Subjects -> TRANSPORTATION (Total: 212 journals)
    - AIR TRANSPORT (9 journals)
    - AUTOMOBILES (26 journals)
    - RAILROADS (10 journals)
    - ROADS AND TRAFFIC (9 journals)
    - SHIPS AND SHIPPING (39 journals)
    - TRANSPORTATION (119 journals)

TRANSPORTATION (119 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 53 of 53 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 117)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Mobilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Asian Transport Studies     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Case Studies on Transport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Danish Journal of Transportation Research / Dansk Tidsskrift for Transportforskning     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Decision Making : Applications in Management and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economics of Transportation     Partially Free   (Followers: 14)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
eTransportation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
EURO Journal of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
European Transport Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IATSS Research     Open Access  
IEEE Open Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IET Intelligent Transport Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IFAC-PapersOnLine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Applied Logistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of e-Navigation and Maritime Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Electronic Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Mobile Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Ocean Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Services Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Big Data Analytics in Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Modern Transportation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 279)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sustainable Mobility     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Transport & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Transport Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Transport History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Transportation and Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Transportation Safety & Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Transportation Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Transportation Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Waterway Port Coastal and Ocean Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal on Vehicle Routing Algorithms     Hybrid Journal  
Les Dossiers du Grihl     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
LOGI ? Scientific Journal on Transport and Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Logistics & Sustainable Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Logistique & Management     Hybrid Journal  
Mobility in History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Modern Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Open Transportation Journal     Open Access  
Packaging, Transport, Storage & Security of Radioactive Material     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Periodica Polytechnica Transportation Engineering     Open Access  
Pervasive and Mobile Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Promet : Traffic &Transportation     Open Access  
Public Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Recherche Transports Sécurité     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Revista Transporte y Territorio     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue Marocaine de Management, Logistique et Transport     Open Access  
Romanian Journal of Transport Infrastructure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SourceOCDE Transports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Streetnotes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Synthesis Lectures on Mobile and Pervasive Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Tire Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Transactions on Transport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Transport and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transport in Porous Media     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transport Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transport Reviews: A Transnational Transdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Transport technic and technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation in Developing Economies     Hybrid Journal  
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Transportation Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Transportation Letters : The International Journal of Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Transportation Research Part B: Methodological     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Transportation Research Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Transportation Research Record : Journal of the Transportation Research Board     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Transportation Safety and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Transportation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Transportation Systems and Technology     Open Access  
TRANSPORTES     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Transportmetrica B : Transport Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transportrecht     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Travel Behaviour and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Urban Development Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Urban, Planning and Transport Research     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Vehicles     Open Access  
Vehicular Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
World Electric Vehicle Journal     Open Access  
World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Транспортні системи та технології перевезень     Open Access  

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Case Studies on Transport Policy
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.557
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 16  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2213-624X
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3203 journals]
  • Barriers, motivators and strategies for sustainable mobility at the USP
           campus in São Carlos, Brazil
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport Policy, Volume 6, Issue 3Author(s): Peolla Paula Stein, Antônio Nélson Rodrigues da SilvaAbstractThe objective of this study was to investigate barriers, motivators and strategies to potentially promote sustainable mobility for graduate and undergraduate students, staff and faculty members at the University of São Paulo campus in São Carlos, Brazil. The transtheoretical model of behavior change was used to support the data analysis. Users from all the groups claimed that they would possibly change to another travel mode. Among those who said they would change to sustainable modes (16.7% of all respondents), 27.1% stated they would rather walk, whereas 46.2% would cycle. However, 13.6% of the respondents claimed they would change to cars, which would mean an additional demand of approximately 330 parking spaces on the campus. Owning a motorized vehicle was identified as the main obstacle to adopting sustainable modes.
       
  • Effects of a tradable credits scheme on mobility management: A household
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport Policy, Volume 6, Issue 3Author(s): Meng Xu, Lorenzo Mussone, Susan Grant-MullerAbstractWe investigate the influence of a new mobility management measure, the tradable credits scheme (TCS), on the daily travel mode choices of individuals. Generally, we assume the individuals’ travel consists of different modes, e.g. private car mode and mass transit mode. In order to control the rapid increase in use of the private car mode in an area, policy makers may wish to implement a TCS basing on the vehicle kilometre travelled (VKT). The effects of the TCS are investigated in this paper based on a utility-theory travel demand model proposed by Golob et al. (1981), a household utility based model incorporating proposed travel money and travel time budgets. The empirical investigation is based on comparison studies of the short-term response and long-term effects with and without TCS. It finds that the implementation of TCS has not a clear impact to the value of time of household in the short-term, and the presence of TCS does not affect the linear relationship between travel time budget and travel money budget over long term. Numerical results demonstrate that the TCS will affect the travel distance of the available transport modes differentially, according to different levels of annual household income.
       
  • Consistency of state road network master plan development steps
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport Policy, Volume 6, Issue 3Author(s): Florian M. HeinitzAbstractBy scrutinizing the implementation of a long-range road network plan at the federal state level, the article puts emphasis on the consistency of previously compartmentalized development steps. A recent regional case study of the German state of Thuringia is used to reflect the current planning procedures. Aiming to overcome inconsistencies, an integrated approach to a policy-formation framework is presented, allowing for the systematic identification of a road network improvement project portfolio. Organizational and technological options for the delivery of consistency and a better the usage of the project opportunity space are explored, for example, by transferring the considerations on welfare aspects from the cost-benefit appraisal step to the earlier process stages of construction measure specification and project nomination.
       
  • A study of vertical separation in Japanese passenger railways
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport Policy, Volume 6, Issue 3Author(s): Fumio KurosakiAbstractIn recent years, the Japanese railway sector adopted vertical separation in certain circumstances. This research investigated the recent Japanese policies and clarified the characteristics of vertically separated railways in Japan compared with those in Europe. When we consider the current status of Japanese railways where traffic is dense on many lines, the study concludes that a single railway company should manage railway operations as a whole even if the public sector retains ownership of the infrastructure. As one of the lessons learned from European experiences, it appears worthwhile to introduce railway operations based on a public-private contract for more cases in regional rail transport in Japan.
       
  • High Speed Rail: Implications for carbon emissions and biodiversity
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport Policy, Volume 6, Issue 3Author(s): Yannick Cornet, Geoffrey Dudley, David BanisterAbstractRail has traditionally been seen as ‘good’ for the environment, as it is fast and efficient with a low carbon footprint. With respect to HS2 in the UK, new environmental debates have arisen over the competing global objectives of reducing the carbon footprint of HSR and the need to maintain and enhance local biodiversity and habitat. This paper identifies, measures and comments on the longer term environmental consequences of major infrastructure decisions that have to be made today. Short term pragmatism is seen as the means by which these decisions are made, and this results in issues relating to the complexity and uncertainty in assessing future impacts being relegated to a secondary level of importance. Mitigation measures (and not alternative routes) are discussed, and the legacy value of HSR to future generations is based on notions of short term mobility and economic growth, and not on the lower levels of carbon emissions and biodiversity loss.
       
  • Employer subsidized public transit pass: Assessing disparities in access,
           use, and latent demand
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport Policy, Volume 6, Issue 3Author(s): Ugo LachapelleAbstractIn 1999, the U.S. Transportation Equity Act enabled employer subsidized public transit passes to be tax free benefits to employees and tax deductible to employers. Public transit agencies can use these to increase ridership, revenue or efficiency. Assessing disparities in access, use and willingness to use the incentive can help improve the policy’s effectiveness and help promote equitable access to its benefits.The analysis uses employed respondents from a travel survey in Atlanta, Georgia (2001–2002, n = 3430) categorized based on whether they were offered a subsidized transit pass by their employer, whether they used it or not, and whether they would be likely to use the pass if it was available to them. Socio-demographic characteristics, the presence of other incentives and built environment around home and work were compared across groups, and three logistic regressions were used to estimate parameters for each of the following questions: What socio-demographic and employer location characteristics are associated with working for an employer offering subsidized transit passes' What are the factors associated with using a pass if the incentive is offered' Finally, for those who were not offered a transit pass, what factors are associated with being likely to use a transit pass'Results suggest an undersupply of employer subsidized public transit passes for lower income workers, who were however more likely to report being likely to use a subsidized pass when not receiving one. Interestingly, however, lower income individuals with access to a transit pass were less likely to use it than their wealthier counterparts. Employment in sales and services, a workplace with limited nearby destinations and low quality transit service between home and work may further exacerbate disparities in use of subsidized transit pass. Promoting transit pass programs to employers in sales and services, and other lower income jobs and coordinating transit service improvements in locations where these employers concentrate may increase subsidized transit pass program effectiveness and distributional benefits. The work also suggests that socioeconomic disparities exist not only in infrastructure development and congestion charging, but also in policies used to influence mode shifts to public transit.
       
