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  Subjects -> TRANSPORTATION (Total: 159 journals)
    - AIR TRANSPORT (7 journals)
    - AUTOMOBILES (20 journals)
    - RAILROADS (4 journals)
    - ROADS AND TRAFFIC (4 journals)
    - SHIPS AND SHIPPING (27 journals)
    - TRANSPORTATION (97 journals)

TRANSPORTATION (97 journals)

Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 44)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Bitácora Urbano-Territorial     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies on Transport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Economics of Transportation     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
EURO Journal of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
European Transport Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IATSS Research     Open Access  
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IET Intelligent Transport Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Innovation – Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Applied Logistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of e-Navigation and Maritime Economy     Open Access  
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Micro-Nano Scale Transport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Mobile Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Ocean Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Services Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Modern Transportation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 112)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Sustainable Mobility     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition)     Open Access  
Journal of Transport & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Transport Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Transport History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Transport Literature     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Transportation Safety & Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Transportation Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Transportation Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Waterway Port Coastal and Ocean Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Les Dossiers du Grihl     Open Access  
Logistique & Management     Full-text available via subscription  
Mobility in History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Modern Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Pervasive and Mobile Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
PS: Political Science & Politics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Public Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Recherche Transports Sécurité     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Revista Transporte y Territorio     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SourceOCDE Transports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Streetnotes     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Synthesis Lectures on Mobile and Pervasive Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tire Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Transactions on Transport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Transport and Telecommunication Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transport in Porous Media     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transport Reviews: A Transnational Transdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Transportation Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Transportation Letters : The International Journal of Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Transportation Research Part B: Methodological     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Transportation Research Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Research Record : Journal of the Transportation Research Board     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Transportation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
TRANSPORTES     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Transportmetrica B : Transport Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Travel Behaviour and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Urban, Planning and Transport Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Vehicular Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Транспортні системи та технології перевезень     Open Access  
Journal Cover   Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
  [SJR: 1.943]   [H-I: 55]   [18 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0968-090X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2800 journals]
  • An integrated real-time traffic signal system for transit signal priority,
           incident detection and congestion management
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 60
      Author(s): F. Ahmed, Y.E. Hawas
      This paper presents a traffic control system that can work standalone to handle various boundary conditions of the recurrent, non-recurrent congestion, transit signal priority and downstream blockage conditions to improve the overall traffic network vehicular productivity and efficiency. The control system uses field detectors’ data to determine the boundary conditions of all incoming and exit links. The developed system is interfaced with CORSIM micro-simulation for rigorous evaluations with different types of signal phase settings. The comparative performance of this control logic is quite satisfactory for some of the most frequently used phase settings in the network with a high number of junctions under highly congested conditions.


      PubDate: 2015-08-28T06:07:04Z
       
  • Robust calibration of macroscopic traffic simulation models using
           stochastic collocation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Sandeep Mudigonda, Kaan Ozbay
      The predictions of a well-calibrated traffic simulation model are much more valid if made for various conditions. Variation in traffic can arise due to many factors such as time of day, work zones and weather. Calibration of traffic simulation models for traffic conditions requires larger datasets to capture the stochasticity in traffic conditions. In this study we use datasets spanning large time periods to incorporate variability in traffic flow, speed for various time periods. However, large data poses a challenge in terms of computational effort. With the increase in number of stochastic factors, the numerical methods suffer from the curse of dimensionality. In this study, we propose a novel methodology to address the computational complexity due to the need for the calibration of simulation models under highly stochastic traffic conditions. This methodology is based on sparse grid stochastic collocation, which, treats each stochastic factor as a different dimension and uses a limited number of points where simulation and calibration are performed. A computationally efficient interpolant is constructed to generate the full distribution of the simulated flow output. We use real-world examples to calibrate for different times of day and conditions and show that this methodology is much more efficient that the traditional Monte Carlo-type sampling. We validate the model using a hold out dataset and also show the drawback of using limited data for the calibration of a macroscopic simulation model. We also discuss the drawbacks of the predictive ability of a single calibrated model for all the conditions.


      PubDate: 2015-08-28T06:07:04Z
       
  • Intermodal freight transport planning – A receding horizon control
           approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 60
      Author(s): Le Li, Rudy R. Negenborn, Bart De Schutter
      This paper investigates intermodal freight transport planning problems among deep-sea terminals and inland terminals in hinterland haulage for a horizontally fully integrated intermodal freight transport operator at the tactical container flow level. An intermodal freight transport network (IFTN) model is first developed to capture the key characteristics of intermodal freight transport such as the modality change phenomena at intermodal terminals, physical capacity constraints of the network, time-dependent transport times on freeways, and time schedules for trains and barges. After that, the intermodal freight transport planning problem is formulated as an optimal intermodal container flow control problem from a system and control perspective with the use of the proposed IFTN model. To deal with the dynamic transport demands and dynamic traffic conditions in the IFTN, a receding horizon intermodal container flow control (RIFC) approach is proposed to control and to reassign intermodal container flows in a receding horizon way. This container flow control approach involves solving linear programming problems and is suited for transport planning on large-sized networks. Both an all-or-nothing approach and the proposed RIFC approach are evaluated through simulation studies. Simulation results show the potential of the proposed RIFC approach.


