL FOR WARMWATER
RESIDENT SPORTFISH IN THE TALLAPOOSA RIVER, ALABAMA, USA
- Authors: S. M. Sammons
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: A two‐year electrofishing study was initiated in the Tallapoosa River, Alabama, to identify an optimal standardized sampling program for three principal resident sportfish: Alabama bass Micropterus henshalli, redbreast sunfish Lepomis auritus, and redeye bass Micropterus coosae. Samples were conducted in spring (May), summer (July), and fall (October) in 2010 and 2011 from seven 1‐h transects. Spring samples of Alabama bass had lower catch per effort (CPE) and were more skewed towards fish between 200 and 300 mm total length (TL) than samples in other seasons; whereas, fall samples collected more redeye bass >200 mm TL but CPE was similar among seasons. Fewer, but larger, redbreast sunfish were sampled during fall compared with other seasons. Mean CPE of all three species was independent of transect duration. The total time spent electrofishing and processing fish in order to estimate a mean CPE with a specified precision was a function of transect duration and CPE. More effort was needed as CPE decreased for most species, but the relations between transect duration and total effort were parabolic. A precision of within 10% of the mean CPE was unattainable for most species as a result of logistic considerations. Based on the results of this study, it appears that fall is the optimal sampling time for these species in the Tallapoosa River and the optimal transect duration is likely 10 min. At a precision level of 20% of the mean, the number of 10‐min transects required ranged from 5 to 40, with a total sample time for each individual species of 0.82–7.16 h. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- TEMPORAL VARIABILITY AND POTENTIAL PREDICTABILITY OF THE STREAMFLOW
REGIMES IN THE NORTH‐EASTERN IBERIAN PENINSULA
- Authors: M. Hernández‐Martínez; J. M. Hidalgo‐Muñoz, S. R. Gámiz‐Fortis, Y. Castro‐Díez, M. J. Esteban‐Parra
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: This paper investigates the temporal variability and potential predictability of streamflow regimes in the north‐eastern Spain for the 1970–2010 period. Two different regimes are found, those characterized for having peak flows in the winter and those where this maximum appears in the spring. The main characteristic time scales of streamflows in each area are studied by singular spectral analysis (SSA). While winter streamflow regime only shows interannual variability (quasi‐oscillatory modes around 5.5 and 2.3 years), spring streamflow (2.6 and 6.6 years) also presents a decadal variability component. Based on this result, a modelling process is conducted using autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models, for interannual variability modelling, and stable teleconnections between global oceanic sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and river flow, for decadal variability modelling. Finally, a one‐step‐ahead prediction experiment is computed to obtain forecasted streamflows.
The results for winter streamflow regime modelling show a phase concordance between the raw and the forecasted streamflow time series of around 70% and a correlation around 0.7, for the validation period (2001–2010). For spring streamflow, additionally to the ARMA modelling for the interannual component, a model based on the SST has been established that involves some oceanic regions from previous seasons located, fundamentally, not only in the North Atlantic but also in the Indian Ocean. The combined model (SST + ARMA) significantly improves the prediction based on the ARMA model alone, showing a phase concordance and a correlation around 90% and 0.7 respectively.
This modelling scheme provides predictability skills of the rivers from the Inland Catalan Basins at different time scales, representing an added value for water planning. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- WHY DO FISH STRAND? AN ANALYSIS OF TEN YEARS OF FLOW REDUCTION
MONITORING DATA FROM THE COLUMBIA AND KOOTENAY RIVERS, CANADA
- Authors: R. L. Irvine; J. L. Thorley, R. Westcott, D. Schmidt, D. DeRosa
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Stranding of fish due to flow reductions has been documented in the near shore of the Columbia and Kootenay Rivers, Canada, and can result in sub‐lethal or lethal effects on fish. Ten years (1999–2009) of monitoring data have been collected at sites below two hydro‐electric dams (Hugh‐L‐Keenleyside and Brilliant Dam) following flow reductions. A generalized linear mixed effects model analysed the probability of a stranding event in relation to environmental and operational variables including the rate of change in the water levels, the duration of shoreline inundation prior to a reduction (wetted history), the river stage, the magnitude of the reduction, distance downstream from the dam, time of day, day of year (season) and whether a site had been physically altered to mitigate stranding. The results demonstrated statistically significant effects on stranding risk from minimum river stage, day of the year and whether a site had been physically re‐contoured. The combination of investigated factors giving the highest probability of stranding was a large magnitude reduction completed in the afternoon in midsummer, at low water levels when the near shore had been inundated for a long period. This research is significant in its approach to assessing years of ecosystem scale monitoring data and using the modelling results to determine ways for these findings to be applied in regulated river management to minimize fish stranding. It also highlighted data gaps that require addressing and provides ecosystem scale results to compare with stranding studies carried out in mesocosms. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- DIATOMS OF TEMPORARY AND PERMANENT WATERCOURSES IN SOUTHERN EUROPE
- Authors: M. H. Novais; M. M. Morais, J. Rosado, L. S. Dias, L. Hoffmann, L. Ector
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: The potential importance of benthic diatoms in Mediterranean watercourses has received limited academic attention historically. This study sought to provide baseline information for this poorly studied group. Temporary and permanent watercourses in Portugal differ in catchment characteristics, climatic variables and water chemistry. The benthic diatom communities were characterized in terms of ecological preferences and conservation status for taxa with relative abundance above 1% in at least one site covering 39 temporary sites (109 taxa) and 53 permanent sites (130 taxa). The low‐profile guild dominated both temporary and permanent watercourses, followed by the high‐profile and motile guilds. Indicator value analysis indicated that Amphora copulata, Cocconeis placentula, Diploneis separanda, Encyonopsis subminuta, Fragilaria radians, Gomphonema olivaceum, Gomphonema truncatum, Halamphora veneta, Navicula radiosa, Navicula veneta, Sellaphora seminulum and Ulnaria acus were indicators of temporary watercourses, whereas Encyonema minutum, Eunotia minor, Fragilaria rumpens, Fragilaria cf. socia and Navicula rhynchocephala were characteristic of permanent watercourses. Ecological preferences of indicator taxa were inferred on the basis of environmental variables that differed significantly between temporary and permanent watercourses. The importance of temporary watercourses for the maintenance of diatom biodiversity is discussed and explored. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- CONCEPTUAL MODELLING TO ASSESS HYDROLOGICAL IMPACTS AND EVALUATE
