- Hydropower Development, Riverine Connectivity, and Non‐sport Fish
Species: criteria for Hydraulic Design of Fishways
- Abstract: Hydropower barriers are among the most conspicuous anthropogenic alterations to natural riverine connectivity, resulting in species‐specific effects linked to dispersal abilities, especially swimming performance. They may present a particular problem for small‐bodied ‘non‐sport fish’, such as those that characterize the freshwater communities of temperate regions in the Southern Hemisphere. Recent studies have suggested that nature‐like fishways could ensure passage of diverse fish assemblages through hydropower barriers. Through experiments performed in a swim tunnel, we present, for the first time, fishway design criteria for two non‐sport species endemic to Chile, a country experiencing rapid hydropower development. In`cremental velocity tests showed that Cheirodon galusdae and juveniles of Basilichthys microlepidotus were capable of very similar standardized critical swimming speeds of 69.7 and 69.6 cm s−1, respectively. When expressed in units of body lengths, C. galusdae was capable of very high critical speeds of 16.2 bl s−1, whereas for B. microlepidotus, this was 7.6 bl s−1. However, fixed velocity tests revealed that the swimming endurance of the latter species was slightly higher. Dimensionless analysis showed a clear relationship between fatigue time and fish Froude number, similar to that already described for subcarangiforms. Based on these results, we present fishway design curves indicating a transition from sustained to prolonged swimming at a fishway length of 15 m. Our results show that the swimming capacity of these species is well‐suited to the mean flow velocity field described for nature‐like fishways. However, more work is required to understand the effects of turbulence on the passage of non‐sport species. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Abiotic Characterization of Brown Trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) and
Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Spawning Redds Affected by Small
Hydropower Plants — Case Studies from Austria
- Authors: W. Obruca; C. Hauer
Abstract: Salmonid rivers in Austria are considerably regulated by small hydropower facilities, resulting in potential declines of the spawning habitats of salmonids. To assess the restrictions and possible quality of hydropower‐influenced river sections for salmonid, spawning redd densities of brown trout and rainbow trout were monitored in two rivers in 2014 and 2015. The results showed spawning close to small hydropower facilities for both investigated species — with similarities in redd characteristics like pit and tail length. Differences occurred concerning the distance of redd construction to the next shore. Brown trout spawn close to the banks in comparison to rainbow trout which use the entire active channel width. In addition to the preference of brown trout for certain cover types, it turned out that the presence of high quality spawning gravel in the river is the dictating abiotic variable (probably bottleneck) in the control of salmonid populations even for river reaches impacted by small hydropower plants. Moreover, the assessments of spawning redd densities enabled a discussion of different opportunities for spawning habitat enhancement of salmonids in river sections regulated by small hydropower facilities. Here, in conclusion, it was found that the fill‐up of the backwater sites by transported sediments or the structural modification (e.g. boulder placement) in the tail of the backwater could improve the spawning situation in a sustainable way. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Future Water Supply and Demand Management Options in the Athabasca Oil
- Authors: D. Leong; S. Donner
Abstract: The Athabasca River Basin, home to Canada's growing oil sands mining industry, faces challenging trade‐offs between energy production and water security. Water demand from the oil sands mining industry is projected to increase as climate change is projected to alter the seasonal freshwater supply. In this study, a range of water management options are developed to investigate the potential trade‐offs between the scale of bitumen production and industry growth, water storage requirements, and environmental protection for the aquatic ecosystems, under projections of mid‐century climate change. It is projected that water storage will be required to supplement river withdrawals to maintain continuous bitumen production under the impacts of future climate warming. If high growth in future bitumen production and water demand is the priority, then building sufficient water storage capacity to meet industry demand will be comparable to a week of lost revenue because of interrupted production. If environmental protection is prioritized instead, it will require over nine times the water storage costs to maintain water demand under a high industry growth trajectory. Future water use decisions will need to first, determine the scale of industry and environmental protection, and second, balance the costs of water storage against lost revenue because of water shortages that limit bitumen production. This physically based assessment of future water trade‐offs can inform water policy, water management decisions, and climate change adaptation plans, with applicability to other regions facing trade‐offs between industrial development and ecosystem water needs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Assessment of the Entering Stock, Migration Dynamics and Fish Pass
Fidelity of European Eel in the Belgian Meuse River
- Authors: B. Nzau Matondo; J. P. Benitez, A. Dierckx, J. C. Philippart, M. Ovidio
Abstract: Migration dynamics of incoming eels in Belgium via Lixhe in the Meuse River were investigated using two fish passes with different configurations—net traps and automatic detection stations—as tools to distinguish resident and migrating eels. From April to September 2013, 435 eels (P50 length, 403 mm; range, 196–836 mm) were caught (daily maxima catch, 90 eels per day), 90% between 13 June and 1 August (50 days) and P50 on 19 July. Eels migrated mostly at 19–26 °C (P50, 24.4 °C), river discharge 65–314 m3 s−1 (P50, 84 m3 s−1), during the dark at 00:00–05:00 h and during both the waxing and waning phases of moonlight. From 396 eels tagged and released 0.3 km downstream of the Lixhe dam, 6.8% of them were recaptured, and 37.4% were detected. Migration flux was estimated at 7184 eels (0.863 t) using the mark‐recapture method and decreased to 1156 eels (0.139 t) using automatic transponder detection. Most eels probably migrated through a sluice located downstream of Lixhe to reach the upper Meuse via the Albert Canal. Eels moved almost independently to the configuration of the fish passes and their location, but most eels displayed fidelity to the fish pass where they were captured. Migrant eels showed a wide range of size and life stages, with a higher proportion of eels (80%) belonging to the yellow eel stage. A lower proportion of eels (6%) had a larger size and presented an advanced continental silvering process corresponding to the migrating stage before their transatlantic migration. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Historical Changes of Hydrological Connectivity of Selected Polish
- Authors: J. Dawidek; B. Ferencz
Abstract: The main ecological and hydrological features of floodplain lakes (FPL) depend on the flood pulse. Temporal variations of connectivity result from natural fluctuations in a parent river water levels. The study area was a fragment of left fraction of the Bug River valley, within a gorge‐like section between Dorohusk and Włodawa. The aim of the study was to define a duration and frequency of potamophases and limnophases of 20 FPLs, during the period 1952–2013. A large variation of limnophase frequency was observed. The most frequently occurs short (8–30 days) and medium‐length (183–365 days) limnophases. In case of potamophases the most frequent were short episodes (8–30 days). In most water bodies, a general similarity of the duration of functional periods was observed. The average ratio of the duration of both phases showed prevalence of limnophases. Generally, two factors were observed that shape variability of functional periods in the study area: quantity of water input and FPL morphometry. The lower lake volume and less stable water input, the higher variability of hydrological connectivity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Lethal Thermal Maxima for Age‐0 Pallid and Shovelnose Sturgeon:
Implications for Shallow Water Habitat Restoration
- Authors: D. Deslauriers; L. Heironimus, S. R. Chipps
Abstract: We evaluated temperature tolerance in age‐0 pallid and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus and Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), two species that occur sympatrically in the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. Fish (0.04–18 g) were acclimated to water temperatures of 13, 18 or 24 °C to quantify temperatures associated with lethal thermal maxima (LTM). The results show that no difference in thermal tolerance existed between the two sturgeon species, but that LTM was significantly related to body mass and acclimation temperature. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate LTM, and outputs from the model were compared with water temperatures measured in the shallow water habitat (SWH) of the Missouri River. Observed SWH temperatures were not found to yield LTM conditions. The model developed here is to serve as a general guideline in the development of future SWH. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Potential Effects of Climate Change on Ecologically Relevant Streamflow
- Authors: S. Dhungel; D. G. Tarboton, J. Jin, C. P. Hawkins
Abstract: We assessed the climate‐driven changes in ecologically relevant flow regimes expected to occur by the year 2100 in streams across the conterminous United States. We used long‐term daily flow measurements from 601 gauged streams whose watersheds were in relatively natural condition to characterize spatial variation in 16 flow regime variables selected for their ecological importance. Principal component analysis of these 16 variables produced five uncorrelated factors that described patterns of spatial covariation in flow regimes. These five factors were associated with low flow, magnitude, flashiness, timing, and constancy characteristics of the daily flow regime. We applied hierarchical clustering to the five flow factors to classify the 601 streams into three coarses and eight more finely resolved flow regime classes. We then developed a random forest model that used watershed and climate attributes to predict the probabilities that streams belonged to each of the eight finely resolved flow regime classes. The model had a prediction accuracy (per cent correct classification) of 75%. We used the random forest model with downscaled climate (precipitation and temperature) projections to predict site‐specific changes in flow regime classes expected by 2100. Thirty‐three per cent of the 601 sites were predicted to change to a different flow regime class by 2100. Snow‐fed streams in the western USA were predicted to be less likely to change regimes, whereas both small, perennial, rain‐fed streams and intermittent streams in the central and eastern USA were predicted to be most likely to change regime. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Effects of Moderate and Extreme Flow Regulation on Populus Growth along
the Green and Yampa Rivers, Colorado and Utah
- Authors: D. M. Schook; E. A. Carlson, J. S. Sholtes, D. J. Cooper
Abstract: River regulation induces immediate and chronic changes to floodplain ecosystems. We analysed both short‐term and prolonged effects of river regulation on the growth patterns of the keystone riparian tree species Fremont cottonwood (Populus deltoides ssp. wislizenii) at three upper Colorado River Basin rivers having different magnitudes of flow regulation. We compared cottonwood basal area increment on (i) the regulated Upper Green River below Flaming Gorge Dam; (ii) the adjacent free‐flowing Yampa River; and (iii) the partially regulated Lower Green River below their confluence. Our goal was to identify the hydrologic and climatic variables most influential to tree growth under different flow regimes. A dendrochronological analysis of 182 trees revealed a long‐term (37 years) trend of declining growth during the post‐dam period on the Upper Green, but trees on the partially regulated Lower Green maintained growth rates similar to those on the reference Yampa River. Mean annual, mean growing season, and peak annual discharges were the multicollinear flow variables most correlated to growth during both pre‐dam and post‐dam periods at all sites. Annual precipitation was also highly correlated with tree growth, but precipitation occurring during the growing season was poorly correlated with tree growth, even under full river regulation conditions. This indicates that cottonwoods rely primarily on groundwater recharged by river flows. Our results illustrate the complex and prolonged effects of flow regulation on floodplain forests, and suggest that flow regulation designed to simulate specific aspects of flow regimes, particularly peak flows, may promote the persistence of these ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Effects of Land Use on the Composition and Structure of Aquatic
Invertebrate Community and Leaf Breakdown Process in Neotropical Streams
- Abstract: Different land uses directly affect the characteristics of a river basin and influence the aquatic biota and ecosystem processes. This study aimed to analyse the community structure and composition of aquatic invertebrates and the role of these organisms in the process of leaf litter breakdown in streams with different land uses. The study was conducted from September to December 2013 in five streams in the Neotropical region. At each stream, we placed 18 bags containing litter for colonization by aquatic invertebrates, and the bags were collected at different exposure times (5, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days). We registered spatial differences in the aquatic invertebrate community structure and composition. There were no significant differences in the activity of invertebrates in the leaf litter breakdown process among streams with different land uses. However, the variability in mass decay rate was lower for the reference stream. This result may have been influenced by habitat quality, availability of organic matter and the structure and composition of benthic community present in the reference stream, which differs significantly among locations with different types of land use. The results of this study shows that human activities, particularly agriculture and urbanization, modify the structure and composition of the benthic community and acts on ecosystem processes, especially in the variability of the processing of allochthonous material invertebrates. However, we reject the hypothesis that land use negatively influences the decomposition of litter, measured by weight loss. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Fluvial Corridor Changes Over Time in Regulated and Non‐Regulated
Rivers (Upper Esla River, NW Spain)
- Abstract: Over the last decades, rivers and fluvial corridors have been noticeably modified from their natural conditions. In general, damming and other in‐channel human interventions have been traditionally considered as the main drivers of change. However, recent studies highlight the influence of climate, hillslope and floodplain cover changes over fluvial corridor dynamics. The present study illustrates the channel morphology and riparian vegetation responses observed in three gravel bed rivers located in the Upper Esla River, north‐west of Spain. The entire study catchment was exposed to afforestation changes and farmland abandonment during the last decades, and two of the rivers are regulated by large dams. Analysis of historical orthophotos at different periods between 1956 and 2011 allowed quantifying channel narrowing, reduction of braiding index and vegetation encroachment along the three rivers. Field reconnaissance of landforms and vegetation structure along transects showed significant differences in species composition and age structure between the non‐regulated reach, where recruitment of Salicacea pioneer species existed, and the regulated reaches where mature and late‐seral species were much more abundant. These responses were consistent with reductions in mean annual discharge in all rivers and with flood disturbance decrease and summer minimum flow increase that were observed in the regulated rivers. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Longitudinal Variability in Hydrochemistry and Zooplankton Community of a
Large River: A Lagrangian‐Based Approach
- Authors: I. Bertani; M. Del Longo, S. Pecora, G. Rossetti
Abstract: The variability in water quality and zooplankton community structure during downstream transport was investigated in the Po river (Italy) using for the first time a Lagrangian sampling approach. Two surveys were conducted, one in spring under relatively high discharge levels, and one at low flows in summer. Twelve stations along a 332‐km stretch of the river's lowland reach and four major tributaries were sampled. A hydrodynamic modelling system was used to determine water transport time along the river, with a satisfying fit between simulated and observed discharge values. No clear downstream trend in phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations was found. Conversely, a marked longitudinal decrease in dissolved silica supports the hypothesis of increasing downstream silica limitation during the phytoplankton growing season.