      PubDate: 2015-08-28T06:07:04Z
       
  • Evaluation of exclusive bus lanes in a bi-modal degradable road network
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 60
      Author(s): Jia Yao, Feng Shi, Shi An, Jian Wang
      In this paper, we proposed an evaluation method of exclusive bus lanes (EBLs) in a bi-modal degradable road network with car and bus transit modes. Link travel time with and without EBLs for two modes is analyzed with link stochastic degradation. Furthermore, route general travel costs are formulated with the uncertainty of link travel time for both modes and the uncertainty of waiting time at a bus stop and in-vehicle congestion costs for the bus mode. The uncertainty of bus waiting time is considered to be relevant to the degradation of the front links of the bus line. A bi-modal user equilibrium model incorporating travelers’ risk adverse behavior is proposed for evaluating EBLs. Finally, two numerical examples are used to illustrate how the road degradation level, travelers’ risk aversion level and the front link’s correlation level with the uncertainty of the bus waiting time affect the results of the user equilibrium model with and without EBLs and how the road degradation level affects the optimal EBLs setting scheme. A paradox of EBLs setting is also illustrated where adding one exclusive bus lane may decrease share of bus.


      PubDate: 2015-08-28T06:07:04Z
       
  • Agent based model for dynamic ridesharing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Mehdi Nourinejad, Matthew J. Roorda
      Dynamic ridesharing involves a service provider that matches potential drivers and passengers with similar itineraries allowing them to travel together and share the costs. Centralized (binary integer programming) and decentralized (dynamic auction-based multi-agent) optimization algorithms are formulated to match passengers and drivers. Numerical experiments on the decentralized approach provides near optimal solutions for single-driver, single-passenger cases with lower computational burden. The decentralized approach is then extended to accommodate both multi-passenger and multi-driver matches. The results indicate higher user cost savings and vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) savings when allowing multi-passenger rides. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to test the impact of the service provider commission rate on revenue and system reliability. While short term revenue can be maximized at a commission rate of roughly 50% of each trip’s cost, the resulting drop in system reliability would be expected to reduce patronage and revenues in the longer term.


      PubDate: 2015-08-20T17:21:45Z
       
  • On macroscopic freeway merge behavior: Estimation of merge ratios using
           asymmetric lane flow distribution
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 60
      Author(s): Paulina Reina, Soyoung Ahn
      Data from several freeway merges reveal that, contrary to some previous findings, merge ratio can vary within a site with respect to the merge outflow and that the existing merge ratio estimates based on lane counts are not able to predict this within-site variation. Furthermore, the merge ratios estimated based on two well-known merging principles, “fair-share” and “zipper,” are found to be inaccurate for merges where merging streams compete directly due to a lane drop. In light of these findings, we estimate merge ratios using lane flow distribution (LFD) to better predict between and within site variations of merge ratio. In addition, we propose a merging principle specific for merges with a single lane-drop. The model was developed to better represent observed non-uniform redistribution of merging flow not captured by the current merge ratio estimation methods and merging principles. Empirical observations show that the proposed methods are able to improve merge ratio estimates, reproduce within-site variations of merge ratio, and represent more accurately non-uniform redistribution of merging flow dependent on the merge geometry.


      PubDate: 2015-08-15T17:09:55Z
       
  • Editorial – ISTTT 21
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Masao Kuwahara, Hideyuki Kita, Yasuo Asakura



      PubDate: 2015-08-15T17:09:55Z
       
  • Multilane first-order traffic flow model with endogenous representation of
           lane-flow equilibrium
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Yasuhiro Shiomi, Tomoki Taniguchi, Nobuhiro Uno, Hiroshi Shimamoto, Toshiyuki Nakamura
      In this study, we develop a multilane first-order traffic flow model for freeway networks. In the model, lane changing is considered as a stochastic behavior that can decrease an individual driver’s disutility or cost, and is represented as dynamics toward the equilibrium of lane-flow distribution along with longitudinal traffic dynamics. The proposed method can be differentiated from those in previous studies because in this study, the motivation of lane changing is explicitly considered and it is treated as a utility defined by the current macroscopic traffic state. In addition, the entire process of lane changing is computed macroscopically by an extension of the kinematic wave theory employing IT principle; moreover, in the model framework, the lane-flow equilibrium curve is endogenously generated because of self-motivated lane changes. Furthermore, the parsimonious representation enables parameter calibration using the data collected from conventional loop detectors. The calibration of the data collected at four different sites, including a sag bottleneck, on the Chugoku expressway in Japan reveals that the proposed method can represent the lane-flow distribution of any observation site with high accuracy, and that the estimated parameters can reasonably explain the multilane traffic dynamics and the bottleneck phenomena uphill of sag sections.


