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  Subjects -> TRANSPORTATION (Total: 130 journals)
    - AIR TRANSPORT (1 journals)
    - AUTOMOBILES (17 journals)
    - RAILROADS (4 journals)
    - ROADS AND TRAFFIC (5 journals)
    - SHIPS AND SHIPPING (10 journals)
    - TRANSPORTATION (93 journals)

TRANSPORTATION (93 journals)

Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (15 followers)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Archives of Transport     Open Access   (4 followers)
Bitácora Urbano-Territorial     Open Access   (1 follower)
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (8 followers)
Economics of Transportation     Partially Free   (11 followers)
EURO Journal of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
European Transport Research Review     Open Access   (9 followers)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
IATSS Research     Open Access  
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (5 followers)
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
IET Intelligent Transport Systems     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
International Innovation – Transport     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Logistics     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
International Journal of Automotive Technology     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
International Journal of Aviation Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Aviation Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
International Journal of Electronic Transport     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
International Journal of Micro-Nano Scale Transport     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
International Journal of Mobile Communications     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
International Journal of Ocean Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
International Journal of Services Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (10 followers)
International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
International Journal of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (1 follower)
Journal of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (9 followers)
Journal of Air Transport Management     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Journal of Airline and Airport Management     Open Access   (2 followers)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (16 followers)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Journal of the Transportation Research Forum     Open Access   (3 followers)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (7 followers)
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (4 followers)
Journal of Transport Geography     Hybrid Journal   (12 followers)
Journal of Transport History     Full-text available via subscription   (10 followers)
Journal of Transport Literature     Open Access  
Journal of Transportation Safety & Security     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Journal of Transportation Security     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (11 followers)
Journal of Transportation Technologies     Open Access   (7 followers)
Journal of Waterway Port Coastal and Ocean Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (5 followers)
Les Dossiers du Grihl     Open Access  
Logistique & Management     Full-text available via subscription  
Marine Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Maritime Affairs:Journal of the National Maritime Foundation of India     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology     Open Access  
Modern Transportation     Open Access   (1 follower)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology     Open Access   (2 followers)
Pervasive and Mobile Computing     Hybrid Journal   (9 followers)
Proceedings of IMarEST - Part A - Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
PS: Political Science & Politics     Full-text available via subscription   (17 followers)
Public Transport     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Recherche Transports Sécurité     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (3 followers)
Revista Transporte y Territorio     Open Access   (1 follower)
SourceOCDE Transports     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Streetnotes     Open Access   (2 followers)
Synthesis Lectures on Mobile and Pervasive Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Tire Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Transactions on Transport Sciences     Open Access   (3 followers)
Transport     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Transport and Telecommunication Journal     Open Access   (2 followers)
Transport in Porous Media     Hybrid Journal  
Transport Reviews: A Transnational Transdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (12 followers)
Transportation Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (20 followers)
Transportation Research Part B: Methodological     Hybrid Journal   (19 followers)
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (12 followers)
Transportation Research Record : Journal of the Transportation Research Board     Full-text available via subscription   (26 followers)
Transportation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (14 followers)
TRANSPORTES     Open Access   (1 follower)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Transportmetrica B : Transport Dynamics     Hybrid Journal  
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Транспортні системи та технології перевезень     Open Access  
International Journal of Vehicular Technology    [3 followers]  Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 1687-5702 - ISSN (Online) 1687-5710
     Published by Hindawi Publishing Corporation Homepage  [347 journals]
  • Performance Comparison of IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 802.11b for
           Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications in Highway, Rural, and Urban Areas
    • Abstract: Communication between vehicles has recently been a popular research topic. Generally, the Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V), Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I), and Infrastructure-to-Infrastructure (I2I) communications applications can be divided into two sections: (i) safety applications and (ii) nonsafety applications. In this study, we have investigated the performance of IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 802.11b based on real-world measurements and radio propagation models of V2V networks in different environments, including highway, rural, and urban areas. Furthermore, we have investigated the most used V2V mobility models and simulation tools. Comparative performance evaluations show that the IEEE 802.11p achieves higher network throughput, low end-to-end delay, and higher delivery ratio compared to IEEE 802.11b. Overall, our main objective is to describe potential advantages, research challenges, and applications of V2V networks and show how IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 802.11b will perform under different radio propagation environments.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Nov 2013 14:24:29 +000
  • Advances of Human Factors Research for Future Vehicular Technology
    • PubDate: Mon, 30 Sep 2013 14:51:47 +000
  • Analysis of Temporal Relationships between Eye Gaze and Peripheral Vehicle
           Behavior for Detecting Driver Distraction
    • Abstract: A car driver’s cognitive distraction is a main factor behind car accidents. One’s state of mind is subconsciously exposed as a reaction reflecting it by external stimuli. A visual event that occurs in front of the driver when a peripheral vehicle overtakes the driver’s vehicle is regarded as the external stimulus. We focus on temporal relationships between the driver’s eye gaze and the peripheral vehicle behavior. The analysis result showed that the temporal relationships depend on the driver’s state. In particular we confirmed that the timing of the gaze toward the stimulus under the distracted state induced by a music retrieval task using an automatic speech recognition system is later than that under a neutral state while only driving without the secondary cognitive task. This temporal feature can contribute to detecting the cognitive distraction automatically. A detector based on a Bayesian framework using this feature achieves better accuracy than one based on the percentage road center method.