In spring, at low residence time, no apparent plankton growth was observed during downstream transport. In summer, higher temperatures and lower turbulence and turbidity associated with longer residence time stimulated algal growth and in‐stream reproduction of fast‐growing rotifer taxa, with the gradual downstream development of a truly potamal assemblage and the increase of the ratio of euplanktonic to littoral/epibenthic rotifer taxa. Crustacean zooplankton density was generally low. The importance of biotic interactions within the zooplankton in driving community abundance and composition appeared to increase in the downstream direction, paralleled by a decrease in the influence of physical forcing. Tributary influence was especially evident where severe anthropogenic alterations of river hydrology and trophic status resulted in enhanced plankton growth, ultimately affecting zooplankton structure in the main river. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Impact of Incision of Gravel‐bed Rivers on Ground Beetle Assemblages
- Abstract: The impact of river incision induced by channelization and gravel mining on the structure of ground beetle assemblages in riparian habitats was investigated on three montane rivers in southern Poland. Ground beetles were collected on three benches of different elevation in 11 incised and 14 vertically stable cross sections of the rivers. In total, 5821 individuals representing 106 species were collected. The effect of river incision on the diversity and abundance of ground beetles depended on bench height. Only on the lowest bench, inundated about once per year on average, species richness of the assemblages was significantly reduced in incised river cross sections. On this bench, the abundance of the specialists of exposed riverine sediments, i.e. small and medium‐sized predators with high dispersal power and spring breeding strategy, was highly negatively affected by river incision. On the highest bench, large, brachypterous species with spring and autumn breeding strategy, typical of undisturbed habitats, were more abundant in incised cross sections. As this bench is practically not subjected to flooding even in vertically stable cross sections, these species probably benefited from the occurrence of riparian forest along most incised river sections, whereas the riparian areas along vertically stable sections are subjected to higher agricultural pressure. This study shows that in the mountain region where high precipitation helps to maintain moisture of the riparian habitats, river incision has a negative impact only on the specialists of exposed riverine sediments. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Downstream Passage of Fish Larvae at the Salto Grande Dam on the Uruguay
- Abstract: We evaluated the passage of early‐stage fishes through the Salto Grande Dam using high‐frequency downstream ichthyoplankton monitoring and five surveys involving samples taken upstream and downstream of the dam. Eggs and larvae of migratory fishes were captured downstream of the dam, usually during high discharges. Upstream and downstream larvae were frequently unyolked, which corresponds to individuals aged 4+ days, and represents a time significantly longer than that required for the displacement of the water mass from the dam to the sampling location. In low flow rate surveys, fish larvae of the same species and degree of development were captured immediately upstream and at 1, 10, 24 and 40 km downstream of the dam. The densities and percentage of Pimelodinae larvae captured alive by short time and low speed tows were similar upstream and downstream of the dam, indicating that larval mortality was a result of sampling and not to the passage through the turbines. The results show that the larvae of fish that spawn in the middle section are partly transported to the lower section, and suggest that both spillway and turbine discharge should be considered part of the passage. We also found evidence that the passage of small and fragile Pimelodinae larvae through the Salto Grande Kaplan turbines does not significantly affect survival rates. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Patchiness in a Large Floodplain River: Associations Among Hydrology,
Nutrients, and Fish Communities
- Authors: N. R. De Jager; J. N. Houser
Abstract: Large floodplain rivers have internal structures shaped by directions and rates of water movement. In a previous study, we showed that spatial variation in local current velocities and degrees of hydrological exchange creates a patch‐work mosaic of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and ratios in the Upper Mississippi River. Here, we used long‐term fish and limnological data sets to test the hypothesis that fish communities differ between the previously identified patches defined by high or low nitrogen to phosphorus ratios (TN:TP) and to determine the extent to which select limnological covariates might explain those differences. Species considered as habitat generalists were common in both patch types but were at least 2 times as abundant in low TN:TP patches. Dominance by these species resulted in lower diversity in low TN:TP patches, whereas an increased relative abundance of a number of rheophilic (flow‐dependent) species resulted in higher diversity and a more even species distribution in high TN:TP patches. Of the limnological variables considered, the strongest predictor of fish species assemblage and diversity was water flow velocity, indicating that spatial patterns in water‐mediated connectivity may act as the main driver of both local nutrient concentrations and fish community composition in these reaches. The coupling among hydrology, biogeochemistry, and biodiversity in these river reaches suggests that landscape‐scale restoration projects that manipulate hydrogeomorphic patterns may also modify the spatial mosaic of nutrients and fish communities. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
- Drivers of Plant Invasion at Broad and Fine Scale in Short Temperate
- Abstract: Riparian ecosystems have been described as highly prone to alien plant invasions; thus, disentangling the contributing factors of the invasion process is of utmost importance to conserving and managing these valuable ecosystems. In this study we examined the drivers of riparian plant invasion in 16 Cantabrian river basins (northern Spain) ranging from 100 to ca. 1050 km2. A complete flora was determined for five randomly selected sites within those basins. One hundred and thirty alien plant species were found across the 80 sampling sites, representing 21% of the recorded total flora. At site scale, the level of plant invasion, measured as alien richness (AR) and relative alien richness (RAR), was assessed in relation to a set of explanatory variables by means of Generalised Linear Mixed Models. This level of invasion was influenced by environmental variables such as the thermicity index, the average riverbed width and the number of plant communities and by human‐related variables such as the distance to the nearest town and the proportion of surrounding urban land. At basin scale, industrialised river basins were more heavily invaded than non‐industrialised basins, and they both differed in their alien plant composition. Given that some of the alien species occurring in Cantabrian streams are specially abundant (Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora) and/or form very dense stands (Fallopia japonica, Paspalum distichum), future research should focus on the drivers that influence the presence and distribution of these species of special concern. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Evaluating Methods to Establish Habitat Suitability Criteria: A Case Study
in the Upper Delaware River Basin, USA
- Authors: H. S. Galbraith; C. J. Blakeslee, J. C. Cole, C. A. Talbert, K. O. Maloney
Abstract: Defining habitat suitability criteria (HSC) of aquatic biota can be a key component to environmental flow science. HSC can be developed through numerous methods; however, few studies have evaluated the consistency of HSC developed by different methodologies. We directly compared HSC for depth and velocity developed by the Delphi method (expert opinion) and by two primary literature meta‐analyses (literature‐derived range and interquartile range) to assess whether these independent methods produce analogous criteria for multiple species (rainbow trout, brown trout, American shad, and shallow fast guild) and life stages. We further evaluated how these two independently developed HSC affect calculations of habitat availability under three alternative reservoir management scenarios in the upper Delaware River at a mesohabitat (main channel, stream margins, and flood plain), reach, and basin scale. In general, literature‐derived HSC fell within the range of the Delphi HSC, with highest congruence for velocity habitat. Habitat area predicted using the Delphi HSC fell between the habitat area predicted using two literature‐derived HSC, both at the basin and the site scale. Predicted habitat increased in shallow regions (stream margins and flood plain) using literature‐derived HSC while Delphi‐derived HSC predicted increased channel habitat. HSC generally favoured the same reservoir management scenario; however, no favoured reservoir management scenario was the most common outcome when applying the literature range HSC. The differences found in this study lend insight into how different methodologies can shape HSC and their consequences for predicted habitat and water management decisions. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
- Angler Harvest, Hatchery Return, and Tributary Stray Rates of Recycled
Adult Summer Steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Cowlitz River,
- Authors: T. J. Kock; R. W. Perry, C. Gleizes, W. Dammers, T. L. Liedtke
Abstract: Hatchery ‘recycling’ programs have been used to increase angling opportunities by re‐releasing fish into a river after they returned to a hatchery or fish trap. Recycling is intended to increase opportunities for fishermen, but this strategy could affect wild fish populations if some recycled fish remain in the river and interact with wild fish populations. To quantify hatchery return and angler harvest rates of recycled steelhead, we conducted a 2‐year study on the Cowlitz River, Washington. A total of 1051 steelhead were recycled, including 218 fish that were radio‐tagged. Fates of recycled steelhead were similar between years: 48.4% returned to the hatchery, 19.2% were reported captured by anglers, and 32.4% remained in the river. A multistate model quantified the effects of covariates on hatchery return and angler harvest rates, which were positively affected by river discharge and negatively affected by time since release. However, hatchery return rates increased and angler harvest rates decreased during periods of increasing discharge. A total of 21.1% (46 fish) of the radio‐tagged steelhead failed to return to the hatchery or be reported by anglers, but nearly half of those fish (20 fish) appeared to be harvested and not reported. The remaining tagged fish (11.9% of the radio‐tagged population) were monitored into the spawning period, but only five fish (2.3% of the radio‐tagged population) entered tributaries where wild steelhead spawning occurs. Future research focused on straying behaviour, and spawning success of recycled steelhead may further advance the understanding of the effects of recycling as a management strategy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- A Synthesis of Stream Restoration Efforts in Florida (USA)
- Authors: D. Castillo; D. Kaplan, J. Mossa
Abstract: Studies summarizing stream restoration projects in the US are outdated and omit the majority of restoration projects in Florida. To address this gap, we compiled stream restoration data from diverse sources to create a Florida Stream Restoration Database (FSRD, available at http://www.watershedecology.org/databases.html) containing information on project type, location, completion date, and costs. The FSRD contains 178 projects categorized by restoration type, including riparian management (23%), stream reclamation (19%), flow modification (13%), bank stabilization (12%), channel reconfiguration (11%), in‐stream habitat improvements (11%), floodplain reconnection (6%), invasive species removal (4%), and dam removal (1%). Projects were spatially clustered into three geographic regions, providing insight on the diversity of initiatives, needs, and funding sources of land management agencies and private landowners that motivated restoration efforts. Projects in the Florida panhandle emphasized in‐stream habitat restoration, while peninsular projects were dominated by flow modification, and projects in the west central region focused on stream reclamation to mitigate surface mining practices and water quality and habitat improvements in tidal streams. Results suggest that Florida is spending much more on stream restoration than previously documented. Between 1979 and 2015, the mean and median stream restoration project costs in Florida were $15.4 million and $180 000, respectively, indicating a strongly skewed distribution because of the large Kissimmee River restoration project in central Florida. This work highlights the need for, and utility of, statewide and national restoration databases to improve restoration tracking. This need will become increasingly critical as more stringent water quality and habitat mitigation rules are implemented across the country. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Informing Watershed Connectivity Barrier Prioritization Decisions: A
- Authors: S. K. McKay; A. R. Cooper, M. W. Diebel, D. Elkins, G. Oldford, C. Roghair, D. Wieferich
Abstract: Water resources and transportation infrastructure such as dams and culverts provide countless socio‐economic benefits; however, this infrastructure can also disconnect the movement of organisms, sediment, and water through river ecosystems. Trade‐offs associated with these competing costs and benefits occur globally, with applications in barrier addition (e.g. dam and road construction), reengineering (e.g. culvert repair), and removal (e.g. dam removal and aging infrastructure). Barrier prioritization provides a unique opportunity to: (i) restore and reconnect potentially large habitat patches quickly and effectively and (ii) avoid impacts prior to occurrence in line with the mitigation hierarchy (i.e. avoid then minimize then mitigate). This paper synthesizes 46 watershed‐scale barrier planning studies and presents a procedure to guide barrier prioritization associated with connectivity for aquatic organisms. We focus on practical issues informing prioritization studies such as available data sets, methods, techniques, and tools. We conclude with a discussion of emerging trends and issues in barrier prioritization and key opportunities for enhancing the body of knowledge. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- A Multi‐scale, Hierarchical Model to Map Riparian Zones
- Authors: J. A. Salo; D. M. Theobald
Abstract: Riparian zones are important for their contribution to biodiversity and ecosystem services, especially in the western USA where riparian zones occupy a small proportion of the landscape but support a majority of the biodiversity. However, few accurate datasets of riparian zone locations are available over broad spatial extents, and cost efficient methods to map riparian zones at fine spatial resolutions do not currently exist. We created a multi‐scale, hierarchical, and process‐guided method to map the location of riparian zones using readily available, national datasets. We demonstrate the applicably of this straightforward method in the Southern Rockies Ecoregion, where we mapped both current riparian zones (the riparian zone that is not strongly modified by human land uses and is assumed to support natural riparian vegetation) and potential riparian zones (the area that would likely support natural riparian vegetation in the absence of human activity). The overall accuracy of our method for potential and current riparian zones was 92%. The Southern Rockies Ecoregion is composed of 3.1% (±0.3%) potential and 2.5 (±0.2%) current riparian zones, indicating that roughly 21.0% (±0.5%) of riparian zones have been removed by human activities. This modelling approach can be used to create detailed maps of riparian zones to inform regional conservation and management decision‐making, and the methods can be applied to different regions at multiple scales from small watersheds to a national analysis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Fish and Benthic Macroinvertebrate Assemblage Response to Removal of a
Partially Breached Lowhead Dam
- Authors: D. P. Gillette; K. Daniel, C. Redd
Abstract: Dam removal is an increasingly common restoration technique in lotic ecosystems. Potential dam removal benefits include improved aquatic organism passage, restoration of natural flow dynamics and a general improvement in habitat for native species. However, understanding potential dam removal outcomes requires data on ecosystem response in a wide variety of settings. We evaluated fish and benthic macroinvertebrate response to removal of the Spruce Pine dam in western North Carolina, USA. This dam was partially breached prior to removal, and impounded a coolwater river, both scenarios under which dam removal has been under‐studied. Post‐removal shifts in fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages did not occur, suggesting that previously documented patterns of assemblage change in response to dam removal, particularly in the area upstream from the dam, are not universal, and may depend upon factors such as river gradient and water temperature, and the available species pool. Such information can aid managers in identifying conditions under which an expectation of significant instream habitat improvement in response to dam removal may not be warranted. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Recruitment Sources of Channel and Blue Catfishes Inhabiting the Middle
- Authors: T. W. Laughlin; G. W. Whitledge, D. C. Oliver, N. P. Rude
Abstract: Insight into environments that contribute recruits to adult fish stocks in riverine systems is vital for effective population management and conservation. Catfishes are an important recreational species in the Mississippi River and are commercially harvested. However, contributions of main channel and tributary habitats to catfish recruitment in large rivers are unknown. Stable isotope and trace elemental signatures in otoliths are useful for determining environmental history of fishes in a variety of aquatic systems, including the Mississippi River. The objectives of this study were to identify the principal natal environments of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus and blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus in the Middle Mississippi River (MMR) using otolith stable oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) and strontium : calcium ratios (Sr : Ca). Catfishes were sampled during July–October 2013–2014, and lapilli otoliths were analysed for δ18O and Sr : Ca. Water samples from the MMR and tributaries were collected seasonally from 2006 to 2014 to characterize site‐specific signatures. Persistent differences in water δ18O and Sr : Ca among the MMR and tributaries (including the upper Mississippi, Illinois, and Missouri rivers as well as smaller tributaries) were evident, enabling identification of natal environment for individual fish. Blue and channel catfish stocks in the MMR were primarily recruited from the large rivers (Missouri and Mississippi) in our study area, with minimal contributions from smaller tributaries. Recruitment and year class strength investigations and efforts to enhance spawning and nursery habitats should be focused on in large rivers with less emphasis on smaller tributaries. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- The Migratory Behaviour and Fallback Rate of Landlocked Atlantic Salmon
(Salmo salar) in a Regulated River: does Timing Matter?