ENVIRONMENTAL FLOW SCENARIOS IN MONTANE RIVER SYSTEMS REGULATED FOR
- Authors: J. Geris; D. Tetzlaff, J. Seibert, M. Vis, C. Soulsby
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: To improve understanding of natural and managed flow regimes in data‐sparse regulated river systems in montane areas, the commonly used Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning (HBV) conceptual run‐off model was adapted to incorporate water regulation components. The extended model was then applied to the heavily regulated river Lyon (391 km2) in Scotland to reconstruct the natural flow regime and to assess the impacts of regulation at increasing spatial scales. Multi‐criteria model evaluation demonstrated that the model performed well in capturing the dominant catchment processes and regulation effects, especially at the timescales at which operation rules apply. The main change as a result of regulation in the river Lyon is a decrease in inter‐annual and intra‐annual variability of all elements of the flow regime, in terms of magnitude, frequency, and duration. Although these impacts are most pronounced directly downstream of the impoundments, the regulation effects propagate throughout the river system. The modelling approach is flexible and widely applicable and only limited amounts of data are required. Moreover, results are easily communicated to stakeholders. It has the potential to contribute to the development of flow regimes that may be more beneficial to the ecological status of rivers. In the case of the river Lyon, it is likely that this involves a more variable release regime. The approach developed here provides a tool for assessing impacts on flow regimes and informing environmental flows in other data‐sparse regions with heavily regulated montane river systems. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- ABIOTIC ATTRIBUTES SURROUNDING ALLUVIAL ISLANDS GENERATE CRITICAL FISH
- Authors: W. D. Hintz; A. P. Porreca, J. E. Garvey, Q. E. Phelps, S. J. Tripp, R. A. Hrabik, D. P. Herzog
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Identifying the appropriate scale at which habitat is biologically relevant to riverine fishes in large, sand‐dominated rivers is a challenge. Alluvial islands are important to several of these fishes throughout the central USA, but there is a paucity of information on island habitat features that restoration efforts should try to replicate. We determined the physical characteristics of two island complexes in the middle Mississippi River that facilitate the settlement and survival of age‐0 shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus at relatively large (mean 39,000 m2) and small (mean 320 m2) scales. Depth (m), flow rate (m s−1), substrate (sand, rock, silt) and vegetation were quantified at these two scales using hydroacoustic techniques (split‐beam sonar and acoustic Doppler current profiler). Abiotic attributes in the surrounding littoral zone of the island complexes were highly correlated but differed depending on location. At the coarse spatial scale, vegetation was positively related to shovelnose sturgeon abundance. At the fine spatial scale, age‐0 shovelnose sturgeon were restricted to flow rates
- USE OF STABLE ISOTOPES TO TRACE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS INTO FOOD
WEBS WITHIN A HIGHLY DEVELOPED RIVER SYSTEM
- Authors: H. A. Loomer; K. D. Oakes, S. L. Schiff, W. D. Taylor, M. R. Servos
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Many anthropogenic inputs, such as municipal wastewater effluents (MWWEs), affect stable isotope signatures (δ13C and δ15N) at the base of exposed food webs creating spatial patterns reflecting their incorporation into aquatic food webs. The Grand River in southern Ontario, Canada, is a heavily modified, rapidly urbanizing river that assimilates wastewater from 30 municipal wastewater treatment plants. Stable isotope analysis was applied to resident aquatic invertebrates and fish influenced by three different wastewater outfalls in early, middle, and late summer to determine how values shifted seasonally and with differing effluent quality. There was a slight increase in δ13C in both invertebrates and fish in late summer downstream from the three outfalls, but it is difficult to separate effects of the effluents from downstream gradients. Downstream of two of the three outfalls, the δ15N tended to increase relative to upstream, while the remaining effluent, of the poorest quality, decreased δ15N values of both invertebrates and fish. Spatial trends in stable isotopes became more pronounced as the summer progressed with the greatest between‐site differences occurring in late summer. This study reflects the complex nutrient dynamics associated with MWWE inputs to rivers and contributes to our understanding and application of stable isotope analysis in impacted lotic ecosystems. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- EFFECTS OF ROAD CROSSINGS ON HABITAT CONNECTIVITY FOR
- Authors: M. W. Diebel; M. Fedora, S. Cogswell, J. R. O'Hanley
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Road crossings can act as barriers to the movement of stream fishes, resulting in habitat fragmentation, reduced population resilience to environmental disturbance and higher risks of extinction. Strategic barrier removal has the potential to improve connectivity in stream networks, but managers lack a consistent framework for determining which projects will most benefit target species. The objective of this study is to develop a method for identifying and prioritizing action on road crossings in order to restore stream network connectivity. We demonstrate the method using a case study from the Pine‐Popple watershed in Wisconsin. First, we propose a new metric for quantifying stream connectivity status for stream‐resident fish. The metric quantifies the individual and cumulative effects of barriers on reach and watershed level connectivity, while accounting for natural barriers, distance‐based dispersal limitations and variation in habitat type and quality. We conducted a comprehensive field survey of road crossings in the watershed to identify barriers and estimate replacement costs. Of the 190 surveyed road crossings, 74% were determined to be barriers to the movement of at least one species or life stage of fish, primarily due to high water velocity, low water depth or outlet drops. The results of the barrier removal prioritization show that initial projects targeted for mitigation create much greater improvements in connectivity per unit cost than later projects. Benefit–cost curves from this type of analysis can be used to evaluate potential projects within and among watersheds and minimize overall expenditures for specified restoration targets. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- A NEW METHOD TO ASSESS THE FLOW REGIME ALTERATIONS IN RIVERINE ECOSYSTEMS
- Authors: X. A. Yin; Z. F. Yang, G. E. Petts