      PubDate: 2015-08-11T16:55:25Z
       
  • Variable speed limit: A microscopic analysis in a connected vehicle
           environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 58, Part A
      Author(s): Bidoura Khondaker, Lina Kattan
      This paper presents a Variable Speed Limit (VSL) control algorithm for simultaneously maximizing the mobility, safety and environmental benefit in a Connected Vehicle environment. Development of Connected Vehicle (CV)/Autonomous Vehicle (AV) technology has the potential to provide essential data at the microscopic level to provide a better understanding of real-time driver behavior. This paper investigated a VSL control algorithm using a microscopic approach by focusing on individual driver’s behavior (e.g., acceleration and deceleration) through the use of Model Predictive Control (MPC) approach. A multi-objective optimization function was formulated with the aim of finding a balanced trade-off among mobility, safety and sustainability. A microscopic traffic flow prediction model was used to calculate Total Travel Time (TTT); a surrogate safety measure Time To Collision (TTC) was used to measure instantaneous safety; and, a microscopic fuel consumption model (VT-Micro) was used to measure the environmental impact. Real-time driver’s compliance to the posted speed limit was used to adjust the optimal speed limit values. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to compare the performance of the developed approach for different weights in the objective function and for two different percentages of CV. The results showed that with 100% penetration rate, the developed VSL approach outperformed the uncontrolled scenario consistently, resulting in up to 20% of total travel time reductions, 6–11% of safety improvements and 5–16% reduction in fuel consumptions. Our findings revealed that the scenario which optimized for safety alone, resulted in more optimum improvements as compared to the multi-criteria optimization. Thus, one can argue that in case of 100% penetration rates of CVs, optimizing for safety alone is enough to achieve simultaneous and optimum improvements in all measures. However, mixed results were obtained in case of lower % penetration rate which showed higher collision risk when optimizing for only mobility or fuel consumption. This indicates that with such % penetration rate, multi-criteria optimization is crucial to realize optimum and balanced benefits for the examined measures.


      PubDate: 2015-08-11T16:55:25Z
       
  • Passenger-demands-oriented train scheduling for an urban rail transit
           network
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 60
      Author(s): Yihui Wang, Tao Tang, Bin Ning, Ton J.J. van den Boom, Bart De Schutter
      This paper considers the train scheduling problem for an urban rail transit network. We propose an event-driven model that involves three types of events, i.e., departure events, arrival events, and passenger arrival rates change events. The routing of the arriving passengers at transfer stations is also included in the train scheduling model. Moreover, the passenger transfer behavior (i.e., walking times and transfer times of passengers) is also taken into account in the model formulation. The resulting optimization problem is a real-valued nonlinear nonconvex problem. Nonlinear programming approaches (e.g., sequential quadratic programming) and evolutionary algorithms (e.g., genetic algorithms) can be used to solve this train scheduling problem. The effectiveness of the event-driven model is evaluated through a case study.


      PubDate: 2015-08-11T16:55:25Z
       
  • Transit passenger origin–destination flow estimation: Efficiently
           combining onboard survey and large automatic passenger count datasets
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Yuxiong Ji, Rabi G. Mishalani, Mark R. McCord
      As transit agencies increasingly adopt the use of Automatic Passenger Count (APC) technologies, a large amount of boarding and alighting data are being amassed on an ongoing basis. These datasets offer opportunities to infer good estimates of passenger origin–destination (OD) flows. In this study, a method is proposed to estimate transit route passenger OD flow matrices for time-of-day periods based on OD flow information derived from labor-intensive onboard surveys and the large quantities of APC data that are becoming available. The computational feasibility of the proposed method is established and its accuracy is empirically evaluated using differences between the estimated OD flows and ground-truth observations on an operational bus route. To interpret the empirical differences from the ground-truth estimates, differences are also computed when using the state-of-the-practice Iterative Proportional Fitting (IPF) method to estimate the OD flows. The empirical results show that when using sufficient quantities of boarding and alighting data that can be readily obtained from APC-equipped buses, the estimates determined by the proposed method are better than those determined by the IPF method when no or a small sample sized onboard OD flow survey dataset is available and of similar quality to those determined by the IPF method when a large sample sized onboard OD flow survey dataset is available. Therefore, the proposed method offers the opportunity to forgo conducting costly onboard surveys for the purpose of OD flow estimation.


      PubDate: 2015-08-07T06:24:02Z
       
  • Characterization of network traffic processes under adaptive traffic
           control systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Alessandra Pascale, Thanh Lam Hoang, Rahul Nair
      We present a compact characterization of network-level traffic processes for a dense urban area operating under an adaptive traffic control system. The characterization is based on a state classification scheme that is employed at a detector level, and a state transition model that works with combinations of detectors that are topologically dependent. Jointly, the two models provide a concise but rich representation of traffic processes at the network level. The key insight is the identification of transient states, termed under-utilized (U) states, where network effects such as insufficient downstream capacity are captured. In such states the green time is not fully used. The approach provides the space–time evolution of states across the network, conditional probabilities of upstream traffic states that drive state propagation in the near term, and probabilistic information on congested paths on the network, where paths are described as a sequence of detectors. The paper presents empirical evidence based on the SCATS adaptive control system in Dublin, the insights provided by the proposed approach, and the importance of under-utilized states, which represent as much as 20% of unused capacity along certain corridors in peak periods. The results provide a basis for future network control procedures.