- Authors: A. Hagelin; O. Calles, L. Greenberg, D. Nyqvist, E. Bergman
Abstract: The behavior of early (June–July) and late (August–September) migrating, adult Atlantic salmon, in The River Klarälven, Sweden, was analyzed using radio telemetry. River Klarälven is a regulated river without functioning fishways, instead upstream migrating salmon are trapped and trucked past eight hydropower plants before released back to the river. We distinguished two parts of the spawning migration, that is, one part being the migration from the place where the fish was released to the spawning grounds. The other part was a holding phase on the spawning grounds with little or no movements before spawning. The late salmon spent less of their total time on holding, 36.2%, and more on migration, 63.8%, compared with early migrating salmon, which distributed their time rather evenly between migration, 47.5%, and holding, 52.5%. In total, early salmon used 30% more time migrating and 156% more time holding than late salmon. Some Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fell back over the hydropower plant after release and got excluded from spawning. The fallback rates of transported, tagged spawners were higher in the early than in the late group in both years. The fallback rate in 2012 was 42.8% of the early group and 15.1% in the late. In 2013, there were 51.7 % fallbacks in the early group and 3.4% in the late. The salmon fell back on average 9 days after being released in 2012 and 16 days in 2013. A high mean daily discharge on the day of release increased the probability of becoming a fallback. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Increasing River Flow Expands Riparian Habitat: Influences of Flow
Augmentation on Channel Form, Riparian Vegetation and Birds Along the
Little Bow River, Alberta
- Authors: E. J. Hillman; S. G. Bigelow, G. M. Samuelson, P. W. Herzog, T. A. Hurly, S. B. Rood
Abstract: With river regulation, water withdrawal is common, reducing instream flows. The opposite alteration, flow augmentation, is less common and could reveal a mechanistic coordination between flow regime, channel form, and riparian ecosystems. The Little Bow River, a naturally intermittent prairie stream in Southern Alberta, has experienced flow augmentation since the late 1890s, and the Little Bow/Highwood Project of 2004 enabled a tripling of diversion flows from 2.9 to 8.5 m3/s. We investigated the subsequent responses by assessing the channel form and riparian vegetation based on aerial photographs taken in 2000 versus 2010, and riparian birds were assessed between 2005 and 2013 to investigate associations with riparian vegetation. Following recent flow augmentation, the mean channel width increased from 12.2 to 13.5 m, while sinuosity was relatively unchanged. Streamside zones with true willows (especially Salix exigua and Salix bebbiana) increased from 7 to 11% of the river corridor, and the facultative riparian wolf willow (Elaeagnus commutata) zones increased from 16 to 20%, while grassy zones decreased from 64 to 52%. Avian species richness and Shannon–Wiener index increased, while species evenness was relatively unaltered, suggesting an increase of rarer bird species in response to the increased habitat structure and diversity following the expansion of riparian shrubs and woodland. This study revealed responses to the recent flow augmentation over the first decade of implementation, and alterations following flow augmentation would likely continue for decades until the river and riparian zones adjust to the new flow regime. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- An Approach to Simulate Interstitial Habitat Conditions During the
Incubation Phase of Gravel‐Spawning Fish
- Authors: M. Noack; J. Ortlepp, S. Wieprecht
Abstract: The incubation period represents an important development phase for successful reproduction of gravel‐spawning fish, whereby colmation processes can affect the quality of the interstitial habitat. From a sedimentary perspective, the infiltration and accumulation of fine sediments can result in a reduction of the pore space and limit the transport of oxygen‐rich surface water in the interstitials of riverbeds. From a biogeochemical perspective, the increased surface area for microbial growth can lead to an increase of respiration rates, which additionally limits the oxygen supply. The assessment and prediction of such processes on interstitial habitat quality represents a challenging task given their complex dynamic interacting processes and their high spatio‐temporal variability. This study presents a new habitat‐based modelling approach, which simulates interstitial habitat suitability (IHS) to evaluate dynamically the quality of interstitial habitat conditions during incubation. For this purpose, three key parameters (hydraulic conductivity, interstitial temperature and hyporheic respiration) are linked to the habitat requirements of different developmental stages during the incubation period (egg, hatching, larvae) via a multivariate fuzzy approach. The proposed modelling concept has been developed on the River Spoel in Switzerland, whereby results of a numerical 3D sediment transport model, together with supplementary measurements, deliver the spatio‐temporal variations of the required input data. The fuzzy approach provides results in form of maps and time series of IHS values to allow for an identification of abiotic bottlenecks during the incubation period. Hence, this approach represents a significant contribution for the restoration of reproduction areas of gravel‐spawning fish. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Assessing the Distribution and Changes of Instream Woody Habitat in
South‐Eastern Australian Rivers
- Authors: Z. Tonkin; A. Kitchingman, R. M. Ayres, J. Lyon, I. D. Rutherfurd, J. C. Stout, P. Wilson
Abstract: Managers and communities are now artificially reintroducing instream woody habitat (IWH) to rivers following historic large‐scale removal. Riverscape‐scale datasets that quantify existing habitat conditions are fundamental to setting the priorities and allocating resources for such programs. Unfortunately, such datasets are rare, primarily because existing assessment approaches are limited in their accuracy (remote sensing) or are costly and labour intensive (field assessments). This study used both field assessments and aerial data to improve the accuracy of remotely sensed measures of IWH and estimate current IWH volumes and subsequent condition (compared with reference levels) across approximately 28 000 km of stream in the south‐eastern Australian state of Victoria.
We found that aerial measures, when used in conjunction with measures of stream size and riparian overhang, produced significantly better estimates of IWH loads than using aerial data alone. The statewide assessment indicated that streams currently have IWH volumes, on average, 41% lower than reference levels that represented an average reduction of 0.0207 m3 m−2. The degree of IWH condition was highly variable across regions (20–95% reductions from reference levels), a likely reflection of regional variation in land use practices and past river work activities.
This scale of IWH reduction may pose major negative impacts on the ecological integrity of these streams. Whilst the approach used during this study has temporal and spatial limitations, it was designed as a generalised, rapid and relatively inexpensive method to measure stream condition and assist with priority setting at state and regional levels. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Riverine Landscape Patches Influence Trophic Dynamics of Riparian Ants
- Authors: P. Tagwireyi; S. M. P. Sullivan
Abstract: Food webs in riparian corridors are increasingly viewed as embedded in complex riverine landscapes characterized by an amalgam of aquatic, semi‐aquatic, and terrestrial habitats. However, the influence of riverine landscape pattern on trophic dynamics of riparian consumers remains largely unknown. We used naturally abundant stable isotope ratios (δ15N) to compare trophic structure of ants (Formica subsericea) among riparian patch types (crop, grass/herbaceous, gravel bar, lawn, mudflat, shrub, swamp, and woody vegetation) at 12 riverine landscapes distributed along an urban‐rural landscape gradient of the Scioto River, Ohio, USA. We expected that the diet of F. subsericea, a common generalist consumer, would reflect local prey availability and thus differences in trophic dynamics among patch types. Mean ant δ15N was higher in crop patches than in any other patch type, and was lowest in grass/herbaceous, lawn, shrub, and woody vegetation patches, suggesting that patch type was associated with trophic position of F. subsericea. We also found that the range of δ15N, and thus trophic breadth, was significantly different by patch type, with woody vegetation exhibiting the greatest spread. Variability in canopy, tree and shrub cover, and the degree of urban development was positively correlated with δ15N range (R2 = 0.78), pointing to the role of habitat structure in mediating trophic breadth of riparian ants. These findings provide evidence that riverine landscape pattern can strongly influence trophic dynamics of riparian arthropods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Growth and Smoltification of Three Norwegian Strains of Atlantic Salmon
Salmo salar Reared under Different Thermal Regimes
- Authors: A. K. Imsland; K. Pettersen, S. O. Stefansson
Abstract: A comparative study was performed with juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from three stocks in Western Norway that differ in their natural conditions. One is from warm, lowland river conditions (Årdal), one is from cold glacial river conditions (Stryn) and the last one (Suldalslågen) is from a hydropower‐regulated river. The salmon parr were tagged and reared at 4, 5.5 and 7 °C and simulated natural water temperature (SNT) for river Suldalslågen. Size distribution was unimodal at 4 °C, with a change to a bimodal distribution, representing potential 1+ and 2+ smolts, at the other temperature regimes. The relative biomass of 1+ smolts varied between the stocks as Stryn (cold glacial river) stock had the highest number of smolts at 7 °C and the Suldalsågen stock (hydropower‐regulated river) displaying the highest number at the SNT regime. Overall, the Stryn stock, originating from cold river conditions, seemed to be well adapted to growth and smoltification at cold temperatures, whereas salmon parr from river Suldalslågen seem to be better adapted to the natural temperature regime (SNT) of this river than the other two stocks. This was reflected in the gill Na+,K+‐ATPase as the Suldalslågen stock showed increasing activity from 16 April (4.2 µmol ADP mg protein−1 h−1) to 10 May (9.2 µmol ADP mg protein−1 h−1), and at the end of the experiment, enzyme activity in Suldalslågen stock was significantly higher than both Stryn (5.7) and Årdal (5.9 µmol ADP mg protein−1 h−1) stock. In contrast, the warm lowland stock, Årdal, fish had low Na+,K+‐ATPase activity with no distinct peak at any of the sampled dates from March through May. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Influence of Hydrological Connectivity on Plankton Communities in Natural
and Reconstructed Side‐Arms of a Large New Zealand River
- Authors: M. A. Ginders; K. J. Collier, I. C. Duggan, D. P. Hamilton
Abstract: We sampled natural and reconstructed side‐arms during different stages of hydrological connectivity with a large floodplain river in northern New Zealand, to determine whether re‐establishment of connectivity would be an effective strategy for restoring plankton communities in former side‐arms. Connectivity between side‐arms and the river was moderated by water level and influenced flow rates and closure of inlets and outlets. Physicochemical conditions were more strongly related to the connectivity phase than to habitat type (river, natural or reconstructed side‐arm), except during low connectivity when natural side‐arms in particular were characterised by higher ammonium (NH4‐N) and total phosphorus (P) concentrations, as well as specific conductivity. Dissolved reactive phosphorus (PO4‐P), water temperature, conductivity and dissolved oxygen were identified as explanatory variables of phytoplankton and zooplankton community composition, which along with total nitrogen (phytoplankton) or total suspended solids (zooplankton) explained 44–52% of variation. Phytoplankton community composition and the abundance of several dominant or discriminatory taxa were affected by connectivity but not habitat type, whereas habitat and connectivity both had significant effects on zooplankton communities and abundances of the cladoceran Bosmina meridionalis. Significant interactions between connectivity and paired habitat types occurred for abundances of the diatom Asterionella, the cryptophyte Cryptomonas, the rotifer Synchaeta oblonga and cyclopoid copepods, reflecting differential responses to connectivity among habitats by these taxa. Overall, these results underscore the importance of hydrological connectivity between side‐arms and rivers in moderating plankton community composition, and highlight unpredictable trajectories of community development and alternative transient states that can occur soon after side‐arm reconnection. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Regional Statistical and Precipitation–Runoff Modelling for
Ecological Applications: Prediction of Hourly Streamflow in Regulated
Rivers and Ungauged Basins
- Authors: Teklu T. Hailegeorgis; K. Alfredsen
Abstract: Prediction of natural streamflow in regulated rivers for derivation of ecologically relevant streamflow metrics (ERSFMs) and prediction in ungauged basins (PUB) are important in management of water resources. However, specific studies on comparison of methods for predicting hourly flow regime relevant to ecological study in regulated (hydropeaking) rivers are rare in literature. Therefore, using catchments in mid Norway, we performed comparative evaluation of prediction of hourly streamflow series and flow duration curves (FDCs) in ungauged basins. We developed a regional regression model based on relationships among streamflow percentiles and drainage areas and performed a regional calibration of a streamflow recession based precipitation–runoff (P–R) model.
A leave one out cross‐validation procedure was used to evaluate the regional models. The results indicate that the regional regression model with transferring of streamflow information based on the nearest neighbour performed better than both transferring optimal parameters from local calibration and regional parameter sets corresponding to maximum regional weighted average Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency of the P–R model (NSEMRWA). We also evaluated the models based on prediction of some environmental indices: the daily range, daily standard deviation, flashiness, maximum ramping rate, number of rise and falls and daily flow changes. However, both modelling strategies predicted hourly streamflow indices well and appeared stable over most indices while the largest differences occurred in the rise and fall counts.
