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  Subjects -> AERONAUTICS AND SPACE FLIGHT (Total: 101 journals)
Showing 1 - 30 of 30 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 253)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 294)
Aeronautica     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Aerospace     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 211)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 274)
AIAA Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 672)
Air Force Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Air Medical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 126)
American Journal of Space Science     Open Access   (Followers: 120)
Annual of Navigation     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Artificial Satellites : The Journal of Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
ASTRA Proceedings     Open Access  
Aviation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aviation Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 201)
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Canadian Aeronautics and Space Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
CEAS Aeronautical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Chinese Journal of Aeronautics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Ciencia y Poder Aéreo     Open Access  
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Cosmic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COSPAR Colloquia Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Elsevier Astrodynamics Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Fatigue of Aircraft Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Frontiers in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Giroskopiya i Navigatsiya     Open Access  
Gyroscopy and Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177)
IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 116)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Aeroacoustics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Aerodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
International Journal of Aerospace Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Aerospace Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Applied Geospatial Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Aviation Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Aviation Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Aviation Technology, Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Flow Control     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Hypersonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Satellite Communications Policy and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Space Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Space Structures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Space Technology Management and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Aviation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Turbo & Jet-Engines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aeronautical Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Journal of Aerospace Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Aerospace Information Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Aerospace Technology and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Aircraft     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 175)
Journal of Airline and Airport Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Astrobiology & Outreach     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 110)
Journal of Konbin     Open Access  
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 170)
Journal of Propulsion and Power     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 325)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 479)
Journal of Spatial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the American Helicopter Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the Astronautical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Life Sciences in Space Research     Hybrid Journal  
MAD - Magazine of Aviation Development     Open Access  
Microgravity Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
New Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
npj Microgravity     Open Access  
Population Space and Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Problemy Mechatroniki. Uzbrojenie, lotnictwo, inżynieria bezpieczeństwa / Problems of Mechatronics. Armament, Aviation, Safety Engineering     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Progress in Aerospace Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67)
Propulsion and Power Research     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
REACH - Reviews in Human Space Exploration     Full-text available via subscription  
Recent Patents on Space Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : Journal of Space Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
RocketSTEM     Free  
Russian Aeronautics (Iz VUZ)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Space and Polity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Space Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Space Research Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Space Safety Magazine     Free   (Followers: 36)
Space Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 100)
SpaceNews     Free   (Followers: 485)
Transport and Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Unmanned Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Вісник Національного Авіаційного Університету     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Вестник УГАТУ     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover CEAS Aeronautical Journal
  [SJR: 0.499]   [H-I: 6]   [26 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1869-5582
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2336 journals]