      PubDate: 2015-08-07T06:24:02Z
       
  • Spatial and temporal characterization of travel patterns in a traffic
           network using vehicle trajectories
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Jiwon Kim, Hani S. Mahmassani
      This paper presents a trajectory clustering method to discover spatial and temporal travel patterns in a traffic network. The study focuses on identifying spatially distinct traffic flow groups using trajectory clustering and investigating temporal traffic patterns of each spatial group. The main contribution of this paper is the development of a systematic framework for clustering and classifying vehicle trajectory data, which does not require a pre-processing step known as map-matching and directly applies to trajectory data without requiring the information on the underlying road network. The framework consists of four steps: similarity measurement, trajectory clustering, generation of cluster representative subsequences, and trajectory classification. First, we propose the use of the Longest Common Subsequence (LCS) between two vehicle trajectories as their similarity measure, assuming that the extent to which vehicles’ routes overlap indicates the level of closeness and relatedness as well as potential interactions between these vehicles. We then extend a density-based clustering algorithm, DBSCAN, to incorporate the LCS-based distance in our trajectory clustering problem. The output of the proposed clustering approach is a few spatially distinct traffic stream clusters, which together provide an informative and succinct representation of major network traffic streams. Next, we introduce the notion of Cluster Representative Subsequence (CRS), which reflects dense road segments shared by trajectories belonging to a given traffic stream cluster, and present the procedure of generating a set of CRSs by merging the pairwise LCSs via hierarchical agglomerative clustering. The CRSs are then used in the trajectory classification step to measure the similarity between a new trajectory and a cluster. The proposed framework is demonstrated using actual vehicle trajectory data collected from New York City, USA. A simple experiment was performed to illustrate the use of the proposed spatial traffic stream clustering in application areas such as network-level traffic flow pattern analysis and travel time reliability analysis.


      PubDate: 2015-07-29T20:53:46Z
       
  • A real-time Active Routing approach via a database for airport surface
           movement
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 58, Part A
      Author(s): Michal Weiszer, Jun Chen, Paul Stewart
      Airports face challenges due to the increasing volume of air traffic and tighter environmental restrictions which result in a need to actively integrate speed profiles into conventional routing and scheduling procedure. However, only until very recently, the research on airport ground movement has started to take into account such a speed profile optimisation problem actively so that not only time efficiency but also fuel saving and decrease in airport emissions can be achieved at the same time. It is envisioned that the realism of planning could also be improved through speed profiles. However, due to the multi-objective nature of the problem and complexity of the investigated models (objective functions), the existing speed profile optimisation approach features high computational demand and is not suitable for an on-line application. In order to make this approach more competitive for real-world application and to meet limits imposed by International Civil Aviation Organization for on-line decision time, this paper introduces a pre-computed database acting as a middleware to effectively separate the planning (routing and scheduling) module and the speed profile generation module. Employing a database not only circumvents duplicative optimisation for the same taxiway segments, but also completely avoids the computation of speed profiles during the on-line decision support owing a great deal to newly proposed database initialization procedures. Moreover, the added layer of database facilitates, in the future, more complex and realistic models to be considered in the speed profile generation module, without sacrificing on-line decision time. The experimental results carried out using data from a major European hub show that the proposed approach is promising in speeding up the search process.


      PubDate: 2015-07-29T20:53:46Z
       
  • Vehicle path reconstruction using automatic vehicle identification data:
           An integrated particle filter and path flow estimator
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 58, Part A
      Author(s): Jianhao Yang, Jian Sun
      Automatic vehicle identification (AVI) can provide partial vehicle path data by matching the vehicle license plate on the detected links. However, the matched samples will rapidly degenerate with an increase in network size and a decrease in coverage rate and identification precision. In this paper, we propose an integrated macro–micro framework to reconstruct the complete vehicle path of realistic networks. The proposed framework integrates the individual path choice using particle filter (PF) at the microscopic level and the stochastic user equilibrium (SUE) principle with a path flow estimator (PFE) at the macroscopic level. The PF reconstructs the vehicle path by updating the state-space probability curve based on four observation models (i.e., path consistency model, AVI measurability criterion model, travel time consistency model and path attraction model) and incorporates a path flow constraint into the PFE model. The PFE minimizes the SUE objective while reproducing traffic counts on detected links and updates two of the four observation models (i.e., travel time consistency model and path attraction model) of the PF. The proposed method is tested on a realistic network for different AVI coverage rates ranged from 30% to 80%. The proposed method achieves approximately 55% improvement in link flow estimation and 67% improvement in path flow estimation compared with the original PFE without the microscopic level consideration. The accuracy of the vehicle path reconstruction exceeds 80% even when the AVI coverage is only 40% with an AVI detection error of 6%.


      PubDate: 2015-07-29T20:53:46Z
       
  • The train marshalling by a single shunting engine problem
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 58, Part A
      Author(s): Jan-Alexander Adlbrecht, Benno Hüttler, Jan Zazgornik, Manfred Gronalt
      We consider the problem of marshalling a train from a number of rail cars that are distributed throughout the classification bowl of a shunting yard. In contrast to most other contributions we do not consider marshalling based on repeated roll-ins, but marshalling by shunting engine. This is also a common process alternative at shunting yards that has not yet received much attention from the scientific community. The goal is to find the optimal route for this shunting engine that respects all constraints applicable to movements in a shunting yard. We propose a Mixed Integer Programme (MIP) under consideration of single-block trains. A block refers to rail cars that share the same destination. Then we conduct a series of numerical experiments and show that the solutions of the MIP improve by 10% on average when compared to those produced by a Real-World-Heuristic that is designed to approximate the current marshalling practice. Finally, we statistically derive relationships between selected problem instance characteristics and the expected marshalling effort that can be useful for practitioners and operators of shunting yards.