      PubDate: Sun, 15 Sep 2013 13:31:47 +000
  • Automotive Technology and Human Factors Research: Past, Present, and
    • Abstract: This paper reviews the history of automotive technology development and human factors research, largely by decade, since the inception of the automobile. The human factors aspects were classified into primary driving task aspects (controls, displays, and visibility), driver workspace (seating and packaging, vibration, comfort, and climate), driver’s condition (fatigue and impairment), crash injury, advanced driver-assistance systems, external communication access, and driving behavior. For each era, the paper describes the SAE and ISO standards developed, the major organizations and conferences established, the major news stories affecting vehicle safety, and the general social context. The paper ends with a discussion of what can be learned from this historical review and the major issues to be addressed. A major contribution of this paper is more than 180 references that represent the foundation of automotive human factors, which should be considered core knowledge and should be familiar to those in the profession.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Sep 2013 15:01:57 +000
  • Fuel Efficiency by Coasting in the Vehicle
    • Abstract: This paper investigates the possibility of improving the fuel efficiency by decreasing the engine speed during the coasting phase of the vehicle. The proposed approach is stimulated by the fact that the engine losses increase with the engine speed. If the engine speed is retained low, the engine losses will be reduced and subsequently the tractive torque will be increased, enabling the vehicle to remain moving for longer duration while coasting. By increasing the time period of the coasting the fuel efficiency can be increased, especially travelling downhill, since it can benefit from the kinematic energy stored in the vehicle to continue coasting for a longer duration. It is already industry standard practice to cut fuel during coasting and refuel at low engine speed. The substantial difference proposed in this paper is the controlled reduction of engine speed during this phase and thus reduction in the engine losses, resulting in improved fuel economy. The simulation model is tested and the results illustrating an improvement to the fuel efficiency through the proposed method are presented. Some results of the experimental tests with a real vehicle through the proposed strategy are also presented in the paper.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Aug 2013 14:41:22 +000
  • Improving Energy Conversion Efficiency by means of Power Splitting in Dual
           Drive Train EV Applications
    • Abstract: The limited amount of energy stored on board of battery electric vehicles (BEV) spurs research activities in the field of efficiency optimization for electric drive train applications in order to achieve an enhanced mileage. In this work a control method for BEV applications with two drive trains (e.g., one at the front and one at the rear axle) is presented. Herein, a simple optimization algorithm is introduced enabling to operate the two drives with different torque values, depending on the instantaneous operation point, leading to a reduction of apparent power losses on board. Simulations on a virtual BEV yield a decrease in the cumulated energy consumptions during typical BEV operation, leading to an increase in the achievable mileage.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Aug 2013 08:29:19 +000
  • The Front Seat Passenger: How to Transfer Qualitative Findings into Design
    • Abstract: While the field of automotive HCI research abounds in driver-focused design and studies of driver distraction, relatively little attention has been directed to the front seat passengers. A challenge for designers and researchers is the ideation through exploration of passenger experiences and needs and the question of how to integrate them in design solutions. In this paper, we ground an ideation exercise based on results of a probing study conducted at two petrol stations. A probing package for front seat passengers was designed and distributed in cooperation with a petrol station company. Approximately 700 customers were approached randomly and 90 probe packages were handed out. 30 probing packages were returned and a segment clustering and a qualitative analysis were performed. The results gave insights into the activities and needs of front seat passengers and were then used in a design workshop together with a group of industrial designers. A set of ideas for novel interface solutions for front seat passengers were developed such as the invisible engine (look through the motor block with a display-based camera system). We further discuss the challenges and shortcomings of how to interpret and express ideas when transferring qualitative research findings into design.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Jul 2013 09:20:59 +000