  • Identification of the determinants of fare evasion
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport Policy, Volume 6, Issue 3Author(s): Mario Cools, Yannick Fabbro, Tom BellemansAbstractFare evasion occurs when passengers gain access to public transport by interacting with fare controls in manners that are inconsistent with tariff. Given the considerable economic impact of fare evasion, this study aims at identifying the factors that explain fare evasion. To investigate the socio-demographic correlates and motivations of fare evasion, a stated preference survey was conducted in Flanders, the northern part of Belgium. In total, the survey collected valuable information of 636 respondents. The result of two logistic regression models, i.e. a model predicting personal fare evasion, and a model predicting acquaintances' fare evasion, indicate that only a very limited number of factors help in profiling the typical fare evader. In terms of socio-demographics, age and gender are uncontested predictors for fare evasion: younger travellers and male travellers have the highest likelihood to evade fares. For public transport operators this implies that marketing campaigns against fare evasion should be especially tailored to this subgroup for maximal impact. Besides socio-demographics, perceptions of ticket prices and perceptions with respect to the control probability are directly impacting evasion rates. To further unravel the motivations of fare evasion a shift towards a more psychological approach or the use of qualitative techniques seems promising.
       
  • A market share analysis for hybrid cars in Indonesia
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport Policy, Volume 6, Issue 3Author(s): M. Zudhy Irawan, Prawira F. Belgiawan, Adhika Widyaparaga, Deendarlianto, Arief Budiman, Imam Muthohar, Bertha M. SophaAbstractIndonesia has been a pure oil importer since 2004 while its car population and fuel consumption keep increasing. The promotion of hybrid car might be one of the strategic policies to reduce fuel consumption because nearly 92% of fuels subsidized were used for land transportation. Private cars consumed around 53% of that subsidized fuel. In this paper, we present people’s willingness to switch to hybrid cars and analyzes the most effective policy to extend the market shares of hybrid cars in Indonesia for the next ten years. Using a stated preference survey, we randomly selected 336 car owners from Jakarta, Surabaya, Yogyakarta and Central Java as our respondents. The dependent variable for our study is an intention to switch to hybrid cars with three ordered responses from definitely switch to definitely not switch. We apply an ordered-response logit model with monthly income and four policy scenarios as our explanatory variables. Those scenarios are: abolishing the fuel subsidies, restricting the subsidized fuel supply, determining the competitive prices of hybrid cars compared to conventional ones, and restricting the age limit of vehicles for 15 years. We found that provided no policy intervention by the government and car industries, the market shares of hybrid cars in Indonesia will only reach 0.58%, while the other 18.20% consider purchasing a hybrid car in the next ten years. Determining the competitive price of hybrid cars will substantially increase the willingness to absolutely switch and possibly switch to hybrid cars up to 1.27% and 32.05%, respectively. This result suggests that the high difference of purchase price between a hybrid car and the conventional vehicle is the main factor influencing the consumer to shift to a hybrid car. Our result also suggests that by applying scenarios such as abolishing the fuel subsidies and restricting the age limit of the car has a slight impact on the market share of a hybrid car in Indonesia.
       
  • Portuguese mainland road network safety performance indicator
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport Policy, Volume 6, Issue 3Author(s): Sandra Viera Gomes, João Lourenço Cardoso, Carlos Lima AzevedoAbstractStepping away from traditional crash-based road safety measurements, several safety performance indicators (SPI) have been proposed in the past few years. SPI can incorporate quantitative and qualitative information on specific aspects that are known to have influence in the safety levels and, not only measure the influence of various safety interventions but also enable comparisons between different road systems. This paper presents the results of the application of a road network SPI to the entire Portuguese road network. This SPI aims at evaluating at the network level, if the connections between urban centres within a region are made by the adequate type of roads regarding generic safety criteria. To this end, the connections to be assessed were classified into pre-defined theoretical safety classes, based on the population of the connected urban centres. Then, the observed safety class of these connections was assessed according to the characteristics of their cross-section and associated road environment of the existing connection between the two urban centres. If the observed class is ensured by a road of higher or equal class than the pre-defined theoretical level in all its extension, the link is considered to be of the appropriate class. For each connection, the results of its evaluation are expressed as a binary value: 0 when the class is not appropriate; and 1 when it is appropriate. The evaluation results are weighted by the road length and aggregated by connection class and throughout the whole road network. The results show a satisfactory network configuration with an SPI of 94% connections with class equal to or higher than the adequate for the type of connection between urban centres they established. The above insights can help in the identification of potential operational inconsistencies that may require safety-related interventions and used for international benchmarks against existing SPI evaluations.
       
  • The role of reporting mechanisms in transport policy implementation by
           local authorities in England
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport Policy, Volume 6, Issue 3Author(s): Clare McTigue, Tom Rye, Jason MoniosAbstractThe UK Transport Act 2000 made a number of reforms, requiring all local transport authorities in England, outside of London, to produce a local transport plan (LTP). A separate annual delivery report was also required to show how the LTP was progressing, however this system of close monitoring was abandoned in 2008. This paper analyses and compares the LTP 2001–2006 and the LTP Delivery Report for three UK cities in order to obtain an insight into the importance of reporting in the implementation of local transport policy. Analysis of why some policies were not implemented successfully is based on the application of a new hybrid theory of policy implementation combining top-down and bottom-up perspectives. Findings reveal that the reporting process in the three case cities misses some key information which limits the ability of local authorities to monitor their policy implementation. Moreover, applying the hybrid theory reveals that even in cases of good reporting, some important elements needed to evaluate the implementation of transport policy are lacking. The paper provides recommendations for effective implementation and better decision making that will aid local authority staff.
       
  • IFC
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport Policy, Volume 6, Issue 3Author(s):
       
  • Exploring the reach of departments of transportation tweets: What drives
           public engagement'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Ayberk Kocatepe, Mehmet Baran Ulak, Javier Lores, Eren Erman Ozguven, Anil YaziciAbstractState Departments of Transportation (DOT) utilize Twitter frequently in order to disseminate critical information regarding traffic conditions (e.g., accidents, roadway closures, and congestion) to public. Even though factors driving the effectiveness and reach of private social media accounts have been studied extensively in the literature, they are still not fully understood by federal and state transportation agencies in the context of information dissemination using Twitter. In this paper, Twitter interaction analytics such as engagement rate and impressions, and other exogenous and endogenous variables are utilized to identify those factors that influence the effectiveness of this information dissemination. For this purpose, a methodological framework is proposed involving: (a) machine learning and naïve Bayesian techniques to classify and extract information from the DOT tweets, and (b) a selection model to identify the significant endogenous (e.g. time-to-post, tweet click, tweet engagement) and exogenous (e.g. demographical, socioeconomic, and land use characteristics) factors that drive the engagement rate as an indicator of information dissemination effectiveness. This framework is implemented via a case study application based on the Twitter account of Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) District 3 region. Results reveal that factors such as tweets’ time-to-post, tweet analytics, roadway accident information, and demographic variables drive engagement to tweets. As such, this study can assist transportation agencies to calibrate their plans and policies towards providing better and faster information to the public, and improving the effectiveness and reach of their social media accounts.
       
  • The effectiveness of public transit tax credits on commuting behaviour and
           the environment: Evidence from Canada
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 August 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Nicholas Rivers, Bora PlumptreAbstractWe analyze the public transit tax credit (PTTC) introduced by the Canadian federal government in 2006. Using disaggregate microdata from the 2006 Census and 2011 National Household Survey, we apply a quasi-experimental difference-in-difference method to isolate the causal impact of the policy on transit ridership among commuters. Our regression models control for multiple socioeconomic determinants of transit demand and include highly resolved geographical fixed effects, which allow us to account for unobserved time-varying factors at the neighbourhood scale. We find the tax credit increases ridership by between about 0.33 and 1 percentage points, depending on assumptions. The large majority of recipients of the PTTC are those that would have taken transit regardless of the availability of the tax credit. With this estimate, we then perform a basic assessment of the policy’s environmental effectiveness in terms of reductions to greenhouse gas emissions and fiscal cost. Despite its promotion as a means of curbing traffic congestion and producing better outcomes for the global climate, we conclude that the PTTC is an expensive approach to achieving either public policy objective.
       