      PubDate: 2015-07-25T21:47:15Z
       
  • Stochastic optimal path problem with relays
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Peng (Will) Chen, Yu (Marco) Nie
      This paper studies the optimal path problem for travelers driving with vehicles of a limited range, such as most battery electric vehicles currently available in the market. The optimal path in this problem often consists of several relay points, where the vehicles can be refueled to extend its range. We propose a stochastic optimal path problem with relays (SOPPR), which aims at minimizing a general expected cost while maintaining a reasonable arrival probability. To account for uncertainty in the road network, the travel speed on a road segment is treated as a discrete random variable, which determines the total energy required to traverse the segment. SOPPR is formulated in two stages in this paper. In the first stage, an optimal routing problem is solved repeatedly to obtain the expected costs and arrival probabilities from any node to all refueling nodes and the destination. With this information, the second stage constructs an auxiliary network, on which the sequence of refueling decisions can be obtained by solving another optimal path problem. Label-correcting algorithms are developed to solve the routing problems in both stages. Numerical experiments are conducted to compare the stochastic and deterministic models, to examine the impact of different parameters on the routing results, and to evaluate the computational performance of the proposed algorithms.


      PubDate: 2015-07-25T21:47:15Z
       
  • Modeling taxi services with smartphone-based e-hailing applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 58, Part A
      Author(s): Fang He, Zuo-Jun Max Shen
      Traditionally, customers always hail empty-cruising taxis on streets, which may offer low levels of comfort and efficiency especially during rush hours or rainy days. Thanks to the advance of smartphone technology, the e-hailing applications, which enable customers to hail taxis through their smartphones, become popular globally. To provide a systematic account of the impact of e-hailing applications’ wide adoption on the taxi system, we first propose a spatial equilibrium model that not only balances the supply and demand of taxi services but also captures both the taxi drivers’ and customers’ possible adoption of the newly-emerging e-hailing applications in a well-regulated taxi market. We then prove the existence of the proposed equilibrium, and further provide an algorithm to solve it. An extensive equilibrium model with elastic taxi-customer demands is also proposed. Lastly, a numerical example is presented to compare the taxi services with and without the e-hailing application and evaluate two types of e-hailing applications.


      PubDate: 2015-07-25T21:47:15Z
       
  • Game theoretic approach for predictive lane-changing and car-following
           control
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 58, Part A
      Author(s): Meng Wang, Serge P. Hoogendoorn, Winnie Daamen, Bart van Arem, Riender Happee
      This contribution puts forward a receding horizon control approach for automated driving systems, where tactical-level lane change decisions and control-level accelerations are jointly evaluated under a central mathematical framework. The key idea is that controlled vehicles predictively determine discrete desired lane sequences and continuous accelerations to minimise a cost function reflecting undesirable future situations. The interactions between controlled vehicles and surrounding vehicles are captured in the cost function. The approach is flexible in terms of application to controller design for both non-cooperative control systems where controlled vehicles only optimise their own cost and cooperative control systems where controlled vehicles coordinate their decisions to optimise the collective cost. To determine the controller behaviour, the problem is formulated as a differential game where controlled vehicles make decisions based on the expected behaviour of other vehicles. The control decisions are updated at regular frequency, using the newest information regarding the state of controlled vehicles and surrounding vehicles available. A problem decomposition technique is employed to reduce the dimensionality of the original problem by introducing a finite number of sub-problems and an iterative algorithm based on Pontryagin’s Principle is used to solve sub-problems efficiently. The proposed controller performance is demonstrated via numerical examples. The results show that the proposed approach can produce efficient lane-changing manoeuvres while obeying safety and comfort requirements. Particularly, the approach generates optimal lane change decisions in the predicted future, including strategic overtaking, cooperative merging and selecting a safe gap.


      PubDate: 2015-07-25T21:47:15Z
       
  • Deliveries to residential units: A rising form of freight transportation
           in the U.S.
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 58, Part A
      Author(s): Xiaokun (Cara) Wang, Yiwei Zhou
      As a result of the rapid growth of online shopping, more goods and services are delivered directly to residential units. The door-to-door deliveries improve residents’ accessibility to retail sector, and at the same time create truck delivery trips. However, partially due to the data limitation, most existing freight research focuses on freight trips generated by business establishments. Little is known about freight trips generated by residential units. As a growing number of urban areas are pushing for dense and mixed development, it is necessary to understand the pattern of truck freight trips directly generated by residential units. This paper uses the U.S. National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) data to investigate the freight trips generated by residential units. The 2009 NHTS provides accurate, comprehensive and timely information on trips, land use, household characteristics and social economic factors. It is the first time that the NHTS data is used to estimate freight trips. A binary choice model and a right-censored negative binomial model are used to identify the impacts of person-related, household-related, and regional-specific variables on home delivery frequency. A case study for the New York State Capital District is then presented. The estimated freight trips generated by residential units are also compared to the freight trips generated by business establishments. Results, although still preliminary and subject to uncertainty, indicate that freight trips generated by residential units have comparable magnitude as the freight trips generated by businesses. Such a study will supplement city logistics studies that traditionally focus on business behavior, helping reconstruct a complete picture of the freight activities in urban areas.