  • Design methodology for trailing-edge high-lift mechanisms
    • Authors: David Zaccai; Francesco Bertels; Roelof Vos
      Pages: 521 - 534
      Abstract: Abstract A new methodology has been developed that integrates the preliminary wing design with trailing edge high-lift systems and accounts for three-dimensional flap kinematics. The high-lift system in the developed application includes the kinematic synthesis of four common mechanisms (dropped-hinge, four-bar, link-track and hooked-track) and a preliminary actuation architecture. The paper details how each of these mechanisms is synthesized based on a set of intuitive input requirements such as gap and overlap dimensions in landing and take-off configuration. A SimMechanics multi-body mechanism model is generated to obtain the internal loads of the mechanism and actuation torque. The mechanisms and actuating drive train are structurally sized, leading to a determination of system weight and power consumption. A weight measurement of the outboard hooked-track mechanism of a VFW-614 flap has been compared to a modeled hooked-track mechanism by using the proposed method. This resulted in a 13 % underestimation of the mechanism weight, which was attributed to modeling simplifications, sizing assumptions and a crude aerodynamic load estimation. A comparison study between the four different mechanism types to be applied on a Boeing 777 wing, shows that the method can give the designer valuable insight in the gap/overlap behavior of the flap during deployment as well as an initial estimation of the difference in required fairing size, mechanism weight, and actuation power between the four mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13272-016-0202-7
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
  • Impact of pulsed jet actuators on aircraft mass and fuel consumption
    • Authors: Francesco G. A. Bertels; Reinier van Dijk; Reno Elmendorp; Roelof Vos
      Pages: 535 - 549
      Abstract: Abstract Pulsed jet actuators (PJAs) are one of the candidate technologies to be integrated in Fowler flaps to increase the maximum lift coefficient of transport aircraft in the landing configuration. The total system consists of the actuators plus sensors, a piping system to supply pressurized air and a (redundant) power and communication system to provide actuator control. In this paper, it is investigated what increase in the maximum lift coefficient is required to justify the added weight and power off-takes that accompany the integration of pulsed jet actuators. This is done by making an automated design process for the overall aircraft, the piping assembly system, and the electrical wiring interconnection system. These last two sub-systems rely on KBE techniques that automate dimensioning and performance evaluation. A test case is specified that encompasses the design of a typical single-aisle mid-range aircraft with and without the PJA system installed. It is concluded that the introduction of the PJA system requires at least an increase in maximum lift coefficient of 0.2 to justify the increase in system mass and power off-takes. Furthermore, it is shown that if the maximum lift coefficient increases with 0.4, only small reductions in maximum take-off weight (−0.3 %) and operating empty weight (−0.6 %) can be expected, while the total fuel burn remains virtually constant.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13272-016-0201-8
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
  • Investigation of a simplified aerodynamic modelling technique for noise
           predictions using FW–H propagation
    • Authors: Jianping Yin; Berend G. van der Wall; Gunther A. Wilke
      Pages: 551 - 566
      Abstract: Abstract This paper addresses the influence of the elastic rotor blade deformation and the aerodynamic interference from the fuselage on the rotor aerodynamics, including rotor noise characteristics. A BO105 main rotor/fuselage configuration is chosen for the numerical simulations. An unsteady aerodynamic code based on free wake three-dimensional panel method (UPM) is used to account for nonlinear effects associated with the mutual interference between main rotor and fuselage. Airbus Helicopters’ (formerly: Eurocopter) rotor code (HOST) is coupled with this aerodynamic code (UPM) to account for the effect of elastic blade deformation. The effect of the fuselage is simulated using two fuselage models in aerodynamic code, (1) potential theory in the form of a panelized fuselage and (2) an analytic fuselage influence formulation derived from isolated fuselage simulation. The advantage of (2) is in its computational efficiency. The aerodynamic modelling is then coupled with an aero-acoustic post-processing tool based on the Ffowcs-Williams–Hawkings (FW–H) approach for evaluating the noise propagation to the far-field. This toolchain is then evaluated in different flight conditions to assess the usability of this approach in the design process. In descending flight, the acoustic prediction is completed at a very mature level, as the blade vortex interaction is well captured. In climb, the major noise peak is underpredicted, while the overall directivity agreement is well matched. In forward flight, due to a phase shift in the airloads prediction, parts of the loading noise directivity are not well captured. The onset of transonic effects further degrades the results obtained at the front of the rotor. For the investigated flight cases, the analytical fuselage formulation brought very similar results to the panelized fuselage model, therefore proving its worthiness for further accelerating the simulation in these flight conditions.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13272-016-0208-1
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
  • Fiber-reinforced polymers with integrated shape memory alloy actuation: an
           innovative actuation method for aerodynamic applications