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Assessing alterations of a river's flow regime provides the basis for river protection and restoration planning. The range of variation approach (RVA) is a commonly used method to evaluate alterations in a river's flow regime. However, RVA underestimates the degree of flow regime alteration potentially, because it only considers the difference in frequency between the pre‐impact and post‐impact hydrologic indicator values within certain target ranges and does not consider alteration of the order of hydrologic year types (HYTs; i.e. wet, average and dry years). The HYT order is an important holistic feature of the flow regime. The human‐induced change of HYTs, such as from a dry year to a wet year or from an average year to a dry year, can be a major cause of ecosystem alteration. For some species, the order of the HYTs was more important than single‐year events (such as the flood magnitude during a given year). To address this problem with the RVA, we proposed a modification of this method that accounts for alteration of the order of HYTs. We developed a metric for assessing the alteration of the HYT order based on Euclidean distance and then combined this metric with the RVA. We applied the revised method to a case study of the Sha River in northern China to test its effectiveness. The results demonstrated that the new method solved RVA's problem of potentially underestimating the degree of flow regime alteration and enabled a more comprehensive analysis of the alteration of the flow regime. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- IMPACT OF DROUGHT ON DIATOM COMMUNITIES AND THE CONSEQUENCES FOR THE USE
OF DIATOM INDEX VALUES IN THE RIVER MAUREILLAS
- Authors: A. Barthès; J. Leflaive, S. Coulon, F. Peres, J.‐L. Rols, L. Ten‐Hage
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: In the context of climate change, with an increase in the incidence of seasonally dry streambeds, we examined the impact of drought, and its duration, on the structure of diatom communities and the consequences of this on diatom index values (Biological Diatom Index; Specific Polluosensitivity Index) in the Mediterranean river Maureillas. The effects of several durations of droughts or low flow events (1, 2 and 4 weeks) on diatom‐dominated biofilms were studied by removing pebbles from the river and comparing the growing communities after rewetting with those of control biofilms (pebbles left in the streambed) and with those of newly formed biofilms (cleaned‐up pebbles). Sampling was performed six times during the 28‐day rewetting phase. We determined the specific composition of diatom communities, the mortality rate after rewetting, and the Biological Diatom Index and Specific Polluosensitivity Index scores for each sample, distinguishing between potentially living diatoms (full frustules with chloroplasts) and dead diatoms (empty frustules). Our results showed a notable and durable impact of even short drought on diatom communities. The different trajectories of biofilm communities observed between the types of pebbles showed the importance of the biofilm history for the community structure. This should be taken into account to improve the sampling practices used for monitoring. We also observed a stable mortality rate whatever the drought duration was. Diatom index values were stable despite the observed impact of treatment on diatom communities. These results emphasize the reliability of the diatom index to evaluate biological quality according to European requirements. In addition, the distinction of empty and full frustules did not induce significant differences, but it may reduce biases in interpretation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- MASS DISPERSAL OF TERRESTRIAL ORGANISMS DURING FIRST FLUSH EVENTS IN A
- Authors: J. Rosado; M. Morais, K. Tockner
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Temporary streams expand and contract seasonally, forming a complex mosaic of aquatic, amphibic and terrestrial habitats. We studied the terrestrial arthropod fauna at the surface of the dry river bed as well as the fauna of Coarse Particulate Organic Matter (CPOM) deposits 0, 5 and 10 days after first flush events (years 2004–2006) along the Pardiela stream (SE Portugal). During the dry period, large amounts of organic material accumulated at the surface of the dry bed, colonized by abundant terrestrial arthropods (mean density: 13.3 ± 15.29 Ind g DM (Dry Mass of CPOM)). Arthropod density peaked in fresh flood deposits (mean density: 35.8 ± 33.4 Ind g DM), and subsequently decreased within time. Concurrently, the relative composition of the arthropod community changed from Day 0 to Day 10. The present results demonstrated that the dry bed of temporary streams served as a major habitat for terrestrial arthropods. During the first flush events, a mass dispersal of terrestrial arthropods, rafting on floating CPOM, occurred, subsequently forming distinct deposits along the channel margin. These deposits may constitute critical habitats, refugia and food resources for local and regional terrestrial arthropod assemblages. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- USING GOOGLE EARTH, A VIRTUAL‐GLOBE IMAGING PLATFORM, FOR ECOSYSTEM
SERVICES‐BASED RIVER ASSESSMENT
- Authors: A. R. G. Large; D. J. Gilvear
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: A methodology for reach‐based river ecosystem service assessment of eight ecosystem functions using remote sensing via Google Earth is presented. The number of publications addressing Google Earth and ecosystem services has grown significantly since 2005, yet this powerful remote sensing platform remains under‐used in river science. Theoretical linkages between 18 riverscape fluvial features, attributes and land cover types, observable and measurable on Google Earth, and resultant river ecosystem service delivery are central to the methodology. Using this framework, we build on earlier ecosystem service conceptual models to develop a rules‐based scoring approach and apply it to three rivers of differing size and character from source to mouth. The aim was to devise a robust ecosystem service assessment tool applicable to any ecoregion and to rivers of any size, degree of human modification and character. Reach or sector scales are river length dependent. The minimum reach scale recommended is 500 m, and a 10 km sector length was used on the longest of our three rivers. Two key metrics, the individual ecosystem service score and the total ecosystems service score, are derived at the river reach scale from source to mouth. Scoring is on a 0–3 scale with 0 representing an absent or virtually no ecosystem service value and 3 an optimal or maximum value. Output is best expressed in score per kilometre of river length. The exercise showed the tool to be applicable across two ecoregions and to rivers of varying size, level of human modification and character. While requiring further refinement, the approach shows that ecosystem service assessments based on virtual globes can be universally applied providing valuable information on riverscape ecosystem service delivery. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- RESPONSE OF FISH COMMUNITIES TO HYDROLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS
IN HYDROPEAKING RIVERS OF AUSTRIA
- Authors: S. Schmutz; T. H. Bakken, T. Friedrich, F. Greimel, A. Harby, M. Jungwirth, A. Melcher, G. Unfer, B. Zeiringer
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Climate change asks for the reduction in the consumption of fossil‐based fuels and an increased share of non‐regulated renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power. In order to back up a larger share of these intermittent sources, ‘battery services’ are needed, currently provided only in large scale by hydropower, leading to more rapid and frequent changes in flows (hydropeaking) in the downstream rivers. Increased knowledge about the ecosystem response to such operations and design of cost‐effective measures is needed.