      PubDate: 2015-07-25T21:47:15Z
       
  • Real-time traffic state estimation in urban corridors from heterogeneous
           data
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 July 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Alfredo Nantes, Dong Ngoduy, Ashish Bhaskar, Marc Miska, Edward Chung
      In recent years, rapid advances in information technology have led to various data collection systems which are enriching the sources of empirical data for use in transport systems. Currently, traffic data are collected through various sensors including loop detectors, probe vehicles, cell-phones, Bluetooth, video cameras, remote sensing and public transport smart cards. It has been argued that combining the complementary information from multiple sources will generally result in better accuracy, increased robustness and reduced ambiguity. Despite the fact that there have been substantial advances in data assimilation techniques to reconstruct and predict the traffic state from multiple data sources, such methods are generally data-driven and do not fully utilize the power of traffic models. Furthermore, the existing methods are still limited to freeway networks and are not yet applicable in the urban context due to the enhanced complexity of the flow behavior. The main traffic phenomena on urban links are generally caused by the boundary conditions at intersections, un-signalized or signalized, at which the switching of the traffic lights and the turning maneuvers of the road users lead to shock-wave phenomena that propagate upstream of the intersections. This paper develops a new model-based methodology to build up a real-time traffic prediction model for arterial corridors using data from multiple sources, particularly from loop detectors and partial observations from Bluetooth and GPS devices.


      PubDate: 2015-07-21T21:42:26Z
       
  • Editorial Board/Copyright Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 57




      PubDate: 2015-07-21T21:42:26Z
       
  • Traffic flow optimisation in presence of vehicle automation and
           communication systems – Part II: Optimal control for multi-lane
           motorways
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 57
      Author(s): Claudio Roncoli, Markos Papageorgiou, Ioannis Papamichail
      Integrated motorway traffic flow control considering the use of Vehicle Automation and Communication Systems (VACS) is considered in this paper. VACS may act both as sensors (providing information on traffic conditions) and as actuators, permitting the deployment of ramp metering, variable speed limits, and lane changing control. The integrated traffic control problem is addressed through the formulation of a linearly constrained optimal control problem based on the first-order multi-lane model for motorways introduced and validated in a companion paper (Part I). A case study illustrating the potential improvements achievable using this approach is presented.


      PubDate: 2015-07-21T21:42:26Z
       
  • Capacity drops at merges: New analytical investigations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 July 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Ludovic Leclercq, Victor L. Knoop, Florian Marczak, Serge P. Hoogendoorn
      This paper focuses on the derivation of analytical formulae to estimate the effective capacity at freeway merges. It extends previous works by proposing a generic framework able to account for (i) heterogeneous vehicle characteristics and (ii) refined description of the physical interactions between upstream waves and downstream voids created by inserting vehicles within the merge area. The provided analytical formulae permit to directly compute the capacity values when the merge is self-active, i.e. when both upstream roads are congested while downstream traffic conditions are free-flow. They show that accounting for vehicle heterogeneity is not necessary when only the mean capacity is targeted. Calculations with the proper mean value for all parameters provide almost the same results as calculations that consider the full distributions for all parameters. This means that calibrating all distributions is not necessary only the mean parameter values are important. Finally, this paper also shows that vehicle heterogeneity plays a major role in the flow dynamics just upstream of the merge.


      PubDate: 2015-07-17T21:31:55Z
       
  • Optimal location of wireless charging facilities for electric vehicles:
           Flow-capturing location model with stochastic user equilibrium
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 58, Part A
      Author(s): Raffaela Riemann, David Z.W. Wang, Fritz Busch
      In this study, the optimal locations of a specific type of charging facilities for electric vehicles (EVs), wireless power transfer facilities, are investigated. A mathematical model has been developed to address this problem. The objective of the model is to locate a given number of wireless charging facilities for EVs out of a set of candidate facility locations for capturing the maximum traffic flow on a network. The interaction between traffic flow patterns and the location of the charging facilities is incorporated explicitly by applying the stochastic user equilibrium principle to describe electric vehicle drivers’ routing choice behavior. Firstly, the problem is formulated into a mixed-integer nonlinear program, secondly a solution method is developed to obtain the global optimal solution of the linearized program. Numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the model validity.


      PubDate: 2015-07-17T21:31:55Z
       
  • Development of a wireless inspection and notification system with minimum
           monitoring hardware for real-time vehicle engine health inspection
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 58, Part A
      Author(s): Pak Kin Wong, Chi Man Vong, Ka In Wong, Zi-Qian Ma
      While many standards have been stipulated to control vehicular emissions, current inspection program for examining the engine health of in-use vehicles is practically ineffective and time-consuming. In particular, in-use vehicles are only required for inspection yearly, but huge amount of emissions may have been produced from malfunctioned engines daily. A new wireless inspection and notification system (WINS) is therefore proposed to monitor the vehicle engine health on the street in situ. The principle of WINS is to wirelessly examine some of the engine parameters through radio frequency identification (RFID) and traffic lights. RFID tags are installed on vehicles to collect the engine health information, whereas RFID interrogators are installed on traffic lights for wireless data transmission. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed WINS, and the results show that the proposed WINS is more convenient and economical than traditional vehicle inspection system. Moreover, as there are more than hundreds of traffic lights in the traffic network of a city, a maximum spanning tree (MAXST) algorithm is proposed to determine the suitable number of RFID devices required in the network so that the implementation cost, system loading and missing rate can be optimized. Different from the typical spanning tree algorithm in operational research, the MAXST algorithm has a domain-specific rule and weight calculation method for this application. To verify the methodology, simulations on the traffic networks of Shenzhen, New York and London were conducted. Results show that only 25–40% of traffic lights of the traffic networks are necessary for installation of RFID interrogators, with a rate of 2–7% that the vehicle owners may be able to escape the location of RFID interrogators.