    • Authors: M. Hübler; S. Nissle; M. Gurka; U. Breuer
      Pages: 567 - 576
      Abstract: Abstract This contribution focuses on the application potential of active fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) structures with integrated shape memory alloy (SMA) elements for new aerodynamic functions. The advantages of hybrid SMA FRP structures are highlighted, and promising application concepts are discussed. To illustrate the applicability of the technology, the developed manufacturing, design, and control approaches are presented. Main focus is the development of a new concept for an active aerodynamic airfoil and the realization of a hardware demonstrator. Beginning with the idea of an adaptive airfoil, able to bear an application relevant down force at a relatively high deflection, the design process starts with an evaluation of different actuation concepts. An SMA-powered cantilever is a part of the profile itself. Applying the finite-element method with a suitable model for the active hybrid material, an effective selection of material and design is possible. After manufacturing and assembling of the active hybrid airfoil, a comparison of experimental results and simulation is the first proof of success. Finally, the installation of an integrated hardware setup with power source, control, and the active hybrid structure, demonstrating actuation on demand, verifies the potential and the distinct advantages of the new approach using SMA FRP structures.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13272-016-0209-0
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
  • Analysis of dry-spot behavior in the pressure field of a liquid composite
           molding process
    • Authors: D. Bertling; R. Kaps; E. Mulugeta
      Pages: 577 - 585
      Abstract: Abstract Due to industrial automation of liquid composite molding processes and increasing geometrical complexity of composite components, dry-spots from flow front junctions have become increasingly difficult to avoid. The impact and behavior of voids (microscopic or small macroscopic gas entrapments) during preform impregnation is well known, but no attention is given to dry-spots (large macroscopic gas entrapments). Experiments show that formation of a dry-spot in an early stage of an injection process does not necessarily lead to scrap parts. Therefore, simulation-based predictions of dry-spots are no sufficient condition for identification of unsuitable injection strategies. In this paper, the resolution mechanisms of dry-spots under controlled process conditions are investigated and the resulting findings of fundamental formation- and dispersion-mechanisms are presented.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13272-016-0207-2
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
  • Adaptive internal model control research in autonomous landing phase for a
           fixed-wing UAV
    • Authors: Jiu-zhou Gao; Hong-guang Jia
      Abstract: Abstract Autonomous landing is a very complex phase of flight for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Adaptive internal model control (AIMC) is proposed and applied on autonomous landing control system in this paper. Controllers are designed based on the decoupled and linearized models of a sample UAV. Estimation of process model is carried out to enhance system robustness, and filter parameter adjustment is proposed to achieve a good dynamic performance. Control effects are compared and analyzed between IMC and AIMC in different wind conditions which demonstrate that AIMC has better performances than IMC. At last, Monte Carlo simulations prove the system stability.
      PubDate: 2016-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s13272-016-0216-1
  • Influences of voltage variations on electric power architectures for
           hybrid electric aircraft
    • Authors: Patrick C. Vratny; Holger Kuhn; Mirko Hornung
      Abstract: Abstract Hybrid electric and universally electric aircraft seem to be one possible option to fulfil ambitious future emission and noise reduction targets forced by the European Commission with the Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda and the NASA with the NASA N+3 goals. The overall vehicular efficiency of such concepts can be considerably improved. A key element is the design of the electric power train system with regard to efficiency and also mass. Based on a battery-powered direct current (DC) system architecture, the efficiency impact of different design voltages has been investigated in this paper. The main components within a DC electric architecture are power electronics such as converters and inverters, transmission cables, protection devices and cooling systems. Especially, the power electronics show the highest sensitivity when choosing a design system voltage. Two main losses occur within those components, conduction losses and switching losses. While conduction losses decrease with an increase in the design voltage, switching losses normally increase. Therefore, for a required design power there will be a trade-off between conduction and switching losses. For that purpose, two different architecture design philosophies were investigated to compare the system efficiencies at different design voltages. The first architecture is the constant system voltage (CSV) architecture, which compensates a decreasing output voltage of a battery, and a variable system voltage (VSV) architecture, which does not compensate this voltage drop. It has been identified that for an electric power train system delivering a constant power of 6000 kW, the VSV shows the best efficiency. The optimum system voltage of the VSV architecture is near the operating voltage of the electric motor, while the optimum system voltage of the CSV architecture was identified at higher voltages. These results will serve as baseline for the identification of the best voltage level for a mass- and efficiency-optimized system.
