- Potential Impacts of Stream Crossing Traffic On Macroinvertebrate
Communities in the Missouri Ozark River
- Authors: R. L. S. Heth; D. E. Bowles, J. E. Havel
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Depending on intensity, physical disturbance can either decrease or increase diversity of stream macroinvertebrate communities. Recreational activities in parks are one component of physical disturbance. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of stream crossings and recreational traffic on macroinvertebrate assemblages. Five stream‐crossing sites were sampled during winter and summer in the Current River, Ozarks National Scenic Riverways, Missouri, USA. Stream‐crossing traffic was assessed using trail cameras. At each site, macroinvertebrates were collected from four locations: riffle upstream of crossing, riffle immediately downstream of crossing and second and third riffles downstream of crossing. We compared sites and locations within sites using standard metrics (taxa richness, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera richness, biotic index and diversity) and their composite stream condition index (SCI) plus multivariate analyses (Nonmetric multidimensional scaling and correlations). Stream crossings had no detectable impacts on macroinvertebrate communities in winter, but in summer location, effects were present. Patterns in SCI scores across locations varied among sites, with no consistent declines in macroinvertebrate diversity downstream of crossings. Longitudinal stream effects dominated over potential stream‐crossing effects on macroinvertebrate communities. Overall, high SCI scores indicated that current levels of stream crossings and traffic in this scenic riverway do not pose a threat to macroinvertebrate communities at the spatial and temporal scale of this study. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Growth and Life History Patterns of a Small‐bodied Stream Fish,
Cottus cognatus, in Hydropeaking and Natural Rivers of Northern Ontario
- Authors: M. J. Bond; N. E. Jones, T. J. Haxton
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Hydroelectric facilities can dramatically alter the quantity and quality of fish habitat; however it is not well known how these habitat changes affect the growth and life history of fish. We examine the growth and life history of slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), a small‐bodied sedentary, benthic stream fish, in two regulated and eight unregulated tributaries of Lake Superior, Canada. Among rivers, we found that slimy sculpin grew faster in the regulated Magpie River than in nearby unregulated systems, whereas growth in the Michipicoten River was intermediate. Sculpin were also in better condition in the regulated Magpie and Michipicoten than in nearby natural rivers. Faster growth of sculpin, however, potentially led to their rapid maturity and higher instantaneous mortality in regulated rivers. Within the regulated rivers, there are strong longitudinal gradients in growth, with sculpin at sampling sites near the dams growing more rapidly, maturing earlier and attaining a larger size‐at‐age than sculpin at sites farther downstream or in natural systems. Differences in sculpin life history traits within rivers closely followed spatial patterns in food availability. We caution future researchers and managers to acknowledge the longitudinal gradients in abiotic and biotic conditions below dams early in experimental designs and monitoring programmes and how this may impact the measures of central tendency and statistical power when comparing rivers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Assessing the Relationship Between River Mobility and Habitat
- Authors: G. Choné; P. M. Biron
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Human interventions that limit channel mobility such as bank stabilization are frequent in riparian zones in urban or agricultural environments. This is potentially problematic because channel mobility is an important geomorphological and ecological agent that structures natural instream and riparian ecosystems. This study aims to (1) quantify the relationship between mobility and three types of habitat‐related features, namely bars, oxbow lakes and log jams, for a 54‐km‐long reach of the Yamaska Sud‐Est River (Quebec, Canada), which runs from the forested Appalachian Mountains to the agricultural St‐Lawrence lowlands, and (2) evaluate the impact of human interventions and geomorphological characteristics on these three features. Channel mobility was measured from historical aerial photos for the period 1950–2009. A combination of high‐resolution aerial photos, LiDAR digital elevation model, and field observations was used to measure and map sediment bars, oxbow lakes and log jams, as well as several geomorphological characteristics (channel width, slope, sinuosity and floodplain width). A strong link between the mobility and the presence of habitat features is revealed, but local geomorphological contexts result in different mobility patterns responsible for specific habitats. Floodplain to channel width ratio appears as the best geomorphological factor predicting habitat diversity. Human intervention, mostly through bank stabilization, also appears to be a key factor limiting mobility and its related habitats. These results highlight the importance of defining a protected mobility corridor along rivers where geomorphic processes such as bank erosion can freely occur, as it is an essential process that should be integrated in land use planning and river management. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Explaining Spatial Patterns of Mussel Beds in a Northern California River:
The Role of Flood Disturbance and Spawning Salmon
- Authors: Christine L. May; Bonnie S. Pryor
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Despite considerable effort, predicting habitat preferences for freshwater mussels has remained elusive. This study identified four parameters that correlate with bed stability to decipher fine‐scale spatial patterning of habitat use by the western pearl shell mussel (Margaritifera falcata) in the Trinity River of Northern California. Logistic regression analysis correctly predicted the occurrence of 83% of mussel bed areas based on water depth, velocity, substrate size, and distance to the stream bank as estimated from hydrodynamic modelling of low‐flow conditions. These parameters coincide with bed stability at high flow and provide support for the ‘refugia hypothesis’. Our data clearly demonstrate that mussel beds occupied the most stable portions of the riverbed; however, habitat was partitioned with one of their primary host fish, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), a species that also requires stable bed areas for spawning. Mussels occupied significantly deeper and lower velocity areas that were closer to the streambank compared with spawning salmon, but where habitats directly overlapped (30% of potential mussel habitat) mussels were excluded because the act of spawning disturbs the riverbed. By necessity, mussels and salmon must co‐exist, but results of this study indicate that they compete for stable bed areas that may be limiting in dynamic river systems. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Age‐0 Channel Catfish Ictalurus Punctatus Growth Related to
Environmental Conditions in the Channelized Missouri River, Nebraska
- Authors: N. P. Hogberg; M. J. Hamel, M. A. Pegg
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Large river paradigms suggest that natural flow regimes are critical for maintaining instream habitats and promoting production and growth of native aquatic organisms. Modifications to the Missouri River, Nebraska, within the past 100 years have drastically reduced shallow water habitat, homogenized the flow regime, and contributed to declines in several native species. Despite drastic flow modifications, several metrics of the Missouri River's flow regime still vary across years. We related age‐0 channel catfish growth to environmental conditions in the channelized Missouri River, Nebraska, between 1996 and 2013 using an information theoretic approach. Growth rate was most influenced by growing season duration and duration of discharges below the 25th percentile of 30‐year daily Missouri River discharges. Periods of low water may be important for juvenile growth because of channel modifications that limit critical shallow water habitat during higher within‐bank flows. Exclusion of peak discharge and peak discharge timing in the best model to predict growth is counter to conventional thoughts on river fish responses to hydrological conditions but may be reflective of the general lack of high‐magnitude flooding during the majority of our study. Future efforts to relate juvenile fish growth to environmental conditions can provide guidance for water management in the Missouri River and other regulated North American rivers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- River Temperature Modelling by Strahler Order at the Regional Scale in the
Loire River Basin, France
- Authors: A. Beaufort; F. Moatar, F. Curie, A. Ducharne, V. Bustillo, D. Thiéry
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Daily water temperature was simulated at a regional scale during the summer period using a simplified model based on the equilibrium temperature concept. The factors considered were heat exchanges at the water/atmosphere interface and groundwater inputs. The selected study area was the Loire River basin (110 000 km2), which displays contrasted meteorological, hydrological and geomorphological features. To capture the intra‐basin variability of relevant physical factors driving the hydrological and thermal response of the system, the modelling approach combined a semi‐distributed hydrological model, simulating the daily discharge at the outlet of 68 subwatersheds (drainage area between 100 and 3700 km2), and a thermal model, simulating the average daily water temperature for each Strahler order in each subwatershed. Simulations at 67 measurement stations revealed a median root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.9°C in summer between 2000 and 2006. Water temperature at stations located more than 100 km from their headwater was adequately simulated (median RMSE
- Water‐Quality Assessment of the Lower Grand River Basin, Missouri
and Iowa, USA, in Support of Integrated Conservation Practices
- Authors: D. H. Wilkison; D. J. Armstrong
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: The effectiveness of agricultural conservation programmes to adequately reduce nutrient exports to receiving streams and to help limit downstream hypoxia issues remains a concern. Quantifying programme success can be difficult given that short‐term basin changes may be masked by long‐term water‐quality shifts. We evaluated nutrient export at stream sites in the 44 months that followed a period of increased, integrated conservation implementation within the Lower Grand River Basin. These short‐term responses were then compared with export that occurred in the main stem and adjacent rivers in northern Missouri over a 22‐year period to better contextualize any recent changes. Results indicate that short‐term (October 2010 through May 2014) total nitrogen (TN) concentrations in the Grand River were 20% less than the long‐term average, and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations were 23% less. Nutrient reductions in the short term were primarily the result of the less‐than‐average precipitation and, consequently, streamflow that was 36% below normal. Therefore, nutrient concentrations measured in tributary streams were likely less than normal during the implementation period. Northern Missouri streamflow‐normalized TN concentrations remained relatively flat or declined over the period 1991 through 2013 likely because available sources of nitrogen, determined as the sum of commercial fertilizers, available animal manures and atmospheric inputs, were typically less than crop requirement for much of that time frame. Conversely, flow‐normalized stream TP concentrations increased over the past 22 years in northern Missouri streams, likely in response to many years of phosphorus inputs in excess of crop requirements. Stream nutrient changes were most pronounced during periods that coincided with the major tillage, planting and growth phases of row crops and increased streamflow. Nutrient reduction strategies targeted at the period February through June would likely have the greatest impact on reducing nutrient export from the basin. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
- Assessing Juvenile Native Fish Demographic Responses to a Steady Flow
Experiment in a Large Regulated River
- Authors: C. Finch; W. E. Pine, C. B. Yackulic, M. J. Dodrill, M. Yard, B. S. Gerig, L. G. Coggins, J. Korman
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: The Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, is part of an adaptive management programme which optimizes dam operations to improve various resources in the downstream ecosystem within Grand Canyon. Understanding how populations of federally endangered humpback chub Gila cypha respond to these dam operations is a high priority. Here, we test hypotheses concerning temporal variation in juvenile humpback chub apparent survival rates and abundance by comparing estimates between hydropeaking and steady discharge regimes over a 3‐year period (July 2009–July 2012). The most supported model ignored flow type (steady vs hydropeaking) and estimated a declining trend in daily apparent survival rate across years (99.90%, 99.79% and 99.67% for 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively). Corresponding abundance of juvenile humpback chub increased temporally; open population model estimates ranged from 615 to 2802 individuals/km, and closed model estimates ranged from 94 to 1515 individuals/km. These changes in apparent survival and abundance may reflect broader trends, or simply represent inter‐annual variation. Important findings include (i) juvenile humpback chub are currently surviving and recruiting in the mainstem Colorado River with increasing abundance; (ii) apparent survival does not benefit from steady fall discharges from Glen Canyon Dam; and (iii) direct assessment of demographic parameters for juvenile endangered fish are possible and can rapidly inform management actions in regulated rivers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Fish Associations among Un‐notched, Notched and L‐head Dikes
in the Middle Mississippi River
- Authors: Andrew P. Braun; Molly J. Sobotka, Quinton E. Phelps
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Wing dikes and other anthropogenic modifications have heavily altered riverine ecosystems. Recent efforts to reach a compromise between the needs of the river transportation industry and natural resource conservation include dike modification. Dike notching permits water flow through the landward portion of the dike and has been purported to provide suitable habitat for fish and other river biota while maintaining the navigation channel. L‐head dikes are flow‐control structures that create calm backwater‐like habitats downstream. However, few researchers have examined the actual effects of dike notching on water quality or fish communities. We compared standardized catch per unit effort and overall community structure for 50 fish species among un‐notched dikes, notched dikes and L‐head dikes in the Middle Mississippi River, sampled as part of the US Geological Survey's Long‐Term Resource Monitoring Program. There were no differences in standardized catch per unit effort for 64% of the fishes examined. Five species known to be associated with lotic habitats were most abundant near L‐head dikes. Seven species were more abundant at un‐notched dikes than notched dikes, while six species were more abundant at notched dikes than un‐notched dikes. Non‐metric multidimensional scaling suggested differences in overall fish community structure between un‐notched and other dike types. Detailed physical habitat studies should be conducted to better understand the effects of dike modification. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Community Structure of Age‐0 Fishes in Paired Mainstem and Created
Shallow‐water Habitats in the Lower Missouri River
- Authors: T. A. Starks; J. M. Long, A. R. Dzialowski
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Anthropogenic alterations to aquatic ecosystems have greatly reduced and homogenized riverine habitat, especially those used by larval and juvenile fishes. Creation of shallow‐water habitats is used as a restoration technique in response to altered conditions in several studies globally, but only recently in the USA. In the summer of 2012, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers sampled larval and juvenile fishes at six paired sites (mainstem and constructed chute shallow‐water habitats) along a section of the Missouri River between Rulo, NE and St. Louis, MO, USA. From those samples, we enumerated and identified a total of 7622 fishes representing 12 families. Community responses of fishes to created shallow‐water habitats were assessed by comparisons of species richness and diversity measures between paired sites and among sampling events. Shannon entropy measures were transformed, and gamma diversity (total diversity) was partitioned into two components, alpha (within community) and beta (between community) diversity using a multiplicative decomposition method. Mantel test results suggest site location, time of sampling event and habitat type were drivers of larval and juvenile community structure. Paired t‐test results indicated little to no differences in beta diversity between habitat types; however, chute habitats had significantly higher alpha and gamma diversity as well as increased abundances of Asian carp larvae when compared with mainstem shallow‐water habitat. Our results not only show the importance of created shallow‐water habitat in promoting stream fish diversity but also highlight the role space and time may play in future restoration and management efforts. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Is Shallow Water a Suitable Surrogate for Assessing Efforts to Address
Pallid Sturgeon Population Declines?