We analysed the response of fish communities to hydropeaking (frequency, magnitude, ramping rate and timing) and the interaction with the habitat conditions in Austrian rivers. An index of biotic integrity (Fish Index Austria) was used to compare river sections with varying degrees of flow fluctuations under near‐natural and channelized habitat conditions. The results showed that habitat conditions, peak frequency (number of peaks per year), ramping rate (water level variation) and interaction between habitat and ramping rate explained most of the variation of the Fish Index Austria. In addition, peaking during the night seems to harm fish more than peaking during the day. Fish communities in hyporhithral and epipotamal types of rivers are more affected by hydropeaking than those in metarhithral type of rivers. The results support the findings of other studies that fish stranding caused by ramping rates >15 cm h−1 are likely to be the main cause of fish community degradation when occurring more often than 20 times a year. While the ecological status degrades with increasing ramping rate in nature‐like rivers, fish communities are heavily degraded in channelized rivers regardless of the ramping rate. The mitigation of hydropeaking, therefore, requires an integrative approach considering the combined effects of hydrological and morphological alterations on fish. © 2014 The
Authors . River Research and Applications published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- A COMPARISON OF THE TEMPERATURE REGIME OF SHORT STREAM SEGMENTS UNDER
FORESTED AND NON‐FORESTED RIPARIAN ZONES AT ELEVEN SITES ACROSS
- Authors: J. A. Simmons; M. Anderson, W. Dress, C. Hanna, D. J. Hornbach, A. Janmaat, F. Kuserk, J. G. March, T. Murray, J. Niedzwiecki, D. Panvini, B. Pohlad, C. Thomas, L. Vasseur
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: When forested riparian zones are cleared for agriculture or development, major changes can occur in the stream temperature regime and consequently in ecosystem structure and function. Our main objective was to compare the summer temperature regimes of streams with and without forest canopy cover at multiple sites. The secondary objective was to identify the components of the stream heat budget that had the greatest influence on the stream temperature regime. Paired stream reaches (one forested and one non‐forested or ‘open’) were identified at 11 sites distributed across the USA and Canada. Stream temperature was monitored at the upstream and downstream ends of 80 to 130‐m‐long reaches during summer, and five variables were calculated to describe the stream temperature regime. Overall, compared with forested reaches, open reaches tended to have significantly higher daily mean (mean difference = 0.33 ± 1.1°C) and daily maximum (mean difference = 1.0 ± 1.7°C) temperatures and wider daily ranges (mean difference = 1.1 ± 1.7°C). Mean and maximum daily net heat fluxes in open reaches tended to be greater (or less negative) than those in forested reaches. However, certain sites showed the opposite trends in some variables because of the following: (i) Daily mean and maximum temperatures were biased by differences in inflow temperature between paired reaches and (ii) inputs of cold groundwater exerted a strong influence on temperature. Modelling and regression results suggested that within sites, differences in direct solar radiation were mainly responsible for the observed differences in stream temperature variables at the daily scale. © 2014 The
Authors . River Research and Applications published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- FISH BODY CONDITION AND RECRUITMENT RESPONSES TO ANTECEDENT FLOWS IN
DRYLAND RIVERS ARE SPECIES AND RIVER SPECIFIC
- Authors: S. R. Balcombe; A. H. Arthington, D. Sternberg
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Dryland rivers in arid and semi‐arid regions drain approximately one‐third of the Earth's land area, yet basic aspects of their ecology are poorly documented and many are threatened by excessive water use leading to alterations of the flow regime. Management of dryland rivers imperilled by changes to the flow regime requires quantitative hydro‐ecological relationships and models to support environmental flow restoration strategies and to define ecological response indicators for assessment of trends in ecological health. Fish living in dryland rivers experience highly variable levels of food resources associated with ‘boom and bust’ productivity patterns driven by highly irregular episodes of rainfall, runoff and floodplain inundation followed by busts associated with drying of remnant aquatic habitats. To cope with variable food resource levels, fish store energy as fat during productivity booms, enabling them to breed later or to survive through extended periods of limited food resources. This study tracked temporal patterns of body condition and recruitment success of the four most abundant fish species in two Australian dryland river systems with contrasting patterns of flow variability, Cooper Creek and the Moonie River. We found consistent responses to flow magnitude and timing for body condition and/or recruitment success in Cooper Creek but fewer responses in the Moonie River. Results suggest that the fish metrics and relationships to flow established for Cooper Creek may apply in similar dryland rivers exhibiting clear boom and bust patterns, whereas the Moonie River results could be applicable to rivers with less variable flow patterns and fewer spells of zero flows. Our study demonstrates that simple, non‐destructive methods based on fish length and weight provide useful biological indicators of response to flow variability provided that care is taken with species selection and that hydro‐ecological relationships are calibrated for each contrasting type of hydrologic regime. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- INVESTIGATION OF STREAM TEMPERATURE RESPONSE TO NON‐UNIFORM
GROUNDWATER DISCHARGE IN A DANISH LOWLAND STREAM
- Authors: K. Matheswaran; M. Blemmer, P. Thorn, D. Rosbjerg, E. Boegh