  • Identification of Cognitive Distraction Using Physiological Features for
           Adaptive Driving Safety Supporting System
    • Abstract: It was identified that traffic accidents relate closely to the driver’s mental and physical states immediately before the accident by our questionnaire survey. Distraction is one of the key human factors involved in traffic accidents. We reproduced driver’s cognitive distraction on a driving simulator by means of imposing cognitive loads such as doing arithmetic and having conversation while driving. Visual features such as test subjects’ gaze direction, pupil diameter, and head orientation, together with heart rate from ECG, were used in this study to detect the cognitive distraction. We improved detection accuracy obtained from earlier studies by using the AdaBoost. This paper also suggests a multiclass identification using Error-Correcting Output Coding, which can identify the degree of cognitive load. Finally, we verified the effectiveness of the multiclass identification by conducting a series of experiments. All these aimed at developing a constituent technology of a driver monitoring system that is expected to create adaptive driving safety supporting system to lower the number of traffic accidents.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Jul 2013 11:09:45 +000
  • A Robust Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller Synthesis Applied on Boost DC-DC
           Converter Power Supply for Electric Vehicle Propulsion System
    • Abstract: The development of electric vehicles power electronics system control comprising of DC-AC inverters and DC-DC converters takes a great interest of researchers in the modern industry. A DC-AC inverter supplies the high power electric vehicle motors torques of the propulsion system and utility loads, whereas a DC-DC converter supplies conventional low-power, low-voltage loads. However, the need for high power bidirectional DC-DC converters in future electric vehicles has led to the development of many new topologies of DC-DC converters. Nonlinear control of power converters is an active area of research in the fields of power electronics. This paper focuses on a fuzzy sliding mode strategy (FSMS) as a control strategy for boost DC-DC converter power supply for electric vehicle. The proposed fuzzy controller specifies changes in the control signal based on the surface and the surface change knowledge to satisfy the sliding mode stability and attraction conditions. The performances of the proposed fuzzy sliding controller are compared to those obtained by a classical sliding mode controller. The satisfactory simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed control law which reduces the chattering phenomenon. Moreover, the obtained results prove the robustness of the proposed control law against variation of the load resistance and the input voltage of the studied converter.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 May 2013 16:23:49 +000
  • Multiple-Observation-Based Robust Channel and Doppler Estimation in High
           Mobility Applications
    • Abstract: Channel estimation is a challenging task, especially in high mobility applications due to the rapid variation of the propagation environment. This paper presents a new technique that exploits past channel impulse responses (CIRs) in order to trace and compensate Doppler frequency in mobile applications, enabling robust estimation of time-varying channel. Based on the fact that channel taps at different time instants can be fitted with a sinusoidal wave, a joint estimator is proposed to estimate the channel parameters. Therefore, the efficiency of the channel estimation can be improved and stringent delay requirements for the communication systems can also be satisfied. Simulation results show that system performance in terms of bit error rate (BER) is significantly improved with the proposed algorithm.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 May 2013 18:16:38 +000
  • ICT Innovations in Future Smart Cars
    • PubDate: Mon, 13 May 2013 16:09:00 +000
  • Performance Evaluation of IEEE 1609 WAVE for Vehicular Communications
    • Abstract: In IEEE 1609, it uses IEEE 802.11 Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA) mechanism to access the channel. IEEE 802.11 EDCA is a new wireless technology for wireless access in the vehicular environment (WAVE). It defines a new supplement to the existing IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol. In IEEE 802.11 EDCA, the aim is providing a QoS support. While the system serves different access categories (ACs), EDCA does not perform well under high load conditions. In order to improve the efficiency, we pay attention to the EDCA with transmit opportunity (TXOP) mechanism. We first proposed a Markov chain model and studied the behavior. We extend the model to support IEEE 802.11 EDCA and presented a more accurate analysis under nonideal channel environment. We also compared it with that without TXOP mechanism under channel error environment.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 May 2013 10:37:48 +000