- Authors: T. R. Gemeinhardt; N. J. C. Gosch, D. M. Morris, M. L. Miller, T. L. Welker, J. L. Bonneau
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: It is hypothesized that slow, shallow water habitats benefit larval pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus; however, testing this hypothesis is difficult, given the low number of larval pallid sturgeon present in large rivers. In contrast, relatively large numbers of age‐0 shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus have been sampled, providing a potentially useful baseline to assess the importance of slow, shallow water to age‐0 sturgeon of both species (hereafter age‐0 sturgeon) in the lower Missouri River. Thus, we investigated the potential relationships between the prevalence of shallow water 1.5 m, and catch rates were usually highest in the upper half [i.e. river kilometre (RKM) 400 to 800] of the lower Missouri River study area, whereas the availability of water
- Evaluation of Steelhead Passage Flows Using Hydraulic Modeling on an
Unregulated Coastal California River
- Authors: R. W. Holmes; D. E. Rankin, E. Ballard, M. Gard
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Passage and habitat connectivity flows for steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss through depth sensitive natural, low gradient, critical riffle sites were investigated in the unregulated Big Sur River, California. The River2D two‐dimensional hydraulic habitat model, along with quantitative passage metrics and species‐specific and lifestage‐specific depth criteria, were used to evaluate and compare predicted fish passage flows with flows derived by a traditional empirical critical riffle fish passage method. Passage flows were also compared with historical unimpaired natural hydrology patterns to assess the frequency and duration of suitable passage flows under the naturally variable flow regimes characteristic of Central California coastal rivers. A strong relationship (r2 = 0.93) was observed between flows predicted by hydraulic modeling and flows identified by the empirical critical riffle method. River2D provided validation that the flows derived using the traditional critical riffle methodology provided for contiguous passable pathways of suitable hydraulic (depth and velocity) conditions through complex cobble‐dominated riffle sites. Furthermore, steelhead passage flows were spatially and temporally consistent between lagoon and upstream riffles for adults, and were generally indicative of a river system in equilibrium with a naturally variable flow regime and associated intact ecological processes. An analysis of 25 years of continuous flow data indicated sufficient flows for upstream passage by young‐of‐year and juvenile steelhead were produced between 37% and 100% and between 1% and 95% of the time, respectively. September and October are the most challenging months for natural flows to meet young‐of‐year and juvenile passage and habitat connectivity flows. Careful consideration of seasonal and interannual flow variability dynamics, therefore, are critical components of an effective flow management strategy for the maintenance and protection of passage and habitat connectivity flows between lagoon and upriver habitats. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
- Diel Activity Patterns of Juvenile Late Fall‐run Chinook Salmon with
Implications for Operation of a Gated Water Diversion in the
Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta
- Authors: J. M. Plumb; N. S. Adams, R. W. Perry, C. M. Holbrook, J. G. Romine, A. R. Blake, J. R. Burau
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: In the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, California, tidal forces that reverse river flows increase the proportion of water and juvenile late fall‐run Chinook salmon diverted into a network of channels that were constructed to support agriculture and human consumption. This area is known as the interior delta, and it has been associated with poor fish survival. Under the rationale that the fish will be diverted in proportion to the amount of water that is diverted, the Delta Cross Channel (DCC) has been prescriptively closed during the winter out‐migration to reduce fish entrainment and mortality into the interior delta. The fish are thought to migrate mostly at night, and so daytime operation of the DCC may allow for water diversion that minimizes fish entrainment and mortality. To assess this, the DCC gate was experimentally opened and closed while we released 2983 of the fish with acoustic transmitters upstream of the DCC to monitor their arrival and entrainment into the DCC. We used logistic regression to model night‐time arrival and entrainment probabilities with covariates that included the proportion of each diel period with upstream flow, flow, rate of change in flow and water temperature. The proportion of time with upstream flow was the most important driver of night‐time arrival probability, yet river flow had the largest effect on fish entrainment into the DCC. Modelling results suggest opening the DCC during daytime while keeping the DCC closed during night‐time may allow for water diversion that minimizes fish entrainment into the interior delta. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
- Scaling Down Habitat Selection by Large River Fishes to Understand
Patterns Relevant to Individuals
- Authors: W. D. Hintz; G. T. Grimes, J. E. Garvey
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Modification and homogenization of habitat in large‐river ecosystems have led to the reduction of >50% of native fish species. Rehabilitating these complex ecosystems to recover fish populations requires an understanding of habitat availability and selection at multiple scales. Habitat selection by river fishes is typically assessed at the functional unit scale (100–10 000 m2). For example, in large, sand‐dominated rivers of the Central USA, alluvial islands are critical functional units for endangered sturgeon. Functional units, however, can be subdivided into mesohabitats (
- Juvenile Salmonid Utilization of Floodplain Rearing Habitat After Gravel
Augmentation in a Regulated River
- Authors: K. L. Sellheim; C. B. Watry, B. Rook, S. C. Zeug, J. Hannon, J. Zimmerman, K. Dove, J. E. Merz
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Gravel augmentation is used in sediment‐starved streams to improve salmonid spawning habitat. As gravel is added to river channels, water surface elevations may rise in adjacent areas, activating floodplain habitat at lower flows, and floodplains inundate more frequently, potentially affecting the quantity and quality of juvenile salmonid rearing habitat. We analysed 5 years of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha and steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss data from snorkel surveys before and after gravel augmentation in the Lower American River, a low‐gradient, highly regulated alluvial river in California's Central Valley. We measured the quality and quantity of rearing habitat (current velocity and areal extent of inundated riparian vegetation) following gravel placement and tested whether these factors affected juvenile abundance. Gravel augmentation increased floodplain extent by 3.7–19.8%, decreased average flow velocity from 1.6 to 0.3 m s−1 and increased the amount of vegetative cover from 0.3% to 22.6%. Juvenile abundances increased significantly for both species following augmentation. However, the strength of the relationship between abundance and habitat variables was greater for smaller salmonids. These results suggest that, in addition to enhancing salmonid spawning habitat, gravel augmentation can improve rearing habitat where channel incision and/or regulated hydrographs disconnect floodplains from main river channels. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Environmental Factors Influencing Macrophytes Assemblages in a
Middle‐Sized Mediterranean Stream
- Authors: P. Manolaki; E. Papastergiadou
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: The occurrence of aquatic plants was analysed in a medium‐sized river in Greece. There were three objectives. The first was to examine the macrophyte assemblage structure along the river. The identification and hierarchical structure of aquatic plant assemblages were analyzed using Bray–Curtis analysis. Taxa primarily responsible for the differences among the assemblages were identified using similarity percentage analysis. The second objective was to investigate whether habitat features have greater impact on aquatic plant assemblages than chemical parameters. Partial canonical correspondence analysis was used for partitioning the total variation of the biological response. The third objective was to further explore the relationships between hydrophytes (water‐supported plants) richness and water quality using linear regression model.
The results showed that from the 86 macrophyte taxa recorded, the 25 were found to be primarily responsible for the differences among the macrophytic assemblages. Both geomorphological and physicochemical variables proved to be significant in the Monte Carlo permutation test. The 14 out of 19 geomorphological variables were statistically significant (p
- DOWNSTREAM MIGRATION OF THE EUROPEAN EEL (ANGUILLA ANGUILLA) IN THE ELBE
RIVER, GERMANY: MOVEMENT PATTERNS AND THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF
- Authors: F. Stein; P. Doering‐Arjes, E. Fladung, U. Brämick, B. Bendall, B. Schröder
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Recruitment of European eels (Anguilla anguilla) has declined to the extent that they have been added to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Therefore, it is critical to ensure that eels complete their outward river migration in order to contribute to the available spawning stock. We conducted a 4‐year (2007–2011) telemetry study to understand the migratory behaviour and potential impact of environmental factors on the eel during this critical life stage.
Out of 399 female eels tagged with acoustic transmitters, only 28% demonstrated clear downstream migratory behaviour. Fifty‐five percent were detected exhibiting no downstream migration behaviour and 17% were not detected at any monitoring station. Movement patterns of downstream‐migrating (silver) eels were characterized by nocturnal activity and seasonal migration, with distinct peaks in autumn and spring. Migration was often discontinuous and exhibited phases of active locomotion and expanded stopovers. The most important determinants of movement activity were water temperature, cumulative precipitation and moonlight, although the significance varied by season and location in the river basin.
Our results evidence a discontinuous, stepwise migration over an extended period. Furthermore, our findings indicate that migration success depends on holding duration prior to tagging and environmental predictors with varying importance depending on the season, as well as the locations of capture, tagging and release. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- FISH ASSEMBLAGE STRUCTURE AND HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS IN A LARGE WESTERN
- Authors: C. D. Smith; M. C. Quist, R. S. Hardy
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Longitudinal gradients of fish assemblage and habitat structure were investigated in the Kootenai River of northern Idaho. A total of 43 500‐m river reaches was sampled repeatedly with several techniques (boat‐mounted electrofishing, hoop nets and benthic trawls) in the summers of 2012 and 2013. Differences in habitat and fish assemblage structure were apparent along the longitudinal gradient of the Kootenai River. Habitat characteristics (e.g. depth, substrate composition and water velocity) were related to fish assemblage structure in three different geomorphic river sections. Upper river sections were characterized by native salmonids (e.g. mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni), whereas native cyprinids (peamouth Mylocheilus caurinus, northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis) and non‐native fishes (pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, yellow perch Perca flavescens) were common in the downstream section. Overall, a general pattern of species addition from upstream to downstream sections was discovered and is likely related to increased habitat complexity and additions of non‐native species in downstream sections. Assemblage structure of the upper sections were similar, but were both dissimilar to the lower section of the Kootenai River. Species‐specific hurdle regressions indicated the relationships among habitat characteristics and the predicted probability of occurrence and relative abundance varied by species. Understanding fish assemblage structure in relation to habitat could improve conservation efforts of rare fishes and improve management of coldwater river systems. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- THE ROLE OF RESERVOIRS IN SHAPING THE DOMINANT CYCLICITY AND ENERGY OF
MOUNTAIN RIVER FLOWS
- Authors: M. Kędra; Ł. Wiejaczka, K. Wesoły
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: The main objective of the paper is to determine the role of mountain reservoirs in shaping the dominant cyclicity and energy of river flows. The paper compares a large complex composed of two reservoirs (Czorsztyn–Sromowce Wyżne) with a smaller reservoir (Besko). These reservoirs are located in the Polish Carpathians and are characterised by very different parameters and functions. Moreover, they operate on rivers (the Dunajec and the Wisłok) with different hydrologic regimes. Using Fourier spectral analysis of daily inflows, outflows and water levels in reservoirs for the period 1998–2012, it has been possible to identify the dominant frequencies of the considered time series with a percentage of spectral energy for these frequencies. Moreover, for signals created by river flow rates, changes in signal energy are associated with adequate changes in river energy. Therefore, by calculating the energy of the signal in the time domain, changes in signal energy can be observed before and after the water passes through the reservoir. Data on cyclicity of water levels in these reservoirs forms the background to the analysis of reservoir‐induced changes in cyclicity of river flows. The conducted analysis revealed that reservoirs strengthen the regularity of the annual periodicity of stream flow in the studied rivers. Besides, these reservoirs significantly reduce the energy of water flowing out of them compared to the energy of inflow. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Structural Dynamics of Pristine Headwater Streams from Southern Brazilian
- Authors: M. E. Bleich; A. F. Mortati, T. André, M. T. F. Piedade
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Amazonian headwater streams trail a heterogeneous landscape, with marked natural variation of geomorphological conditions and hydrological periods. Southern Brazilian Amazon is subjected to high degradation pressure, mainly from deforestation. Hence, we characterize pristine headwaters structure (hydromorphology and water physical‐chemical variables) and variation among hydrological periods (dry, beginning of the rainy period and end of the rainy period), to define reference conditions for conservation‐oriented classification, monitoring and rehabilitation of the southern Brazilian Amazon streams. Stretches of 10 pristine streams from the Teles Pires River, a major tributary of the Tapajós River, were analysed for hydromorphology, water physical‐chemical variables and controlled for habitat integrity (forested proportion on buffer zones and habitat integrity index). We found variation among hydrological periods and spatial heterogeneity on pristine stream structure. Most variables showed great variation ranges at the same hydrological period and high variation coefficient values, reflecting the natural environmental heterogeneity among streams protected by a riparian forest. Variation among hydrological periods and spatial heterogeneity between streams in this region, combined with current high levels of deforestation, indicates the need for the conservation of a high proportion of streams and their respective riparian forests. Here, we have presented reference range values for monitoring and rehabilitation programs integrated in the Amazonian aquatic conservation efforts. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- A Community‐Level, Mesoscale Analysis of Fish Assemblage Structure
in Shoreline Habitats of a Large River using Multivariate Regression Trees
- Authors: M. A. Wilkes; I. Maddock, O. Link, E. Habit
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: The mesoscale (100–102 m) of river habitats has been identified as the scale that simultaneously offers insights into ecological structure and falls within the practical bounds of river management. Mesoscale habitat (mesohabitat) classifications for relatively large rivers, however, are underdeveloped compared with those produced for smaller streams. Approaches to habitat modelling have traditionally focused on individual species or proceeded on a species‐by‐species basis. This is particularly problematic in larger rivers where the effects of biological interactions are more complex and intense. Community‐level approaches can rapidly model many species simultaneously, thereby integrating the effects of biological interactions while providing information on the relative importance of environmental variables in structuring the community. One such community‐level approach, multivariate regression trees, was applied in order to determine the relative influences of abiotic factors on fish assemblages within shoreline mesohabitats of San Pedro River, Chile, and to define reference communities prior to the planned construction of a hydroelectric power plant.