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Non‐uniform groundwater discharge into streams influences temperature, a vital stream physical property recognized for its dominant controls on biological processes in lotic habitats at multiple scales. Understanding such spatially heterogeneous processes and their effects is difficult on the basis of stream temperature models often calibrated with discrete temperature measurements. This study focused on examining the effect of groundwater discharge on stream temperature using a physically based stream temperature model calibrated on spatially rich high‐resolution temperature measurements. A distributed temperature sensing (DTS) system with a 1.8‐km fibre optic cable was used to collect temperature measurements for every 1 m of the reach length at 3‐min temporal resolution in the stream Elverdamsåen. The groundwater inflow locations identified using DTS data and 24‐h temperature measurements (14:00 h 6 May 2011 to 14:00 h 7 May 2011) were used for further calibration of the stream temperature model. With 19 inflow locations, the model simulated temperature trends closely mirroring the observed DTS profile with a root mean square error of 0.85 °C. The aggregation of inflows at specific locations forced the model to simulate stepwise inflow signals and small change in downstream temperature. In turn, the DTS data exemplified spiked signals with no change in downstream temperature, a typical characteristic of lowland streams. In spite of the difference in modelled and measured inflow signals, the results indicate that the represented groundwater inflows imperatively controlled the spatial variations of temperature within the study reach, creating three unique thermal zones. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- MODELLING EVALUATION OF DAM REMOVAL IN THE CONTEXT OF RIVER ECOSYSTEM
- Authors: Y. Wan; D. Sun, J. Labadie
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Applications of environmental models may provide imperative information to enable informed decision‐making of river management actions, which are often made in the face of high system complexity and uncertainty. We applied Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System(HEC‐RAS) and Curvilinear Hydrodynamics Three‐Dimensional (CH3D) models to aid in the decision‐making of the proposed removal of the Masten Dam, a small, ‘run‐of‐the‐river’ dam on the Loxahatchee River, a federally designated ‘Wild and Scenic River’ in south‐east coast of Florida (USA). Anthropogenic alteration of the system has led to changing hydroperiods and salinity regimes in the floodplain. Both models are calibrated against measured data taken at varying temporal and spatial scales. The HEC‐RAS modelling results show that removal of the Masten Dam would lower water levels in the upstream riverine reach, leading to reduced soil moisture or inundation in the floodplain. The CH3D modelling results indicate that dam removal would increase river salinity during the dry season in the tidal reach where salinity compliance for environmental flow regulation is measured. These environmental changes would exert additional stress on freshwater vegetation communities in the floodplain. Given the scarcity of water resources in the region, removal of the Masten Dam would not offer an effective restoration strategy. This study demonstrates not only the need for evaluation of dam removal on a case‐by‐case basis but also the usefulness of environmental models in providing the technical basis for such management decisions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- ENVIRONMENTAL FLOWS IN A HUMAN‐DOMINATED SYSTEM: INTEGRATED WATER
MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR THE RIO GRANDE/BRAVO BASIN
- Authors: B. A. Lane; S. Sandoval‐Solis, E. C. Porse
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Water management in the transboundary Rio Grande/Bravo (RGB) Basin, shared by the US and Mexico, is complicated by extreme hydrologic variability, overallocation, and international treaty obligations. Heavy regulation of the RGB has degraded binationally protected ecosystems along the Big Bend Reach of the RGB. This study addresses the need for integrated water management in Big Bend by developing an alternative reservoir operation policy to provide environmental flows while reducing water management trade‐offs. A reach‐scale water planning model was used to represent historical hydrology (1955–2009), water allocation, and reservoir operations, and key human water management objectives (water supply, flood control, and binational treaty obligations) were quantified. Spatially distributed environmental flow objectives and an alternative reservoir rule curve were developed. We simulated current and alternative water management policies and used an iterative simulation–evaluation process to evaluate alternative policies based on water system performance criteria with respect to specified objectives. A single optimal policy was identified that maximized environmental flows while maintaining specified human objectives. By changing the timing but not the volume of releases, the proposed reservoir re‐operation policy has the potential to sustain key ecological and geomorphic functions in Big Bend without significantly impacting current water management objectives. The proposed policy also improved water supply provisions, reduced average annual flood risk, and maintained historical treaty provisions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- HABITAT‐ORIENTED SAMPLING OF MACROINVERTEBRATES AFFECTS THE
DETERMINATION OF ECOLOGICAL STATUS IN TEMPORARY MEDITERRANEAN RIVER
- Authors: F. Leitão; S. J. Hughes, I. Máximo, N. Atanasova, A. Furtado, L. Chicharo
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Inter‐annual and annual variation in precipitation levels in Mediterranean temporary river systems strongly influence riverine flow regimes and as a result habitat' availability for biological assemblages. Under‐sampling of less well‐presented microhabitats in such changeable, dynamic systems can result in information loss leading to misclassification of Water Framework Directive (WFD) compliant ecological status, with serious consequences for Programmes of Measures in River Basin Management Plans. This paper compares two benthic macroinvertebrate sampling protocols tested in intermittent Mediterranean streams (n = 40) in the Algarve region of southern Portugal. The officially adopted WFD compliant European assessment system for the ecological quality of rivers using benthic macroinvertebrates, a composite sampling protocol, focuses sampling a greater area of the most representative microhabitats at a given sampling site (proportional habitat sampling). A non‐proportional habitat sampling protocol was applied to test the assumption that taxa may have preference for different microhabitats and that this could influence classification of ecological status. Variation was detected in the levels of similarity in the structure and the composition of the benthic macroinvertebrate community within sampling sites and rivers, based on material collected using the two collection methods. Ecological index scores and biotic metrics were higher when the non‐proportional oriented sampling protocol was utilized resulting in a ‘good ecological status’ classification at sites that had been classified as ‘Bad’ using the official WFD, Decision tree analysis results indicated that changes in the area of individual microhabitats sampled among protocols was the principal driver behind differences in ecological status derived. The results indicate that more realistic classifications could be achieved in intermittent Mediterranean rivers when considering and sampling less well‐represented microhabitat types (non‐proportional sampling) rather than distributing sampling effort by the proportion of the dominant habitat present as currently used for the WFD protocol. The application of the non‐proportional microhabitat‐based approach, which accounts for selective preferences of some benthic macroinvertebrate taxa, would ensure that a greater proportion of a given site community contributes to the assessment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF HIGH SUMMER WATER TEMPERATURES ON SHOVELNOSE