      PubDate: 2016-10-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s13272-016-0218-z
  • Experimental aerodynamic assessment and evaluation of an agile highly
           swept aircraft configuration
    • Authors: Kerstin C. Huber; Andreas Schütte; Martin Rein; Thomas Löser
      Abstract: Abstract Extensive experimental and numerical investigations on a highly swept generic unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV) configuration of lambda type with a variable leading edge contour have been conducted. Within these investigations, it was shown that the flow field is dominated by complex vortex systems including vortex-to-vortex and vortex-to-boundary layer interactions. The vortex-dominated flow field has a strong nonlinear influence on the aerodynamic behavior of the configuration. Hence, controllability is demanding and poses a real challenge in the design of these kinds of configurations. Especially, the dimensioning of the control surfaces, for the lateral- and longitudinal stability of tailless configurations of low aspect ratio and high leading-edge sweep, poses a challenging task which is not yet solved. To understand the problem of lacking lateral- and longitudinal stability for these kinds of configurations, experiments in the subsonic and transonic flow regime have been conducted for the Stability and Control Configuration (SACCON), which has a leading edge sweep of 53°, to assess the control surface effectiveness of conventional trailing-edge control devices. The present study reviews the experimental investigations conducted with the highly swept generic UCAV configuration SACCON.
      PubDate: 2016-10-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13272-016-0219-y
  • Numerical simulations of streamwise vortices on a high-lift wing
    • Authors: T. Landa; R. Radespiel; J. Wild
      Abstract: Abstract This contribution presents results of numerical simulations on a generic high-lift configuration. Properties of the computational grid are briefly described. The numerical simulations are performed with the DLR-TAU-Code at different angles of attack up to stall. The Menter-SST eddy viscosity turbulence model and the JHh-v2 Reynolds stress model are applied. Streamwise vortices arise at the edge of a slat, which is cut off in the spanwise direction, and the corresponding edge of the clean nose. These vortices interact with the flow along the suction side of the wing. While proceeding downstream, a strong interaction between the vortices is observed for high angles of attack. The behavior of the vortex system and the influence on the high-lift performance of the configuration is characterized. In particular, the effect of the applied turbulence models of different types on the prediction of the vortex behavior is shown within this contribution.
      PubDate: 2016-10-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13272-016-0217-0
  • Multidisciplinary design and aerodynamic assessment of an agile and highly
           swept aircraft configuration
    • Authors: C. M. Liersch; K. C. Huber; A. Schütte; D. Zimper; M. Siggel
      Abstract: Abstract The characteristics of highly swept aircraft configurations have been studied in a series of consecutive research projects in DLR for more than 15 years. Currently, the investigations focus on the generic SACCON UCAV configuration, which was specified in a common effort together with the NATO STO/AVT-161 task group. This paper is the first one in a series of articles presenting the SACCON-related research work within DLR. First, the article describes the conceptual design studies being performed for this aircraft configuration. At this point the question is raised, whether the simple aerodynamic methods used within conceptual design can be applied to such type of aircraft configurations with sufficient accuracy. Thus, the second part of this article provides a comparison of the aerodynamic characteristics of the SACCON configuration predicted by low- and high-fidelity aerodynamic methods, as well as some results from wind tunnel experiments.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13272-016-0213-4
  • Decision-making for unmanned aerial vehicle operation in icing conditions
    • Authors: S. F. Armanini; M. Polak; J. E. Gautrey; A. Lucas; J. F. Whidborne