The models were further applied for prediction of the natural streamflow time series at Sokna hydropeaking plant. The observed hydrograph exhibits continuous sudden fluctuations while the predicted natural flow hydrograph exhibits smooth pattern. The within a year FDCs for observed flow exhibits sharp transitions from high to low flows. There is clear differences between the environmental indices obtained for the observed and the modelled data series, with the general observation that the NSEMRWA computing a smaller variability than the regression model. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Comparison of Direct and Indirect Boundary Shear Stress Measurements along
- Abstract: Estimates of boundary shear stress along vegetated streambanks are needed to predict streambank fluvial erosion. Because fluvial shear stress cannot be directly measured in the field, reliable estimation techniques using field instrumentation are needed. This study evaluated local bank shear stress estimation methods applicable to sloping, vegetated streambanks. Two reaches of a second order stream were modelled in a flume using a fixed‐bed Froude‐scale modelling technique. One reach was dominated by dense shrubs while the other reach was located in a mature forest. Direct measurements of local bank shear stress using a hot‐film anemometer were compared to estimates based on velocity measurements (logarithmic method, Reynolds stresses, and turbulent kinetic energy). For channels with no or widely spaced vegetation, the velocity‐based estimates underestimated the bank shear stress due to secondary flow contributions. For banks with dense vegetation, Reynolds stresses and turbulent kinetic energy estimates were statistically similar to direct measurements on average, but substantial error occurred when making point comparisons. Velocity‐based estimates generally over predicted bank stress in areas of high shear at the vegetation edge and underpredicted stress within dense vegetation. Ultimately, results suggest that none of tested techniques can be broadly applied to streambanks, and flow structure is critical in selecting the appropriate estimation technique. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Classification of US Hydropower Dams by their Modes of Operation
- Abstract: A key challenge to understanding ecohydrologic responses to dam regulation is the absence of a universally transferable classification framework for how dams operate. In the present paper, we develop a classification system to organize the modes of operation (MOPs) for US hydropower dams and powerplants. To determine the full diversity of MOPs, we mined federal documents, open‐access data repositories, and internet sources. We then used CART classification trees to predict MOPs based on physical characteristics, regulation, and project generation. Finally, we evaluated how much variation MOPs explained in sub‐daily discharge patterns for stream gages downstream of hydropower dams. After reviewing information for 721 dams and 597 power plants, we developed a two‐tier hierarchical classification based on (i) the storage and control of flows to powerplants, and (ii) the presence of a diversion around the natural stream bed. This resulted in nine tier‐1 MOPs representing a continuum of operations from strictly peaking, to reregulating, to run‐of‐river, and two tier‐2 MOPs, representing diversion and integral dam‐powerhouse configurations. Although MOPs differed in physical characteristics and energy production, classification trees had low accuracies (≤62%), which suggested that accurate evaluations of MOPs may require individual attention. MOPs and dam storage explained 20% of the variation in downstream subdaily flow characteristics and showed consistent alterations in subdaily flow patterns from reference streams. This standardized classification scheme is important for future research including estimating reservoir operations for large‐scale hydrologic models and evaluating project economics, environmental impacts, and mitigation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Age‐0 Shovelnose Sturgeon Prey Consumption in the Lower Missouri
- Authors: N. J. C. Gosch; M. L. Miller, T. R. Gemeinhardt, T. A. Starks, A. P. Civiello, J. M. Long, J. L. Bonneau
Abstract: A lack of nutritious food during the first year of life is a hypothesized factor that may limit survival of endangered pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in the lower Missouri River (LMOR). Unfortunately, information for age‐0 pallid sturgeon diets remains limited, but diet analyses for age‐0 Scaphirhynchus spp. (sturgeon hereafter) have occurred. Little information, however, exists on age‐0 sturgeon diets in the LMOR; thus, our primary objective was to document age‐0 sturgeon diets in this system. We examined guts contents from 30 individuals, which were genetically identified as shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, and three stomachs were empty. The remaining age‐0 shovelnose sturgeon consumed chironomid larvae almost exclusively (>98% of prey items consumed). Our results were similar to studies conducted in other systems, and it appears unlikely that a lack of nutritious food was a major factor affecting the individuals captured during this study. This effort provides important information to help guide ongoing adaptive management efforts in the LMOR. © 2016 The
Authors . River Research and Applications published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
- Restoration of Hydrochory Following Dam Removal on the Elwha River,
- Authors: E. S. Cubley; R. L. Brown
Abstract: Hydrochory, seed dispersal by water, affects riparian vegetation by contributing to downstream community composition and diversity. However, dams can block hydrochory, reducing downstream species diversity and fragmenting riparian corridors. Dam removal is becoming more prevalent for economic and ecological reasons and is expected to restore hydrochory; however, this has never been documented in rivers. The largest dam removal project to date was the 2011 to 2014 removal of the Glines Canyon and Elwha dams on the Elwha River in Washington. Prior to dam removal, hydrochory was lower below Glines Canyon Dam compared with an upstream reach; our objective was to test the hypothesis that dam removal would restore downstream hydrochory to levels observed in the upstream reach. To test this, we collected seeds in nets above and below the dam during three sample periods (early July, late July and early August), growing out seeds in a greenhouse and comparing seed abundance and species richness above and below dams, before and after dam removal. We found that after dam removal, the average number of hydrochorous seeds and species increased below Glines Canyon Dam to levels similar to or higher than that of the upstream reach; hydrochory levels in the upstream reach did not change. This study is the first to document the restoration of hydrochory in rivers following removal of a large dam. Restoration of hydrochory may ultimately increase downstream vegetation diversity and play a role in the recolonization of reservoir sediments deposited in the riparian zone in the years following dam removal. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- A Quantitative Framework to Derive Robust Characterization of Hydrological
- Authors: T. J. Brummer; A. E. Byrom, J. J. Sullivan, P. E. Hulme
Abstract: If ecological management of river ecosystems is to keep pace with increasing pressure to abstract, divert and dam, we must develop general flow–ecology relationships to predict the impacts of these hydrologic alterations. Regional flow gradient analyses are a promising tool to quickly reveal these functional relationships, but there are considerable uncertainties in this method because of variability in the historical extent of flow data across different rivers, combined with multiple indices characterizing the ecological attributes of flow regimes. In response, we outline an objective framework for analysing spatial hydrologic gradients that addresses three major sources of uncertainty: robust estimation of flow indices, the potential for temporal trends to confound spatial variation in flow regimes and the statistical robustness to detect underlying hydrological gradients. The utility of our framework was examined in relation to flow regimes across multiple braided river catchments in Canterbury, New Zealand. We found that a subset of flow indices could be robustly estimated using only 10 years of flow data, although indices that captured flow ‘timing’ required longer time series. Temporal trends were unlikely to confound conclusions from a spatial hydrologic gradient analysis, and there were three statistically supported hydrologic gradients related to flow magnitude, flow variability and low flow events. The widespread application of robust spatial flow gradient analyses has the potential to further our understanding of how altered flow regimes affect the ecology of freshwater and riparian ecosystems, thereby providing the evidence base to inform river management. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Long‐reach Biotope Mapping: Deriving Low Flow Hydraulic Habitat from
- Abstract: Understanding of the type and distribution of hydraulic habitat along watercourses is valuable from an ecological and a morphological perspective. The data quantify system state and may be used against benchmark criteria to define system status level and degradation. Current mapping techniques are subjective, time consuming and expensive when carried out over long reaches often requiring specialist field skills. This paper proposes a novel approach to hydraulic habitat mapping using readily available aerial imagery (GoogleEarth and Bing maps) to generate long‐reach digital elevation models, which are subsequently used in a 2D modelling domain (JFlow+) to predict hydraulic habitat in the form of biotope types and distribution from Froude number classification. The approach is tested on a 1‐km reach of the river Wharfe, England, a morphologically and hydraulically varied watercourse. Biotope mapping of the study reach recorded a distribution of 49% pools, 33% glides and 17% riffles, compared with an observed 54% pools, 32% glides, 13% riffles and 1% broken standing waves/chutes, suggesting that gross biotope distribution may be reliably mapped using the technique when compared with field mapping but that depth estimation error leads to classification issues around transition zones. The improved spatial detail and objective mapping achieved by the technique also provide valuable sub‐feature detail on hydraulic habitat variation not picked up by conventional survey. The ease of digital elevation model construction allows for rapid assessment of extended reaches offering an efficient mechanism for whole river ecological assessment, flagging critical sites that would benefit from more detailed field assessment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Benthic Response to Flow Alteration in a New Mexico Arid Mountain Stream
- Authors: C. Wiseman; B. Marotz, J. Caldwell, R. Sherrick, D. Ward
Abstract: Past and current pressure on streams and rivers for consumptive use requires the development of tools and decision‐making processes for water managers to minimize impacts on ecological function. This paper examines the utility of modeling benthic biomass in relation to benthic macroinvertebrate (BMI) community attributes for water resource management scenarios in the Cliff‐Gila Valley of the Gila River, New Mexico, USA. The river benthos biomass model (RivBio) was used in conjunction with hydraulic modeling to predict growth and decline of benthic biomass. BMI community attributes were compared along gradients of hydrologic impact (successive existing diversions) in the Cliff Gila Valley and were compared to community attributes in similar regional streams. Benthic biomass was minimally affected by proposed diversions at flows above 4.25 cms (150 cfs), but was severely reduced downstream because of existing diversions during lower flow periods. Riffle habitat was disproportionately affected during extreme low and interrupted flow, which may have resulted in BMI communities shifted towards multi‐habitat generalists that can persist in lentic conditions. Flow augmentation from proposed diversions and storage would greatly mitigate these existing biomass losses by providing consistent base flow and lotic conditions in riffle habitat. Both benthic biomass and BMI community endpoints were useful when comparing water management scenarios. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Predicting Thermally Stressful Events in Rivers with a Strategy to
Evaluate Management Alternatives
- Authors: K. O. Maloney; J. C. Cole, M. Schmid
Abstract: Water temperature is an important factor in river ecology. Numerous models have been developed to predict river temperature. However, many were not designed to predict thermally stressful periods. Because such events are rare, traditionally applied analyses are inappropriate. Here, we developed two logistic regression models to predict thermally stressful events in the Delaware River at the US Geological Survey gage near Lordville, New York. One model predicted the probability of an event >20.0 °C, and a second predicted an event >22.2 °C. Both models were strong (independent test data sensitivity 0.94 and 1.00, specificity 0.96 and 0.96) predicting 63 of 67 events in the >20.0 °C model and all 15 events in the >22.2 °C model. Both showed negative relationships with released volume from the upstream Cannonsville Reservoir and positive relationships with difference between air temperature and previous day's water temperature at Lordville. We further predicted how increasing release volumes from Cannonsville Reservoir affected the probabilities of correctly predicted events. For the >20.0 °C model, an increase of 0.5 to a proportionally adjusted release (that accounts for other sources) resulted in 35.9% of events in the training data falling below cutoffs; increasing this adjustment by 1.0 resulted in 81.7% falling below cutoffs. For the >22.2 °C these adjustments resulted in 71.1% and 100.0% of events falling below cutoffs. Results from these analyses can help managers make informed decisions on alternative release scenarios. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Determining the Efficacy of a Submersible in situ Fluorometric Device for
Cyanobacteria Monitoring Coalesced with Total Suspended Solids
Characteristic of Lowland Reservoirs
- Authors: E. Symes; F. Ogtrop
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to ascertain the effect of turbid water on a fluourometric device designed to detect phycocyanin and chlorophyll a in cyanobacteria cells in vivo. Cell densities corresponding to the Blue Green Algae Alert levels endorsed by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council and adopted by numerous water resource managers were coalesced with a range of total suspended solids at defined gradients characteristic of lowland freshwater ecosystems. The parameters of interest were phycocyanin and chlorophyll a. Microcystis aeruginosa was the experimental organism used to establish cell densities consistent with the three‐stage alert level framework. We found phycocyanin to be an effective measure for detecting M. aeruginosa at concentrations prescribed within the cyanobacterial alert levels (Green, Amber and Red) in turbid waters up to 200 Nephelometric Turbidity Units. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Time and Intensity Weighted Indices of Fluvial Processes: a Case Study
from the Kootenai River, USA
- Authors: G. Egger; E. Politti, E. Lautsch, R. M. Benjankar, S. B. Rood
Abstract: Within riparian landscapes, river flows and stages determine habitat gradients from less to more dynamic, and these support different plant species and their life history stages that are adapted to specific positions along these gradients. The gradients are characterized by physical processes that vary in magnitude and duration, and these shape the riparian vegetation communities. Consequently, natural riparian ecosystems are very dynamic, and the river disturbance regime is essential for sustaining ecosystem health. However, although the importance of disturbance is well accepted, disturbance regimes are poorly understood. This study was undertaken to develop indices capable of characterizing riparian habitats by considering flood magnitude and the elapsed time after flood disturbance, that is, the history that influenced the present vegetation composition. The indices were tested along two reaches of the Kootenai River in Idaho, USA, with braided versus meandering channel forms. The case study spanned a 31‐year period and emphasized two major disturbance components, the morphodynamic influence of velocity and shear stress and the flood or inundation duration. Computed indices were tested for consistency and then used to characterize different riparian vegetation development and succession phases. The statistical analysis revealed high correspondence among the calculated indices and differences across the different successional stages and between the two reaches. This demonstrated the utility of the time and intensity weighted indices to analyse the fluvial patterns that support different riparian vegetation communities, and this could be applicable for riparian management, mitigation, conservation and restoration. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Issue Information ‐ TOC
- Pages: 517 - 517
Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
- Issue Information ‐ Info Page
- Pages: 518 - 518
Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
- Low‐Cost Pneumatic Sensor for Water Level Detection in Gauging
- Abstract: Permanent stream gauge stations are a vital feature of river monitoring and water management worldwide, and their use is rapidly increasing. Water level sensors in gauging stations are subjected to a harsh physical environment and are generally the most troublesome component and may easily introduce corrosion, electrical interference and other potentially damaging influences to the other components. One technology currently available to address the shortcomings of traditional submersible sensors is pneumatic detection of stage. The primary advantage of this type of sensor is that it provides physical separation of electrical components from the water. They are also highly advantageous in systems with high silt or debris loads. The cost of pneumatic sensors has fallen in recent years and is comparable with submersible pressure sensors of similar range and resolution. The issue with pneumatic sensors is that there is a large gap in the literature addressing the development, use and accuracy of this sensor type. This paper presents a case study detailing the development and use of a low‐cost pneumatic sensor and examines its suitability for use in streams and irrigation canals. The performance of the sensor is also evaluated against two types of traditional low‐cost submersible pressure sensors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Quantifying the Impact of Water Abstraction for Low Head ‘Run of the
River’ Hydropower on Localized River Channel Hydraulics and Benthic
- Authors: D. Anderson; H. Moggridge, J. D. Shucksmith, P. H. Warren
Abstract: ‘Run of the river’ (ROR) hydropower schemes have undergone a recent resurgence in Europe, and with legislation requiring the protection and enhancement of the physical and ecological condition of European rivers, there is a need to understand the impacts of these schemes. This paper presents an assessment of the eco‐hydraulic impact of a ROR hydropower scheme in the Peak District National Park, UK. Due to the ponded nature of the depleted stretch at the study site, this paper focuses on the characterization of the hydraulic impact of water abstraction for a ROR scheme at the hydropower outlet and samples microhabitats of benthic macroinvertebrates within the hydraulically affected zones. Measurement of hydraulic transects shows that the scheme's operation notably alters river channel hydraulics at 60% of water depth, whilst impacts are much less distinct in close proximity to the river bed. We identify eco‐hydraulic relationships between benthic macroinvertebrate communities and localized near‐bed velocity and turbulence conditions, thus indicating the potential for water abstraction by ROR schemes to impact lower trophic levels of riverine ecosystems. However, spatial patch‐scale (10–100 m2) meso‐habitat comparisons of invertebrate communities around the hydropower outlet showed only subtle differences, suggesting that in this case benthic communities are only minimally impacted by the ROR scheme. © The
Authors . River Research and Applications published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
- Effects of Environmental Water Transfers on Stream Temperatures
- Abstract: Low streamflows and warm stream temperatures currently limit habitat and productivity of trout, including native Lahontan cutthroat trout in Nevada's Walker Basin. Environmental water transfers, which market water from willing sellers to instream uses, are evaluated to improve instream habitat. We use River Modelling System, an hourly, one‐dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model, to estimate current and potential environmental water transfer effects on stream temperatures. Model runs simulate a range of environmental water transfers, from 0.14 to 1.41 cms, at diversions and reservoirs for wet year 2011 and dry year 2012. Results indicate that critically warm stream temperatures generally coincide with low flows, and thermal refugia exist in East Walker River, a tributary of the Walker River. Environmental water transfers reduce maximum stream temperatures by up to 3 °C in dry years and are more effective in dry years than wet years. This research suggests that environmental water transfers can enhance instream habitat by improving water quality as well as increasing instream flow. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- The Effects of Regional Hydrologic Alteration on Fish Community Structure
in Regulated Rivers
- Abstract: Alterations to temporal patterns of river flow regimes resulting from damming and flow regulation practices may have negative consequences for freshwater communities. However, little has been performed to develop a holistic approach to assess the effects of hydrologic alterations on fish communities across a wide range of rivers and between different regulation strategies. To address this, we used daily and hourly hydrologic data from gauges in 10 regulated and 14 unregulated Canadian rivers. Building on the Ecological Limits of Hydrologic Alteration concept, hydrologic alterations for many ecologically relevant flow indices were combined to obtain river‐specific hydrologic alteration scores. Extensive community surveys to estimate fish abundance, biomass, diversity indices and habitat guild representation provided data for the derivation of similar river‐specific biotic alteration scores relative to unregulated river conditions. Our results indicate that biological impairment consisting of significant biotic alteration relative to the means from unregulated rivers was directly related to increasing flow alteration scores, with the smallest fish and flow alteration scores observed in run‐of‐river systems and the greatest alteration scores under hydro‐peaking regimes. Our approach not only examined the relationship between river‐specific hydrologic alteration scores and the associated biotic responses, but also provided a more comprehensive assessment of the flow‐response alteration relationship between regulation practices, which may better inform future environmental flow management guidelines. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Spatial Distribution and Habitat Use of Spawning American Shad in the St.