Flow depth, bank materials and the availability of riparian and instream cover, including woody debris, were the main variables driving differences between the assemblages. Species strongly indicative of distinctive mesohabitat types included the endemic Galaxias platei. Among other outcomes, the results provide information on the impact of non‐native salmonids on river‐dwelling Galaxias platei, suggesting a degree of habitat segregation between these taxa based on flow depth. The results support the use of the mesohabitat concept in large, relatively pristine river systems, and they represent a basis for assessing the impact of any future hydroelectric power plant construction and operation. By combing community classifications with simple sets of environmental rules, the multivariate regression trees produced can be used to predict the community structure of any mesohabitat along the reach. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- A Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index for the Implementation of the
European Water Framework Directive in French Guiana, East Amazonia
- Authors: N. Dedieu; S. Clavier, R. Vigouroux, P. Cerdan, R. Céréghino
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Neotropical, overseas regions of Europe are subjected to the same water policy objectives as the continental ones but were overlooked during recent developments of bioindicators that fulfil the Water Framework Directive guidelines. We designed a macroinvertebrate‐based multimetric index [Indice Biotique Macroinvertébrés de Guyane (IBMG)] to assess ecological health in remote headwater‐small streams of French Guiana, Europe's only overseas region of continental South America. Invertebrates were sampled at 95 sites including reference and impacted river reaches, following a standardized protocol. Among the 102 biological metrics calculated from site‐specific data, we selected metrics exhibiting the best trade‐off between high discrimination efficiency, low specificity, low redundancy and high stability under reference conditions. The IBMG is composed of two taxonomic richness‐based metrics, two abundance‐based metrics, one trait‐related metric and a diversity index (Shannon's entropy). Each metric was weighted by its discrimination efficiency. Using a test data set, we found that the IBMG was sensitive to the range of disturbances in French Guiana. Finally, comparing the IBMG with other indices developed in other neotropical countries reveals that, for several reasons, multimetric indices developed in the neotropics may perform well in the context of the data sets used to generate them but would certainly fail to be robust when used elsewhere. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Effects of Three Consecutive Rotenone Treatments on the Benthic
Macroinvertebrate Fauna of the River Ogna, Central Norway
- Authors: G. Kjærstad; J. V. Arnekleiv, J. D. M. Speed
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: The effects of piscicides on aquatic invertebrates are often studied after one treatment, even though piscicides may be repeatedly applied within river management. Here we investigate the impacts of repeated piscidie treatment on riverine benthic invertebrates. The River Ogna, Norway, was treated with rotenone three times over a 16‐month period. The two first treatments caused temporary density reduction of a few rotenone sensitive benthic invertebrate taxa. Effects of the third treatment were variable with some taxa unaffected while all Plecoptera, were locally extinct. The toxic effect of rotenone increases with water temperature and high water temperature (20 °C) combined with high rotenone concentration was probably the main reason why the benthic community in the third treatment was more negatively affected than during the two previous treatments (4 and 8 °C). Eight months after the treatment benthic densities had not reached pre‐treatment levels, but most taxa had recolonized the treated area within a year. Our data suggest that the severe effects of the third treatment were not influenced by the two former ones. This implies that the timing of piscicide treatment has a greater impact on the benthic invertebrate community than the number of treatments. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Strategies for Water Quality Assessment: A Multiparametric Analysis of
Microbiological Changes in River Waters
- Authors: P. Boi; S. Amalfitano, A. Manti, F. Semprucci, D. Sisti, M. B. Rocchi, M. Balsamo, S. Papa
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: River waters are classified worldwide in relation to their chemical quality status, which is assessed by the presence of inorganic and organic pollutants. Meanwhile, microbiological quality evaluations are based mainly on the occurrence of pathogens and faecal contaminants, which are indirectly retrieved by standard cultivation methods. In this study, the structural dynamics of a riverine bacterioplankton community were investigated through a quantitative single‐cell approach with the use of flow cytometry for the quantification of total, viable and active cells. Furthermore, catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD)‐FISH was used for the evaluation of Proteobacteria and Cytophaga–Flavobacteria bacterial classes. The aim was to identify the major cytometric and phylogenetic cell groups that most representatively reflect the physical and chemical changes occurring in an upland‐to‐lowland transect along a human‐impacted river (the Foglia River, Italy). The use of CARD‐FISH to obtain cell abundance measurements of specific taxonomic clusters enabled different microbial propagation dynamics along the river transects to be identified. Furthermore, our results highlighted that the multiparametric approach with flow cytometry produces basic microbiological parameters in a reasonable time span that is consistent with the requirements for an early warning monitoring strategy with respect to integrated riverine water quality assessments. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- ECO‐FRIENDLY COUNTERMEASURES FOR ENLARGED BASINS EROSION
- Authors: S. Pagliara; M. Palermo, R. Das
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Eco‐friendly hydraulic structures (such as block ramps, rock weirs and stepped gabion weir) are generally made of rocks placed in two or more layers on a sloped bed. They are usually used in mountainous rivers to control sediment transport. The downstream stilling basin plays an important role in terms of both energy dissipation and erosion control. In addition, a correct design of the downstream stilling basin can create an optimal habitat for fish species in the river. Therefore, in the present work, an attempt was made to control the scour depth downstream of a block ramp using rock structures. In particular, the analysis was focused on scour characteristics in the presence of a protected and enlarged downstream channel. Namely, an abrupt symmetrically enlarged channel was simulated downstream of block ramps. Eco‐friendly protection structures, such as rock sills, were tested to limit the erosive process. Rock sills were placed transversally at different longitudinal and vertical positions in the stilling basin and scour morphology variations were investigated. Experiments were carried out for two different ratios of the width of the channel to the width of the ramp and three different ramp slopes. Several scour morphologies were distinguished and classified. In addition, empirical relationships were derived, by which it is possible to estimate the main scour geometry characteristics. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Small Weirs, Big Effects: Disruption of Water Temperature Regimes with
Hydrological Alteration in a Mediterranean Stream
- Authors: M.‐J. Bae; R. Merciai, L. Benejam, S. Sabater, E. García‐Berthou
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: The effects of hydrological alterations on thermal regimes due to small water provisioning schemes are poorly understood. We studied the alteration of thermal regimes in a Mediterranean stream, where a weir and a water abstraction have been previously shown to severely affect the flow regime (e.g. frequency and duration of drought) and fish assemblage. Compared to non‐impacted sites, the daily water temperature was more variable downstream of the weir, where water flow was reduced and drying occurred every summer. However, water temperature variation was smaller in a nearby downstream site dominated by effluents from a wastewater treatment plant. In addition, compared to all other sites, the times of the day to reach minimum and maximum water temperatures were markedly different in this site receiving the wastewater plant effluents and occurred earlier in the day in the site below the weir. The relationships between air and water temperatures were tight downstream but became looser and anomalous at the sites affected by water abstraction and effluent inputs. Overall, our results show that water temperature regimes in small streams are abruptly disrupted with water provisioning schemes with unknown consequences for aquatic organisms and ecosystems. Effects may be particularly stressful in Mediterranean‐climate streams, where water is scarce and hydrological alterations pervasive. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- SPAWNING MIGRATION OF WILD AND SUPPLEMENTARY STOCKED LANDLOCKED ATLANTIC
SALMON (SALMO SALAR)
- Authors: A. Hagelin; O. Calles, L. Greenberg, J. Piccolo, E. Bergman
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Upstream migration by adult salmonids is impeded by dams in many regulated rivers, as is the case for landlocked Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in the River Klarälven, Sweden. There, the salmon cannot reach the spawning grounds due to the presence of eight dams. Hence, hatchery‐reared smolts are released downstream of the dams, and upstream migrating spawners are caught in a trap at the lowermost dam before transported by truck to the spawning grounds past the dams. To identify the spawning grounds and compare the behavior of wild and hatchery‐reared Atlantic salmon during upstream migration and spawning, 34 wild and 28 hatchery‐reared, radio‐tagged Atlantic salmon were followed during their spawning migration from August to October 2011. Half (50%) of the hatchery fish, but only 11,8% of the wild fish ended up as fallbacks, i.e. they migrated past the first downstream power station, and did not spawn. A significantly higher proportion (21.4%) of hatchery‐ reared salmon moved in an erratic way, with several up and down stream movements, when compared to the wild salmon (5.9%). When looking at the salmon that stayed in the river (exc. fallbacks), wild individuals exhibited a holding behavior (little or no movements before presumed spawning) more often (86.7%) than the reared ones (50%). The wild salmon also held position (and presumably spawned) for longer time (25.4 days) than the reared salmon (16.1 days). Reared salmon held position, on average, 10 km further upstream than wild salmon, passing the presumed best‐quality spawning habitat. The migration speed (average 17.4 km/day) between two logger stations did not differ between wild and reared fish or between sexes. Our results suggest that the reproductive success of hatchery‐reared Atlantic salmon is relatively low and their capacity as supplementary spawners to the wild population in the Klarälven, is probably small. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- DRAG FORCES ON LARGE CYLINDERS
- Authors: Benoit Turcotte; Robert G. Millar, Marwan A. Hassan
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Introducing large woody debris into streams is a common practice in restoration projects. Beyond the complexity of flow patterns and sediment movements in streams where woody debris are found or placed, it seems that our understanding of the basic hydraulics of large roughness elements in small channels remains limited. Underestimating the drag force affecting large roughness elements can compromise the success of stream restoration projects. Results from a simple experimental setting confirm that drag force estimates based on approaches developed for small cylinders are not valid when applied to large cylinders. Indeed, the classic drag force equation that uses an empirical drag coefficient is found to significantly underestimate measured drag forces, even when corrected for the ‘blockage ratio’. In contrast, application of specific momentum can yield good estimates of the drag force. A dimensionless depth is defined in a 1D context as a function of the flow depth, critical flow depth and cylinder diameter. A cylinder is considered to be ‘large’ when this dimensionless depth is smaller than 2. In this instance, a relationship is established to estimate the upstream flow depth and the drag force acting on the cylinder. This research bridges the small roughness element theory widely recognized in hydraulic engineering with the theory applicable to large, flow controlling structures such as weirs. From a practical perspective, this research can be used to assist in the design of engineered large woody debris structures. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- IDENTIFYING TEMPERATURE THRESHOLDS ASSOCIATED WITH FISH COMMUNITY CHANGES
IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA, TO SUPPORT IDENTIFICATION OF TEMPERATURE
- Authors: E. A. Parkinson; E. V. Lea, M. A. Nelitz, J. M. Knudson, R. D. Moore