      PubDate: 2015-07-17T21:31:55Z
       
  • Traffic control for air quality management and congestion mitigation in
           complex urban vehicular tunnels
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 58, Part A
      Author(s): Zhen Tan, H. Oliver Gao
      Urban vehicular tunnels, generally connected to the ground road network via on- and off-ramps, are geometrically complex with multiple entrances and exits. They are designed with in-tunnel ventilation systems and multiple pollutant discharge points for air quality control. In addition to traditional mechanical ventilation tools, traffic control has been recognized as a useful approach for air quality management and congestion mitigation in tunnels. This study aims to develop quantitative system analytic models for optimal traffic control considering both traffic and air quality improvement goals for complex urban tunnels. Moving vehicles inside the tunnel are not only the emission source, but also a key factor affecting aerodynamics in the tunnel. For a control cycle, steady-state traffic flow, aerodynamics, and pollutant dispersion models are established by tunnel segment, in which the air flow speed under a given mechanical ventilation scheme is mainly affected by tunnel traffic. An optimal time-of-day ramp traffic metering and mainline inlet traffic control model is proposed using nonlinear programming (NP) techniques to meet multiple air quality/emission as well as traffic throughput requirements. In-tunnel air quality requirements and emission limits at discharge points are modeled as nonlinear constraints for traffic control decisions. For illustration, the model was applied to an urban tunnel in Hangzhou, China for optimal traffic control to (1) assist the tunnel ventilation to meet environmental requirements under varying traffic demand; (2) provide a mechanism for tunnel air pollution control when fan operation alone is not enough during peak traffic period; and (3) maintain traffic efficiency by preventing recurrent congestion in the tunnel. The proposed tunnel traffic control method proves a useful complementary strategy to traditional mechanical tunnel ventilation for the improvement of urban tunnel transportation environment.


      PubDate: 2015-07-17T21:31:55Z
       
  • A real-life Multi Depot Multi Period Vehicle Routing Problem with a
           Heterogeneous Fleet: Formulation and Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search
           based Matheuristic
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Simona Mancini
      In this paper, a new rich Vehicle Routing Problem that could arise in a real life context is introduced and formalized: the Multi Depot Multi Period Vehicle Routing Problem with a Heterogeneous Fleet. The goal of the problem is to minimize the total delivery cost. A heterogeneous fleet composed of vehicles with different capacity, characteristics (i.e. refrigerated vehicles) and hourly costs is considered. A limit on the maximum route duration is imposed. Unlike what happens in classical multi-depot VRP, not every customer may/will be served by all the vehicles or from all the depots. The planning horizon, as in most real life applications, consists of multiple periods, and the period in which each route is performed is a variable of the problem. The set of periods, within the time horizon, in which the delivery may be carried out is known for each customer. A Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) formulation for MDMPVRPHF is presented in this paper, and an Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search (ALNS) based Matheuristic approach is proposed, in which different destroy operators are defined. Computational results, pertaining to realistic instances, which show the effectiveness of the proposed method, are provided.


      PubDate: 2015-07-14T12:16:25Z
       
  • Traffic zone division based on big data from mobile phone base stations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Honghui Dong , Mingchao Wu , Xiaoqing Ding , Lianyu Chu , Limin Jia , Yong Qin , Xuesong Zhou
      Call detail record (CDR) data from mobile communication carriers offer an emerging and promising source of information for analysis of traffic problems. To date, research on insights and information to be gleaned from CDR data for transportation analysis has been slow, and there has been little progress on development of specific applications. This paper proposes the traffic semantic concept to extract traffic commuters’ origins and destinations information from the mobile phone CDR data and then use the extracted data for traffic zone division. A K-means clustering method was used to classify a cell-area (the area covered by a base stations) and tag a certain land use category or traffic semantic attribute (such as working, residential, or urban road) based on four feature data (including real-time user volume, inflow, outflow, and incremental flow) extracted from the CDR data. By combining the geographic information of mobile phone base stations, the roadway network within Beijing’s Sixth Ring Road was divided into a total of 73 traffic zones using another K-means clustering algorithm. Additionally, we proposed a traffic zone attribute-index to measure tendency of traffic zones to be residential or working. The calculated attribute-index values of 73 traffic zones in Beijing were consistent with the actual traffic and land-use data. The case study demonstrates that effective traffic and travel data can be obtained from mobile phones as portable sensors and base stations as fixed sensors, providing an opportunity to improve the analysis of complex travel patterns and behaviors for travel demand modeling and transportation planning.


      PubDate: 2015-07-14T12:16:25Z
       
  • A practice-ready relocation model for free-floating carsharing systems
           with electric vehicles – Mesoscopic approach and field trial results
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 57
      Author(s): Simone Weikl , Klaus Bogenberger
      This paper introduces a relocation model for free-floating Carsharing (FFCS) systems with conventional and electric vehicles (EVs). In case of imbalances caused by one-way trips, the approach recommends profit maximizing vehicle relocations. Unlike existing approaches, two types of relocations are distinguished: inter zone relocations moving vehicles between defined macroscopic zones of the operating area and intra zone relocations moving vehicles within such zones. Relocations are combined with the unplugging and recharging of EVs and the refueling of conventional vehicles. In addition, remaining pure service trips are suggested. A historical data analysis and zone categorization module enables the calculation of target vehicle distributions. Unlike existing approaches, macroscopic optimization steps are supplemented by microscopic rule-based steps. This enables relocation recommendations on the individual vehicle level with the exact GPS coordinates of the relocation end positions. The approach is practice-ready with low computational times even for large-scale scenarios. To assess the impact of relocations on the system’s operation, the model is applied to a FFCS system in Munich, Germany within three real world field tests. Test three shows the highest degree of automation and represents the final version of the model. Its evaluation shows very promising results. Most importantly, the profit is increased by 5.8% and the sales per vehicle by up to 10%. The mean idle time per trip end is decreased by 4%.