STURGEON AND POTENTIAL IMPLICATIONS OF CLIMATE CHANGE
- Authors: R. N. Hupfeld; Q. E. Phelps, M. K. Flammang, G. W. Whitledge
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Rivers worldwide have experienced changes through habitat modifications and are likely further exacerbated with the onset of climate change. The coupling of these anthropogenic disturbances has reduced the ability of river ecosystems and associated biota to adjust. The aforementioned human‐induced habitat perturbations coupled with high summer river temperatures have been associated with an increased frequency of fish kills. Recently, shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus have experienced numerous events of excessive summer mortality in rivers across the USA. During the summer of 2012, multiple fish kills occurred on the lower Des Moines River. During one of these events, we collected numerous dead or dying shovelnose sturgeon (N = 132) to explore factors causing mortality. Water temperatures were exceedingly high (29–35°C), while dissolved oxygen levels varied between 4 and 10 mg L−1. Based on population simulation modelling, only ~14% mortality would need to occur to reduce the reproductive potential below sustainable levels, which was likely exceeded. The results of our controlled experiment demonstrate that the high temperature in the Des Moines River was likely the mechanism initiating mortality. Future climate projections indicate that increases in temperature on the Des Moines River are possible; thus, the population may be at risk in the future. Through our microchemistry investigation, immigration from the Upper Mississippi River appears to be common and may be a source population to the Des Moines River. Despite immigration, the influence that these mortality events have on the Upper Mississippi River is unknown. Thus, proactive management efforts are needed to ensure sustainability of this population. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- RETRIEVING RIVER ATTRIBUTES FROM REMOTELY SENSED DATA: AN EXPERIMENTAL
EVALUATION BASED ON FIELD SPECTROSCOPY AT THE OUTDOOR STREAM LAB
- Authors: C. J. Legleiter; B. T. Overstreet
Pages: 671 - 684
Abstract: This paper summarizes experiments conducted at the Outdoor Stream Lab to gain insight on the relationships between a channel's spectral characteristics and the river attributes of interest to scientists and managers. Improved understanding of these connections would advance the application of remote sensing to fluvial systems. Motivated by this objective, we examined the following: (i) interactions among local hydraulics, water surface roughness and surface reflectance; and (ii) the influence of periphyton development and streambed disturbance on bottom reflectance. These experiments could thus lead to novel methods for inferring flow velocity and substrate type, respectively, from passive optical image data. Our initial results indicate the following: (i) water surface reflectance can compromise spectrally based depth retrieval by reducing the range of useful wavelengths and weakening correlations between band ratios and depth, implying that removing the surface‐reflected component of the total radiance could facilitate bathymetric mapping; (ii) water surface roughness was influenced by local hydraulics and was positively correlated with water surface reflectance, suggesting that observations of surface reflectance could be used to infer flow velocities; (iii) substrate spectral characteristics were influenced by the degree of periphyton development, implying that algal biomass might be estimated from remotely sensed data; and (iv) similarly, bottom reflectance differed significantly for intact versus disturbed substrates, suggesting that areas of streambed disturbance might be identified via remote sensing. Future work will focus on further elucidating connections between surface reflectance, water surface texture and flow velocity, and developing quantitative relationships between bottom reflectance, periphyton abundance and the degree of streambed disturbance. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- HIGH‐FLOW GRAVEL INJECTION FOR CONSTRUCTING DESIGNED
- Authors: D. Gaeuman
Pages: 685 - 706
Abstract: A planned gravel bar was dynamically constructed at a river rehabilitation project site through a combination of mechanical channel reconfiguration and high‐flow gravel injection. Mechanical alterations intended to promote deposition in a target area were followed by the injection of 1570 m3 of gravel and small cobble 400 m upstream during a high‐flow dam release. This dynamic bar construction proved successful in that bed elevations increased locally by more than 1 m in the target area and a new alternate bar sequence was created nearby. Morphodynamic modelling used to plan the injection correctly identified general areas prone to deposition or scour, but did not correctly predict the magnitudes of change or resolve features at the scale of individual alternate bars. A flow perturbation induced by a constructed meander bend just upstream from the injection point may have contributed to alternate bar development. Despite the observed bar development, sediment budget calculations indicate that the quantity of gravel stored in the target reach remained constant, perhaps because of an interruption in the delivery of bed material from upstream. The estimated gravel load over the release increased steadily in the downstream direction and, at the downstream study area boundary, had attained a magnitude 4.6 times larger than the quantity of injected gravel. These results demonstrate that bedload entrainment from the channel perimeter dominated the gravel supply to downstream reaches and suggest that the gravel injection had little effect on geomorphic adjustments downstream from its target area. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- GRAVEL AUGMENTATION INCREASES SPAWNING UTILIZATION BY ANADROMOUS
SALMONIDS: A CASE STUDY FROM CALIFORNIA, USA
- Authors: S. C. Zeug; K. Sellheim, C. Watry, B. Rook, J. Hannon, J. Zimmerman, D. Cox, J. Merz
Pages: 707 - 718