  • Vehicle Yaw Rate Estimation Using a Virtual Sensor
    • Abstract: Road vehicle yaw stability control systems like electronic stability program (ESP) are important active safety systems used for maintaining lateral stability of the vehicle. Vehicle yaw rate is the key parameter that needs to be known by a yaw stability control system. In this paper, yaw rate is estimated using a virtual sensor which contains kinematic relations and a velocity-scheduled Kalman filter. Kinematic estimation is carried out using wheel speeds, dynamic tire radius, and front wheel steering angle. In addition, a velocity-scheduled Kalman filter utilizing the linearized single-track model of the road vehicle is used in the dynamic estimation part of the virtual sensor. The designed virtual sensor is successfully tested offline using a validated, high degrees of freedom, and high fidelity vehicle model and using hardware-in-the-loop simulations. Moreover, actual road testing is carried out and the estimated yaw rate from the virtual sensor is compared with the actual yaw rate obtained from the commercial yaw rate sensor to demonstrate the effectiveness of the virtual yaw rate sensor in practical use.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Apr 2013 14:43:45 +000
  • Human’s Overtrust in and Overreliance on Advanced Driver Assistance
           Systems: A Theoretical Framework
    • Abstract: This paper gives a theoretical framework to describe, analyze, and evaluate the driver’s overtrust in and overreliance on ADAS. Although “overtrust” and “overreliance” are often used as if they are synonyms, this paper differentiates the two notions rigorously. To this end, two aspects, (1) situation diagnostic aspect and (2) action selection aspect, are introduced. The first aspect is to describe overtrust, and it has three axes: (1-1) dimension of trust, (1-2) target object, and (1-3) chances of observation. The second aspect, (2), is to describe overreliance on the ADAS, and it has other three axes: (2-1) type of action selected, (2-2) benefits expected, and (2-3) time allowance for human intervention.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Apr 2013 11:23:00 +000
  • Modeling and Analysis of Connected Traffic Intersections Based on Modified
           Binary Petri Nets
    • Abstract: We propose an approach for the modeling and analysis of two connected traffic intersections based on Petri nets (PNs). We first use a PN to model an isolated four-way signalized intersection; then we extend it to model two successive signalized intersections. We find that this model has unbounded places, which in turn results in some confliction problems. Hence, we introduce the concept of modified binary petri nets (MBPNs) to overcome the limitation and resolve the confliction problem when we design our model and its controller. This MBPN model is a powerful tool and can be useful for the modeling and analysis of many other traffic applications.
  • Predicting Driver Behavior Using Field Experiment Data and Driving
           Simulator Experiment Data: Assessing Impact of Elimination of Stop
           Regulation at Railway Crossings
    • Abstract: We investigated the impact of deregulating the presence of stop signs at railway crossings on car driver behavior. We estimated the probability that a driver would stop inside the crossing, thereby obstructing the tracks, when a lead vehicle suddenly stopped after the crossing and a stop regulation was eliminated. We proposed a new assessment method of the driving behavior as follows: first, collecting driving behavior data in a driving simulator and in a real road environment; then, predicting the probability based on the collected data. In the simulator experiment, we measured the distances between a lead vehicle and the driver’s vehicle and the driver’s response time to the deceleration of the leading vehicle when entering the railway crossing. We investigated the influence of the presence of two leading vehicles on the driver’s vehicle movements. The deceleration data were recorded in the field experiments. Slower driving speed led to a higher probability of stopping inside the railway crossing. The probability was higher when the vehicle in front of the leading vehicle did not slow down than when both the lead vehicle and the vehicle in front of it slowed down. Finally, advantages of our new assessment method were discussed.