Johns River, Florida
- Authors: A. C. Dutterer; W. E. Pine, S. J. Miller, A. R. Hyle, M. S. Allen
Abstract: American shad Alosa sapidissima populations along the Atlantic Coast of North America are near historic lows despite management actions designed to rebuild stocks. Florida's St. Johns River supports the southernmost population of this anadromous species, and as water use in the St. Johns basin increases, there is concern that their spawning may be affected. We assessed American Shad movement and habitat use in the St. Johns River during three spawning migrations (2009–2011) using acoustic telemetry. Spatial distribution patterns of telemetered shad during each year were largely similar; most shad were located within reaches from Lake Monroe (rkm 276) to just downstream of Lake Harney (rkm 308); some individuals made excursions as far upstream as Lake Poinsett (rkm 386+). Water levels varied among years (low‐water level: 2009 and 2011; higher water level: 2010), and lower water levels may have contributed to an apparent constriction of spawning grounds in 2009 and 2011. Telemetered shad selected deeper sections of river with faster currents. Our results verified that the primary spawning grounds for American shad in the St. Johns have not changed substantially in the past 50 years; thus, these areas should rank high for habitat protection. We also demonstrated linkages between American Shad distribution and habitat use and river flow that should be further developed and considered in future water withdrawal, regulation, or conservation efforts. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Detecting Fluvial Wood in Forested Watersheds using LiDAR Data: A
- Authors: J. B. Atha; J. T. Dietrich
Abstract: It has long been known that large wood in rivers increases channel complexity and is a primary driver of geomorphic change in forested mountain streams in the Pacific Northwest. Studies analyzing the presence and distribution of fluvial wood are often limited in their spatial extents to the site or reach scales because of the intensive fieldwork required for comprehensive wood surveys. Remote sensing techniques are beginning to allow researchers to assess fluvial wood dynamics and distributions on a basin or regional scale. We used 2009 high‐resolution light detection and ranging (LiDAR) point cloud data to detect and quantify wood within five forested watersheds in the Oregon Coast Range. We filtered the LiDAR data to remove the forest canopy over the stream channel and visually inventoried fluvial wood based on its distinct shape within the channels. We derived several wood and stream morphometric variables to test theories relating to wood abundance and positioning in the lower reaches of streams. We were able to detect fluvial wood with confidence; however, validation of results with ground‐truth data was difficult in the study due to the dynamic and mobile nature of wood through time. We mapped a total of 163 single logs and 55 logjams within the five study watersheds. We did not find statistically significant differences between individual pieces and jam positioning in relation to slope; however, the surveyed wood was often found in areas of lower stream power. This research shows that it is possible to use height‐filtered LiDAR to detect in‐stream wood in densely forested watersheds and has the potential to be employed in future wood studies across broad spatial scales. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Landscape Scale Assessment of Floodplain Inundation Frequency Using
- Authors: Y. Allen
Abstract: In large river ecosystems, the timing, extent, duration and frequency of floodplain inundation greatly affect the quality of fish and wildlife habitat and the supply of important ecosystem goods and services. Seasonal high flows provide connectivity from the river to the floodplain, and seasonal inundation of the floodplain governs ecosystem structure and function. River regulation and other forms of hydrologic alteration have altered the connectivity of many rivers with their adjacent floodplain – impacting the function of wetlands on the floodplain and in turn, impacting the mainstem river function. Conservation and management of remaining floodplain resources can be improved through a better understanding of the spatial extent and frequency of inundation at scales that are relevant to the species and/or ecological processes of interest. Spatial data products describing dynamic aspects floodplain inundation are, however, not widely available. This study used Landsat imagery to generate multiple observations of inundation extent under varying hydrologic conditions to estimate inundation frequency. Inundation extent was estimated for 50 Landsat scenes and 1334 total images within the Gulf Coastal Plains and Ozarks Landscape Conservation Cooperative (GCPO LCC), a conservation science partnership working in a 730 000‐km2 region in the south central USA. These data were composited into a landscape mosaic to depict relative inundation frequency over the entire GCPO LCC. An analytical methodology is presented for linking the observed inundation extent and frequency with long‐term gage measurements so that the outcomes may be useful in defining meaningful critical thresholds for a variety of floodplain dependent organisms as well as important ecological processes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA
- Water Quality Assessment of the Santiago River and Attenuation Capacity of
Pollutants Downstream Guadalajara City, Mexico
- Abstract: The Santiago River in Mexico has been seriously polluted because of rapid urbanization and industrialization activities, lacking of appropriate planning and contamination monitoring policies. This research characterized the river water quality and recognizes some overall pollution sources, using two different information references: a dataset of 5 years from the Jalisco State Water Commission and a 14‐year dataset from the National Water Commission. Two zones have been identified as the main sources of pollution (hotspots), where the major events of urban and industrial wastewater discharges occur: (i) the urban fringe of Guadalajara city, with special emphasis in its southern area (nearby the so‐called El Ahogado stream) and (ii) downstream of Guadalajara City. Nevertheless, we have recognized some areas along the Santiago River where significant reduction of pollutants concentration takes place, possibly due to dilution by the inflow of tributaries and to the rainfall increasing. In addition, it is likely that hydropower dams are positively influencing the retention of pollutants along the river. In the lower zone, the water concentrations of O2 are consistently above acceptable levels (up to 5 mg L−1), and the majority of the pollution indicators parameters are below the maximum permissible values, despite the high pollution in Guadalajara area. This paper attempts to offer a methodological approach for a more accurate assessment of the river water quality and may assist in interpreting the sampling results derived from the regular monitoring, conducted by the state water authorities, while emphasizing the natural attenuation capacity of the Santiago River. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Hy:Con: A Strategic Tool For Balancing Hydropower Development And
- Authors: C. Seliger; S. Scheikl, S. Schmutz, R. Schinegger, S. Fleck, J. Neubarth, C. Walder, S. Muhar
Abstract: Hydropower (HP) is an important renewable energy source contributing 65.7% to Austria's national electricity generation. However, HP is also associated with ecosystem degradations jeopardizing the aims of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) and Habitats Directive.
Based on the EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED), the Austrian Energy Strategy has defined goals to further increase HP production by 3.5 TWh until 2015. Because national strategies for HP development are widely missing, hydropower plants (HPPs) are planned and approved on a local and regional level, often neglecting the overall optimum for energy supply and ecology. Therefore, a decision support tool (Hy:Con) was developed to integrate the energy‐economic characteristics of planned HPPs and conservation needs of ecologically sensible river stretches. Based on 102 planned HPPs in Austria, Hy:Con identified HPPs with high economic attractiveness and low conservation concerns. The results show that owing to the already high HP exploitation in Austria, only a minor number of projects are without conservation conflicts. Upgrading of existing HPPs was associated with least ecological impacts, while HPPs with reservoirs are favoured over run‐of‐river plants. Cumulated ecological effects of numerous small HPPs are significant, whereas their contribution to overall energy production is comparatively small. Hy:Con represents a strategic instrument that can help decision makers to govern the implementation of the RED and WFD in a transparent way to pinpoint the limitations of future HP development and to avoid conflicts and stranded investments. © 2015 The Autors. River Research and Applications Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd
- BichiCAM, an Underwater Automated Video Tracking System for the Study of
Migratory Dynamics of Benthic Diadromous Species in Streams
- Authors: G. Boussarie; N. Teichert, R. Lagarde, D. Ponton
Abstract: Conventional methods for surveying diadromous fish migration from marine coastal waters to freshwater habitats are mainly based on electrofishing, a non‐optimal technique for the study of fish migrations in rivers, and fishermen catch data. Underwater video has been recognized for a long time as a good alternative, but those approaches usually require intensive labour for retrieving the information from the video sequences. To overcome these problems, an underwater video system specifically designed for field work (low‐weight, low‐cost and autonomous) named BichiCAM has been developed for automatically counting, measuring and tracking fish observed in video sequences. The efficiency and precision of the BichiCAM system were tested by filming Sicyopterus lagocephalus juveniles passing through the camera field of vision in the Saint‐Etienne River, Reunion Island, Western Indian Ocean. The BichiCAM system accurately measured fish length of the observed individuals when lens distortion of the camera was corrected, and the error percentages on the measurements presented a standard deviation of 5.1% of the total length. The BichiCAM system provides a powerful tool that will not only facilitate research on migrating fishes and invertebrates' communities but also allow studies of the effectiveness of fishways associated to dams or the impacts of fishery activities. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Spatial Variation of Woody Riparian Vegetation across the Riverbank
Topographic Gradient in Mediterranean Rivers: Species and Growth
- Abstract: The composition and structure of riparian vegetation are linked to the natural hydrological variability and variation of environmental parameters in several spatial scales. The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between the spatial distribution of the woody riparian vegetation and the variation in the riverbank topographic gradient, verifying whether this variation was significant between species and/or growth categories. Specifically, our research examined the location of the woody species with respect to the thalweg along two reaches of the Jarama River in Central Spain. The positioning variables of each individual and distance and elevation above the thalweg were evaluated for four growth categories using statistical analysis.
This study revealed that the positioning of the species along reaches is not random and differs with the species and growth categories. In addition, groups of species were specified in the different growth categories using similar positioning patterns with respect to the thalweg. Examples of similar groups of species in a specifically growth category were as follows: Alnus glutinosa–Salix alba–Salix fragilis for one reach and Alnus glutinosa–Populus nigra–Salix alba–Salix salviifolia for the other one. Topographical preference ranges of the riparian species and groups of the Jarama River were also obtained. The integration of data relative to the distribution of species along the topographic gradient can be very useful in identifying species with a preference for specific locations and can also contribute to the success of the measures adopted to restore these frequently highly degraded environments. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Effective Acquisition Protocol of Terrestrial Laser Scanning for
Underwater Topography in a Steep Mountain Channel
- Authors: N. Miura; Y. Asano
Abstract: For better risk management, detailed and quantitative measurement of channel and stream‐bed structure is required to understand and predict water and sediment flow in mountain channels. Our previous research demonstrated good performance of green‐wavelength Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) for measurement of submerged stream‐bed in a steep mountain channel. This paper examines how the acquisition protocol of TLS affects the accuracy of data collected in the mountain channel. First, it was tested whether varying the scanner height, i.e., incident angle affects the data acquisition in terms of point density and accuracy in the pool unit of step‐pool channel. Then, the effect of varying the minimum point spacing on the derived Digital terrain model (DTM) was examined. It was also analyzed whether a combination of multiple TLS data acquired from different directions would improve the accuracy of data compared to data acquired by a single measurement. Furthermore, TLS data were acquired over a cascade unit of the channel and examined whether TLS is capable of capturing reliable underwater data. All the acquired underwater data by TLS were corrected for water refraction and validated using manual surveyed data. The results showed that the accuracy of derived DTM was improved when the scanner height was increased or data was acquired from multiple directions, however, acquiring denser point cloud with a minimum point spacing of 1 mm did not improve the accuracy of the data. Accuracy of TLS measurement in the cascade unit was considerably lower. Special consideration is required for this area.