      Abstract: Abstract With the increased use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) for civil and commercial applications, there is a strong demand for new regulations and technology that will eventually permit for the integration of UAS in unsegregated airspace. This requires new technology to ensure sufficient safety and a smooth integration process. The absence of a pilot on board a vehicle introduces new problems that do not arise in manned flight. One challenging and safety-critical issue is flight in known icing conditions. Whereas in manned flight, dealing with icing is left to the pilot and his appraisal of the situation at hand; in unmanned flight, this is no longer an option and new solutions are required. To address this, an icing-related decision-making system (IRDMS) is proposed. The system quantifies in-flight icing based on changes in aircraft performance and measurements of environmental properties, and evaluates what the effects on the aircraft are. Based on this, it determines whether the aircraft can proceed, and whether and which available icing protection systems should be activated. In this way, advice on an appropriate response is given to the operator on the ground, to ensure safe continuation of the flight and avoid possible accidents.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13272-016-0215-2
  • An innovative route from wind tunnel experiments to flight dynamics
           analysis for a highly swept flying wing
    • Authors: J. Schwithal; D. Rohlf; G. Looye; C. M. Liersch
      Abstract: Abstract A flying wing configuration with highly swept leading edges and low aspect ratio such as the generic UCAV configuration DLR-F19 is very attractive for military applications due to its very favorable stealth capabilities as well as its high agility. To assure good flying qualities, however, is a critical aspect for such a configuration. It should thus be considered early in the design process. This paper presents an innovative way to derive a flight dynamics model from wind tunnel experiments by applying a system identification approach, normally employed for flight tests. This allows the modelling of nonlinear aerodynamic effects and provides a model which can be integrated directly into flight dynamics simulations. New wind tunnel maneuvers are applied, which significantly reduce the time of the wind tunnel experiments and improve the quality of the aerodynamic dataset generation. The aerodynamic model is then integrated into a 6-degrees-of-freedom simulation environment to perform a flight dynamics analysis of the UCAV configuration. The purpose of this analysis is to compare the flying qualities as derived from wind tunnel data with the numerical results determined on the basis of potential flow methods used in preliminary aircraft design.
      PubDate: 2016-09-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s13272-016-0214-3
  • Characteristic flight speeds in bats
    • Abstract: Abstract We present empirical data on flight speed for 30 species of Australian bats representing seven families. These data show five characteristic level flight speeds: ‘minimum’ (V min), ‘best efficiency’ (V eff), ‘most common’ (V mode), ‘maximum cruise’ (V mcr) and ‘maximum spurt’ (V msp). Next, we calculate V min, V eff, ‘maximum aerobic’ (V ae), ‘sustainable anaerobic’ (V san ) and ‘maximum anaerobic’ (V man) flight speeds using a published quasi-steady model. Model predictions were within 0.5 m s−1 of the empirical values for all five characteristic speeds given adequate samples. Model fidelity was cross-checked using flight speed data published for other Old and New World species.
      PubDate: 2016-09-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s13272-016-0212-5
  • Multiscale virtual testing: the roadmap to efficient design of composites
           for damage resistance and tolerance
    • Authors: C. S. Lopes; C. González; O. Falcó; F. Naya; J. LLorca; B. Tijs
      Abstract: Abstract This paper proposes a novel approach to the determination of the mechanical behaviour of composite materials up to failure using numerical and experimental techniques in parallel. A bottom-up multiscale virtual testing strategy is presented to take into account the physical mechanisms of deformation at different length scales on the behaviour of the composite. Starting from the microscale, the contributions of the basic constituents, microstructure and loading conditions to the mechanical response are considered in a rigorous way. This hierarchical multiscale approach describes systematically the material behaviour at different length scales from ply to laminate to component level, allowing the determination of ply properties, laminate characteristics and structural response. Additionally, this approach easily allows consideration of changes in properties of the constituents (fibre, matrices), fibre architecture or laminate lay-up and provides fast predictions of their influences on the macroscopic behaviour of composite structures. Hence, this approach constitutes a promising tool to provide significant efficiency gains in the design, testing and certification of composite aircraft structures.