Abstract: Anadromous salmonid diversity and abundance worldwide have been adversely impacted by anthropogenic forces, and millions of dollars are spent each year on stream habitat restoration and enhancement. However, there is a paucity of data comparing site use by salmonids before and after enhancement implementation, and few studies examine the specific environmental conditions that determine whether salmonids utilize an enhanced site. This study examines the use of gravel augmentation to improve spawning site utilization by Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on the Lower American River, California, USA. Spawning increased across all augmentation sites for both species, although there were species‐specific and year‐specific differences in the degree to which a site was utilized and in the spatial distribution of redds in relation to substrate size, habitat features and other redds. There were also differences in redd architecture across sites that were related to differences in gravel size. This study illustrates that gravel augmentation projects can enhance spawning habitat for salmonids where spawning beds have degraded but that species‐specific and site‐specific attributes and gravel size can influence the relative effectiveness of a project. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- CHANNEL ADJUSTMENTS AND ISLAND DYNAMICS IN THE BRENTA RIVER (ITALY) OVER
THE LAST 30 YEARS
- Authors: J. Moretto; E. Rigon, L. Mao, L. Picco, F. Delai, M. A. Lenzi
Pages: 719 - 732
Abstract: Many gravel bed rivers in the European Alpine area suffered different ranges and types of human pressure that modified their morphology and altered their processes. This work presents the case of the middle portion of the Brenta River, historically impacted by human activities such as floodplain occupations, bank protection, gravel mining, hydropower schemes and water diversion. Dam operation and gravel mining have produced considerable modifications in the natural sediment regime generating important morphological channel responses (narrowing and incision). Large areas of the former active channel have been colonized by riparian vegetation, both as islands and as marginal woodlands. Overall, the river changed its morphological pattern from braided to wandering. The present study analyses the timing and extent of the planform morphological changes that occurred over the last 30 years along the middle portion of the river (20 km long) through the examination of aerial photos, repeated topographic measurements and hydrological data. A series of recent aerial photos (1981, 1990, 1994, 1999, 2003, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2011) have been used to assess the medium and short‐term morphological changes of the floodplains and the active channel area. As to the medium‐term modification, the recent changes in in‐channel gravel mining have determined a new trend of active channel widening through erosion of vegetated areas. The analysis has also allowed to assess the morphological effect of single flood events. Only floods with recurrence interval higher than 8–10 years appear to be able to determine substantial erosion of floodplain and island margins. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- DAILY AVERAGED 2D WATER TEMPERATURE MODEL FOR THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER
- Authors: V. Ouellet; Y. Secretan, A. St‐Hilaire, J. Morin
Pages: 733 - 744
Abstract: A daily averaged two‐dimensional water temperature model has been developed for the freshwater part of the St. Lawrence River, between Lake St. Louis and Trois‐Rivières (Québec, Canada). The model was first calibrated and validated for the area of Lake St. Pierre, a natural enlargement of the river subject to strong lateral and longitudinal thermal variations. Forecasts from the Global Environmental Multiscale model were used in preference to observations from meteorological stations for model inputs, both to increase the spatial resolution and ultimately to allow the water temperature model to be used in predictive mode. The resulting model provided daily water temperature estimates with an overall root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.18 °C and a Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient of 0.44. Comparisons between Landsat images and simulations demonstrated that the model not only simulated accurate water temperature values but also showed the adequacy of the model in general. It not only simulated local water temperature relatively accurately but also provided a good representation of the spatial water temperature patterns within the study area. The error varied between deep and shallow water areas. In deeper water, the overall RMSE is 0.41 °C, and the modified Nash coefficient rises up to 0.92. Because shallow water areas are subject to greater variations, longer, more spatially dense data sets will be needed to refine the hydrodynamic and thermal budget models for those specific areas. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- PAIRED STREAM–AIR TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS REVEAL FINE‐SCALE
THERMAL HETEROGENEITY WITHIN HEADWATER BROOK TROUT STREAM NETWORKS
- Authors: Y. Kanno; J. C. Vokoun, B. H. Letcher
Pages: 745 - 755
Abstract: Previous studies of climate change impacts on stream fish distributions commonly project the potential patterns of habitat loss and fragmentation due to elevated stream temperatures at a broad spatial scale (e.g. across regions or an entire species range). However, these studies may overlook potential heterogeneity in climate change vulnerability within local stream networks. We examined fine‐scale stream temperature patterns in two headwater brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis stream networks (7.7 and 4.4 km) in Connecticut, USA, by placing a combined total of 36 pairs of stream and air temperature loggers that were approximately 300 m apart from each other. Data were collected hourly from March to October 2010. The summer of 2010 was hot (the second hottest on record) and had well below average precipitation, but stream temperature was comparable with those of previous 2 years because streamflow was dominated by groundwater during base‐flow conditions. Nonlinear regression models revealed stream temperature variation within local stream networks, particularly during warmest hours of the day (i.e. late afternoon to evening) during summer. Thermal variability was primarily observed between stream segments, versus within a stream segment (i.e. from confluence to confluence). Several cold tributaries were identified in which stream temperature was much less responsive to air temperature. Our findings suggested that regional models of stream temperature would not fully capture thermal variation at the local scale and may misrepresent thermal resilience of stream networks. Groundwater appeared to play a major role in creating the fine‐scale spatial thermal variation, and characterizing this thermal variation is needed for assessing climate change impacts on headwater species accurately. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- HYDROLOGIC CORRELATES OF BULL TROUT (Salvelinus confluentus) SWIMMING
ACTIVITY IN A HYDROPEAKING RIVER