- Establishing Environmental Water Requirements for the Murray–Darling
Basin, Australia's Largest Developed River System
- Authors: J. L. Swirepik; I. C. Burns, F. J. Dyer, I. A. Neave, M. G. O'Brien, G. M. Pryde, R. M. Thompson
Abstract: There is a global need for management of river flows to be informed by science to protect and restore biodiversity and ecological function while maintaining water supply for human needs. However, a lack of data at large scales presents a substantial challenge to developing a scientifically robust approach to flow management that can be applied at a basin and valley scale. In most large systems, only a small number of aquatic ecosystems have been well enough studied to reliably describe their environmental water requirements. The umbrella environmental asset (UEA) approach uses environmental water requirements developed for information‐rich areas to represent the water requirements of a broader river reach or valley. We illustrate this approach in the Murray–Darling Basin (MDB) in eastern Australia, which was recently subject to a substantial revision of water management arrangements. The MDB is more than 1 million km2 with 18 main river valleys and many thousands of aquatic ecosystems. Detailed eco‐hydrologic assessments of environmental water requirements that focused on the overbank, bankfull and fresh components of the flow regime were undertaken at a total of 24 UEA sites across the MDB. Flow needs (e.g. flow magnitude, duration, frequency and timing) were established for each UEA to meet the needs of key ecosystem components (e.g. vegetation, birds and fish). Those flow needs were then combined with other analyses to determine sustainable diversion limits across the basin. The UEA approach to identifying environmental water requirements is a robust, science‐based and fit‐for‐purpose approach to determining water requirements for large river basins in the absence of complete ecological knowledge. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Effects of Dam Removal on Tule Fall Chinook salmon Spawning Habitat in the
White Salmon River, Washington
- Authors: J. R. Hatten; T. R. Batt, J. J. Skalicky, R. Engle, G. J. Barton, R. L. Fosness, J. Warren
Abstract: Condit Dam is one of the largest hydroelectric dams ever removed in the USA. Breached in a single explosive event in October 2011, hundreds‐of‐thousands of cubic metres of sediment washed down the White Salmon River onto spawning grounds of a threatened species, Columbia River tule fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. We investigated over a 3‐year period (2010–2012) how dam breaching affected channel morphology, river hydraulics, sediment composition and tule fall Chinook salmon (hereafter ‘tule salmon’) spawning habitat in the lower 1.7 km of the White Salmon River (project area). As expected, dam breaching dramatically affected channel morphology and spawning habitat due to a large load of sediment released from Northwestern Lake. Forty‐two per cent of the project area that was previously covered in water was converted into islands or new shoreline, while a large pool near the mouth filled with sediments and a delta formed at the mouth. A two‐dimensional hydrodynamic model revealed that pool area decreased 68.7% in the project area, while glides and riffles increased 659% and 530%, respectively. A spatially explicit habitat model found the mean probability of spawning habitat increased 46.2% after dam breaching due to an increase in glides and riffles. Shifting channels and bank instability continue to negatively affect some spawning habitat as sediments continue to wash downstream from former Northwestern Lake, but 300 m of new spawning habitat (river kilometre 0.6 to 0.9) that formed immediately post‐breach has persisted into 2015. Less than 10% of tule salmon have spawned upstream of the former dam site to date, but the run sizes appear healthy and stable. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
- Selecting Between One‐Dimensional and Two‐Dimensional
Hydrodynamic Models for Ecohydraulic Analysis
- Authors: S. A. Gibson; G. B. Pasternack
Abstract: Aquatic habitat assessment and river restoration design require geospatially explicit maps of hydraulic conditions. Diverse mechanistic ecohydraulic models compute spatially explicit depth and velocity results to evaluate habitat suitability spatially as a function of these abiotic conditions. This study compared depth and velocity results from two‐dimensional (2D) and one‐dimensional (1D) hydraulic models with algorithms that laterally discretize 1D velocity and interpolate depth and velocity spatially based on the Laplacian heat mapping approach. These ‘conveyance distributed’ methods constitute ‘best 1D modelling practice’ and were compared with 2D results for the first time. The 1D and 2D models were applied to three morphologically distinct reaches (leveed, meandering, and anastomosing) for three flows (base, bankfull, and flood flows) of the partially regulated, gravel/cobble lower Yuba River in north–central California. The test metrics were the coefficient of determination (R2) and the median absolute residual (
ε˜). These metrics quantified the incremental uncertainty 1D approximation incurs, results which make explicit cost–benefit processes of model selection possible. Finally, velocity residual maps were analysed to identify regions and processes where residuals were high, indicating divergence from the 1D assumptions. Paired data (1D–2D) fell between 0.94 ≥ R2 ≥ 1.00 (R2mean = 0.98 and R2median = 0.99) for depth and median absolute residuals were all 3.8 ≤
ε˜ ≤ 7.2% (i.e. 50% of residuals are approximately within ±1.7 to 3.6%). Higher flows and lower gradient reaches had lower residuals and higher R2. Velocity diverged more, particularly for base flow in anastomosing reaches (0.42
- Abundance of Invasive, Non‐Native Riparian Herbs in Relation to
- Authors: D. W. Perkins; M. L. Scott, T. Naumann
Abstract: River regulation is associated with vegetation encroachment and invasions of some non‐native species in the semi‐arid west. Shifts in the abundance of native and non‐native woody riparian species are an interplay of regulation, life history traits and an array of flow and physical environmental variables. We sought to compare plant densities and per cent cover of several invasive species over two time periods in a paired river study, contrasting three different degrees of regulation along reaches of the Green and Yampa rivers in Colorado and Utah, USA. We censused patches of non‐native plants and recorded per cent cover in quadrats along 171 river km. The upper Green (10.1 patches ha−1) had the highest invasive plant patch density followed by the lower Green (4.4 per ha) and the Yampa (3.3 per ha). Invasive species were present in 23%, 19% and 4% of sample quadrats, and an average of 0.28, 0.22 and 0.04 invasive species detected per square metre was recorded along the upper Green, lower Green and Yampa Rivers, respectively. Most species had significantly (p ≤ 0.02) higher percent cover on the upper Green than either or both the lower Green and the Yampa River. Whereas the less regulated river reaches maintain lower densities of invasive species than the most regulated reach, long‐term persistence of this pattern is still in question as some species patches showed notable increases on the Yampa and lower Green Rivers from 2002–2005 to 2010–2011. Although invasion is enhanced by flow regulation, life history traits of some species suggest invasion is likely, regardless of flow regulation. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA
- Assessment of Water Capacity and Availability from Unregulated Stream
Flows Based on Ecological Limits of Hydrologic Alteration (ELOHA)
Environmental Flow Standards
- Authors: Z. Zhang; J. W. Balay, K. M. Bertoldi, P. O. MaCoy
Abstract: Determination of water resources management thresholds, such as conservation releases, passby flows, and water availability limits, is a contemporary challenge facing water resources managers. With recent advancements in environmental flow science, including the ecological limits of hydrologic alteration (ELOHA) framework, environmental flow standards can be developed for a variety of stream types throughout a particular region or watershed. Environmental flow standards typically cover the entire natural flow regime, including low‐flow, seasonal‐flow (medium), and high‐flow components. However, it can be difficult for water resources managers to directly apply these standards to establish practical management thresholds.
This study proposes a novel approach to assessing water capacity based on ELOHA environmental flow standards. The procedure entails iterative simulations to identify withdrawal limits for gaged streams and regional regression analysis to predict withdrawal limits for ungaged streams. The approach was applied for 63 reference gages with long‐term, continuous, minimally altered, daily streamflow records within the Susquehanna River basin. The results of the investigation demonstrate that the approach can be used to assess water capacity from gaged and ungaged streams via iterative withdrawal simulations and regional regression analysis respectively. The regression equation developed through analysis of the reference gages has an adjusted R‐square value of 0.96 and a standard error of 27%. Determination of a water capacity value, based on a suite of environmental flow standards, provides water resources managers with a valuable tool for informing the establishment of water resources management thresholds. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Longitudinal Plankton Dynamics in the Rivers Rhine and Elbe
- Abstract: We compared the longitudinal plankton development in the two large rivers Rhine and Elbe by means of four Lagrangian sampling campaigns performed within the time span 2009–2011. The campaigns revealed low chlorophyll concentrations in the Rhine along a long river stretch (Rhine‐km 170 to 854) with maximum values below 5 µg L−1 in 2010. In contrast, the Elbe (Elbe‐km 4 to 582) showed high and longitudinally increasing chlorophyll concentrations with maximal values of 174 µg L−1 in 2009 and 123 µg L−1 in 2011. Additional samples of the benthic bivalves along the river stretches revealed high densities of the filter feeders in the Rhine that could potentially explain losses of plankton production. Their densities in the Elbe were significantly lower, making important losses to benthic filter feeders unlikely. However, strong phytoplankton growth was observed during the sampling campaign in 2011 in the Rhine coinciding with a low discharge event. This resulted in an exceptionally high chlorophyll value of up to 244 µg L−1 in the lower river sections, a value that was not reached in the last two decades of continuous water quality monitoring in the Rhine. Even though we cannot fully explain this phenomenon, it shows that phytoplankton has a high growth potential in the Rhine but is usually controlled by other mechanisms. Tributaries represented an additional and important source of plankton biomass and suspended substances in the Rhine, whereas they primarily diluted the plankton concentrations in the Elbe. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- A Watershed Integrity Definition and Assessment Approach to Support
Strategic Management of Watersheds
- Authors: J. E. Flotemersch; S. G. Leibowitz, R. A. Hill, J. L. Stoddard, M. C. Thoms, R. E. Tharme
Abstract: Watersheds are spatially explicit landscape units that contain a range of interacting physical, ecological and social attributes. They are social–ecological systems that provide a range of ecosystem services valued by the society. Their ability to provide these services depends, in part, on the degree to which they are impaired by human‐related activity. An array of indicators is used by natural resource managers, both private and government, to assess watersheds and their sub‐components. Often these assessments are performed in comparison with a reference condition. However, assessments can be hampered because natural settings of many systems differ from those sites used to characterize reference conditions. Additionally, given the ubiquity of human‐related alterations across landscapes (e.g. atmospheric deposition of anthropogenically derived nitrogen), truly unaltered conditions for most, if not all, watersheds cannot be described. Definitions of ‘integrity’ have been developed for river ecosystems, but mainly at the reach or site scale and usually for particular species, such as fish or macroinvertebrates. These scales are inappropriate for defining integrity at the watershed scale. In addition, current assessments of endpoints do not indicate the source of impairment. Our definition of watershed ‘integrity’ is the capacity of a watershed to support and maintain the full range of ecological processes and functions essential to the sustainability of biodiversity and of the watershed resources and services provided to society. To operationalize this definition as an assessment tool, we identify key functions of unimpaired watersheds. This approach can then be used to model and map watershed integrity by incorporating risk factors (human‐related alterations or stressors) that have been explicitly shown to interfere with and degrade key functions in watersheds. An advantage of this approach is that the index can be readily deconstructed to identify factors influencing index scores, thereby directly supporting the strategic adaptive management of individual components that contribute to watershed integrity. Moreover, the approach can be iteratively applied and improved as new data and information become available. © 2015 The
Authors . River Research and Applications published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
- Lowland River Flow Control by an Artificial Water Plant System
- Authors: N. Zdankus; P. Punys, E. Martinaitis, T. Zdankus
Abstract: This article concerns the influence of water plants on the river flow. It is known that the influence of the plants is rather strong. Colonies of water plants with long afloat culms create considerable forces of resistance to the flow. They reduce flow velocity and increase a stream depth, what often is desirable. Water plants location in a stream is uncontrollable. They appear in not suitable locations of the river and mostly obstruct than help to control the river flow. Water plants and their colonies served for us as a prototype for creation of the flow control system. A method of computation and field tests that enables designing and arranging an artificial water plant system is presented in this article, and it may be used successfully to increase the river flow depth and to improve navigation, free‐flow (kinetic) hydropower development and recreation conditions. The suggested system for river flow control is simple, cheap and friendly to the environment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Hydrologic Response of Streams Restored with Check Dams in the Chiricahua
- Authors: L. M. Norman; F. Brinkerhoff, E. Gwilliam, D. P. Guertin, J. Callegary, D. C. Goodrich, P. L. Nagler, F. Gray
Pages: 519 - 527
Abstract: In this study, hydrological processes are evaluated to determine impacts of stream restoration in the West Turkey Creek, Chiricahua Mountains, southeast Arizona, during a summer‐monsoon season (June–October of 2013). A paired‐watershed approach was used to analyze the effectiveness of check dams to mitigate high flows and impact long‐term maintenance of hydrologic function. One watershed had been extensively altered by the installation of numerous small check dams over the past 30 years, and the other was untreated (control). We modified and installed a new stream‐gauging mechanism developed for remote areas, to compare the water balance and calculate rainfall–runoff ratios. Results show that even 30 years after installation, most of the check dams were still functional. The watershed treated with check dams has a lower runoff response to precipitation compared with the untreated, most notably in measurements of peak flow. Concerns that downstream flows would be reduced in the treated watershed, due to storage of water behind upstream check dams, were not realized; instead, flow volumes were actually higher overall in the treated stream, even though peak flows were dampened. We surmise that check dams are a useful management tool for reducing flow velocities associated with erosion and degradation and posit they can increase baseflow in aridlands. © 2015 The
Authors . River Research and Applications published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Assessing the Relationship Between River Mobility and Habitat
- Pages: 528 - 539
Abstract: Human interventions that limit channel mobility such as bank stabilization are frequent in riparian zones in urban or agricultural environments. This is potentially problematic because channel mobility is an important geomorphological and ecological agent that structures natural instream and riparian ecosystems. This study aims to (1) quantify the relationship between mobility and three types of habitat‐related features, namely bars, oxbow lakes and log jams, for a 54‐km‐long reach of the Yamaska Sud‐Est River (Quebec, Canada), which runs from the forested Appalachian Mountains to the agricultural St‐Lawrence lowlands, and (2) evaluate the impact of human interventions and geomorphological characteristics on these three features. Channel mobility was measured from historical aerial photos for the period 1950–2009. A combination of high‐resolution aerial photos, LiDAR digital elevation model, and field observations was used to measure and map sediment bars, oxbow lakes and log jams, as well as several geomorphological characteristics (channel width, slope, sinuosity and floodplain width). A strong link between the mobility and the presence of habitat features is revealed, but local geomorphological contexts result in different mobility patterns responsible for specific habitats. Floodplain to channel width ratio appears as the best geomorphological factor predicting habitat diversity. Human intervention, mostly through bank stabilization, also appears to be a key factor limiting mobility and its related habitats. These results highlight the importance of defining a protected mobility corridor along rivers where geomorphic processes such as bank erosion can freely occur, as it is an essential process that should be integrated in land use planning and river management. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- The Disconnected Sediment Conveyor Belt: Patterns of Longitudinal and
Lateral Erosion and Deposition During a Catastrophic Flood in the Lockyer
Valley, South East Queensland, Australia
- Authors: C. J. Thompson; K. Fryirs, J. Croke
Pages: 540 - 551
Abstract: The sediment (dis)connectivity concept is the water‐mediated transfer of sediment between different compartments of a catchment sediment cascade involving four possible dimensions or linkages (longitudinal, lateral, vertical and temporal). Quantifying the strength of these linkages within and between compartments provides a means to understand the internal sediment flux dynamics of a catchment. The aims of this paper are to examine (1) the dynamics of longitudinal and lateral (dis)connectivity by quantifying patterns of erosion and deposition that occurred during a catastrophic flood, and (2) how the patterns of connectivity can be changed through management actions that better utilise floodplain sediment storages. Multi‐temporal LiDAR and air photos are used to quantify volumetric change with respect to geomorphic settings and units. The results show that over the length of the trunk stream, the high‐magnitude event was net depositional with high longitudinal sediment disconnectivity. At the reach scale, an alternating pattern of high and low longitudinal connectivity associated with contraction and expansion zones was evident. The efficiency of sediment transfer from the uppermost compartment to the most downstream compartment decreased exponentially, while the strength of lateral connectivity increased for each expansion reach. Modelling results show that increasing channel boundary roughness along expansion reaches with riparian revegetation can increase the frequency of lateral connectivity and floodplain sediment storage, thereby decreasing reach‐to‐reach connectivity and reducing end‐of‐catchment sediment delivery. This contrasts with the current trend of building levees along the bank tops of expansion reaches, which decrease lateral connectivity and increase reach‐to‐reach connectivity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Forecasting of Hydrographs to Simulate Long Term Recharge From Rivers in
Numerical Models of Mining Reservoirs; Application to A Coal Mine in NW
- Pages: 552 - 560
Abstract: Although the natural permeability of rocks in the Asturian Central Coal Basin (NW Spain) is generally low, intensive mining activities over many decades has given rise to fracture flow paths that are far more permeable than those associated with the natural lithology. Abandoned and flooded mining works set up artificial ‘pseudo‐karst’ aquifers, which can act as underground reservoirs, with many potential applications. In particular, a mining reservoir shaped by two connected mining shafts within the River Turón basin has been studied. A runoff model was used to produce accurate simulations of streamflow in three different gauging stations during a monitored period of 2 years. The purpose was to use this model in the forecast situation, in order to predict long‐term situations in a hydrogeological FEFLOW model. It was necessary to develop depletion curves for each gauging station based on the available daily effective rainfall and measured flow data, as well as the knowledge of the basin characteristics. The resulting simulated hydrographs were very similar to the measured hydrographs during the monitored period, so the adequate adjusting allows input of the flow for forecast purposes. The model produced forecast hydrographs that had a r = 0.8 and difference in annual volume ranging from 1.6% to 5%. The defined model was applied to a rainfall data set of 30 years, and the average recharge from the river to the mining reservoir could be adequately estimated. The method developed needs to be refined and tested on additional years, but the approach appears to be applicable to operational runoff forecasting for numerical models input data. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- The Role of Reservoirs in Shaping The Dominant Cyclicity And Energy Of
Mountain River Flows
- Pages: 561 - 571
Abstract: The main objective of the paper is to determine the role of mountain reservoirs in shaping the dominant cyclicity and energy of river flows. The paper compares a large complex composed of two reservoirs (Czorsztyn–Sromowce Wyżne) with a smaller reservoir (Besko). These reservoirs are located in the Polish Carpathians and are characterised by very different parameters and functions. Moreover, they operate on rivers (the Dunajec and the Wisłok) with different hydrologic regimes. Using Fourier spectral analysis of daily inflows, outflows and water levels in reservoirs for the period 1998–2012, it has been possible to identify the dominant frequencies of the considered time series with a percentage of spectral energy for these frequencies. Moreover, for signals created by river flow rates, changes in signal energy are associated with adequate changes in river energy. Therefore, by calculating the energy of the signal in the time domain, changes in signal energy can be observed before and after the water passes through the reservoir. Data on cyclicity of water levels in these reservoirs forms the background to the analysis of reservoir‐induced changes in cyclicity of river flows. The conducted analysis revealed that reservoirs strengthen the regularity of the annual periodicity of stream flow in the studied rivers. Besides, these reservoirs significantly reduce the energy of water flowing out of them compared to the energy of inflow. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Effects of Three Consecutive Rotenone Treatments on the Benthic