      PubDate: 2016-09-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s13272-016-0210-7
  • Handling qualities evaluation of an automatic slung load stabilization
           system for rescue hoist operations
    • Authors: D. Nonnenmacher; M. Jones
      Abstract: Abstract The Handling Qualities (HQs) of a helicopter can be adversely affected through the presence of an externally slung load. Helicopter stability margins may be reduced, due to the additional dynamics of the load system, which can subsequently increase pilot workload, and reduce the operational envelope. An Automatic Load Damping System (ALDS) has been designed and has been successfully tested in flight. This system, alongside slung load scenarios, has been implemented within a piloted simulation in DLR’s Air Vehicle Simulator. In this article, the results from a simulated test campaign to observe the influence of the stabilization system on the vehicle HQs are presented. The system is assessed using three Mission Task Elements, modified for hoist operations. Results show that a conflict between pilot control and commanded inputs from the ALDS can cause unstable slung load oscillations and degradation in HQs in hover. However, it is shown that when the stabilization system is used only when required, both the HQs of the helicopter are conserved, and load oscillations are reduced. The results in this paper are intended to motivate future flight tests using DLR’s Active Control Technology/Flying Helicopter Simulator.
      PubDate: 2016-09-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s13272-016-0211-6
  • Recent research topics in high-lift aerodynamics
    • Authors: J. Wild
      Abstract: Abstract High-lift systems are matured, robust and reliable components of a transport aircraft. Although facing nearly 100 years of history, there is an ongoing need of research in the aerodynamics of such systems due to changes in the requirements for aircraft development. Other than in former times, high-lift aerodynamics research is nowadays more incorporated into larger projects. It is, therefore, not as visible as before when dedicated high-lift projects were conducted, as e.g., the EC funded project EUROLIFT. The aim of this summary is to collect from different projects, the current challenging research topics in the area of high-lift aerodynamics. The contribution gives an overview on recent research topics addressed at the German DLR Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology in collaboration with national and international partners.
      PubDate: 2016-07-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s13272-016-0206-3
  • An adaptive self-managing platform for cabin management systems
    • Authors: M. Riedlinger; O. Marquardt; R. Ahmadi; R. Reichel
      Abstract: In the cabin domain, the degree of changeability is an important commercial parameter. This includes customization before initial aircraft delivery as well as in-service cabin rearrangements and upgrades. This requires a highly flexible cabin management system (CMS). Today`s CMSs face this challenge with configurable system architectures offering a vast change domain, however, the change process itself is very time consuming and error-prone. To overcome this issue our approach of an Adaptive Platform will make manual configuration widely dispensable. Thereby adaptivity means that all components of the platform’s software architecture are able to adapt to any CMS instance nearly without human intervention. Most of the system knowledge needed for this purpose, e.g., topology or communication requirements, is autonomously obtained by discovery mechanisms. The adaptive software architecture contains the following: (1) a data-centric communication middleware, (2) management services clearly separated from the application and (3) plug and play mechanisms for the integration of new application software and peripheral devices. Focus of this paper is the management service which abstracts faulty resources and coordinates global system behaviour w.r.t. aircraft’s state. As a proof of concept, an adaptive CMS demonstration system was realized. We think that the proposed architecture will increase the flexibility within the lifecycle of a CMS substantially. In addition, the contained management services raise the application’s abstraction level by disburden it from any management tasks. Further work on this topic may cover evaluation of the adaptive approach for more safety critical avionic systems or incorporate certification aspects such as automated documentation and testing.