  • Complementary governance for sustainable development in transport: the
           European TEN-T Core Network Corridors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Maria Öberg, Kristina L Nilsson, Charlotta M JohanssonAbstractWhen implementing major European transport corridors, such as the Core network Corridors (CNC) which is a part of the European Trans-European Network for Transports (TEN- T), the number of stakeholders affected is huge. A governance framework for the CNC’s implementation was introduced in EU regulation no. 1315/2013, and is now being enacted. Sustainable development and stakeholder involvement are crucial areas in the implementation. This interview study investigated the need for complementary governance, here meaning governance in addition to the governance framework set in the regulation. The interviews involved 23 individuals from the Baltic Sea Area, who are affiliated to the four categories public authority, infrastructure organisation/company, private company and other organisation. The results confirm the importance of an inclusive approach. Further, the results showed a need to ensure that all three social, economic and ecological dimensions of sustainability are considered. Summarising the interview results, four areas for attention in the further CNC implementation process were identified: more and directed information, extended involvement of private sector transport stakeholders, extended involvement of regional and local stakeholders, and involvement of stakeholders located geographically outside the immediate corridor. Complementary governance can be a tool to address these areas, as governance structures and processes can involve stakeholders and steer towards desired outcomes. The interviewees own ideas for complementary governance are presented in this paper.The CNC implementation is currently an on-going process and these results will be further utilised in the process, as a basis for stakeholder discussions of changes in practice.
       
  • Evaluation of eco-driving systems: a European analysis with scenarios and
           micro simulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Eline Jonkers, John Nellthorp, Isabel Wilmink, Johan OlstamAbstractIn recent years, various field operational tests (FOTs) have been carried out in the EU to measure the real-world impacts of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). A challenge arising from these FOTs is to scale up from the very localised effects measured in the tests to a much wider set of socio-economic impacts, for the purposes of policy evaluation. This can involve: projecting future take-up of the systems; scaling up to a wider geographical area - in some cases the whole EU; and estimating a range of economic, social and environmental impacts into the future. This article describes the evaluation conducted in the European project 'ecoDriver', which developed and tested a range of driver support systems for cars and commercial vehicles. The systems aimed to reduce CO2 emissions and energy consumption by encouraging the adoption of green driving behaviour. A novel approach to evaluation was adopted, which used scenario-building and micro-simulation to help scale up the results from field tests to the EU-28 level over a 20 year period, leading to a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) from both a societal and a stakeholder perspective. This article describes the method developed and used for the evaluation, and the main results for eco-driving systems, focusing on novel aspects, lessons learned and implications for policy and research.
       
  • Threat and Vulnerability Risk Assessment for Existing Subway Stations: A
           Simplified Approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Onur Avci, Osman OzbulutAbstractPeople use infrastructure systems mostly without realizing how important these systems are until an attack or damage occurs and results in casualties or causes discomfort or inconvenience. Even though there have been numerous studies on critical infrastructure protection in the literature, there has not been any published document on a simplified approach on the risk assessment and protection of existing subway stations. With this motivation, this paper aims to describe and summarize the results of a Threat and Vulnerability Risk Assessment (TVRA) study designed for a generic subway station complex. The scope is to provide the details of the TVRA process for a typical existing station, for typical assets, with a simplified approach. The paper not only presents the TVRA procedure but also provides recommendations for mitigation strategies that would help reduce the risk of threats to existing subway station. The existing subway station is assumed to be in downtown of a relatively large city, therefore close to a business district, located within densely occupied commercial building developments. While each station complex has its own unique characteristics, the methodology shared in this manuscript is generic and can be implemented for any station in the world.
       
  • The Welfare Effects of the Free Subway Fare Scheme for Seniors: A Discrete
           Choice Approach with the Case of Seoul
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Jun Myung-Jin, Jeong Ji-Eun, An Hyun-JuAbstractThis study investigates the effects of a free subway scheme for the elderly on mode shift and consumer surplus for the Seoul metropolitan area, using discrete choice models. The analysis results can be summarized as follows. First, a comparative analysis of temporal and spatial subway trip distributions between the elderly and the general public shows that the majority of elderly subway trips were made during off-peak periods on a weekday, avoiding peak periods and busy stations. Second, the free subway scheme has contributed to shifting elderly modes from automobile, bus, and walk to subway, attracting about 54-58 thousand seniors’ trips per day to subway. Third, the scheme has generated about $60-74 million per year in net social welfare after accounting for the financial cost of the scheme, concluding that the scheme enhances seniors’ mobility and social welfare without putting a substantial burden on the existing subway system.
       
  • Valuing Transport Investments based on Travel Time Savings—A
           Response to David Metz
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Peter Mackie, Richard Batley, Tom WorsleyAbstractDavid Metz’s recent case study published in this journal argues that the conventional approach to the economic appraisal of transport projects is inadequately evidenced and likely to lead to inconsistency with policy goals. In his view, these shortcomings have been further demonstrated by the recent UK study of the value of travel time savings (VTTS), and radical reform of appraisal is required. Metz makes some good points, but many of his key arguments are unsound. This paper responds to Metz’s arguments, including his critique of the VTTS concept and the recent UK study on this subject. The paper argues that the preferred approach to appraisal should be an evolutionary one, bringing together the transport sector impacts and the planning and economic development impacts in the overall transport business case.
       
  • Improving policy support in city logistics: the contributions of a
           multi-actor multi-criteria analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Philippe Lebeau, Cathy Macharis, Joeri Van Mierlo, Milena JanjevicAbstractA range of solutions have been developed to improve the sustainability of city logistics. However, their implementations are sometimes failing. Involving stakeholders in the decision process is increasingly recognised to be a necessity to guarantee the adoption of these solutions by the sector and ensure their successful implementation. The objective of the paper is therefore to contribute to the development of a bottom-up approach where stakeholders are involved in the evaluation and selection of more sustainable strategies for city logistics.The authors present the MAMCA as a method which structures the consultation process of stakeholders. This approach was tested in a workshop in Brussels and the paper uses that consultation process as an illustration of the methodology. That application demonstrated the benefits of the MAMCA to ensure a productive workshop. The methodology allows the authorities to especially identify the priorities of the stakeholders in city logistics, to guide the discussion towards a consensus and to provide inputs for an eventual adaptation of the strategies.
       
  • Stakeholder consensus on the use of compressed natural gas as automotive
           fuel in Nigeria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Olufemi O. Ogunlowo, M. Sohail, Abigail L. Bristow
       
  • Incorporating the travellers’ experience value in assessing the quality
           of transit nodes: A Rotterdam case study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Laura Groenendijk, Jafar Rezaei, Gonçalo CorreiaAbstractThe quality of a transit node is determined by the experience of travellers. However, the reference model for classifying the quality of a transit node, the so-called Node-Place model, does not consider this important dimension (experience). In this paper, we propose a method to add quality from a traveller’s perspective to the Node-Place (NP) model by adding the experience value. The new model is called the Node-Place-Experience (NPE) model. A case study in Rotterdam in the Netherlands is used to apply and illustrate our proposal for the model extension to experience. A literature review provided the criteria for the experience value and the weights have been obtained by using a survey among 140 respondents as input for a multi criteria decision making method called Best Worst Method (BWM). The case study shows that the experience value significantly influences the perceived quality of transit nodes and that the new method shows more accurate results.
       
  • Perception of Potential Bus Users and Impact of Feasible Interventions to
           Improve Quality of Bus Services in Delhi
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Hemant Kumar Suman, Nomesh B. Bolia, Geetam TiwariAbstractThis work suggests possible recommendations that can make bus transport (BT) more attractive and thus enable shifting of potential users from private motor vehicles (PMVs) to BT in Delhi. The work is based on three studies conducted in Delhi. The first one determines major reasons for potential bus users not using BT for regular commute. The second study determines the impact of selected interventions in changing the behavior of potential users, while the third one determines the implementation feasibility of these interventions. The first and second studies are carried out amongst potential bus users of 17 organizations and the third amongst transportation experts. The findings of the first study reveal that the major concerns of potential users in decreasing order of importance are overcrowding of buses, longer travel times, non-availability of direct bus services, and lack of punctuality. The second study reveals that the impact of providing a confirmed seat to commuters in buses is the highest. Further, the cumulative impact of any two interventions is more than 0.3, i.e., more than 30% people are ready to shift to BT.
       