Macroinvertebrate Fauna of the River Ogna, Central Norway
- Pages: 572 - 582
Abstract: The effects of piscicides on aquatic invertebrates are often studied after one treatment, even though piscicides may be repeatedly applied within river management. Here we investigate the impacts of repeated piscidie treatment on riverine benthic invertebrates. The River Ogna, Norway, was treated with rotenone three times over a 16‐month period. The two first treatments caused temporary density reduction of a few rotenone sensitive benthic invertebrate taxa. Effects of the third treatment were variable with some taxa unaffected while all Plecoptera, were locally extinct. The toxic effect of rotenone increases with water temperature and high water temperature (20 °C) combined with high rotenone concentration was probably the main reason why the benthic community in the third treatment was more negatively affected than during the two previous treatments (4 and 8 °C). Eight months after the treatment benthic densities had not reached pre‐treatment levels, but most taxa had recolonized the treated area within a year. Our data suggest that the severe effects of the third treatment were not influenced by the two former ones. This implies that the timing of piscicide treatment has a greater impact on the benthic invertebrate community than the number of treatments. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Water‐Quality Assessment of the Lower Grand River Basin, Missouri
and Iowa, USA, in Support of Integrated Conservation Practices
- Pages: 583 - 596
Abstract: The effectiveness of agricultural conservation programmes to adequately reduce nutrient exports to receiving streams and to help limit downstream hypoxia issues remains a concern. Quantifying programme success can be difficult given that short‐term basin changes may be masked by long‐term water‐quality shifts. We evaluated nutrient export at stream sites in the 44 months that followed a period of increased, integrated conservation implementation within the Lower Grand River Basin. These short‐term responses were then compared with export that occurred in the main stem and adjacent rivers in northern Missouri over a 22‐year period to better contextualize any recent changes. Results indicate that short‐term (October 2010 through May 2014) total nitrogen (TN) concentrations in the Grand River were 20% less than the long‐term average, and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations were 23% less. Nutrient reductions in the short term were primarily the result of the less‐than‐average precipitation and, consequently, streamflow that was 36% below normal. Therefore, nutrient concentrations measured in tributary streams were likely less than normal during the implementation period. Northern Missouri streamflow‐normalized TN concentrations remained relatively flat or declined over the period 1991 through 2013 likely because available sources of nitrogen, determined as the sum of commercial fertilizers, available animal manures and atmospheric inputs, were typically less than crop requirement for much of that time frame. Conversely, flow‐normalized stream TP concentrations increased over the past 22 years in northern Missouri streams, likely in response to many years of phosphorus inputs in excess of crop requirements. Stream nutrient changes were most pronounced during periods that coincided with the major tillage, planting and growth phases of row crops and increased streamflow. Nutrient reduction strategies targeted at the period February through June would likely have the greatest impact on reducing nutrient export from the basin. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
- River Temperature Modelling by Strahler Order at the Regional Scale in the
Loire River Basin, France
- Pages: 597 - 609
Abstract: Daily water temperature was simulated at a regional scale during the summer period using a simplified model based on the equilibrium temperature concept. The factors considered were heat exchanges at the water/atmosphere interface and groundwater inputs. The selected study area was the Loire River basin (110 000 km2), which displays contrasted meteorological, hydrological and geomorphological features. To capture the intra‐basin variability of relevant physical factors driving the hydrological and thermal response of the system, the modelling approach combined a semi‐distributed hydrological model, simulating the daily discharge at the outlet of 68 subwatersheds (drainage area between 100 and 3700 km2), and a thermal model, simulating the average daily water temperature for each Strahler order in each subwatershed. Simulations at 67 measurement stations revealed a median root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.9°C in summer between 2000 and 2006. Water temperature at stations located more than 100 km from their headwater was adequately simulated (median RMSE
- Juvenile Salmonid Utilization of Floodplain Rearing Habitat After Gravel
Augmentation in a Regulated River
- Authors: K. L. Sellheim; C. B. Watry, B. Rook, S. C. Zeug, J. Hannon, J. Zimmerman, K. Dove, J. E. Merz
Pages: 610 - 621
Abstract: Gravel augmentation is used in sediment‐starved streams to improve salmonid spawning habitat. As gravel is added to river channels, water surface elevations may rise in adjacent areas, activating floodplain habitat at lower flows, and floodplains inundate more frequently, potentially affecting the quantity and quality of juvenile salmonid rearing habitat. We analysed 5 years of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha and steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss data from snorkel surveys before and after gravel augmentation in the Lower American River, a low‐gradient, highly regulated alluvial river in California's Central Valley. We measured the quality and quantity of rearing habitat (current velocity and areal extent of inundated riparian vegetation) following gravel placement and tested whether these factors affected juvenile abundance. Gravel augmentation increased floodplain extent by 3.7–19.8%, decreased average flow velocity from 1.6 to 0.3 m s−1 and increased the amount of vegetative cover from 0.3% to 22.6%. Juvenile abundances increased significantly for both species following augmentation. However, the strength of the relationship between abundance and habitat variables was greater for smaller salmonids. These results suggest that, in addition to enhancing salmonid spawning habitat, gravel augmentation can improve rearing habitat where channel incision and/or regulated hydrographs disconnect floodplains from main river channels. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Fish Assemblage Structure and Habitat Associations in a Large Western
- Authors: C. D. Smith; M. C. Quist, R. S. Hardy
Pages: 622 - 638
Abstract: Longitudinal gradients of fish assemblage and habitat structure were investigated in the Kootenai River of northern Idaho. A total of 43 500‐m river reaches was sampled repeatedly with several techniques (boat‐mounted electrofishing, hoop nets and benthic trawls) in the summers of 2012 and 2013. Differences in habitat and fish assemblage structure were apparent along the longitudinal gradient of the Kootenai River. Habitat characteristics (e.g. depth, substrate composition and water velocity) were related to fish assemblage structure in three different geomorphic river sections. Upper river sections were characterized by native salmonids (e.g. mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni), whereas native cyprinids (peamouth Mylocheilus caurinus, northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis) and non‐native fishes (pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, yellow perch Perca flavescens) were common in the downstream section. Overall, a general pattern of species addition from upstream to downstream sections was discovered and is likely related to increased habitat complexity and additions of non‐native species in downstream sections. Assemblage structure of the upper sections were similar, but were both dissimilar to the lower section of the Kootenai River. Species‐specific hurdle regressions indicated the relationships among habitat characteristics and the predicted probability of occurrence and relative abundance varied by species. Understanding fish assemblage structure in relation to habitat could improve conservation efforts of rare fishes and improve management of coldwater river systems. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Environmental Factors Influencing Macrophytes Assemblages in a
Middle‐Sized Mediterranean Stream
- Authors: P. Manolaki; E. Papastergiadou
Pages: 639 - 651
Abstract: The occurrence of aquatic plants was analysed in a medium‐sized river in Greece. There were three objectives. The first was to examine the macrophyte assemblage structure along the river. The identification and hierarchical structure of aquatic plant assemblages were analyzed using Bray–Curtis analysis. Taxa primarily responsible for the differences among the assemblages were identified using similarity percentage analysis. The second objective was to investigate whether habitat features have greater impact on aquatic plant assemblages than chemical parameters. Partial canonical correspondence analysis was used for partitioning the total variation of the biological response. The third objective was to further explore the relationships between hydrophytes (water‐supported plants) richness and water quality using linear regression model.
The results showed that from the 86 macrophyte taxa recorded, the 25 were found to be primarily responsible for the differences among the macrophytic assemblages. Both geomorphological and physicochemical variables proved to be significant in the Monte Carlo permutation test. The 14 out of 19 geomorphological variables were statistically significant (p
- A Community‐Level, Mesoscale Analysis of Fish Assemblage Structure
in Shoreline Habitats of a Large River Using Multivariate Regression Trees
- Authors: M. A. Wilkes; I. Maddock, O. Link, E. Habit
Pages: 652 - 665
Abstract: The mesoscale (100–102 m) of river habitats has been identified as the scale that simultaneously offers insights into ecological structure and falls within the practical bounds of river management. Mesoscale habitat (mesohabitat) classifications for relatively large rivers, however, are underdeveloped compared with those produced for smaller streams. Approaches to habitat modelling have traditionally focused on individual species or proceeded on a species‐by‐species basis. This is particularly problematic in larger rivers where the effects of biological interactions are more complex and intense. Community‐level approaches can rapidly model many species simultaneously, thereby integrating the effects of biological interactions while providing information on the relative importance of environmental variables in structuring the community. One such community‐level approach, multivariate regression trees, was applied in order to determine the relative influences of abiotic factors on fish assemblages within shoreline mesohabitats of San Pedro River, Chile, and to define reference communities prior to the planned construction of a hydroelectric power plant.
Flow depth, bank materials and the availability of riparian and instream cover, including woody debris, were the main variables driving differences between the assemblages. Species strongly indicative of distinctive mesohabitat types included the endemic Galaxias platei. Among other outcomes, the results provide information on the impact of non‐native salmonids on river‐dwelling Galaxias platei, suggesting a degree of habitat segregation between these taxa based on flow depth. The results support the use of the mesohabitat concept in large, relatively pristine river systems, and they represent a basis for assessing the impact of any future hydroelectric power plant construction and operation. By combing community classifications with simple sets of environmental rules, the multivariate regression trees produced can be used to predict the community structure of any mesohabitat along the reach. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Downstream Migration of the European Eel (Anguilla Anguilla) in the Elbe
River, Germany: Movement Patterns and the Potential Impact of
- Pages: 666 - 676
Abstract: Recruitment of European eels (Anguilla anguilla) has declined to the extent that they have been added to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Therefore, it is critical to ensure that eels complete their outward river migration in order to contribute to the available spawning stock. We conducted a 4‐year (2007–2011) telemetry study to understand the migratory behaviour and potential impact of environmental factors on the eel during this critical life stage.
Out of 399 female eels tagged with acoustic transmitters, only 28% demonstrated clear downstream migratory behaviour. Fifty‐five percent were detected exhibiting no downstream migration behaviour and 17% were not detected at any monitoring station. Movement patterns of downstream‐migrating (silver) eels were characterized by nocturnal activity and seasonal migration, with distinct peaks in autumn and spring. Migration was often discontinuous and exhibited phases of active locomotion and expanded stopovers. The most important determinants of movement activity were water temperature, cumulative precipitation and moonlight, although the significance varied by season and location in the river basin.
Our results evidence a discontinuous, stepwise migration over an extended period. Furthermore, our findings indicate that migration success depends on holding duration prior to tagging and environmental predictors with varying importance depending on the season, as well as the locations of capture, tagging and release. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Influence of Flow on Community Structure and Production of
Snag‐Dwelling Macroinvertebrates in an Impaired Low‐Gradient
- Authors: E. A. Scholl; H. M. Rantala, M. R. Whiles, G. V. Wilkerson
Pages: 677 - 688
Abstract: The natural flow regime of rivers has been altered throughout the world in a variety of ways, with many alterations resulting in reduced flows. While restoring impaired systems remains a societal imperative, a fundamental understanding of the effects of reduced flows on river ecosystem structure and function is needed to refine restoration goals and guide implementation. We quantified the effects of chronic low flows on snag‐dwelling macroinvertebrate community structure and production in a low‐gradient river. Macroinvertebrates commonly associated with flowing water (e.g. passive filter‐feeders (PFF)) and higher quality habitats (e.g. Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT)) had significantly higher abundance and biomass, and showed trends of higher production, in faster flowing reaches upstream of a hydrologic disconnection created by a drainage ditch. The presence of EPT and PFF groups resulted in a significantly more diverse community composed of larger‐sized individuals compared with downstream, low‐flow reaches, where smaller‐bodied taxa (e.g. small crustaceans), and groups reflective of degraded conditions (e.g. Oligochaeta, Isopoda and Chironomidae) dominated production. Multivariate analyses suggested that differences between these two disparate communities were driven by water velocity and organic matter resources. Mean estimates of total community production did not differ significantly between the two reaches, however, there were areas in low‐flow reaches that attained high secondary production because of patchily distributed and highly productive chironomids. Results demonstrate that long‐term reductions in flows, even in a low‐gradient river, can lead to significant shifts in macroinvertebrate communities, ultimately influencing energy flow pathways in stream food webs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Scaling Down Habitat Selection by Large River Fishes to Understand
Patterns Relevant to Individuals
- Authors: W. D. Hintz; G. T. Grimes, J. E. Garvey
Pages: 689 - 696
Abstract: Modification and homogenization of habitat in large‐river ecosystems have led to the reduction of >50% of native fish species. Rehabilitating these complex ecosystems to recover fish populations requires an understanding of habitat availability and selection at multiple scales. Habitat selection by river fishes is typically assessed at the functional unit scale (100–10 000 m2). For example, in large, sand‐dominated rivers of the Central USA, alluvial islands are critical functional units for endangered sturgeon. Functional units, however, can be subdivided into mesohabitats (
- Evaluation of Steelhead Passage Flows Using Hydraulic Modeling on an
Unregulated Coastal California River
- Authors: R. W. Holmes; D. E. Rankin, E. Ballard, M. Gard
Pages: 697 - 710
Abstract: Passage and habitat connectivity flows for steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss through depth sensitive natural, low gradient, critical riffle sites were investigated in the unregulated Big Sur River, California. The River2D two‐dimensional hydraulic habitat model, along with quantitative passage metrics and species‐specific and lifestage‐specific depth criteria, were used to evaluate and compare predicted fish passage flows with flows derived by a traditional empirical critical riffle fish passage method. Passage flows were also compared with historical unimpaired natural hydrology patterns to assess the frequency and duration of suitable passage flows under the naturally variable flow regimes characteristic of Central California coastal rivers. A strong relationship (r2 = 0.93) was observed between flows predicted by hydraulic modeling and flows identified by the empirical critical riffle method. River2D provided validation that the flows derived using the traditional critical riffle methodology provided for contiguous passable pathways of suitable hydraulic (depth and velocity) conditions through complex cobble‐dominated riffle sites. Furthermore, steelhead passage flows were spatially and temporally consistent between lagoon and upstream riffles for adults, and were generally indicative of a river system in equilibrium with a naturally variable flow regime and associated intact ecological processes. An analysis of 25 years of continuous flow data indicated sufficient flows for upstream passage by young‐of‐year and juvenile steelhead were produced between 37% and 100% and between 1% and 95% of the time, respectively. September and October are the most challenging months for natural flows to meet young‐of‐year and juvenile passage and habitat connectivity flows. Careful consideration of seasonal and interannual flow variability dynamics, therefore, are critical components of an effective flow management strategy for the maintenance and protection of passage and habitat connectivity flows between lagoon and upriver habitats. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
- Diel Activity Patterns of Juvenile Late Fall‐run Chinook Salmon with
Implications for Operation of a Gated Water Diversion in the
Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta
- Authors: J. M. Plumb; N. S. Adams, R. W. Perry, C. M. Holbrook, J. G. Romine, A. R. Blake, J. R. Burau
Pages: 711 - 720
Abstract: In the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, California, tidal forces that reverse river flows increase the proportion of water and juvenile late fall‐run Chinook salmon diverted into a network of channels that were constructed to support agriculture and human consumption. This area is known as the interior delta, and it has been associated with poor fish survival. Under the rationale that the fish will be diverted in proportion to the amount of water that is diverted, the Delta Cross Channel (DCC) has been prescriptively closed during the winter out‐migration to reduce fish entrainment and mortality into the interior delta. The fish are thought to migrate mostly at night, and so daytime operation of the DCC may allow for water diversion that minimizes fish entrainment and mortality. To assess this, the DCC gate was experimentally opened and closed while we released 2983 of the fish with acoustic transmitters upstream of the DCC to monitor their arrival and entrainment into the DCC. We used logistic regression to model night‐time arrival and entrainment probabilities with covariates that included the proportion of each diel period with upstream flow, flow, rate of change in flow and water temperature. The proportion of time with upstream flow was the most important driver of night‐time arrival probability, yet river flow had the largest effect on fish entrainment into the DCC. Modelling results suggest opening the DCC during daytime while keeping the DCC closed during night‐time may allow for water diversion that minimizes fish entrainment into the interior delta. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
- Growth and Life History Patterns of a Small‐bodied Stream Fish,
Cottus cognatus, in Hydropeaking and Natural Rivers of Northern Ontario
- Authors: M. J. Bond; N. E. Jones, T. J. Haxton
Pages: 721 - 733
Abstract: Hydroelectric facilities can dramatically alter the quantity and quality of fish habitat; however it is not well known how these habitat changes affect the growth and life history of fish. We examine the growth and life history of slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), a small‐bodied sedentary, benthic stream fish, in two regulated and eight unregulated tributaries of Lake Superior, Canada. Among rivers, we found that slimy sculpin grew faster in the regulated Magpie River than in nearby unregulated systems, whereas growth in the Michipicoten River was intermediate. Sculpin were also in better condition in the regulated Magpie and Michipicoten than in nearby natural rivers. Faster growth of sculpin, however, potentially led to their rapid maturity and higher instantaneous mortality in regulated rivers. Within the regulated rivers, there are strong longitudinal gradients in growth, with sculpin at sampling sites near the dams growing more rapidly, maturing earlier and attaining a larger size‐at‐age than sculpin at sites farther downstream or in natural systems. Differences in sculpin life history traits within rivers closely followed spatial patterns in food availability. We caution future researchers and managers to acknowledge the longitudinal gradients in abiotic and biotic conditions below dams early in experimental designs and monitoring programmes and how this may impact the measures of central tendency and statistical power when comparing rivers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Is Shallow Water a Suitable Surrogate for Assessing Efforts to Address
Pallid Sturgeon Population Declines?