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: We collected fish samples and measured physical habitat characteristics, including summer stream temperatures, at 156 sites in 50 tributary streams in two sampling areas (Upper Fraser and Thompson Rivers) in British Columbia, Canada. Additional watershed characteristics were derived from GIS coverages of watershed, hydrological and climatic variables. Maximum weekly average temperature (MWAT), computed as an index of summer thermal regime, ranged from 10 to 23 °C. High values of MWAT were associated with large, warm, low relief watersheds with a high lake influence. Measures of community similarity suggested that the fish community changed most rapidly through a lower transition zone at an MWAT of about 12 °C and an upper transition zone at an MWAT of about 19 °C. These results were confirmed using existing fisheries inventory data combined with predictions of MWAT from a landscape‐scale regression model for the Thompson River watershed. For headwater sites in the Chilcotin River watershed (which drains into the middle Fraser River), the relative dominance of bull trout versus rainbow trout (based on inventory data) decreased with increasing predicted MWAT although the distinction was not as clear as for the Thompson River sites. The fish communities in these watersheds can be characterized in terms of very cold water (bull trout and some cold water species), cold water (salmonids and sculpins) and cool water (minnows and some cold water salmonids). The two transition zones (ca 12 and 19 °C) can be used to identify thresholds where small changes in stream temperature can be expected to lead to large changes in fish communities. Such clear, quantifiable thresholds are critical components of a management strategy designed to identify and protect vulnerable fish communities in streams where poor land use practices, alone or in combination with climatic change, can lead to changes in stream temperatures. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- RE‐OPERATING THE THREE GORGES RESERVOIR FOR ENVIRONMENTAL FLOWS: A
PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF TRADE‐OFFS
- Authors: D. E. Rheinheimer; P. Liu, S. Guo
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), located on the Yangtze River in China, is operated for hydropower, flood control and navigation, with minimal environmental releases. This study explored the potential trade‐offs between better environmental releases from the TGR and hydropower generation using three performance indicators. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between unimpaired flows and regulated flows was used as an indicator of environmental performance (eco rho). Energy generation as a fraction of capacity (energy fraction) and power reliability were used as hydropower performance indicators. We first assessed TGR performance without and with basic instream flow requirements (IFRs). We then imposed an IFR consisting of a minimum release of fraction k of inflow and maximum release of 1/k of inflow and assessed the sensitivity of reservoir performance to different fixed k values. Finally, we allowed k to vary within the year in a genetic algorithm to estimate the Pareto optimal trade‐offs between performance indicators. In all cases, flood and navigation rules were prioritized over environmental and hydropower. With a fixed k of 1.0, eco rho increased from 0.865 to nearly 1.0 (completely natural). Energy fraction reduced from 43.5 to 39.3%, or about 9.5%, and power reliability decreased from 97.0 to 59.2%. The Pareto optimal trade‐off surface not only showed similar results but also indicated that energy fraction and environmental performance can both be increased together, up to a point, but at a cost of reliability. This study helps understand the potential costs of re‐operating the TGR. Limitations and potential future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- A Landscape‐Based Regionalization of Natural Flow Regimes in the
Ebro River Basin and its Biological Validation
- Authors: M. A. Solans; A. Mellado‐Díaz
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Flow prediction in ungauged basins is an important task for water resources planning and management, and remains a fundamental challenge for hydroecological research. Based on a previous classification of streams and rivers in the Ebro River basin (Spain), where six natural flow‐regime types were identified, we apply a new predictive approach of the flow regime type based on climatic and physiographic descriptors. We used a set of easily available environmental variables as discriminant parameters: annual precipitation, annual evapotranspiration, annual air temperature, elevation, catchment area, drainage density and geology. A stepwise landscape‐based classification procedure consisting of several stepwise discriminant analyses and canonical discriminant analyses allocated a set of sites with poor or no natural flow data into the flow types defined. Misclassification rates obtained by cross‐validation ranged between 1.12% and 11.9%. Additionally, the ecological soundness of the proposed regionalization was tested by the concordance between macroinvertebrate communities and the proposed classification using NMDS and ANOSIM. NMDS resulted in a clear separation of sites into five NFR classes with available macroinvertebrate data, and ANOSIM found significant differences in macroinvertebrate communities among classes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Process, Policy, and Implementation of Pool‐Wide Drawdowns on the
Upper Mississippi River: A Promising Approach for Ecological Restoration
of Large Impounded Rivers
- Authors: K. P. Kenow; G. L. Benjamin, T. W. Schlagenhaft, R. A. Nissen, M. Stefanski, G. J. Wege, S. A. Jutila, T. J. Newton
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: The Upper Mississippi River (UMR) has been developed and subsequently managed for commercial navigation by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The navigation pools created by a series of lock and dams initially provided a complex of aquatic habitats that supported a variety of fish and wildlife. However, biological productivity declined as the pools aged. The River Resources Forum, an advisory body to the St. Paul District of the USACE, established a multiagency Water Level Management Task Force (WLMTF) to evaluate the potential of water level management to improve ecological function and restore the distribution and abundance of fish and wildlife habitat. The WLMTF identified several water level management options and concluded that summer growing season drawdowns at the pool scale offered the greatest potential to provide habitat benefits over a large area. Here we summarize the process followed to plan and implement pool‐wide drawdowns on the UMR, including involvement of stakeholders in decision making, addressing requirements to modify reservoir operating plans, development and evaluation of drawdown alternatives, pool selection, establishment of a monitoring plan, interagency coordination, and a public information campaign. Three pool‐wide drawdowns were implemented within the St. Paul District and deemed successful in providing ecological benefits without adversely affecting commercial navigation and recreational use of the pools. Insights are provided based on more than 17 years of experience in planning and implementing drawdowns on the UMR. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Anticipatory Management for Instream Habitat: Application to Carneros
- Authors: J. R. Beagle; G. M. Kondolf, R. M. Adams, L. Marcus
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Ecological research increasingly demonstrates that the best fish habitat is associated with complex, dynamically migrating channels. Active erosion and deposition create pools, side channels, and surfaces for recruitment of riparian vegetation, resulting in hydraulic complexity. As such, the most effective and sustainable restoration strategies restore natural processes, and in turn, create biological habitat. Nevertheless, there exists a social–cultural preference for stable channels. Landowners are often unhappy with eroding banks and, more broadly, are uncomfortable with ‘messy’ ecosystems and the erosion, deposition, and channel migration that are essential components of the dynamic channels that provide the greatest floodplain biodiversity. Episodic bank erosion and failure are often treated with emergency response measures, such as riprap and bank hardening. This often results in simplified channels with minimized instream habitat. Here, we propose an alternative management approach for streams with cohesive banks, and where active erosion is concentrated in ‘hot spots’ that are roughly predictable based on geomorphic analysis. We term the approach anticipatory management and present an application of the approach to Carneros Creek, an incised tributary to the Napa River. We contrast the likely habitat values and agricultural land loss of the anticipatory management approach to: (i) a conventional bank stabilization project proposed for the creek, and (ii) a series of uniform setbacks. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- OPTIMAL FISH PASSAGE BARRIER REMOVAL—REVISITED
- Authors: S. King; J. R. O'Hanley
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Infrastructure, such as dams, weirs and culverts, disrupt the longitudinal connectivity of rivers, causing adverse impacts on fish and other aquatic species. Improving fish passage at artificial barriers, accordingly, can be an especially effective and economical river restoration option. In this article, we propose a novel, mixed integer programing model for optimizing barrier mitigation decisions given a limited budget. Rather than simply treating barriers as being impassable or not, we consider the more general case in which barriers may be partially passable. Although this assumption normally introduces nonlinearity into the problem, we manage to formulate a linear model via the use of probability chains, a newly proposed technique from the operations research literature. Our model is noteworthy in that it can be readily implemented and solved using off‐the‐shelf optimization modelling software. Using a case study from the US State of Maine, we demonstrate that the model is highly efficient in comparison with existing solution methods and, moreover, highly scalable in that large problems with many thounsands of barriers can still be solved optimally. Our analysis confirms that barrier mitigation can provide substantial ecological gains for migratory fish at low levels of investment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Synthesizing Environmental Flow Needs Data for Water Management in a
Water‐Scarce State: The Arizona Environmental Water Demands Database
- Authors: K. E. Mott Lacroix; B. C. Xiu, J. B. Nadeau, S. B. Megdal
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Water rights for environmental flows are not universal, and oftentimes, legal tools used to incorporate the environment into water management only require new users to consider their impact. It can be difficult to include the needs of riparian and aquatic ecosystems in new plans when relevant information is not always available, especially when other existing uses already outstrip available supplies. There is a need for easily accessible and understandable science on the water requirements for riparian and aquatic species, so managers can make informed decisions about whether or not to include riparian and aquatic species in their community's water management future. In this paper, we describe the current understanding of the link between hydrology and Arizona's riparian and aquatic ecosystems through the creation of a geospatial Environmental Water Demands database that can be used to determine the water needs to maintain habitat. Analysis of 121 studies reveals that there are very few analyses of the surface water and groundwater requirements for intermittent or ephemeral river systems, and there are only limited generalizable data for aquatic species. Except for a few species, such as Cottonwood (Populous fremontii) and Willow (Salix gooddingii), few data are available on the flow requirements for vegetation. The Environmental Water Demands database can be used to identify critical geographic and topical knowledge gaps where further research is needed, as well as serve as a single place for water and land managers to assess and use the most currently available information to make more informed management decisions and recommendations. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- A TEST OF THE SERIAL DISCONTINUITY CONCEPT: LONGITUDINAL TRENDS OF BENTHIC
INVERTEBRATES IN REGULATED AND NATURAL RIVERS OF NORTHERN CANADA
- Authors: L. E. Ellis; N. E. Jones
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Abiotic and biotic impacts below impoundments within the context of the River Continuum (RCC) and the Serial Discontinuity Concepts (SDC) have been the focus of many lotic studies. Recovery gradients, however, are rarely examined in sufficient detail below dams. Further refinement and understanding are needed to inform science and river managers about regulated river ecology. In this study, we examine longitudinal patterns in abiotic and biotic characteristics in two regulated rivers in Northern Canada. We also examine spatial patterns on two natural rivers: a lake outlet river and a river with no lakes. Direct gradient analysis revealed that increases in periphyton, planktonic drift, primary production, substrate size, and changes in thermal regime at sites closest to the dam drive benthic invertebrate community characteristics. We test the Serial Discontinuity Concept by comparing predicted functional forms of each environmental variable with the empirically derived forms. Substrate size, periphyton biomass, and drift density increased below dams and recovered quickly within 5 km downstream, following closely with SDC predictions. The response of organic matter and water quality was variable, and benthic invertebrate richness recovered relatively quickly, contrary to SDC predictions. Thermal regime and flow took much longer to recover than most variables and represent a second longer gradient type below dams. Plecoptera, Gomphidae, and Simuliidae were strongly influenced by altered resource and habitat and may be good candidates for indicators and predictive modelling. Our results generally support predictions from the Serial Discontinuity Concept and highlight the need for the further testing and refinement of this concept. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- SURVIVAL, GROWTH, AND MOVEMENT OF SUBADULT HUMPBACK CHUB, GILA CYPHA, IN
THE LITTLE COLORADO RIVER, ARIZONA
- Authors: M. C. Dzul; C. B. Yackulic, D. M. Stone, D. R. Van Haverbeke