- Authors: M. K. Taylor; C. T. Hasler, C. S. Findlay, B. Lewis, D. C. Schmidt, S. G. Hinch, S. J. Cooke
Pages: 756 - 765
Abstract: There is a growing need to develop quantitative relationships between specific components of river flow and the behavioural responses of fishes. Given this, we tested for an effect of hydrologic parameters on axial swimming muscle electromyograms of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in a large hydropeaking river (river discharge ranging from 0 to 1790 m3/s) while controlling for other exogenous factors such as temperature and light intensity. Hourly mean discharge had a significant positive effect (R2 = 0.13–0.31; depending on the distance from the dam) on swimming muscle activity. Within‐hour changes in river flow from 0 to 1045 m3/s did not elicit a hyperactive response in bull trout. When a subset of electromyogram transmitters were calibrated to swimming speed, we found there were periods, across a range of river discharges, when bull trout were not actively beating their tails—a behaviour documented in some bottom‐dwelling species associated with moving water. Not including these periods of rest, bull trout swam at median hourly speeds of 0.53 body lengths per second. Understanding fish behaviour in the context of their physical environment may help explain population‐level responses to hydrologic change. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- HYDRAULIC PREFERENCES OF SHRIMPS AND FISHES IN TROPICAL INSULAR RIVERS
- Authors: V. Girard; D. Monti, P. Valade, N. Lamouroux, J.‐P. Mallet, H. Grondin
Pages: 766 - 779
Abstract: Hydraulic habitat models based on the preferences of species for the hydraulic characteristics of their microhabitats are frequently used to evaluate the impact on the habitat of a change in river flow regime. Their application in a tropical insular environment is still limited as little is known about the hydraulic preferences of species. Hydraulic preference models have been developed for 15 taxa (diadromous shrimps and fishes) sampled in 52 rivers in the Caribbean (the French West Indies) and the Indian Ocean (the Reunion island). Five datasets were used and group 8353 samples collected by electrofishing during 320 surveys (reach × date) performed between 1999 and 2011. Generalized additive models were used to link variations of taxa density within surveys to the hydraulic characteristics of the microhabitat (velocity, depth and substrate). Hydraulic preferences within each region (Caribbean and Indian Ocean) are significant for most of the taxa and vary little between rivers and surveys. The hydraulic variables explain up to 18.1% (univariate models) and 30.0% (multivariate models) of the deviance of densities within survey. Of the taxa selected, Atya scabra, Macrobrachium heterochirus, Xiphocaris elongata and the Sicydiinae are the most demanding. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- INTRA‐ANNUAL VARIATION IN RIVER–RESERVOIR INTERFACE FISH
ASSEMBLAGES: IMPLICATIONS FOR FISH CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT IN
- Authors: D. L. Buckmeier; N. G. Smith, B. P. Fleming, K. A. Bodine
Pages: 780 - 790
Abstract: While much is known about the fish assemblages, habitats, and ecology of rivers and reservoirs, there has been limited study of the fish assemblages in transitional habitats between these lotic and lentic habitats. Data about these river–reservoir interface (RRI) fish assemblages are needed to guide integrated management efforts of river–reservoir ecosystems. The aim of these efforts is to recommend flows for natural river function, conserve native riverine fish assemblages, and maintain reservoir sport fisheries. We used a multigear approach to assess the fish assemblages of four RRIs in the Colorado River Basin, Texas. In addition to characterizing RRI fish assemblages using species richness and evenness metrics, and habitat‐use guilds, we used a multivariate approach to evaluate intra‐annual shifts in species composition and abundance. All RRIs had high species richness and evenness values and included both macrohabitat generalist and fluvial species. RRIs also contained high proportions of the fish species available within each river–reservoir ecosystem, ranging from 55% to 80%. Observed intra‐annual shifts in RRI fish assemblages resulted from changes in abundance of dominant species rather than changes in species composition, with abundance of most species increasing from early spring to summer. Fish species responsible for intra‐annual shifts included mostly floodplain and migratory species, suggesting that species both used littoral habitats within RRIs and migrated through RRIs to river and reservoir habitats. The diversity of fishes found within RRIs highlights the importance of including these areas in future conservation and management efforts of river–reservoir ecosystems. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- BENTHIC COMMUNITY RESPONSES TO WATER REMOVAL IN TROPICAL MOUNTAIN STREAMS
- Authors: K. R. Gorbach; M. E. Shoda, A. J. Burky, M. E. Benbow
Pages: 791 - 803
Abstract: Mountain streams that originally supported Hawaiian cultural practices have been diverted for development, agriculture and tourism for over 150 years. Habitat characteristics and benthic macroinvertebrate community responses to water withdrawal were studied in four West Maui Mountain watersheds. We compared riffle and cascade habitats upstream and downstream of the highest‐elevation diversion in each stream and further compared streams to understand variation among watersheds. Riffles were shallow areas with moderate flow, whereas cascades had high‐velocity water flowing over boulders and were separated into torrenticolous (submerged) and amphibious (splash zones on adjacent exposed rock) microhabitats. Among streams, downstream discharge was reduced by 84–99%, flow velocity was four times greater upstream, and depth was 50% lower downstream. There was a significant 44% reduction in downstream macroinvertebrate density (t = 3.261, df = 136, p = 0.0014); however, density did not significantly differ among streams (F = 1.95, df = 3, p = 0.125). Habitat‐corrected density, based on total available habitat area, indicated significantly greater proportions of native taxa in amphibious microhabitats compared with riffle and torrenticolous habitats. Non‐native Chironomidae and Trichoptera (Cheumatopsyche sp. and Hydroptila sp.) were dominant (>95%) and ubiquitous in riffles, whereas native Limonia sp. dominated (30%) amphibious microhabitats. Macroinvertebrate community structure varied among streams, sites and microhabitats, indicating inconsistent response to water withdrawal, dependent upon watershed size and microhabitat conditions. Our findings contribute to water management and restoration efforts focused on conservation of native species and habitat integrity in tropical streams worldwide. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.