- Authors: T. R. Gemeinhardt; N. J. C. Gosch, D. M. Morris, M. L. Miller, T. L. Welker, J. L. Bonneau
Pages: 734 - 743
Abstract: It is hypothesized that slow, shallow water habitats benefit larval pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus; however, testing this hypothesis is difficult, given the low number of larval pallid sturgeon present in large rivers. In contrast, relatively large numbers of age‐0 shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus have been sampled, providing a potentially useful baseline to assess the importance of slow, shallow water to age‐0 sturgeon of both species (hereafter age‐0 sturgeon) in the lower Missouri River. Thus, we investigated the potential relationships between the prevalence of shallow water 1.5 m, and catch rates were usually highest in the upper half [i.e. river kilometre (RKM) 400 to 800] of the lower Missouri River study area, whereas the availability of water
- Age‐0 Channel Catfish Ictalurus Punctatus Growth Related to
Environmental Conditions in the Channelized Missouri River, Nebraska
- Authors: N. P. Hogberg; M. J. Hamel, M. A. Pegg
Pages: 744 - 752
Abstract: Large river paradigms suggest that natural flow regimes are critical for maintaining instream habitats and promoting production and growth of native aquatic organisms. Modifications to the Missouri River, Nebraska, within the past 100 years have drastically reduced shallow water habitat, homogenized the flow regime, and contributed to declines in several native species. Despite drastic flow modifications, several metrics of the Missouri River's flow regime still vary across years. We related age‐0 channel catfish growth to environmental conditions in the channelized Missouri River, Nebraska, between 1996 and 2013 using an information theoretic approach. Growth rate was most influenced by growing season duration and duration of discharges below the 25th percentile of 30‐year daily Missouri River discharges. Periods of low water may be important for juvenile growth because of channel modifications that limit critical shallow water habitat during higher within‐bank flows. Exclusion of peak discharge and peak discharge timing in the best model to predict growth is counter to conventional thoughts on river fish responses to hydrological conditions but may be reflective of the general lack of high‐magnitude flooding during the majority of our study. Future efforts to relate juvenile fish growth to environmental conditions can provide guidance for water management in the Missouri River and other regulated North American rivers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Community Structure of Age‐0 Fishes in Paired Mainstem and Created
Shallow‐water Habitats in the Lower Missouri River
- Authors: T. A. Starks; J. M. Long, A. R. Dzialowski
Pages: 753 - 762
Abstract: Anthropogenic alterations to aquatic ecosystems have greatly reduced and homogenized riverine habitat, especially those used by larval and juvenile fishes. Creation of shallow‐water habitats is used as a restoration technique in response to altered conditions in several studies globally, but only recently in the USA. In the summer of 2012, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers sampled larval and juvenile fishes at six paired sites (mainstem and constructed chute shallow‐water habitats) along a section of the Missouri River between Rulo, NE and St. Louis, MO, USA. From those samples, we enumerated and identified a total of 7622 fishes representing 12 families. Community responses of fishes to created shallow‐water habitats were assessed by comparisons of species richness and diversity measures between paired sites and among sampling events. Shannon entropy measures were transformed, and gamma diversity (total diversity) was partitioned into two components, alpha (within community) and beta (between community) diversity using a multiplicative decomposition method. Mantel test results suggest site location, time of sampling event and habitat type were drivers of larval and juvenile community structure. Paired t‐test results indicated little to no differences in beta diversity between habitat types; however, chute habitats had significantly higher alpha and gamma diversity as well as increased abundances of Asian carp larvae when compared with mainstem shallow‐water habitat. Our results not only show the importance of created shallow‐water habitat in promoting stream fish diversity but also highlight the role space and time may play in future restoration and management efforts. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Assessing Juvenile Native Fish Demographic Responses to a Steady Flow
Experiment in a Large Regulated River
- Pages: 763 - 775
Abstract: The Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, is part of an adaptive management programme which optimizes dam operations to improve various resources in the downstream ecosystem within Grand Canyon. Understanding how populations of federally endangered humpback chub Gila cypha respond to these dam operations is a high priority. Here, we test hypotheses concerning temporal variation in juvenile humpback chub apparent survival rates and abundance by comparing estimates between hydropeaking and steady discharge regimes over a 3‐year period (July 2009–July 2012). The most supported model ignored flow type (steady vs hydropeaking) and estimated a declining trend in daily apparent survival rate across years (99.90%, 99.79% and 99.67% for 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively). Corresponding abundance of juvenile humpback chub increased temporally; open population model estimates ranged from 615 to 2802 individuals/km, and closed model estimates ranged from 94 to 1515 individuals/km. These changes in apparent survival and abundance may reflect broader trends, or simply represent inter‐annual variation. Important findings include (i) juvenile humpback chub are currently surviving and recruiting in the mainstem Colorado River with increasing abundance; (ii) apparent survival does not benefit from steady fall discharges from Glen Canyon Dam; and (iii) direct assessment of demographic parameters for juvenile endangered fish are possible and can rapidly inform management actions in regulated rivers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Explaining Spatial Patterns of Mussel Beds in a Northern California River:
The Role of Flood Disturbance and Spawning Salmon
- Authors: Christine L. May; Bonnie S. Pryor
Pages: 776 - 785
Abstract: Despite considerable effort, predicting habitat preferences for freshwater mussels has remained elusive. This study identified four parameters that correlate with bed stability to decipher fine‐scale spatial patterning of habitat use by the western pearl shell mussel (Margaritifera falcata) in the Trinity River of Northern California. Logistic regression analysis correctly predicted the occurrence of 83% of mussel bed areas based on water depth, velocity, substrate size, and distance to the stream bank as estimated from hydrodynamic modelling of low‐flow conditions. These parameters coincide with bed stability at high flow and provide support for the ‘refugia hypothesis’. Our data clearly demonstrate that mussel beds occupied the most stable portions of the riverbed; however, habitat was partitioned with one of their primary host fish, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), a species that also requires stable bed areas for spawning. Mussels occupied significantly deeper and lower velocity areas that were closer to the streambank compared with spawning salmon, but where habitats directly overlapped (30% of potential mussel habitat) mussels were excluded because the act of spawning disturbs the riverbed. By necessity, mussels and salmon must co‐exist, but results of this study indicate that they compete for stable bed areas that may be limiting in dynamic river systems. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Trade‐Offs in Seed Dispersal Strategies Across Riparian Trees: The
How Matters as Much as the When
- Pages: 786 - 794
Abstract: Riparian Salicaceae are prolific producers of short‐lived seeds that require very restrictive hydro‐geomorphic conditions for establishment. It is generally assumed that if floods are able to create nursery sites timed with seed dispersal, recruitment will occur. Other spatial and temporal seed dispersal patterns besides the dispersal period have historically received little attention. However, seed dispersal patterns can be highly variable between regions, species and over the years. In this paper, we report the seed dispersal patterns of three dominant riparian Salicaceae trees in Europe: Populus alba, P. nigra and Salix alba to suggest possible trade‐offs between seed dispersal patterns, germinability, longevity and establishment. Seed rain of the three species was monitored in 33 glue‐coated traps for three months yearly from 2006 to 2008 in an 8‐km stretch of the Middle Ebro River (N Spain), which has a pluvio‐nival regime. P. alba dispersed seeds earlier during a shorter time period and with a fewer number of seed release pulses compared with P. nigra, and especially with S. alba. With overlapping seed dispersal periods, the two latter species occupy similar landform units but rarely compete with P. alba, usually at higher elevations, as shown in a previous study in the same study area. The three species had very high germinability immediately after release (>90%), but longevity in S. alba was eight times shorter than that of its two Populus counterparts. We suggest that S. alba has compensated its lower seed quality with a more spaced seed release in several pulses of similar magnitude. With similar seed dispersal patterns and germinability but a higher longevity, P. nigra had a much higher density of individuals than S. alba in the recruitment zones of the study area. We hope that our results may inform river managers about how to optimize river flows to promote sexual regeneration of these species. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Path Selection of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Migrating Through a
- Pages: 795 - 803
Abstract: We constructed a model that predicted path selection of Atlantic salmon. Our basic assumption for the model was that Atlantic salmon optimize migration by selecting a path that minimizes water resistance. The model prediction was compared with observations in a fishway, and the results were within expectations. It appeared like the fishway design and flow configuration at our study site caused some problems for the fish to discover both of the available paths. Therefore, only 53% of female fish and 67% of male fish selected the optimal path in the beginning of the fishway, but 92% of female fish and 97% of male fish selected the optimal path at the end of the fishway. Velocity over ground was very low, which is likely because every weir in the fishway was an obstacle for the fish. This knowledge can be used to improve future fishway design, or improve flow configuration for existing fishways. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Fish Associations among Un‐notched, Notched and L‐head Dikes
in the Middle Mississippi River
- Authors: Andrew P. Braun; Molly J. Sobotka, Quinton E. Phelps
Pages: 804 - 811
Abstract: Wing dikes and other anthropogenic modifications have heavily altered riverine ecosystems. Recent efforts to reach a compromise between the needs of the river transportation industry and natural resource conservation include dike modification. Dike notching permits water flow through the landward portion of the dike and has been purported to provide suitable habitat for fish and other river biota while maintaining the navigation channel. L‐head dikes are flow‐control structures that create calm backwater‐like habitats downstream. However, few researchers have examined the actual effects of dike notching on water quality or fish communities. We compared standardized catch per unit effort and overall community structure for 50 fish species among un‐notched dikes, notched dikes and L‐head dikes in the Middle Mississippi River, sampled as part of the US Geological Survey's Long‐Term Resource Monitoring Program. There were no differences in standardized catch per unit effort for 64% of the fishes examined. Five species known to be associated with lotic habitats were most abundant near L‐head dikes. Seven species were more abundant at un‐notched dikes than notched dikes, while six species were more abundant at notched dikes than un‐notched dikes. Non‐metric multidimensional scaling suggested differences in overall fish community structure between un‐notched and other dike types. Detailed physical habitat studies should be conducted to better understand the effects of dike modification. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Fish Movements and Passage Through a Water Control Structure: River Stage
and Floodplain Connectivity
- Authors: S. Tripp; K. Jack Killgore, J. E. Garvey
Pages: 812 - 819
Abstract: The St. John's Bayou water control structure near New Madrid, MO, connects the main Mississippi River to two large backwater areas called the New Madrid Floodway and St. John's Bayou. While this area has been altered, the New Madrid Floodway and St. John's Bayou account for the only substantial portion of the historic Mississippi River floodplain that remains and provides the only critical connection between backwater/floodplain habitat and the river. Fish passage was evaluated during April–December 2010 using ultrasonic telemetry. Stationary receivers were placed strategically at five locations above and below the structure in St. John's Bayou, in the floodway and the outlet to the Mississippi River. A total of 100 individuals representing 14 species were tagged. Total number of detections during an 8‐month period was 1 264 717. Fifteen individuals representing five species moved into the Mississippi and Ohio rivers; seven individuals returned to St. John's Bayou. Thirteen of the 14 species moved upstream through the structure. Of the 85 individuals that stayed in the bayou, 29 fish passed through the structure for a total of 92 passage events. The downstream : upstream passage was roughly 50:50. Passage was correlated with river rise, with frequency of passage being higher in spring, but passage occurred each month during the study. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.