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Ecologists estimate vital rates, such as growth and survival, to better understand population dynamics and identify sensitive life history parameters for species or populations of concern. Here, we assess spatiotemporal variation in growth, movement, density, and survival of subadult humpback chub living in the Little Colorado River, Grand Canyon, AZ from 2001–2002 and 2009–2013. We divided the Little Colorado River into three reaches and used a multistate mark‐recapture model to determine rates of movement and differences in survival and density between sites for different cohorts. Additionally, site‐specific and year‐specific effects on growth were evaluated using a linear model. Results indicate that summer growth was higher for upstream sites compared with downstream sites. In contrast, there was not a consistent spatial pattern across years in winter growth; however, river‐wide winter growth was negatively related to the duration of floods from 1 October to 15 May. Apparent survival was estimated to be lower at the most downstream site compared with the upstream sites; however, this could be because in part of increased emigration into the Colorado River at downstream sites. Furthermore, the 2010 cohort (i.e. fish that are age 1 in 2010) exhibited high apparent survival relative to other years. Movement between reaches varied with year, and some years exhibited preferential upstream displacement. Improving understanding of spatiotemporal effects on age 1 humpback chub survival can help inform current management efforts to translocate humpback chub into new locations and give us a better understanding of the factors that may limit this tributary's carrying capacity for humpback chub. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
- IMPROVING ANN‐BASED SHORT‐TERM AND LONG‐TERM SEASONAL
RIVER FLOW FORECASTING WITH SIGNAL PROCESSING TECHNIQUES
- Authors: H. Badrzadeh; R. Sarukkalige, A. W. Jayawardena
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: One of the key elements in achieving sustainable water resources and environmental management is forecasting the future condition of the surface water resources. In this study, the performance of a river flow forecasting model is improved when different input combinations and signal processing techniques are applied on multi‐layer backpropagation neural networks. Haar, Coiflet and Daubechies wavelet analysis are coupled with backpropagation neural networks model to develop hybrid wavelet neural networks models. Different models with different input selections and structures are developed for daily, weekly and monthly river flow forecasting in Ellen Brook River, Western Australia. Comparison of the performance of the hybrid approach with that of the original neural networks indicates that the hybrid models produce significantly better results. The improvement is more substantial for peak values and longer‐term forecasting, in which the Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency for monthly river flow forecasting is improved from 0.63 to 0.89 in this study. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- LONG‐TERM DYNAMICS OF LARGE‐BODIED FISHES ASSESSED FROM
SPATIALLY INTENSIVE MONITORING OF A MANAGED DESERT RIVER
- Authors: N. R. Franssen; S. L. Durst, K. B. Gido, D. W. Ryden, V. Lamarra, D. L. Propst
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Imperilment of native fishes worldwide, and particularly in the American Southwest, has prompted management actions to protect and recover threatened populations. Implementation of management activities, however, often proceeds without clear understandings of ecological interactions between native fishes and other biotic and physical components of the environment. Using data obtained in a 19‐year, intensive monitoring effort across 288 km of the San Juan River in NM and UT, USA, we quantified relationships among large‐bodied fishes and longitudinal environmental gradients, tested for faunal breaks of fishes and habitat structure along the river's course, and assessed the response of fishes to mechanical removal of non‐native fishes and stocking of endangered fishes. Mesohabitat variation was not strongly linked to densities of large‐bodied fishes, but we found strong and temporally consistent longitudinal patterns of native and non‐native fishes: Native fish densities were highest upstream while non‐native fish densities where highest downstream, potentially driven by differential responses to temperature regimes. Two breaks in the longitudinal structure of large‐bodied fishes were identified and were associated with a man‐made barrier and changes in the width of the river's floodplain. While densities of common native fishes were relatively constant during the study, non‐native fish removal apparently reduced densities of one of two targeted species and densities of two endangered fishes increased as a result of stocking hatchery‐reared fish. Results of this study suggest that large‐bodied fishes of the San Juan River are responding to large‐scale longitudinal gradients rather than small‐scale habitat variation and management activities have altered densities of target species with limited responses by other fishes in the system. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- FATTY ACID PROFILES DISTINGUISH CHANNEL CATFISH FROM THREE REACHES OF THE
LOWER KASKASKIA RIVER AND ITS FLOODPLAIN LAKES
- Authors: M. P. Young; G. W. Whitledge, J. T. Trushenski
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Despite the increasing use of fatty acids (FAs) as biomarkers in aquatic food web analysis, little information is available regarding differences in FA profiles of fish among habitat types in river–floodplain ecosystems. The objectives of this study were to (i) test whether the FA profiles of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) differed among three reaches of the lower Kaskaskia River and its floodplain lakes, and (ii) to compare FA profiles among muscle, liver, and adipose fin tissues collected from these fish. Profiles differed significantly among sites, especially between upper and lower river sites, and between river channel and oxbow lake sites, suggesting differences in FA availability for channel catfish occupying different habitats and river reaches in the Kaskaskia River system. Specifically, the essential FAs 18:2n‐6 and 18:3n‐3 increased in catfish tissues from upstream to downstream reaches, which could reflect increased floodplain connectivity and decreasing impoundment effects downstream. Ratios of n‐3 to n‐6 FAs were higher in fish from oxbow lakes, perhaps suggesting increased use of autochthonous production in the floodplain relative to the main river channel. Muscle and adipose fin FA profiles exhibited similar location‐related trends, whereas liver FA profiles were markedly different from the other tissue types. These results suggest that adipose fin tissue samples may be a viable, less‐invasive alternative to muscle tissue for analysis of FA profiles in channel catfish. Our study supports the use of tissue FA profiles in identifying habitat utilization by channel catfish, and perhaps habitat‐specific energy contributions to riverine consumers. Furthermore, our work highlights floodplain habitat as a potential source of essential n‐3 FA and the associated importance of maintaining river–floodplain connectivity to support aquatic food webs. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- NATURAL FLOW REGIMES OF THE OZARK–OUACHITA INTERIOR HIGHLANDS REGION
- Authors: D. R. Leasure; D. D. Magoulick, S. D. Longing
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Natural flow regimes represent the hydrologic conditions to which native aquatic organisms are best adapted. We completed a regional river classification and quantitative descriptions of each natural flow regime for the Ozark–Ouachita Interior Highlands region of Arkansas, Missouri and Oklahoma. On the basis of daily flow records from 64 reference streams, seven natural flow regimes were identified with mixture model cluster analysis: Groundwater Stable, Groundwater, Groundwater Flashy, Perennial Runoff, Runoff Flashy, Intermittent Runoff and Intermittent Flashy. Sets of flow metrics were selected that best quantified nine ecologically important components of these natural flow regimes. An uncertainty analysis was performed to avoid selecting metrics strongly affected by measurement uncertainty that can result from short periods of record. Measurement uncertainties (bias, precision and accuracy) were assessed for 170 commonly used flow metrics. The ranges of variability expected for select flow metrics under natural conditions were quantified for each flow regime to provide a reference for future assessments of hydrologic alteration. A random forest model was used to predict the natural flow regimes of all stream segments in the study area based on climate and catchment characteristics, and a map was produced. The geographic distribution of flow regimes suggested distinct ecohydrological regions that may be useful for conservation planning. This project provides a hydrologic foundation for future examination of flow–ecology relationships in the region. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
- POPULATION TRENDS, BEND USE RELATIVE TO AVAILABLE HABITAT AND
WITHIN‐RIVER‐BEND HABITAT USE OF EIGHT INDICATOR SPECIES OF
MISSOURI AND LOWER KANSAS RIVER BENTHIC FISHES: 15 YEARS AFTER BASELINE
- Authors: M. L. Wildhaber; W.‐H. Yang, A. Arab
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: A baseline assessment of the Missouri River fish community and species‐specific habitat use patterns conducted from 1996 to 1998 provided the first comprehensive analysis of Missouri River benthic fish population trends and habitat use in the Missouri and Lower Yellowstone rivers, exclusive of reservoirs, and provided the foundation for the present Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program (PSPAP). Data used in such studies are frequently zero inflated. To address this issue, the zero‐inflated Poisson (ZIP) model was applied. This follow‐up study is based on PSPAP data collected up to 15 years later along with new understanding of how habitat characteristics among and within bends affect habitat use of fish species targeted by PSPAP, including pallid sturgeon. This work demonstrated that a large‐scale, large‐river, PSPAP‐type monitoring program can be an effective tool for assessing population trends and habitat usage of large‐river fish species. Using multiple gears, PSPAP was effective in monitoring shovelnose and pallid sturgeons, sicklefin, shoal and sturgeon chubs, sand shiner, blue sucker and sauger. For all species, the relationship between environmental variables and relative abundance differed, somewhat, among river segments suggesting the importance of the overall conditions of Upper and Middle Missouri River and Lower Missouri and Kansas rivers on the habitat usage patterns exhibited. Shoal and sicklefin chubs exhibited many similar habitat usage patterns; blue sucker and shovelnose sturgeon also shared similar responses. For pallid sturgeon, the primary focus of PSPAP, relative abundance tended to increase in Upper and Middle Missouri River paralleling stocking efforts, whereas no evidence of an increasing relative abundance was found in the Lower Missouri River despite stocking. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- HISTORICAL CHANGES IN FISH ASSEMBLAGE COMPOSITION FOLLOWING WATER QUALITY
IMPROVEMENT IN THE MAINSTEM TRINITY RIVER OF TEXAS
- Authors: J. S. Perkin; T. H. Bonner
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: The Clean Water Act of 1972 is credited with improving water quality across the USA, although few long‐term studies tracking hydrologic, chemical, and biological responses to cleanup efforts exist. The Trinity River of Texas was plagued by poor water quality for more than a century before passage of legislation to reduce point source pollution from the Dallas–Fort Worth (DFW) Metroplex. We tracked changes in components of flow regime; concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, phosphorus, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD); and fish assemblage composition in three mainstem reaches during a 40‐year period (1968–2008) following implementation of a large‐scale cleanup initiative. Results suggest little change in flow regime components such as magnitude, timing, and rate of change among the three reaches during 1968–2008. Concentrations of water quality parameters declined through time and with greater distance from DFW, including the lowest concentrations in the reach downstream of a mainstem reservoir (Lake Livingston). Fish assemblage composition shifts correlated with attenuated nutrient and BOD concentrations, and species richness generally increased among all reaches. Native and intolerant fishes consistently increased through time among all three reaches, although lentic and non‐native species also increased downstream of Lake Livingston. Our findings suggest a revitalization of the Trinity River fish assemblage associated with reduced nutrient pollution in DFW (even among distant reaches) and also illustrate potential confounding factors such as stream impoundment and continued nutrient deposition that likely preclude complete recovery. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- AT‐A‐STATION HYDRAULIC GEOMETRY SIMULATOR
- Authors: Daniel John McParland; Brett Eaton, Jordan Rosenfeld
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Presented in this paper is a hydraulic model that combines a rational regime theory with an at‐a‐station hydraulic geometry simulator (ASHGS) to predict reach‐averaged hydraulic conditions for flows up to but not exceeding the bankfull stage. The hydraulic conditions determined by ASHGS can be paired with an empirical joint frequency distribution equation and applicable habitat suitability indices to generate weighted usable area (WUA) as a function of flow. ASHGS was tested against a 2‐dimensional hydrodynamic model (River2D) of a mid‐size channel in the Interior Region of British Columbia. By linking ASHGS to a regime model, it becomes possible to evaluate the direction and magnitude of habitat changes associated with a wide range of environmental changes. Our regime model considers flow regime, sediment supply, and riparian vegetation: these governing variables can be used to simulate responses to forest fire, flow regulation and changes in climate and land use. Practitioners can examine ‘what‐if’ scenarios that otherwise would be too expensive and time consuming to fully explore. The model boundaries of commonly used data‐intensive hydraulic habitat models (e.g. PHABSIM) are not easily adjusted and such models are not designed to estimate future morphological and hydraulic habitat conditions in rivers the undergo significant channel restructuring. The proposed model has the potential to become an accepted flow assessment tool amongst practitioners due to modest data requirements, user‐friendliness, and large spatial applicability; it can be used to conduct preliminary assessments of channel altering projects and determine if in‐depth habitat assessments are justified.