  • A Framework for improving sustainable mobility in higher education
           campuses: The case study of Qatar University
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 July 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Simona Azzali, Eman Abdel SabourAbstractNowadays, sustainable mobility is a main challenge addressed by policy-makers, public managers and scholars worldwide. This research presents a set of guidelines and solutions to support the design of a more sustainable mobility plan for Qatar University. A review of literature, case-studies and research initiatives is used to derive key issues; while a multi-layered methodology (primary data analyses, direct observations, and a survey) is used to design and implement a comprehensive framework to improve the current mobility system, by introducing new services and assessing the use of services which are already in place. The proposed framework can support further investigations aimed at defining new ways to face the sustainable mobility challenge within higher education institutions.
       
  • The privatization of roads: An overview of the Turkish case
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): İsmail Çağrı ÖzcanAbstractThere has been a global drastic policy shift from the public provision of major infrastructure services to privatization, and Turkey is no exception to this tendency. Following the slow-down of privatization efforts in the 90s, the last decade has witnessed a jump in Turkish infrastructure privatizations. Despite this recovery, however, Turkish road privatizations still fail to significantly outperform other transport modes unlike global trends and especially lagged behind airport privatizations. In a country like Turkey, which is in need of substantial road investments and expresses its policy priority of enlarging its road network, this relatively lower performance needs elaborate evaluation. The aim of this paper is to fill in this gap by analyzing Turkish road privatizations, discussing implemented privatization schemes and their characteristics, and providing some policy lessons. The findings reveal that the lack of pre-bid studies such as accurate origin–destination matrices and surveys on the willingness to pay behavior prevent the effective risk management of road privatizations. In addition, the analyses also suggest that Turkish public authorities might overuse traffic and revenue guarantees to stimulate greenfield road privatizations through the Build-Operate-Transfer scheme.
       
  • A stochastic approach to the benefit cost ratio analysis of safety
           treatments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Salvatore Cafiso, Carmelo D'Agostino
       
  • Exploring the effectiveness of demand management policy in reducing
           traffic congestion and environmental pollution: Car-free day and odd-even
           plate measures for Bandung city in Indonesia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Muhammad Farda, Chandra BalijepalliAbstractTraffic congestion has been a major problem in big cities around the world, not to mention several large cities in Indonesia. Bandung is the second largest metropolitan area after Jakarta in Indonesia which suffers from extreme levels of congestion. With a high number of motorcycles and large private car population, congestion in this city is ever growing worsening the environment. While the local authorities struggle to find resources to fund capital intensive capacity expansion projects, this research explores the use of cost effective demand management policy measures to reduce the congestion and pollution. This study aims at assessing two relatively under-researched demand management policy measures that restrict vehicle flows viz., car-free day and odd-even plate schemes to investigate the effect on traffic congestion and the environment. SATURN traffic network modelling software has been used to predict the route choices of vehicles. Bandung city road network and origin destination matrix have been adapted to simulate the two measures during the peak hour. As well as providing the necessary inputs to a pollutant emission estimation model, traffic network modelling output forms the basis for assessing the congestion levels. Results show that both car-free day and odd-even plate measures have unintended consequences that undermine their effectiveness which if addressed could make them highly beneficial solutions. Car-free day scheme reduces the traffic flow levels in the vicinity of scheme but diverts the vehicle flow elsewhere to other routes which may adversely affect the congestion/pollution. Odd-even plate scheme is very effective at the beginning of its implementation but the performance gradually diminishes as drivers start to adapt by buying a second vehicle or even using fake number plates.
       
  • The situation awareness of young drivers, middle-aged drivers, and older
           drivers: Same but different'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Bridie Scott-Parker, Tamara De Regt, Christian Jones, Jamie CaldwellAbstractObjectiveExtensive driving experience is essential for developing vital situation awareness skills. Young (‘inexperienced’) drivers have poor situation awareness (SA) skills compared to middle-aged (experienced) drivers, and driving abilities have been found to deteriorate with increasing age. Much remains unknown regarding similarities and differences in the SA of these driver cohorts. Data and Methodology: Using verbal commentary protocol, 36 persons with a valid driver’s licence (12 young, 12 middle-aged, 12 older) observed a 16-minute day-time driving scenario. Results: Similarities in SA were found, with all participants commenting on driving hazards in the immediate environment (eg., vehicle immediately in front). Differences in SA across groups were found, particularly the structure of the SA network. SA information is vital for effective intervention in the road safety of all drivers, improving the learning of young drivers, teaching by middle-aged drivers, and optimising road safety for older drivers.
       
  • Does Your City Need a Metro' – A Tel Aviv Case Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Nir Sharav, Marcos Szeinuk, Yoram ShiftanAbstractPlanning and investing in a transit system to provide future mobility needs in a growing metropolitan area is a complex mission requiring a long-term strategic outlook and major financial investment.The objective of this paper is to demonstrate a methodological approach that combines indicative and strategic long-term tools with detailed transport planning and network simulations to evaluate needs for investment in urban transit, plan the transit network structure and determine the investment requirements. The methodology enables the policy maker to focus on the overall approach to the direction of system development and its effect on mobility. It consists of scenario settings, network structure and mode planning along with an evaluation process that both ranks strategic goals and utilizes an activity-based transportation model for more detailed analysis.The approach is demonstrated in a case study of Tel Aviv, the largest metropolitan area in Israel, where current transportation services are provided mainly by buses and limited suburban rail routes. This paper shows the value of the methodology to determine the city’s transit needs. In conclusion, the paper determines that the future Tel Aviv transit system will require an extensive investment in a metro-oriented network in order to provide the city’s mobility needs along with the desirable level of service and transit usage.The result of this paper illustrates how this approach can help decision makers set strategic goals and make decisions regarding their city’s future transit system to meet mobility needs.
       
  • Acceptability of a tradable driving credit scheme in the Netherlands and
           Beijing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Nico Dogterom, Yue Bao, Meng Xu, Dick EttemaAbstractThere is increasing interest in the concept of tradable driving credits (TDC) as an alternative road pricing measure. To a considerable extent, this interest is inspired by the belief that TDC will address some major equity-related concerns, which are often raised in the case of traditional road pricing, because the measure is revenue-neutral, offers an opportunity for individuals to gain, and guarantees a minimum amount of ‘free’ travel through the allocation of personal credit allowances. This study investigates the acceptability of a proposed kilometre-based TDC scheme for personal car use. By analysing data from the Netherlands and China (Beijing), opinions towards TDC and its determinants are studied in two different cultural, societal and institutional contexts. Acceptability was much higher in Beijing: 67% compared to 22% in the Netherlands. We relate this difference to higher congestion levels in Beijing and the city’s current license plate-based driving restriction policy, compared to which TDC is evaluated to be more effective and fair by a majority of the participants. Having a higher income was positively related with acceptability in both countries, as were expected effectiveness and fairness. The effect of perceived fairness was particularly strong in Beijing.
       
  • Case studies in transport policy special issue transport planning and
           policy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Maria Attard, Stephen G. Ison, Guenter Emberger
       
  • Editorial for discussion section
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Rosário Macário
       
  • Congestion relief and public transport: An enhanced method using
           disaggregate mode shift evidence
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 June 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Duy Q. Nguyen-Phuoc, Graham Currie, Chris De Gruyter, William YoungAbstractMode shift from public transport (PT) to private car in the event of PT withdrawal can increase the level of traffic congestion in urban areas. This increase in congestion is interpreted as the congestion relief impact associated with urban PT. However, existing methods for estimating the impact of PT on relieving traffic congestion have generally assumed a fixed mode shift to car. This paper presents an enhanced method for estimating the congestion relief impact of PT by varying the mode shift to car. First, primary data from a survey conducted in Melbourne, Australia was used to develop a linear regression model for predicting the share of mode shift from PT to car. The Victorian Integrated Survey of Travel and Activity (VISTA) dataset was then applied to this model to estimate the potential mode shift for different spatial areas of Melbourne. Second, PT congestion relief impacts were estimated by contrasting the level of congestion in two scenarios: ‘with PT’ and ‘without PT’. This stage was undertaken using the Victorian Integrated Transport Model (VITM), a conventional four step model. The results show that PT operations in Melbourne contribute to reduce the number of severely congested links by more than 63%. Vehicle time travelled and total delay on the road network also reduces by around 56%.
       