  • Palm Personal Identification for Vehicular Security with a Mobile Device
    • Abstract: Security certification is drawing more and more attention in recent years; the biometric technology is used in a variety of different areas of security certification. In this paper, we propose a palm image recognition method to identify an individual for vehicular application; it uses palm image as a key for detecting the car owner. We used mobile phone cameras to take palm images and performed a new identification approach by using feature regularization of palm contour. After identification is confirmed, the phone uses Bluetooth/WiFi to connect the car to unlock it. In our evaluation, the experiments show that our approach is effective and feasible.
  • Vehicle Dynamics Approach to Driver Warning
    • Abstract: This paper discusses a concept for enhanced active safety by introducing a driver warning system based on vehicle dynamics that predicts a potential loss of control condition prior to stability control activation. This real-time warning algorithm builds on available technologies such as the Electronic Stability Control (ESC). The driver warning system computes several indices based on yaw rate, side-slip velocity, and vehicle understeer using ESC sensor suite. An arbitrator block arbitrates between the different indices and determines the status index of the driving vehicle. The status index is compared to predetermined stability levels which correspond to high and low stability levels. If the index exceeds the high stability level, a warning signal (haptic, acoustic, or visual) is issued to alert the driver of a potential loss of control and ESC activation. This alert will remain in effect until the index is less than the low stability level at which time the warning signal will be terminated. A vehicle speed advisory algorithm is integrated with the warning algorithm to provide a desired vehicle speed of a vehicle traveling on a curve. Simulation results and vehicle tests were conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the warning algorithm.
  • Evaluation of a Navigation Radio Using the Think-Aloud Method
    • Abstract: In this experiment, 13 licensed drivers performed 20 tasks with a prototype navigation radio. Subjects completed such tasks as entering a street address, selecting a preset radio station, and tuning to an XM station while “thinking aloud” to identify problems with operating the prototype interface. Overall, subjects identified 64 unique problems with the interface; 17 specific problems were encountered by more than half of the subjects. Problems are related to inconsistent music interfaces, limitations to destination entry methods, icons that were not understood, the lack of functional grouping, and similar looking buttons and displays, among others. An important project focus was getting the findings to the developers quickly. Having a scribe to code interactions in real time helped as well as directed observations of test sessions by representatives of the developers. Other researchers are encouraged to use this method to examine automotive interfaces as a complement to traditional usability testing.
  • A Neurofuzzy Approach to Modeling Longitudinal Driving Behavior and
           Driving Task Complexity
    • Abstract: Technological innovations can be assumed to have made the driving task more complex. It is, however, not yet clear to what extent this complexity leads to changes in longitudinal driving behavior. Furthermore, it remains to be seen how these adaptation effects can best be modeled mathematically. In order to determine the effect of complexity on empirical longitudinal driving behavior we performed a driving simulator experiment with a repeated measures design. Through this experiment we established that complexity of the driving task leads to substantial changes in speed and spacing. In order to provide insight into how complexity is actually related to changes in longitudinal driving behavior we introduce a new theoretical framework based on the Task-Capability-Interface model. Finally in this paper we take some first steps towards modeling of adaptation effects in longitudinal driving behavior in relation to complexity of the driving task through the introduction of a new neurofuzzy car-following model and based on the proposed theoretical framework. In this paper we show that this model yields a relatively good prediction of longitudinal driving behavior in case of driving conditions with differing complexity. The paper finishes with a discussion section and recommendations for future research.
  • A Geo-Aware and VRP-Based Public Bicycle Redistribution System
    • Abstract: Public Bicycle System (PBS) has been developed for short-distance transportation as a part of the mass transportation system. The supply and demand of bikes in PBS is usually unbalanced at different stations and needs to be continuously and widely monitored and redistributed. The bicycle redistribution is a part of the vehicle routing problem (VRP). We can apply solutions to the VRP to redistribute bicycle efficiently. However, most solutions to the VRP use the Euclidean distance as the condition factor, which does not take road conditions, traffic regulations, and geographical factors into account, resulting in unnecessary waste of delivery time and human resources. In this work, we propose an actual path distance optimization method for the VRP to adapt the several additional constraints of road problems. We also implement a system that integrates real-time station information, Web GIS, the urban road network, and heuristics algorithms for PBS. The system includes a simulator inside that can assist PBS managers to do the route planning efficiently and find the best scheduling strategy to achieve hotspot analysis and the adjustment of station deployment strategies to reduce PBS operation cost.