- AN ESTIMATE OF BASIN‐WIDE DENITRIFICATION BASED ON FLOODPLAIN
INUNDATION IN THE ATCHAFALAYA RIVER BASIN, LOUISIANA
- Authors: M. G. Bennett; K. A. Fritz, A. Hayden‐Lesmeister, J. P. Kozak, A. Nickolotsky
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Maximizing the reduction of nitrate to dinitrogen gas (denitrification) has been advocated as a means to decrease nitrate pollution that causes eutrophication and hypoxia in estuaries worldwide. Managing this flux in bottomland forest wetlands of the Mississippi River could potentially reduce the world's second largest hypoxic zone. We used published denitrification rates, geospatial data on habitat area and inundation frequency, water level records (1963–2011), and average monthly temperatures to estimate annual denitrification in the Atchafalaya River Basin, the principal distributary of the Mississippi River. Denitrification rates ranged from 5394 kg N year−1 (3.07 kg N km−2 year−1) in 1988 to 17 420 kg N year−1 (9.92 kg N km−2 year−1) in 1981, and rates were consistently higher in fall compared with those in spring. Total NO3− denitrified in the basin was negligible compared with total NO3− entering the Gulf of Mexico. If all N denitrified in the basin instead entered the Gulf, the hypoxic zone was predicted to increase only 5.07 km2 (0.06%). This negligible effect of the basin on N dynamics in the Gulf agrees with other mass balance and isotopic studies in the region. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT ALONG EPHEMERAL RIVERS: TRADING OFF
SOCIO‐ECONOMIC WATER SUPPLY AND VEGETATION CONSERVATION UNDER FLOOD
- Authors: S. Arnold; S. Attinger, K. Frank, P. Baxter, H. Possingham, A. Hildebrandt
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: In ecosystems driven by water availability, plant community dynamics depend on complex interactions between vegetation, hydrology, and human water resources use. Along ephemeral rivers—where water availability is erratic—vegetation and people are particularly vulnerable to changes in each other's water use. Sensible management requires that water supply be maintained for people, while preserving ecosystem health. Meeting such requirements is challenging because of the unpredictable water availability. We applied information gap decision theory to an ecohydrological system model of the Kuiseb River environment in Namibia. Our aim was to identify the robustness of ecosystem and water management strategies to uncertainties in future flood regimes along ephemeral rivers. We evaluated the trade‐offs between alternative performance criteria and their robustness to uncertainty to account for both (i) human demands for water supply and (ii) reducing the risk of species extinction caused by water mining. Increasing uncertainty of flood regime parameters reduced the performance under both objectives. Remarkably, the ecological objective (species coexistence) was more sensitive to uncertainty than the water supply objective. However, within each objective, the relative performance of different management strategies was insensitive to uncertainty. The ‘best’ management strategy was one that is tuned to the competitive species interactions in the Kuiseb environment. It regulates the biomass of the strongest competitor and, thus, at the same time decreases transpiration, thereby increasing groundwater storage and reducing pressure on less dominant species. This robust mutually acceptable strategy enables species persistence without markedly reducing the water supply for humans. This study emphasises the utility of ecohydrological models for resource management of water‐controlled ecosystems. Although trade‐offs were identified between alternative performance criteria and their robustness to uncertain future flood regimes, management strategies were identified that help to secure an ecologically sustainable water supply. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- HYDROLOGIC VARIABILITY INFLUENCES LOCAL PROBABILITY OF PALLID STURGEON
OCCURRENCE IN A MISSOURI RIVER TRIBUTARY
- Authors: M. J. Hamel; J. J. Spurgeon, M. A. Pegg, J. J. Hammen, M. L. Rugg
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: A river's flow regime creates and maintains spatial variability in habitat and dictates the distribution and abundance of riverine fishes. Changes to patterns of natural hydrologic variation and disturbance create novel flow conditions and may influence distribution of native fishes. We examined local and regional‐scale factors that influenced the presence of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in the Platte River, a large tributary to the Missouri River in Nebraska, USA. Daily river discharge, diel flow variability, season and location in the study area were the most supported variables in logistic regression models explaining pallid sturgeon distribution. The probability of pallid sturgeon occurrence was greatest during periods of high discharge (>90th percentile flows) in the spring and fall. Pallid sturgeon occurrence was always lower when variability in diel flow patterns was high (i.e. hydropeaking). Our results indicate that pallid sturgeon use of the lower Platte River was strongly tied to the flow regime. Therefore, the lower Platte River may provide an opportunity to preserve and restore sturgeon and possibly other large‐river fishes through appropriate water management strategies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- MONITORING OF RIVER CONTAMINATION DERIVED FROM ACID MINE DRAINAGE USING
AIRBORNE IMAGING SPECTROSCOPY (HyMap DATA, SOUTH‐WEST SPAIN)
- Authors: J. Buzzi; A. Riaza, E. García‐Meléndez, V. Carrère, S. Holzwarth
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Imaging spectroscopy is used in this work as an essential mapping tool to monitor changes in contaminated river sediments. Multidate hyperspectral image data (HyMap) are utilized to identify spatial mineral patterns, to detect temporal changes in mineralogy and to link these changes with geochemical processes and short‐term climate characteristics.
River sediments contaminated by acid mine drainage are covered by crusts with variably hydrated iron sulphate. The mineralogy of the crusts and the grain size of the underlying fluvial sediments overlap. The spectra used to build up maps from HyMap data are diagnosed mineralogically with archive spectral libraries from pyrite oxidation minerals from well‐known sequences of minerals.
The maps compiled from hyperspectral imagery display generalized oxidation shown by the coatings over river sediments following warm and dry periods with low water level. After the wet periods, the area covered by oxidized mineralogical phases recedes in favour of hydrated sulphate.
The iteration of image processing algorithms and the mineralogical and potential contamination in a geological context are described. Change detection of the mineral crusts on the river sediments by mapping using hyperspectral remote sensing data may thus enable a quantitative and qualitative environmental evaluation by the regulators. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- DO MANAGEMENT ACTIONS TO RESTORE RARE HABITAT BENEFIT NATIVE FISH
CONSERVATION? DISTRIBUTION OF JUVENILE NATIVE FISH AMONG SHORELINE
HABITATS OF THE COLORADO RIVER
- Authors: M. J. Dodrill; C. B. Yackulic, B. Gerig, W. E. Pine, J. Korman, C. Finch
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Many management actions in aquatic ecosystems are directed at restoring or improving specific habitats to benefit fish populations. In the Grand Canyon reach of the Colorado River, experimental flow operations as part of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program have been designed to restore sandbars and associated backwater habitats. Backwaters can have warmer water temperatures than other habitats, and native fish, including the federally endangered humpback chub Gila cypha, are frequently observed in backwaters, leading to a common perception that this habitat is critical for juvenile native fish conservation. However, it is unknown how fish densities in backwaters compare with that in other habitats or what proportion of juvenile fish populations reside in backwaters. Here, we develop and fit multi‐species hierarchical models to estimate habitat‐specific abundances and densities of juvenile humpback chub, bluehead sucker Catostomus discobolus, flannelmouth sucker Catostomus latipinnis and speckled dace Rhinichthys osculus in a portion of the Colorado River. Densities of all four native fish were greatest in backwater habitats in 2009 and 2010. However, backwaters are rare and ephemeral habitats, so they contain only a small portion of the overall population. For example, the total abundance of juvenile humpback chub in this study was much higher in talus than in backwater habitats. Moreover, when we extrapolated relative densities based on estimates of backwater prevalence directly after a controlled flood, the majority of juvenile humpback chub were still found outside of backwaters. This suggests that the role of controlled floods in influencing native fish population trends may be limited in this section of the Colorado River. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- HYDROMORPHOLOGY MEETS MAMMAL ECOLOGY: RIVER MORPHOLOGICAL QUALITY, RECENT
CHANNEL ADJUSTMENTS AND OTTER RESILIENCE
- Authors: V. Scorpio; A. Loy, M. Di Febbraro, A. Rizzo, P. Aucelli
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: The need for a multidisciplinary approach for characterizing water bodies in terms of morphological, chemical and ecological quality has hastened the growth of hydromorphology as a cross‐disciplinary topic at the interface of hydrology, geomorphology and ecology. Many authors have analysed how hydroecology may affect freshwater biodiversity, although little is known about how this biodiversity might be affected by river morphological quality. We examined how well the presence of the semi‐aquatic Eurasian otter can be predicted by the rivers' morphological quality and its adjustments over the last decades. We tested the morphological quality index (MQI) methodology in 38 reaches of five rivers in southern Italy, 23 of which were positive to otter presence. In each reach, we examined 28 indicators contributing to the MQI and its 11 sub‐indices. The results showed a significant relationship between the probability of the presence of otters, MQI, and some sub‐indices. The best performing sub‐indices were related to channel adjustments and the continuity of river processes. A more detailed analysis of channel adjustments showed a detrimental effect of channel incision (>3 m) and a positive effect of narrowing, particularly where it occurred simultaneously with the development of forest in the new floodplain. The continuity of river processes has driven the migration of river banks and the development of ponds and secondary channels, likely increasing the availability of dens and resting sites and the hunting capabilities of otters. Our results stressed the importance of fluvial dynamics and sustainable adaptive river management for the habitat quality of semi‐aquatic species. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- RAPID RESPONSE OF A SAND‐DOMINATED RIVER TO INSTALLATION AND REMOVAL
OF A TEMPORARY RUN‐OF‐THE‐RIVER DAM
- Authors: K. H. Costigan; C. M. Ruffing, J. S. Perkin, M. D. Daniels
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Run‐of‐the‐river dams (RORDs) comprise the vast majority of dams on river systems and are commonly removed as a part of stream restoration strategies. Although these dams are routinely removed, few studies have documented the geomorphological responses of sand‐bed rivers to the removal of RORDs. We examined the response of a large sand‐bed river located in South‐Central Kansas, USA, to the installation and removal of a dam that is installed annually for seasonal recreational purposes. Channel adjustments were tracked using cross‐sections sampled over the course of 7 months as the dam was installed and subsequently removed. Multivariate spatiotemporal analysis revealed emergence of channel stability when the dam was in place for most cross‐sections, except for those immediately adjacent to or at great distances from the dam. Our results provide an approximation for how sand‐bed rivers respond to RORD construction and removal and are useful for guiding management decisions involving preservation or restoration of connectivity. Results of this study suggest that sand‐bed rivers are resilient and recover quickly when transient RORDs are removed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- HEADWATER STREAMS OF FLORIDA: TYPES, DISTRIBUTION AND A FRAMEWORK FOR
- Authors: W. R. White; T. L. Crisman
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Using geographic information system and topographic maps, 5829 headwater streams in Florida were surveyed for several parameters including elevation, stream length, flow regime and surrounding geology, and vegetation. Each was assigned to one of four headwater types: wetland, seep, lake, and spring. Wetland headwaters were the most common and widespread followed by seeps, many displaying temporary flow, while springs were perennial and least numerous. Four groups of Florida rivers were identified through cluster analysis of drainage densities (number headwaters/km of river length). Group 1 consisted of six rivers with lowest drainage densities (0.30–1.39 streams/km main channel). All were coastal rivers of peninsular Florida and, with one exception, drain to the Gulf of Mexico. Seven of eight rivers (group 2) with intermediate drainage densities (1.77–3.04 streams/km main channel) were located in peninsular Florida. Only three of 12 rivers comprising the two groups (groups 3 and 4) with greatest drainage densities (5.16–9.37 and 15.49–16.96 streams/km main channel) were not located in the Florida panhandle. Stream conservation efforts should focus on both highly complex dendritic river networks of the panhandle and on the 7000 km2 area in central Florida mostly lacking headwaters that may become a significant dispersal bottleneck for aquatic biota seeking refugia farther north from projected climate change. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- ANTHROPOGENIC DISTURBANCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSOCIATIONS WITH FISH
ASSEMBLAGE STRUCTURE IN TWO NONWADEABLE RIVERS
- Authors: T. P. Parks; M. C. Quist, C. L. Pierce
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Nonwadeable rivers are unique ecosystems that support high levels of aquatic biodiversity, yet they have been greatly altered by human activities. Although riverine fish assemblages have been studied in the past, we still have an incomplete understanding of how fish assemblages respond to both natural and anthropogenic influences in large rivers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations between fish assemblage structure and reach‐scale habitat, dam, and watershed land use characteristics. In the summers of 2011 and 2012, comprehensive fish and environmental data were collected from 33 reaches in the Iowa and Cedar rivers of eastern‐central Iowa. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to evaluate environmental relationships with species relative abundance, functional trait abundance (e.g. catch rate of tolerant species), and functional trait composition (e.g. percentage of tolerant species). On the basis of partial CCAs, reach‐scale habitat, dam characteristics, and watershed land use features explained 25.0–81.1%, 6.2–25.1%, and 5.8–47.2% of fish assemblage variation, respectively. Although reach‐scale, dam, and land use factors contributed to overall assemblage structure, the majority of fish assemblage variation was constrained by reach‐scale habitat factors. Specifically, mean annual discharge was consistently selected in nine of the 11 CCA models and accounted for the majority of explained fish assemblage variance by reach‐scale habitat. This study provides important insight on the influence of anthropogenic disturbances across multiple spatial scales on fish assemblages in large river systems. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- IMPACTS OF PROJECTED CLIMATE CHANGES ON STREAMFLOW AND SEDIMENT TRANSPORT
FOR THREE SNOWMELT‐DOMINATED RIVERS IN THE INTERIOR PACIFIC
- Authors: S. Praskievicz
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Anthropogenic climate change is likely to have significant impacts on river systems, particularly on rivers dominated by seasonal snowmelt. In addition to altering the timing and magnitude of streamflow, climate change can affect the energy available to transport sediment, as well as the availability of sediment to be transported. These hydrologic changes are sensitive to local climate, which is largely controlled by topography, but climate models cannot resolve processes at these scales. Here, I investigate impacts of climate change on streamflow and suspended‐sediment transport for three snowmelt‐dominated rivers in the interior Pacific Northwest – the Tucannon River in Washington and the South Fork Coeur d'Alene and Red rivers in Idaho – using downscaled climate simulations from regional climate models (a range of three models plus an ensemble average) to drive a basin‐scale hydrologic model. The results indicate that climate change is likely to amplify the annual cycle of river discharge, producing higher winter discharge (increases in ensemble mean January discharge ranging from 4.1% to 34.4% for the three rivers), an earlier spring snowmelt peak (by approximately one month), and lower summer discharge (decreases in ensemble mean July discharge ranging from 5.2% to 47.2%), relative to a late 20th‐century baseline. The magnitude of the largest simulated flood under the ensemble‐average climate change scenario increases by 0.6–41.6% across the three rivers. Simulated changes in suspended‐sediment transport generally follow the changes in streamflow. These changes in discharge and sediment transport will likely produce significant impacts on the study rivers, including changes in flooding, physical habitat, and river morphology. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- SIZE‐MEDIATED EFFECTS OF WATER‐FLOW VELOCITY ON RIVERINE FISH
- Authors: A. Del Signore; H. J. R. Lenders, A. J. Hendriks, J. A. Vonk, C. Mulder, R. S. E. W. Leuven
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: We applied species sensitivity distributions (SSDs), commonly used in chemical risk assessment, to quantify the impact of water‐flow velocity on the presence of fish species in a river. SSDs for water‐flow velocity were derived from observational field data (maximal velocity at which species occur, Vmax) and laboratory measurements (critical swimming velocity, Vcrit). By calculating the potentially affected fraction of the fish species of the river Rhine, effects of water‐flow velocity on different life stages and guilds were estimated. Vmax values for adults were significantly higher than those for juveniles and larvae. At water‐flow velocity of 60 cm s−1, half of the adults were affected, while half of the non‐adult life stages were affected at velocities of 25 to 29 cm s−1. There was a positive correlation between body size and fish tolerance to water‐flow. As expected, rheophilic species tolerated higher water‐flow velocities than eurytopic and limnophilic species. Maximal velocities measured in littoral zones of the Rhine were, on average, 10 cm s−1, corresponding to an affected fraction of 2%. An increase in water‐flow velocity up to 120 cm s−1 as a result of passing vessels caused an increase in affected species to 75%. For a successful ecological river management, the SSD method can be used to quantify the trait‐mediated effects of water‐flow alterations on occurring species enabling to compare and rank the effects of chemical and physical stress. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- COMBINING POPULATION GROWTH MODEL AND GENERALIZED ADDITIVE MODEL TO
DETERMINE OPTIMAL WATER LEVEL FOR WATERBIRD CONSERVATION: A CASE STUDY OF
SIBERIAN CRANE (LEUCOGERANUS LEUCOGERANUS) IN LAKE POYANG, CHINA
- Authors: Y. Jia; L. Guan, Y. Wang, G. Liu, G. Lei, L. Wen
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Siberian crane (Leucogeranus leucogeranus) is one of the most endangered species in the world. The ecological integrity of its main wintering ground at Poyang Lake in China is crucial for the future of the species because Poyang Lake accommodates 99% of its global population. With the Three Gorges Dam fully operational, science‐based adaptive strategies are urgently needed to avoid catastrophic ecological consequences.