  • Editorial: Road pricing reform – Another attempt at getting started!
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): David A. Hensher
       
  • Analysis of traffic characteristics of urban roads under the influence of
           roadside frictions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 June 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): S. Salini, R. AshalathaAbstractWith increase in population and vehicular density in urban areas in developing countries, urban roads present a dismay picture with roads not being able to cater to the capacity for which they are designed for. This situation not only leads to huge economic wastage, but also endangers safety of road users. Increase in vehicular population along with shortage of urban road space is manifested in the form of road side frictions. Side friction factors are defined as those activities which take place on the sides of carriage ways or even on the carriage ways that are likely to affect the normal traffic flowing through the carriage ways. Friction factors are observed to affect the normal traffic adversely in the heterogeneous traffic condition in developing countries like India much severely than the roads catering homogeneous traffic. In general, side frictions can be in the form of buses stopped at bus stops, pedestrians walking along the sides of carriage ways and crossing at random, on-street parking, exits and entries from approach roads, slow moving vehicles etc. The present study conducted on four lane divided urban roads considering the most commonly observed forms of side frictions on Indian roads like buses stopped on curb side bus stops, pedestrians walking along carriage ways, on-street parking and a combination of all these factors was done to quantitatively assess the impact of these on traffic characteristics of flow on the roads. Analysis was conducted to determine the speed reduction and capacity deterioration observed on such stretches and speed prediction models were modelled with the above friction parameters as independent variables for each category of side friction.
       
  • Investigating drivers’ decision zones at high-speed intersections in
           China based on the acceleration-deceleration diagram
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 June 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Fen Wang, Keshuang Tang, Yanqing Xu, Keping LiAbstractThe objective of this paper is to empirically investigate drivers’ decision zones at the onset of flashing green and yellow indication at rural high-speed intersections in China. 1122 high-resolution trajectories of the first-to-stop and the last-to-go vehicles during the phase transition time period were collected at four intersection approaches in Shanghai. Speed-Distance (S-D) diagram and Acceleration-Deceleration (A-D) diagram were then used to analyze the distribution of drivers’ decision zones in response to the onset of flashing green and yellow respectively. The former is a conventional approach based on a fundamental assumption that no drivers would accelerate to cross or make an abrupt stop. The latter is a more flexible method based on the required acceleration rate to cross and the required deceleration rate to stop which can be extracted from vehicle trajectory data. Results support that the installation of flashing green helps to reduce the dilemma zone according to the A-D diagram. There are limits when using S-D diagram to analyse the driving situations based on G.H.M model.
       
  • Estimating traffic performance on Spanish two-lane highways. Case study
           validation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 June 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Ana Tsui MorenoAbstractSpanish standards rely on the procedures of the U.S. Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) in order to analyze traffic efficiency. Given the differences in road environment, driving behavior and vehicles’ performance, the HCM procedure would not be completely suitable for application to Spanish conditions. Moreover, the effect of passing restrictions is considered through the percentage of no-passing zones and significant variations on the horizontal alignment are not included on the uniform segment identification; which can lead to unrealistic results.The objective of this paper is to twofold: (1) modify the HCM two-lane highway analysis procedure for Spanish conditions considering the effect of passing restrictions and highway alignment variations on two-lane highway operation; (2) compare on one case study the results from the proposed approach and the HCM analysis procedure.The results indicate that solely geometry was not enough to characterize traffic operation on the straighter alignments (almost tangent), where speed dispersion was up to 20 km/h, and passing restrictions should be also included. Moreover, PTSF varied significantly depending on average passing zone lengths. The case study indicated that the proposed methodology provides more accurate estimates than the HCM on actual (in operation) two-lane highways.The proposed approach combines the effect on highway performance of passing restrictions, as considered on the US HCM, and highway alignment, as considered directly on the German HCM. The impact of trucks is modeled through the percentage of trucks rather than PCEs values, as it is common practice in Spain and Germany. This approach is simpler and more flexible to model the impact of trucks, passing restrictions and highway alignment on the different performance measures.
       
  • Identification of platoon dispersion pattern under heterogeneous traffic
           conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 June 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): P.S. Praveen, R. AshalathaAbstractVehicles released from the traffic signal travel along the arterial in platoons. These tend to disburse as they proceed through the corridor. The present study uses various measures which quantify speed variability to determine regions where initial dispersion and higher dispersion occur on signalized urban arterials under heterogeneous traffic conditions. Video graphic survey technique was used to collect the traffic data. Data was collected up to 420 m and each platoon was analysed at every 30 m interval. The analyses identified the pattern of dispersion of platoons of vehicles along the downstream of traffic signals at three different volume levels. On the basis of the fluctuations depicted by the measures which quantify speed variability namely profiles of speed, standard deviation, relative standard deviation, relative speed difference and platoon characterizing variables, the regions where in initial and higher platoon dispersion occurred along the downstream of traffic signals were identified as 180 m and 360 m respectively. It is found that at the critical inter arrival time range of 2.8 s–3.2 s initial dispersion happens and at the range of 3.2–3.6 s higher dispersion occurs under heterogeneous traffic conditions. This research work provides better understanding of platoon dispersion phenomenon under heterogeneous traffic conditions in order to improve signal coordination and to enhance traffic flow.
       
  • Sustainability analysis of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure – A
           case study for Bangalore
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): T.M. Rahul, Ashish VermaAbstractThe current paper proposes a methodological framework incorporating a Composite Sustainability Index (CSI) to determine the sustainability impact on providing segregated footpaths and cycle-lanes. It establishes a link between the proposed Non Motorized Transport (NMT) infrastructure and CSI using the explanatory indicators: number of motorized vehicles and vehicle- kilometers travelled by the motorized modes. The main components of the framework include an estimation of the mode choice model, calculation of the explanatory indicators for the scenarios before and after providing NMT infrastructure, and determination of the sustainability impact.The proposed framework is then used to determine the sustainability impact on providing NMT infrastructure inside the Central Business District (CBD) of Bangalore and around the bus stops carrying trips to the CBD. Three case studies were undertaken with the first one considering only intra zonal (CBD) trips, the second one considering only inter zonal trips having CBD as destination, and the third one considering both the trips. The results of all case studies found an increase in the CSI, and thus an improvement in the sustainability on providing segregated footpaths and cycle-lanes. Further, from a social equity perspective, providing NMT infrastructure offered an alternate modal option for the low-income group and reduced their dependence on public transport.
       
  • Tackling urban traffic congestion: The experience of London, Stockholm and
           Singapore
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): David MetzAbstractIt is generally supposed that the most credible approach to mitigating urban road traffic congestion is by charging for road use. Congestion charging has been in operation in three major cities for some years. The most extensive data is available for London, where the introduction of charging led to an immediate decrease in both traffic and delays; however, congestion returned to previous levels over subsequent years. A similar initial decrease in traffic and delays was observed in Stockholm. In Singapore, where the cost of car ownership is substantial, charging has enabled acceptable traffic speeds to be maintained. Evidence from these cities provides little support for the general use of congestion charging to limit demand for car use in urban areas. Congestion is therefore difficult to mitigate, but is also self-limiting, given the time constraints on travel behaviour. While delays arising from congestion are not easy to alleviate, there is scope for reducing journey time uncertainty.
       
  • Impact analysis of transport network disruptions using multimodal data: A
           case study for tunnel closures in Stockholm
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport Policy, Volume 6, Issue 2Author(s): Athina Tympakianaki, Haris N. Koutsopoulos, Erik Jenelius, Matej CebecauerAbstractThe paper explores the utilization of heterogeneous data sources to analyze the multimodal impacts of transport network disruptions. A systematic data-driven approach is proposed for the analysis of impacts with respect to two aspects: (a) spatiotemporal network changes, and (b) multimodal effects. The feasibility and benefits of combining various data sources are demonstrated through a case study for a tunnel in Stockholm, Sweden which is often prone to closures. Several questions are addressed including the identification of impacted areas, and the evaluation of impacts on network performance, demand patterns and performance of the public transport system. The results indicate significant impact of tunnel closures on the network traffic conditions due to the redistribution of vehicles on alternative paths. Effects are also found on the performance of public transport. Analysis of the demand reveals redistribution of traffic during the tunnel closures, consistent with the observed impacts on network performance. Evidence for redistribution of travelers to public transport is observed as a potential effect of the closures. Better understanding of multimodal impacts of a disruption can assist authorities in their decision-making process to apply adequate traffic management policies.
       