  • Development and Evaluation of Automotive Speech Interfaces: Useful
           Information from the Human Factors and the Related Literature
    • Abstract: Drivers often use infotainment systems in motor vehicles, such as systems for navigation, music, and phones. However, operating visual-manual interfaces for these systems can distract drivers. Speech interfaces may be less distracting. To help designing easy-to-use speech interfaces, this paper identifies key speech interfaces (e.g., CHAT, Linguatronic, SYNC, Siri, and Google Voice), their features, and what was learned from evaluating them and other systems. Also included is information on key technical standards (e.g., ISO 9921, ITU P.800) and relevant design guidelines. This paper also describes relevant design and evaluation methods (e.g., Wizard of Oz) and how to make driving studies replicable (e.g., by referencing SAE J2944). Throughout the paper, there is discussion of linguistic terms (e.g., turn-taking) and principles (e.g., Grice’s Conversational Maxims) that provide a basis for describing user-device interactions and errors in evaluations.
  • A Driver Face Monitoring System for Fatigue and Distraction Detection
    • Abstract: Driver face monitoring system is a real-time system that can detect driver fatigue and distraction using machine vision approaches. In this paper, a new approach is introduced for driver hypovigilance (fatigue and distraction) detection based on the symptoms related to face and eye regions. In this method, face template matching and horizontal projection of top-half segment of face image are used to extract hypovigilance symptoms from face and eye, respectively. Head rotation is a symptom to detect distraction that is extracted from face region. The extracted symptoms from eye region are (1) percentage of eye closure, (2) eyelid distance changes with respect to the normal eyelid distance, and (3) eye closure rate. The first and second symptoms related to eye region are used for fatigue detection; the last one is used for distraction detection. In the proposed system, a fuzzy expert system combines the symptoms to estimate level of driver hypo-vigilance. There are three main contributions in the introduced method: (1) simple and efficient head rotation detection based on face template matching, (2) adaptive symptom extraction from eye region without explicit eye detection, and (3) normalizing and personalizing the extracted symptoms using a short training phase. These three contributions lead to develop an adaptive driver eye/face monitoring. Experiments show that the proposed system is relatively efficient for estimating the driver fatigue and distraction.
  • Detection of Overhead Contact Lines with a 2D-Digital-Beamforming Radar
           System for Automatic Guidance of Trolley Trucks
    • Abstract: The benefit of trolley truck systems is the substitution of the diesel fuel by the cheaper and more ecological electrical energy. Trolley trucks are powered by electricity from two overhead contact lines, where one is the supply and the other the return conductor. Such trolley trucks are used for haulage at open pit mining sites but could also be used for freight traffic at roadways in the future. Automatic guidance prevents the trolley-powered trucks from leaving the track and thus allows higher operating speeds, higher loading capacity, and greater efficiency. Radar is the ideal sensing technique for automatic guidance in such environments. The presented radar system with two-dimensional digital beamforming capability offers a compact measurement solution as it can be installed on top of the truck. Besides the distance measurement, this radar system allows to detect the location and inclination of the overhead contact lines by digital beamforming in two dimensions. Besides automatic guidance, the knowledge of the inclination of the overhead contact lines could allow automatic speed adaption, which would help to achieve maximum speed especially in hilly terrain.
  • A Pedestrian Navigation System Using Cellular Phone Video-Conferencing
    • Abstract: A user’s position-specific field has been developed using the Global Positioning System (GPS) technology. To determine the position using cellular phones, a device was developed, in which a pedestrian navigation unit carries the GPS. However, GPS cannot specify a position in a subterranean environment or indoors, which is beyond the reach of transmitted signals. In addition, the position-specification precision of GPS, that is, its resolution, is on the order of several meters, which is deemed insufficient for pedestrians. In this study, we proposed and evaluated a technique for locating a user’s 3D position by setting up a marker in the navigation space detected in the image of a cellular phone. By experiment, we verified the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method. Additionally, we improved the positional precision because we measured the position distance using numerous markers.