This study quantified the link between water level variation and population growth rate of the Siberian crane in Poyang Lake using a suite of advanced statistical techniques. We first used the stochastic Gompert growth model within the state space modelling (SSM) framework to infer population growth rate, density dependence, and process variability and observation errors. We then applied generalized additive models (GAMs) to the population growth rate to quantify the effects of environmental stochasticity.
Our SSM results indicated that there was little support for density dependence, and environmental stochasticity was the main forcing for Siberian crane population variations in Poyang Lake. Although the SSM suggested that water levels in both high‐ and low‐water seasons were important factors for Siberian crane population, inference on their effects were elusive because of large confidence intervals of the estimated coefficients. Using GAM, we confirmed the non‐linear effects of water level on population growth rate. Based on the modelled response curves, we proposed the optimal water level for Siberian crane conservation: (a) maximum summer water season level should be less than 19.5 m and (b) minimum winter water level should be between 8.7–10.2 m. Our methods of integrating population dynamic model and GAM have wide relevance for regional biological conversation efforts that seek to maintain a resilient population of threatened species. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- ISCHNURA GRAELLSII (INSECTA: ODONATA) A WATER POLLUTION BIOVULNERABILITY
INDICATOR—PROBABILITY MAPPING USING SPATIAL UNCERTAINTY
- Authors: F. Campos; T. Velasco, G. Sanz, P. Casanueva, M. T. D. Albuquerque, I. M. H. R. Antunes
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Monitoring changes of anthropogenic impacts from a broad scope of species in biodiversity research require practical, easy‐to‐use and efficient assessment as well as monitoring methods. Odonates (Insecta: Odonata) are a valuable tool for assessing freshwater systems' quality and have been used as bioindicators of environmental variety.
The Águeda watershed, located in the central west of the Iberian Peninsula, shows an exponential increase in the last 60 years of natural resource exploitation coupled with alterations in consumer habits, causing significant environmental changes and deferred direct effects on the natural habitats.
Fourteen river sites, selected a priori, were sampled. Adult odonates were collected using standardized methods. Selected environmental variables and water quality parameters were evaluated in situ. Precipitation and altitude were the most important physical, environmental variables in explaining the assemblage structure. Meaningful abiotic–biotic as well as biotic–biotic relationships were set up. Furthermore, situations in the urbanized watershed area showed to be highly impacted and closely related with damselfly Ischnura graellsii, which should be targeted as a possible vulnerability indicator for polluted fresh waters.
A probability map for Ischnura graellsii distribution was performed using indicator kriging with external drift and spatial uncertainty obtain through the calculation of two categorical maps (binary), corresponding to the mean (0.485) and the trimmed mean by discharging the 10% lower distribution tail (0.533). The subsequent overlapping of both categorical maps (binary) allowed the definition of the higher spatial uncertainty map for surface water contamination. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- AN EVALUATION OF THE STREAM SIMULATION CULVERT DESIGN METHOD IN WASHINGTON
- Authors: R. J. Barnard; S. Yokers, A. Nagygyor, T. Quinn
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Stream simulation has become an increasingly common culvert design method around the world. It is based on the assumption that geologic and hydraulic conditions in natural channels define passage characteristics for migrating fish and that water crossing structures that imitate these conditions can then achieve those same passage characteristics. This study expands on an initial evaluation of 19 culverts in 2003 to 50 culverts and includes methods and analyses comparing hydraulic characteristics based on cross sections, profile variation, and bed texture between each culvert and its paired reference reach situated in an adjacent section of the natural channel of each stream. Taken as a group, these culverts simulate bed texture, 100‐year recurrence interval flood velocity and 2‐year flood width but did not simulate thalweg complexity or other hydraulic metrics. Culvert span, relative to the bankfull width of the stream, does not by itself determine whether the culvert simulates the reference reach. Of the 50 culverts, many of which experienced record floods, only one showed significant bed degradation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- INVASIBILITY DRIVES RESTORATION OF A FLOODPLAIN PLANT COMMUNITY
- Authors: L. A. Toth
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: An understanding of the processes that determine plant community structure is a requisite for the planning and evaluation of restoration efforts on river floodplains. Variable disturbance regimes derived from flood pulses increase the susceptibility of river floodplains to colonizations by new species and establish invasibility as a potentially important factor in plant community assembly and dynamics. The role of invasibility in the restoration of a wet prairie community on the Kissimmee River floodplain in central Florida was evaluated by quantifying temporal species turnover rates during wet and dry season sampling over a 12‐year pre‐restoration and post‐restoration period. Turnover rates increased with reestablishment of annual inundation regimes and were significantly greater on the reflooded floodplain than on the drained, channelized floodplain. Recurrent periods of increased invasibility were associated with repeated high‐amplitude flood pulses and accompanied by increased diversity of plant communities within the wet prairie landscape. Neither invasibility nor beta diversity was strongly related to the variable hydroperiods or depths provided by local topography and restoration of seasonal hydrologic regimes. Results suggest that invasibility is a functional process by which the restored flood pulse has reestablished the structure and diversity of the wet prairie. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- AN EVALUATION OF THE RELATIONS BETWEEN FLOW REGIME COMPONENTS, STREAM
CHARACTERISTICS, SPECIES TRAITS, AND META‐DEMOGRAPHIC RATES OF
WARM‐WATER‐STREAM FISHES: IMPLICATIONS FOR AQUATIC RESOURCE
- Authors: J. T. Peterson; C. P. Shea
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Fishery biologists are increasingly recognizing the importance of considering the dynamic nature of streams when developing streamflow policies. Such approaches require information on how flow regimes influence the physical environment and how those factors, in turn, affect species‐specific demographic rates. A more cost‐effective alternative could be the use of dynamic occupancy models to predict how species are likely to respond to changes in flow. To appraise the efficacy of this approach, we evaluated relative support for hypothesized effects of seasonal streamflow components, stream channel characteristics, and fish species traits on local extinction, colonization, and recruitment (meta‐demographic rates) of stream fishes. We used 4 years of seasonal fish collection data from 23 streams to fit multistate, multiseason occupancy models for 42 fish species in the lower Flint River Basin, Georgia. Modelling results suggested that meta‐demographic rates were influenced by streamflows, particularly short‐term (10‐day) flows. Flow effects on meta‐demographic rates also varied with stream size, channel morphology, and fish species traits. Small‐bodied species with generalized life‐history characteristics were more resilient to flow variability than large‐bodied species with specialized life‐history characteristics. Using this approach, we simplified the modelling framework, thereby facilitating the development of dynamic, spatially explicit evaluations of the ecological consequences of water resource development activities over broad geographic areas. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
- Combined Effects of Reservoir Operations and Climate Warming on the Flow
Regime of Hydropower Bypass Reaches of California's Sierra Nevada
- Authors: D. E. Rheinheimer; J. H. Viers
Pages: 269 - 279
Abstract: Alterations to flow regimes from regulation and climatic change both affect the biophysical functioning of rivers over long time periods and large spatial areas. Historically, however, the effects of these flow alteration drivers have been studied separately. In this study, results from unregulated and regulated river management models were assessed to understand how flow regime alterations from river regulation differ under future climate conditions in the Sierra Nevada of California, USA. Four representative flow alteration metrics—mean annual flow, low flow duration, centroid timing and mean weekly rate of decrease—were calculated and statistically characterized under historical and future unregulated and regulated conditions over a 20‐year period at each of the eight regulated river locations below dams across the Sierra Nevada. Future climatic conditions were represented by assuming an increase in air temperature of 6 °C above historical (1981–2000) air temperatures, with no change in other meteorological conditions. Results indicate that climate warming will measurably alter some aspects of the flow regime. By comparison, however, river regulation with business‐as‐usual operations will alter flow regimes much more than climate warming. Existing reservoirs can possibly be used to dampen the anticipated effects of climate warming through improved operations, though additional research is needed to identify the full suite of such possibilities. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Scenarios for Restoring Floodplain Ecology Given Changes to River Flows
Under Climate Change: Case from the San Joaquin River, California
- Authors: M. K. Matella; A. M. Merenlender
Pages: 280 - 290
Abstract: Freshwater ecosystem health has been increasingly linked to floodplain connectivity, and some river restoration efforts now overtly target reconnecting floodplain habitats for species recovery. The dynamic nature of floodplain habitats is not typically accounted for in efforts to plan and evaluate potential floodplain reconnection projects. This study describes a novel approach for integrating streamflow dynamics with floodplain area to quantify species‐specific habitat availability using hydraulic modelling, spatial analysis and statistical measures of flow regime. We used this hydro‐ecological modelling approach to examine the potential habitat for splittail (Pogonichthys macrolepidotus), Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and their food resources under two restoration treatments and two climate change flow scenarios for a study site on San Joaquin River in California. Even with the addition of new floodplain through restoration efforts, the modelling results reveal only 13 streamflow events in the past 80 years had the magnitude and duration required for splittail spawning and rearing, and 14 events had flows long enough for salmon rearing benefits. Under climate change, modelled results suggest only 4–17% of the years in the rest of this century are likely to produce required flow‐related habitat conditions for splittail and salmon rearing along the study reach. Lastly, we demonstrate by simulating augmented reservoir releases that restoration of fish habitat will require a more natural flow regime to make use of restored floodplain and achieve the desired hydrologic habitat connectivity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Assessing the Efficiency of an Elver Ladder Using a Multi‐State
- Authors: H. Drouineau; C. Rigaud, A. Laharanne, R. Fabre, A. Alric, P. Baran
Pages: 291 - 300
Abstract: The decline of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) stock has led the European Commission to enforce a regulation (Council Regulation N° 1100/2007), in which each member state was required to establish an eel management plan. Various measures in the French plan aim at restoring river connectivity by mitigating the impact of obstacles on the colonization of continental water by eels. Consequently, many obstacles are going to be equipped with elver ladder in the near future. In this context, a method to assess the passability of an obstacle seems essential. In this study, we developed a tag–recapture method, appropriate to glass eels and elvers, and an associated multi‐state mark–recapture model (i) to assess the passability of a ladder and (ii) to quantify the effect of various environmental factors on this passability. An application to a specific obstacle is applied as an illustrative example that demonstrates the relevance of the assessment method, and how the results can be used to propose technical solution to improve the efficiency of the ladder. Nine tag–recapture campaigns were carried on this obstacle, and about 4400 young eels were tagged. The model demonstrates that the efficiency of the ladder was rather low, especially during low river flow periods, mainly because of accessibility problems. The model also demonstrates the major influence of the river flow on the probability for an eel to pass the ladder; consequently, managing river flow during the migration period can be a relevant measure to improve river connectivity and facilitate colonization of the watershed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- An Assessment of Fish Assemblage Structure in a Large River
- Authors: I. A. Kiraly; S. M. Coghlan, J. Zydlewski, D. Hayes
Pages: 301 - 312