  • IFC
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport Policy, Volume 6, Issue 2Author(s):
       
  • In search of success: Ex-post evaluation of a Norwegian motorway project
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Morten WeldeAbstractProject success is a heterogeneous measure. Different stakeholders may have different definitions of successful project. Ex-post evaluation can and should be used to demonstrate whether a scheme has performed as promised and to assess its success from different perspectives. The paper demonstrates the use of a goal-oriented evaluation framework that is currently used on large Norwegian infrastructure projects. The framework includes traditional value for money measures, but more importantly it maps the results of schemes against the original objectives. The paper presents a recent evaluation of a motorway project. The evaluation suggests that the project has been successful and that the determinants for success were actions taken decades before implementation, namely during the appraisal and the construction.
       
  • A port-based evaluation framework of trade facilitation policies: Case of
           Shenzhen and Hong Kong
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport Policy, Volume 6, Issue 2Author(s): Michael C.B. Cheng, Donggen Wang, James J. WangAbstractIn recent years, trade facilitation becomes more complicated as related policies vary from state to port level, while at the same time free trade zones are also developing. Global indicators that have been commonly applied to monitor state-level trade facilitation policies fail to capture effects of similar measures at hub ports. This study develops an evaluation framework that adopts supply chain dimensions to examine the effects of port-level trade facilitation policies. Port of Shenzhen and Hong Kong are investigated by such framework to reveal the breadth and depth of trade facilitation programmes. Outcome of this research not only explains the effects of hub-port oriented trade facilitation measures, such framework could also facilitate the formulation, implementation, and review of trade facilitation policies.
       
  • The impacts of relocating a logistics facility on last food miles – The
           case of Melbourne’s fruit & vegetable wholesale market
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport Policy, Volume 6, Issue 2Author(s): Khalid Aljohani, Russell G. ThompsonAbstractThe distribution activities of fresh produce by retail and wholesale trade industries generate a large volume of freight movements in urban areas. Recently, the local government in Melbourne, Australia have relocated the fruit & vegetable wholesale market from a centrally located suburb: West Melbourne to Epping, a suburban area on the fringe of Greater Melbourne. This paper investigates the impacts of the market relocation on the freight activities for fruit and vegetable retailers and wholesalers that source fresh produce directly from the wholesale market. This study utilised a telephone questionnaire with retailers to identify their delivery schemes and evaluate the impact of the market relocation on their freight trips. The analysis of the responses indicated that the market relocation has led to a significant increase (31%) in distance travelled (VKT) by retailers compared with the former site in West Melbourne. It is estimated that this additional distance contributes 830 tonnes of CO2-e per year for all the freight trips by the retailers. Furthermore, nineteen fruit & vegetable wholesalers participated in the semi-structured interviews to evaluate the impacts of the market relocation on their freight activities with respect to additional vehicle-km and explore any changes to their freight trips. It is estimated that wholesalers have to drive on average an additional 14.1 km to distribute the fresh produce to their customers due to the market relocation. Analysis for the wholesalers revealed that the market relocation complicated their ability to sustain their customer base and geographical coverage due to the additional vehicle-km.
       
  • The Hudson Tunnel Project: Exploring public opinion support for public
           funding mechanisms for critical infrastructure
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport Policy, Volume 6, Issue 2Author(s): Marc D. Weiner, Michael R. Greenberg
       
  • A multiple case study of local & creative financing of bicycle and
           pedestrian infrastructure
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport Policy, Volume 6, Issue 2Author(s): Shaleen Miller, Christopher CouttsAbstractDespite recognition that improving bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure is complimentary to the goals of health and sustainability, it is expected that dwindling federal support for this infrastructure will cause most proposed bicycle and pedestrian projects to go unfunded, and therefore unrealized, in the US. This study examines a number of local mechanisms that cities have used to finance bike/ped infrastructure and some of the implications in doing so. Case studies of crowdfunding, Tax Increment Financing, bonds, donations, and sales tax are discussed in four U.S. cities.
       
  • Financial and structural impacts of quasi-marketization of the Helsinki
           Metropolitan Area’s bus services
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport Policy, Volume 6, Issue 2Author(s): Pekka Valkama, Jari Kankaanpää, Ari-Veikko AnttiroikoAbstractThis study describes the phases of quasi-marketization of the Helsinki Metropolitan Area’s bus services and analyzes the financial and structural consequences for purchasers and providers. Qualitative data was collected through interviews, a focus group, and extensive document reviews, while the quantitative data was received from a sub-regional authority and from the Finnish Patent and Registration Office’s database. According to our findings, even if the clear purchaser-provider split was a difficult and long process, the threat of competition and particularly the introduction of tendering resulted in reductions in contract prices. Bus operators started to compete for market shares and over the years of the quasi-market they lost their profitability and consumed their own assets. The quasi-market format could not provide equal terms of competition between municipal and private operators, resulting in all municipal and many small operators disappearing from the market. The market structure became more concentrated as the number of purchasers and providers fell. The quasi-market framework was initiated by the central government and it has been instrumental for local political decision-makers to increase the responsiveness of operators through competitive contracting.
       
  • Provider perspectives on six strategies to overcome the barriers to older
           adult use of alternative transportation services: Evidence from seven
           communities
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport Policy, Volume 6, Issue 2Author(s): Jeffrey R. Brown, Michael Duncan, Mark W. Horner, Megan Bond, James Wood
       
  • Optimum positions for frictions between service centers to minimize
           passenger delays
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport Policy, Volume 6, Issue 2Author(s): Shamain Saparamadu, Saman BandaraAbstractWaiting time and walking distances for passengers are major considerations to determine the geometry of an airport terminal configuration. Based on a study of passenger arrival and waiting patterns at terminal service centers in an airport, such as: ticket counters, immigration, baggage claim and security checks, this paper is about the effect of placing other frictions such as shops, washrooms, food cabins and internet accesses between mandatory service centers. Going by the information collected the best positions for frictions between service centers were decided on to minimize passengers’ waiting time. With regard to the best positions, the first consideration related to the distributions of arrival and waiting patterns at mandatory terminal services. Then, the effects of the distributions for frictions were incorporated separately to find out the change of distributions with the inter change in frictions. Next, the best suitable positions for frictions and services centers were determined from among all combinations of combining frictions and service centers. The frictions placed between the mandatory services centers depend on the means and variances of the frictions. The percentages of passengers going through the frictions were also considered to find out the optimum positions for frictions between service centers. Analytical solutions for optimum positions for frictions between service centers to minimize passenger delays were realized after analyzing the data for frictions and mandatory service centers. Simulation models were used to verify these analytical solutions.
       
  • Mode choice behavior of high school goers: Evaluating logistic regression
           and MLP neural networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport Policy, Volume 6, Issue 2Author(s): Khaled J. Assi, Kh Md Nahiduzzaman, Nedal T. Ratrout, Adel S. AldosaryAbstractThere is a quite a handful of scientific evidence where logistic regression and multilayer perceptron neural networks (MLPs) are compared to explain mode choice behavior. Student populations, however, are understudied. Further, a model that better explains the mode choice behavior of ‘high school’ goers has not been scientifically investigated. On this backdrop, this paper endeavored to make a comparison between the efficiency and robustness of the logistic regression model and MLPs to predict and explain the mode choice behavior of high school students in Khobar city. Among the pertinent variables considered, the logistic regression model finds that (i) monthly family income, (ii) travel time to school, and (iii) parents’ education level are statistically significant to determine the mode choice to the school. Based on the most significant variables and a comparative analysis conducted between logistic regression and MLP, the latter has better strength in predicting and explaining mode choice behavior of public high school goers. This led to a reflection on the implications for transport policies.
       
  • Measuring the quality of public transportation systems and ranking the bus
           transit routes using multi-criteria decision making techniques
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport Policy, Volume 6, Issue 2Author(s): Samet GünerAbstractThis paper aims to provide a useful and practical methodology for bus transit operators to monitor and improve the quality of bus transit services. To this aim, a two-stage multi-criteria decision making approach is proposed. The first stage involves the use of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to determine the priority of each service quality attribute from the passengers’ point of view. The second stage adopts Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) to measure the service quality and rank the bus transit routes. The proposed approach provides a comprehensive performance analysis by incorporating user preferences and multiple criteria into the evaluation. Analysis identifies the most important service quality attributes from the users’ perspectives. Furthermore, it distinguishes between high and low quality transit routes and gives an opportunity to monitor and improve the quality of bus transit service.
       