  • StopWatcher: A Mobile Application to Improve Stop Sign Awareness for
           Driving Safety
    • Abstract: Stop signs are the primary form of traffic control in the United States. However, they have a tendency to be much less effective than other forms of traffic control like traffic lights. This is due to their smaller size, lack of lighting, and the fact that they may become visually obscured from the road. In this paper, we offer a solution to this problem in the form of a mobile application implemented in the Android platform: StopWatcher. It is designed to alert a driver when they are approaching a stop sign using a voice notification system (VNS). A field test was performed in a snowy environment. The test results demonstrate that the application can detect all of the stop signs correctly, even when some of them were obstructed by the snow, which in turn greatly improves the user awareness of stop signs.
  • A New Movement Recognition Technique for Flight Mode Detection
    • Abstract: Nowadays, in the aeronautical environments, the use of mobile communication and other wireless technologies is restricted. More specifically, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) prohibit the use of cellular phones and other wireless devices on airborne aircraft because of potential interference with wireless networks on the ground, and with the aircraft's navigation and communication systems. Within this context, we propose in this paper a movement recognition algorithm that will switch off a module including a GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) device or any other mobile cellular technology as soon as it senses movement and thereby will prevent any forbidden transmissions that could occur in a moving airplane. The algorithm is based solely on measurements of a low-cost accelerometer and is easy to implement with a high degree of reliability.
  • Lidar Data Analysis for Time to Headway Determination in the DriveSafe
           Project Field Tests
    • Abstract: The DriveSafe project was carried out by a consortium of university research centers and automotive OEMs in Turkey to reduce accidents caused by driver behavior. A huge amount of driving data was collected from 108 drivers who drove the instrumented DriveSafe vehicle in the same route of 25 km of urban and highway traffic in Istanbul. One of the sensors used in the DriveSafe vehicle was a forward-looking LIDAR. The data from the LIDAR is used here to determine and record the headway time characteristics of different drivers. This paper concentrates on the analysis of LIDAR data from the DriveSafe vehicle. A simple algorithm that only looks at the forward direction along a straight line is used first. Headway times based on this simple approach are presented for an example driver. A more accurate detection and tracking algorithm taken from the literature are presented later in the paper. Grid-based and point distance-based methods are presented first. Then, a detection and tracking algorithm based on the Kalman filter is presented. The results are demonstrated using experimental data.
  • Optimisation of the Nonlinear Suspension Characteristics of a Light
           Commercial Vehicle
    • Abstract: The optimum functional characteristics of suspension components, namely, linear/nonlinear spring and nonlinear damper characteristic functions are determined using simple lumped parameter models. A quarter car model is used to represent the front independent suspension, and a half car model is used to represent the rear solid axle suspension of a light commercial vehicle. The functional shapes of the suspension characteristics used in the optimisation process are based on typical shapes supplied by a car manufacturer. The complexity of a nonlinear function optimisation problem is reduced by scaling it up or down from the aforementioned shape in the optimisation process. The nonlinear optimised suspension characteristics are first obtained using lower complexity lumped parameter models. Then, the performance of the optimised suspension units are verified using the higher fidelity and more realistic Carmaker model. An interactive software module is developed to ease the nonlinear suspension optimisation process using the Matlab Graphical User Interface tool.
  • A 7-Level Single DC Source Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter with a
    • Abstract: This paper presents a new hybrid cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter motor drive DTC scheme for electric vehicles where each phase of the inverter can be implemented using a single DC source. Traditionally, each phase of the inverter requires DC source for output voltage levels. In this paper, a scheme is proposed that allows the use of a single DC source as the first DC source which would be available from batteries or fuel cells, with the remaining () DC sources being capacitors. This scheme can simultaneously maintain the capacitors of DC voltage level and produce a nearly sinusoidal output voltage due to its high number of output levels. In this context, high performances and efficient torque and flux control are obtained, enabling a DTC solution for hybrid multilevel inverter powered induction motor drives intended for electric vehicle propulsion. Simulations and experiments show that the proposed multilevel inverter and control scheme are effective and very attractive for embedded systems such as automotive applications.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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