      PubDate: 2016-07-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13272-016-0205-4
  • Crash concept for composite transport aircraft using mainly tensile and
           compressive absorption mechanisms
    • Authors: Paul Schatrow; Matthias Waimer
      Abstract: Abstract Current design concepts for transport aircraft aim at increasing the aircraft efficiency and performance by the introduction of advanced composite materials, such as carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP). These novel transport aircraft designs may show dissimilar dynamic response behaviour due to differences in failure modes and energy absorption characteristics compared with the current transport aircraft designs made of aluminium alloys. For that reason, crash concepts are being developed to utilise the high specific energy absorption of composite materials for predefined load conditions. In the context of this paper, crash concepts for future CFRP transport aircraft were developed in which most of the kinetic energy is absorbed by tension energy absorbers integrated in the cabin and cargo floor, and by crushing energy absorbers integrated in the cabin floor support struts. The developed crash concepts define mainly parallel activation of different crash devices to achieve smooth energy absorption for different crash load scenarios. Crushing of the energy absorbers integrated in the cabin floor support struts is controlled by a novel structural design in this fuselage area. So far, this research is limited to conceptual studies performed on the basis of a generic CFRP fuselage design. Numerical simulations using the explicit finite-element (FE) code Abaqus/Explicit were performed to derive qualitative and quantitative results for an assessment of the crash concepts. A hybrid FE/macro model approach was used that combines typical FE discretisation with macro models for main failure representation. Two different crash kinematics were considered which distinguish between the failure patterns of the frame structure of the lower fuselage shell. The simulation results presented in this paper in terms of energy plots, passenger accelerations, and crash sequences identify favourable crash performance for a load scenario with fully loaded cabin and an impact velocity of 9.1 m/s (30 ft/s). Significant amount of kinetic energy could be absorbed by tension loads. Parallel activation of crash devices resulted in smooth crash kinematics with reduced trigger loads. By utilisation of the cabin floor support strut area as an energy absorption zone, sufficient energy absorption capacity could be provided even for load scenarios with increased impact energies. The results, presented in this paper, are the basis for further detailed research work on this tension crash concept.
      PubDate: 2016-07-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13272-016-0203-6
  • Propeller and inflow vortex interaction: vortex response and impact on the
           propeller performance
    • Authors: Yannian Yang; Teng Zhou; Andrea Sciacchitano; Leo Veldhuis; Georg Eitelberg
      Abstract: Abstract The aerodynamic operating conditions of a propeller can include complex situations where vorticity from sources upstream can enter the propeller plane. In general, when the vorticity enters in a concentrated form of a vortex, the interaction between the vortex and blade is referred to as blade–vortex interaction or BVI. The interaction may affect the propeller performance as well as its noise production. In the present paper, investigations of the interaction of a wing tip vortex generated by a lifting surface upstream of the rotor plane and an eight-bladed propeller are reported. Utilizing two ends of an upstream wing with non-symmetrical airfoil, the rotation of the incoming vortex could be made to co-rotate or to contra-rotate with the propeller. The ensuing velocity fields were quantified with the help of particle image velocimetry (PIV), and the propeller performance was evaluated with the help of a rotating shaft balance (RSB) mounted on the propeller shaft. The results describe the displacement of the vortex core, as it moves through the rotor plane as well as the positive effect on the thrust and torque of the contra-rotating vortex and the opposite of it in the case of the co-rotating vortex. The current research could be applied to analyse the influence of the incoming vortex on the propeller, e.g., ground vortex, tip vortex shed from a control surface, etc.
      PubDate: 2016-06-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13272-016-0198-z
  • Integration of a visibility graph based path planning method in the
           ACT/FHS rotorcraft
    • Authors: M. Zimmermann; C. König
      Abstract: Abstract This work presents recent progress at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in landing guidance for helicopter approaches to landing sites without prior reconnaissance. During the project ALLFlight, DLRs research rotorcraft Advanced Control Technology/Flying Helicopter Simulator (ACT/FHS) has been equipped with a sensor suite including a LIDAR sensor, a forward looking RADAR, an infrared camera and a TV camera to provide sensor-based situational awareness. Using the information acquired by the LIDAR, a method for planning an initial flight path from previously unknown landing entry points to the landing point is presented. It is based on a previously developed method using a vehicle point representation, geo-referenced flight surfaces and visibility graphs. A second mode to provide re-planning capabilities in-flight is described. First results of flight tests conducted in 2013 are presented and discussed. Using the data recorded during these approaches, an improved re-planning strategy for the final approach based on so called visibility hulls is presented. This work continues recent research at DLR’s Institute of Flight Systems helicopter department for flight under degraded visual environment (DVE) for a full-scale helicopter.
      PubDate: 2016-06-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s13272-016-0197-0
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