  • Would free park-and-ride with a free shuttle service attract car
           drivers'
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport Policy, Volume 6, Issue 2Author(s): Rachel Katoshevski-Cavari, Nitzan Bak, Yoram ShiftanAbstractThis study examines the potential of free park-and-ride facilities alongside free shuttle services on fast lanes to attract car users. The paper is based on a case study of the “fast lane”, a high-occupancy toll road (HOT) to Tel Aviv, inaugurated on January 2011 in order to ease congestion at the highly congested entrance to Tel Aviv by giving priority to public transportation (busses) and high occupancy vehicles. This unique facility combines a free park-and-ride facility, a fast lane, and a shuttle service running on the fast lane. The aim of our questionnaire-based study was to determine whether this facility creates a viable alternative to private car owners as a means of transport to Tel Aviv. We also sought to identify factors that trigger private-car drivers to shift to the shuttle as a means of transport. Better understanding of these factors may potentially assist transportation experts, planners, and policy-makers in promoting new and better programs to boost public transport. Our results indicate that about 50% of the current facility users shifted from commuting by car, while most of the others shifted from other means of public transportation. Commuters from Tel Aviv’s metropolitan region are the majority of potential users, and the service is mainly required during the morning rush hours. A combination of attributes, including free access to the fast lane, time saving, cost saving, and a relaxed ride, make this service attractive, but time saving is a significant predictor for using the shuttle. However, the results indicate that the facility is also attracting public transportation users to shift to multi-mode travel, where a car is used to commute to the park-and-ride facility.
       
  • River-based public transport: Why won’t Paris jump on board'
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport Policy, Volume 6, Issue 2Author(s): Elise Bignon, Dorina PojaniAbstractGiven the magnitude of transport-problems in many large cities, the potential of rivers to serve as transport arteries is being recognized once again. However, some world cities, such as Paris, have failed to maximize their river potential. The Seine remains underutilized by mass commuter ferries serving the local population. Why, in the modern era, has Paris not taken advantage of its river for commuter transport' Will it do so in the future' This article answers these questions, which are important at the present time of grave sustainability concerns. The identified barriers include: (a) funding constraints; (b) competition by other modes; (c) lack of political and institutional will; (d) lack of opportunity; (e) local legislation; and (f) technical issues. The first three are common worldwide while the last three are specific to Paris.
       
  • Energy intensity of road freight transport of liquid fuels for automotive
           use in Ecuador: Assessment of changes in logistics
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport Policy, Volume 6, Issue 2Author(s): Patricio Gallardo, Juan Pablo Díaz, Paola Quintana, Israel Cevallos, Paúl León, Jaime GuillénAbstractIn Ecuador, liquid fuels are transported through a system of oil pipelines and tank wagons. The first part of the article proposes a novel methodology for the calculation of the energy intensity associated with the transportation of liquid fuels (gasoline and diesel) via road freight transport (tankers). The computation is based on the fuel economy of the vehicles from the fleet, the distance travelled, the volumes of fuel dispatched from the terminals and the loads assigned to each type of vehicle. The assessment is derived upon data collected from the main terminals located in Quito (Beaterio) and Guayaquil (Pascuales). The second part of the article comprises an estimate of the potential savings that could be achieved through the implementation of three recommendations including: a redistribution of the loads assigned to each vehicle category, a reduction in fuel economy due to eco driving initiatives and the introduction of a new terminal. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the logistics behind the transportation of liquid fuels in Ecuador and also to predict the energy savings that could be accomplished through optimization approaches.
       
  • Combining samples to offset nonresponse and respondent biases
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport Policy, Volume 6, Issue 2Author(s): Fakhra Jabeen, Doina Olaru, Brett SmithAbstractWhat if probabilistic-based sampling does not result in a representative sample' How can researchers overcome low respondent engagement and hypothetical choices that are perceived as being socially desirable' These questions are relevant regardless of the way primary data collection is conducted.A statistically sound sampling strategy still depends on individuals volunteering their participation. Even with extrinsic rewards, there is no guarantee the respondent will contribute an honest effort. This research reports on the data collection for a study investigating the acceptance of electric vehicles (EV) in Australia. Complementing the Western Australian Electric Vehicle Trial, this research focuses on household preferences and attitudes towards EV. The data set represents the last stage of data collection with four surveys (initially delivered to trial participants and later aimed at the broader community).An initial sample showed high interest in EV and environmentally friendly technologies, but higher education levels and higher socioeconomic status households were overrepresented. To compensate for the bias, a second sample was collected from an online panel (PureProfile). Although neither sample is representative of the population, the results from the pooled data are deemed more appropriate for understanding drivers of EV uptake in Western Australia and informing policy making accordingly.
       
  • Case study of the behavioural intentions of public transportation
           passengers in Kuala Lumpur
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Hamza Imhimmed Mohamed Irtema, Amiruddin Ismail, Muhamad Nazri Borhan, Amsori Muhammad Das, Abdurauf B.Z. AlshetwiBehavioural intention is associated with the likelihood of engaging in a particular behaviour. It is crucial as it indicates that how customers may behave in the future and has its roots in the theory of planned behaviour. This case study examines the behavioural intention of public transport passengers in Kuala Lumpur, the capital city of Malaysia. It also examines the relationship between passengers’ behavioural intention and other underlying factors, including quality of service, perceived value, involvement, and satisfaction. Questionnaires were distributed to 412 passengers to gather empirical data. The structural equation modelling method was used to analyse the conceptualised relationship model. The results of this analysis show that all relationships are statistically significant. They show that service quality, perceived value, involvement, and satisfaction have positive effects on the behavioural intention public transport passengers in Kuala Lumpur. The result also shows a direct negative relationship between perceived value and passenger satisfaction. Passenger satisfaction determines behavioural intention. Hence, in order to improve passenger satisfaction, both service quality and perceived value must be given serious consideration. Passenger satisfaction, however, is contingent upon improvement in the quality of service provided by the public transportation system, and this in turn influences passengers’ perception of value, which is based on ticket price. The results of this research show that service attributes, namely vehicle safety, service cleanliness, and grievance management have profound influence on the perception of public transport passengers. The findings of this study also identify the important service attributes that should be given high priority by the managers of the public transportation services in Kuala Lumpur.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • An ordered regression model to predict transit passengers’
           behavioural intentions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Juan de Oña, Rocío de Oña, Laura Eboli, Carmen Forciniti, Gabriella MazzullaAbstractPassengers’ behavioural intentions after experiencing transit services can be viewed as signals that show if a customer continues to utilise a company’s service. Users’ behavioural intentions can depend on a series of aspects that are difficult to measure directly. More recently, transit passengers’ behavioural intentions have been considered together with the concepts of service quality and customer satisfaction. Due to the characteristics of the ways for evaluating passengers’ behavioural intentions, service quality and customer satisfaction, we retain that this kind of issue could be analysed also by applying ordered regression models. This work aims to propose an ordered Probit model for analysing service quality factors that can influence passengers’ behavioural intentions towards the use of transit services. The case study is the LRT of Seville (Spain), where a survey was conducted in order to collect the opinions of the passengers about the existing transit service, and to have a measure of the aspects that can influence the intentions of the users to continue using the transit service in the future.
       
  • Revenue-risk-sharing approaches for public-private partnership provision
           of highway facilities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Omid M. Rouhani, Richard R. Geddes, Wooseok Do, H. Oliver Gao, Arash BeheshtianAbstractWe review major revenue risk-sharing approaches developed world-wide that are designed to mitigate concessionaire risk and thus encourage private participation in public-private partnership (P3) arrangements. We examine variable availability payments, minimum revenue guarantees (MRG), variable-term contracts, financial re-balancing, and dynamic revenue insurance approaches. The preferred choice among these approaches depends on the level of demand risk, the risk-taking preferences of both partners, and the nature of the project, among others. For instance, highly-flexible tolling regulations help mitigate revenue risk since the private partner can adjust tolls to cope with varying demand, and as a result, riskier approaches such as Least Present Value Revenue (LPVR) or even full revenue risk may become acceptable to the private sector. In addition to these case-specific factors, we recommend public agencies follow several general guidelines, including: (i) for MRGs, a collar option (high and low thresholds) performs best since it can preserve the private incentive to increase revenue and performance; (ii) institutional stability can play an important role in the level of guarantees, e.g., Chile could employ P3s with fewer guarantees as a result of stable and well-established P3 programs/legislations; and (iii) P3 partners should also explore alternative options to mitigate revenue risks such as providing flexible pricing, controlling non-compete clauses, and allowing new technology adaption.
       