Abstract: The Penobscot River drains the largest watershed in Maine and once provided spawning and rearing habitats to 11 species of diadromous fishes. The construction of dams blocked migrations of these fishes and likely changed the structure and function of fish assemblages throughout the river. The proposed removal of two main‐stem dams, improved upstream fish passage at a third dam, and construction of a fish bypass on a dam obstructing a major tributary is anticipated to increase passage of and improve habitat connectivity for both diadromous and resident fishes. We captured 61 837 fish of 35 species in the Penobscot River and major tributaries, through 114 km of boat electrofishing. Patterns of fish assemblage structure did not change considerably during our sampling; relatively few species contributed to seasonal and annual variability within the main‐stem river, including smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, white sucker Catostomus commersonii, pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, and golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas. However, distinct fish assemblages were present among river sections bounded by dams. Many diadromous species were restricted to tidal waters downriver of the Veazie Dam; Fundulus species were also abundant within the tidal river section. Smallmouth bass and pumpkinseed were most prevalent within the Veazie Dam impoundment and the free‐flowing river section immediately upriver, suggesting the importance of both types of habitat that supports multiple life stages of these species. Further upriver, brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus, yellow perch Perca flavescens, chain pickerel Esox niger, and cyprinid species were more prevalent than within any other river section. Our findings describe baseline spatial patterns of fish assemblages in the Penobscot River in relation to dams with which to compare assessments after dam removal occurs. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Importance of Reservoir Tributaries to Spawning of Migratory Fish in the
Upper Paraná River
- Authors: P. S. Silva; M. C. Makrakis, L. E. Miranda, S. Makrakis, L. Assumpção, S. Paula, J. H. P. Dias, H. Marques
Pages: 313 - 322
Abstract: Regulation of rivers by dams transforms previously lotic reaches above the dam into lentic ones and limits or prevents longitudinal connectivity, which impairs access to suitable habitats for the reproduction of many migratory fish species. Frequently, unregulated tributaries can provide important habitat heterogeneity to a regulated river and may mitigate the influence of impoundments on the mainstem river. We evaluated the importance of tributaries to spawning of migratory fish species over three spawning seasons, by comparing several abiotic conditions and larval fish distributions in four rivers that are tributaries to an impounded reach of the Upper Paraná River, Brazil. Our study confirmed reproduction of at least 8 long‐distance migrators, likely nine, out of a total of 19 occurring in the Upper Paraná River. Total larval densities and percentage species composition differed among tributaries, but the differences were not consistent among spawning seasons and unexpectedly were not strongly related to annual differences in temperature and hydrology. We hypothesize that under present conditions, densities of larvae of migratory species may be better related to efficiency of fish passage facilities than to temperature and hydrology. Our study indicates that adult fish are finding suitable habitat for spawning in tributaries, fish eggs are developing into larvae, and larvae are finding suitable rearing space in lagoons adjacent to the tributaries. Our findings also suggest the need for establishment of protected areas in unregulated and lightly regulated tributaries to preserve essential spawning and nursery habitats. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Nutrient Contributions from Alluvial Soils Associated with the Restoration
of Shallow Water Habitat in the Lower Missouri River
- Authors: D. C. Heimann; D. M. Morris, T. R. Gemeinhardt
Pages: 323 - 334
Abstract: The Missouri River has been extensively altered as the result of channelization, bank stabilization, and the construction of six main stem reservoirs. In response to the resultant habitat loss, the US Army Corps of Engineers was tasked with restoring approximately 8100 ha of shallow water habitat (SWH), in part, for the benefit of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Construction of off‐channel habitats involves the removal and disposal of excavated alluvium either by direct discharge into the river or by secondary erosion, which raised concerns regarding the introduction of sediment and associated nutrients into the Missouri River.
Soils from nine side‐channel chutes were sampled to represent nutrient concentrations from habitat restoration activities. Soils from 12 historically undisturbed sites were also sampled to represent reference conditions in the Missouri River flood plain. The results of this study indicate that nutrient characteristics of soils from selected SWH locations generally are similar to those of historically undisturbed soils. The estimated mass of total phosphorus from chutes accounted for 1.9% of Missouri River and 0.5% of Mississippi River total phosphorus loads during the 1993–2012 analysis period. The mass of nitrate, the constituent most closely related to gulf hypoxia, was 0.01% or less of the Missouri and Mississippi River nitrate loads. Sediment volumes from the chutes accounted for 3.1 and 1.5% of total suspended loads from the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. Overall, the introduced sediment from side‐channel chute construction associated with SWH restoration accounts for a small portion of total nutrient and sediment transport in the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. River Research and Applications published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- The Isotope Hydrology of a Large River System Regulated for Hydropower
- Authors: C. Soulsby; C. Birkel, J. Geris, D. Tetzlaff
Pages: 335 - 349
Abstract: Impoundments, regulation and inter‐basin transfers associated with large hydropower developments affect runoff regimes, water residence times and stream water quality. We used stable isotopes to understand these effects on the river Tay system in Scotland, examining their spatial and temporal variation in surface waters at 22 sites. Spatial patterns of isotopes in stream water were consistent with those of precipitation, being more depleted in streams draining higher, colder northern headwaters and enriched in the milder western headwaters. To a lesser extent, spatial patterns also reflected effects of inter‐basin and intra‐basin water transfers at some sites. Temporal dynamics reflected precipitation inputs modulated by landscape properties, the presence of lakes and reservoirs, and regulation operations. Isotopic variability was highest in headwater tributaries with responsive soils and lowest downstream of lakes and reservoirs. Variability of isotopes in lower river sites was also damped as they integrate contributions from the rest of the catchment. Importantly, regulation from both reservoirs and inter‐basin transfers can distort simple input–output relationships for stable isotopes and affect catchment transit times with implications for water quality and in‐stream ecology. On the one hand, reservoirs and extension of natural lakes have created additional storage, potentially slowing flows; on the other, transfers have increased the volume and rates of water throughput in many of these water bodies, reducing hydraulic turnover times. Such effects tend to be quite localized and are not apparent at the larger catchment scale. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Role of Local Flow Conditions in River Biofilm Colonization and Early
- Authors: F. Coundoul; T. Bonometti, M. Graba, S. Sauvage, J.‐M. Sanchez Pérez, F. Y. Moulin
Pages: 350 - 367
Abstract: Direct numerical simulations of a turbulent boundary layer flow over a bed of hemispheres of height h are performed using an immersed boundary method for comparison with river biofilm growth experiments performed in a hydraulic flume. Flow statistics above the substrates are shown to be in agreement with measurements performed by laser Doppler velocimetry and particle image velocimetry in the experiments. Numerical simulations give access to flow components inside the roughness sublayer, and biofilm colonization patterns found in the experiments are shown to be associated with low shear stress regions on the hemisphere surface. Two bed configurations, namely staggered and aligned configurations, lead to different colonization patterns because of differences in the local flow topology. Dependence with the Reynolds number of the biofilm distribution and accrual 7 days after inoculum is shown to be associated to local flow topology change and shear stress intensity. In particular, the shear stress τ on the surface of the hemispheres is found to scale as μu*/hRet0.26, where Ret = u*h/ν, with u* as the log law friction velocity and ν as the fluid kinematic viscosity. This scaling is due to the development of boundary layers along the hemisphere surface. Associated with a critical shear stress for colonization and early growth, it explains the increasing delay in biomass accrual for increasing flow velocities in the experiments. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Can Tolerant Diatom Taxa be Used for Effective Assessments of Human
- Authors: E. Szczepocka; A. Kruk, B. Rakowska
Pages: 368 - 378
Abstract: Because lately the low bioindicative value of tolerant species from different taxonomic groups is often questioned, in this study, we hypothesized that tolerant diatoms may be used for effective temporal assessments of human pressure. We tested this on the lowland Bzura River in central Poland, on 156 diatom samples (DSs) from two study periods of 1972 with extremely severe point‐source water pollution and of 2002–2004, where the complex wastewater management in the river catchment improved water quality considerably. Out of the total 295 diatom species recorded in the samples, only 133 tolerant ones were included in the study. Patterns in their abundance were recognized with a Kohonen artificial neural network (self‐organizing map, SOM), whereas the species significantly associated with each SOM cluster of diatom samples were identified with the indicator value (IndVal) index and the Monte Carlo test. If the hypothesis tested was not supported, the assignation of DSs to the SOM clusters would be random. However, the separation of DSs from 1972 and 2002–2004 was almost perfect because the number of exceptions was as low as 4.5%. In addition, the relatively high number (64 out of 133) of tolerant species significantly associated with any SOM cluster (and respective environmental conditions at sites from which samples assigned to it come) supports the hypothesis tested. This means that almost half of the studied species are not evenly distributed in particular clusters as might be expected for highly tolerant species. The study proves that the abundances of many diatom species, currently classified as tolerant, carry quite precise information on the differences in the quality of the environment, and indicates those tolerant diatom species whose bioindicative potential may be highest. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Hyperspatial Remote Sensing of Channel Reach Morphology and Hydraulic Fish
Habitat Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV): A First Assessment in the
Context of River Research and Management
- Authors: A. Tamminga; C. Hugenholtz, B. Eaton, M. Lapointe
Pages: 379 - 391
Abstract: In this paper, we assess the capabilities of an unmanned/uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) to characterize the channel morphology and hydraulic habitat of a 1‐km reach of the Elbow River, Alberta, Canada, with the goal of identifying the advantages and challenges of this technology for river research and management. Using a small quadcopter UAV to acquire overlapping images and softcopy photogrammetry, we constructed a 5‐cm resolution orthomosaic image and digital elevation model (DEM). The orthomosaic was used to map the distribution of geomorphic and aquatic habitat features, including bathymetry, grain sizes, undercut banks, forested channel margins, and large wood. The DEM was used to initialize and run River2D, a two‐dimensional hydrodynamic model, and resulting depth and velocity distributions were combined with the mapped physical habitat features to produce refined estimates of available habitat in terms of weighted usable area. Based on 297 checkpoints, the vertical root‐mean‐squared error of the DEM was 8.8 cm in exposed areas and 11.9 cm in submerged areas following correction of the DEM for overprediction of elevations as a result of the refractive effects of water. Overall, we find several advantages of UAV‐based imagery including low cost, high efficiency, operational flexibility, high vertical accuracy, and centimetre‐scale resolution. We also identify some challenges, including vegetation obstructions of the ground surface, turbidity, which can limit bathymetry extraction, and an immature regulatory landscape, which may slow the adoption of this technology for operational measurements. However, by enabling dynamic linkages between geomorphic processes and aquatic habitat to be established, we believe that the advantages of UAVs make them ideally suited to river research and management. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- HEC‐RPT — Software for Facilitating Development of River
- Authors: J. T. Hickey; S. J. Newbold, A. T. Warner
Pages: 392 - 401
Abstract: The Regime Prescription Tool (RPT) is a software program designed to help groups of scientists, engineers, and water managers access hydrologic data and draft flow recommendations while formulating different ways to manage rivers. It is a communications tool and contributes in the early stages of planning by formalizing ideas and expert knowledge into a structure easily visualized and considered in more detailed analytical tools. Applying RPT helps organize and focus group conversations that seek to create consensus‐based alternatives for water management. This paper introduces the software and its role in water resources planning. An RPT application used in the definition of environmental flows for the McKenzie River, Oregon, USA, is presented. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.