  • Speed vs locations: Accessibility level evaluations. The case of the Ring
           of Sciences in Lyon
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Cyrille Genre-Grandpierre, Cyril Sahuc, Serigne GueyeAbstractFor a long time, the cost-benefits evaluation of new road infrastructure, built in order to improve accessibility, has mainly been based on the time saving involved. This time is “monetized” and enables a decision as to whether the infrastructure is cost effective or not for a given time span. This method often promotes the building of high speed infrastructures to reduce travel time with, in the medium term, automobile dependency as a consequence. In today’s context of lower funding and the search for greater sustainability, the goal of this work was to evaluate if it is possible to reach good levels of accessibility by efficiently relocating facilities (in this study jobs) rather than by building new road infrastructure. We want to illustrate to what extent it is possible to make accessibility less dependent on travel speed, by changing job locations to reduce travel time. We have developed a simulation platform coupling a geographical information system and an algorithm for optimal relocations, and illustrate its use through the case of the Ring of Science road project in Lyon (France).
       
  • Revisiting the flaws and pitfalls using simulation in the analysis of
           aviation capacity problems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Miguel Mujica Mota, Idalia FloresAbstractThe aviation industry is a changing industry in which several factors influence the performance of the airport and the network of airports that are interconnected. Business models, technical operations in airspace and in the airfield, societal conditions among others are some of the ones that must be taken into account in order to get a full understanding of the cause-effect relationships that hinder the proper management of the system. In recent times with the evolution of the computer technology and the level of maturity of the algorithms used to simulate and analyse dynamic systems, simulation has gained more importance than before. Simulation approaches emerge as the ones that are able to take into account the stochastic nature of dynamic systems besides all the different factors that impact the systems under study. This is something that traditional analytical approaches could not evaluate and therefore under the constant change of the systems they lack of the proper flexibility to provide timely solutions. However with the popularity that simulation has gained, the different steps and good practices that must be taken into account are commonly forgotten when the simulation model is developed and then the system is analysed; in the particular case of the aviation industry this situation has gained particular importance.The current paper addresses some of the common flaws and pitfalls incurred when simulation is used for analysis of aeronautical systems. Pitfalls’ classification and suggestions for avoiding them are presented. Some flaws are exemplified through cases in which the conclusion from the analysis might differ depending on the angle of the analysis performed with the implications of different economic consequences for the decision makers. The main objective of this paper is that it serves as an eye-opener for a relatively novel researcher or practitioners in the art of simulation. It will serve for avoiding these common flaws when using simulation for addressing aviation problems.
       
  • Low carbon paratransit in Jakarta, Indonesia: Using econometric models to
           improve the enabling environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): S.B. Nugroho, E. ZusmanAbstractA large proportion of Asia’s urban population is served by informal modes of transport known as paratransit. Many of the vehicles in this informal sector contribute to rising air pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Energy-efficient technologies could make paratransit environmentally sustainable. However, the purchase and use of clean vehicles is contingent on the willingness of the drivers to switch vehicles in the face of different policies. This paper draws upon a series of discrete choice and regression models to analyze drivers’ response to a set of such hypothetical policies in Jakarta, Indonesia. The analysis confirmed that drivers are relatively unlikely to alter preferences for high-emissions vehicles without strong support from subsidies and demand management policies. In sum, policymakers will need to embed efforts to promote sustainable paratransit in a carefully designed suite of enabling policies that are not only good for the environment but paratransit operators.
       
  • A new methodological framework for evaluating flexible options at airport
           passenger terminals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Liliana Magalhães, Vasco Reis, Rosário MacárioAbstractFlexibility has been proposed as a suitable alternative or a complement to the traditional airport development approach based on Master Plans. Flexibility increases airports’ resilience to unexpected or unforeseen events such as economic recessions, regulatory restrictions or technological developments, to name a few. Although the benefits of flexibility have been discussed, the debate has thus far been conducted at the conceptual level. Furthermore, research which refers to ways of measuring the benefits of flexibility is almost inexistent.This manuscript proposes a novel framework to support the incorporation of elements of flexibility in the airport development plan. The framework was primarily developed for cases of extension – i.e., when expansion is not an option. It is organised in three phases: 1) definition of the decision inputs, scenarios and flexible options, 2) ex-ante operational evaluation and, 3) ex-ante economic evaluation. The framework is meant to guide airport managers assessing the plausibility of alternatives in keeping or improving the efficiency of airport’s processes.An application of the framework is presented. The case study is the Terminal 2 of the Lisbon International Airport. The objective of the use of this case study is twofold: 1) to exemplify the applicability of the framework, and; 2) validate the framework together with the interviews that we conducted with airport practitioners. The results evidence that flexibility can increase the efficiency by reducing the waiting times, which will increase the passengers’ dwelling time. The costs are compensated by the increase in the non-aeronautical revenues.
       
  • Option generation for policy measures and packages: An assessment of the
           KonSULT knowledgebase
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Anthony D. May, Haneen Khreis, Caroline MullenAbstractObjectiveOption generation is an essential element in the development of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMPs), but is also one of the areas of greatest weakness. This paper focuses on the assessment of a measure option generator as a decision-support tool to enhance the development of SUMPs. Its aim is to assess whether this option generation facility can assist cities in developing more effective policy measures and packages and, if so, in which contexts it is most helpful.MethodsAfter reviewing the literature the paper proposes nine criteria which such tools should satisfy. It briefly describes the option generator within the Knowledgebase on Sustainable Urban Land use and Transport, KonSULT. It then describes a survey in which KonSULT was tested by nine cities from across Europe. It uses the results to assess the option generator against the nine criteria.ResultsThe nine cities all found that KonSULT contributed to their understanding of the option generation process for SUMPs, and to their awareness of the range of policy measures available and their use in packages. Of them, five identified new policy measures, and seven new approaches to packaging such measures. Not surprisingly, a facility such as KonSULT was more valuable for those with less experience of urban transport policy, which suggests that it should be promoted in particular for training programmes, for younger professionals, and to cities embarking on SUMP development for the first time.DiscussionThe research methodology did not allow us to assess KonSULT against the criteria of treatment of transferability and of ability to reflect the aspirations of different types of user. These are areas for further testing. Indeed, there remains a dearth of literature on the specific issue of policy transferability.
       
  • Agent based simulation model for improving passenger service time at
           Bangalore airport
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Ashish Verma, Divyakant Tahlyan, Shubham BhusariAbstractAgent based simulation models have emerged as a significant aid for policy makers as they help them understand and predict the impact of various policies to make informed decisions. In this study, an agent based simulation model for Kempegowda International Airport, Bangalore is developed to understand and predict the impact of various proposed policies aimed at improving the airport system’s throughput. The model is calibrated using observed data on passengers at the airport. Input service time data at various stages of service is determined by fitting various parametric distributions around the observed data, where choice of best distribution is determined using various statistical measures (chi-squared goodness of fit test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA)). Further, a binary logit model is estimated to determine the influence of various individual characteristics on a passenger’s likelihood to engage in discretionary activities inside the terminal building. Six policy scenarios were tested to understand the impact of various policies on system throughput and the model’s sensitivity towards change in factors influencing a passenger’s likelihood to participate in discretionary activity was also analyzed. The results show considerable influence of the proposed policies on the system throughput. This can help in designing various policies to make the terminal operations more efficient.
       
  • Assessing interchange effects in public transport: A case study of South
           East Queensland, Australia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018Source: Case Studies on Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Barbara T.H. Yen, Corinne Mulley, Wen-Chun Tseng, Yu-Chiun ChiouAbstractInterchange or transfers for passengers in large multimodal public transport networks are more or less inevitable. In South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia, there is a zone based fare system in place which does not penalize transfers within the same zone but does charge a full fare for an inter-zone transfer in a single journey. This research investigates the interchange effects from an analysis of passengers’ travel patterns using the smart card data from the automated fare collection system in place in SEQ. Latent class nested logit models are estimated with social demographic characteristics to measure transfer behaviour, and are used to investigate the opportunity for better interchange policies to increase the network effect. The results identified passengers' heterogeneous preferences towards travel alternatives with markedly different market segments. The empirical results identified passengers categorised into four segments of employees, students, wealthier people and seniors. The findings suggest that public transport network effects are most important to the employee segment with student and senior segments being more likely to choose direct alternatives over alternatives involving interchange. In order to enhance the public transport network effects, two transfer policies are simulated and all segments show increase of the transfer behaviour but with different alternative shares.
       
 
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