      PubDate: 2015-07-14T12:16:25Z
       
  • An adaptive large neighborhood search heuristic for fleet deployment
           problems with voyage separation requirements
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 July 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Rikard Bakkehaug , Jørgen G. Rakke , Kjetil Fagerholt , Gilbert Laporte
      In this paper we propose an adaptive large neighborhood search heuristic for a ship routing and scheduling problem with voyage separation requirements. The voyage separation requirement is modeled as the minimum time elapsed between two consecutive sailings on a trade, and yields solutions with voyages fairly evenly spread over the planning horizon. Voyage separation requires the schedule of each ship to be synchronized with those of the others, since the start of service of a voyage could affect the feasible start time of another voyage. The proposed heuristic is compared with an exact algorithm on several instances, and yields good quality solutions within relatively short computation times.


      PubDate: 2015-07-14T12:16:25Z
       
  • Quasi-optimal feedback control for a system of oversaturated intersections
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 57
      Author(s): Weili Sun , Yunpeng Wang , Guizhen Yu , Henry X. Liu
      Oversaturated intersection control is a long-standing problem in traffic science and engineering. The problem becomes even harder when we consider a system of oversaturated intersections. Most of the research works in this area are off-line studies that require fully knowledge of origin–destination demand, which would be difficult to obtain in reality. Although several on-line feedback control methods are proposed, they only aim at preventing queue spillover, not able to minimize vehicular delay time. Moreover, these on-line control strategies are not theoretically evaluated how optimal (or sub-optimal) they are. We propose in this paper a quasi-optimal decentralized QUEUE-based feedback (abbreviated as QUEUE) control strategy for a system of oversaturated intersections. The QUEUE strategy is applied cycle-by-cycle based on measurement of current queue sizes, but its overall result is able to approximate the optimal one derived from off-line studies. Details of the feedback control laws for upstream and downstream intersections, in the queueing period and the queue dissipation period, are discussed. Superior to the existing feedback control strategies, the upper bounds of sub-optimality of the QUEUE strategy generating from demand fluctuation and coupling of intersections are specified quantitatively. It is also theoretically proved that the queue measurement error or demand estimation error would not be amplified by the QUEUE strategy. Numerical examples show that the QUEUE strategy performs very well and is robust to errors.


      PubDate: 2015-07-14T12:16:25Z
       
  • Cost effective future derailment mitigation techniques for rail freight
           traffic management in Europe
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Dewan Md Zahurul Islam , Konstantina Laparidou , Arnaud Burgess
      Safe and reliable traffic management is vital for uninterrupted and successful operation of the European rail network, where mixed traffic (i.e. freight and passenger) services are run. Although rail freight derailment is infrequent, its consequences can be severe and may result in different forms of costs, including infrastructure; rolling stock; traffic disruptions; injuries and fatalities. The objective of this research paper is to conduct a cost benefit analysis (CBA) to identify cost effective mitigation techniques for efficient rail freight traffic management in Europe, by 2050. Reviewing previous derailments and studies, eight sets of derailment causes are analysed and, for each of them, sets of mitigation techniques are aimed at for their alleviation. The study finds that the highest cumulative costs of derailment are associated with ‘wheel failure’, while the lowest cumulative cost is identified for ‘excessive track width’. Regarding mitigation techniques, the lowest cumulative benefits are demonstrated for ‘track height’ interventions, whereas ‘wheel failure’ alleviation demonstrates the highest benefits, in value terms (all by 2050). In most cases, the benefit to cost ratio did not exceed 2.6; in two cases (‘track height’ and ‘rail failures’) the ratio remained below 1 – a negative outcome where cost is higher than benefit. The study suggests that the most cost-efficient interventions are those applied to ‘hot axle box and axle rupture’ and ‘spring and suspension failure’.


      PubDate: 2015-07-08T01:46:09Z
       
  • Congestion mechanism and demand adjustment strategies for double-cell
           system with bottlenecks
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 57
      Author(s): Nan Geng , Xiaomei Zhao , Dongfan Xie , Xingang Li , Ziyou Gao
      In this paper, ramp systems on the Beijing 3rd ring road are described as double-cell ramp systems with a bottleneck. By analyzing empirical data for the Beijing 3rd ring road, we found that the initial states have an important impact on the final convergence states of the ramp systems. Then, we studied the dynamic process of the ramp systems, determined the congestion mechanism, and then designed a ramp control method based on the obtained mechanism. Under a feasible demand, double-cell ramp systems exhibit two typical cases, including an upstream-bottleneck system (in which the bottleneck cell is upstream) and a downstream-bottleneck system (in which the bottleneck cell is downstream). Then, a cell transmission model is used to analyze the dynamic evolution processes, starting from different initial states, and determine the congestion mechanism for each case. It is proven that the two systems have different possible equilibrium sets and congestion mechanisms. In an upstream-bottleneck system, the downstream always converges to the uncongested equilibrium, while the upstream bottleneck cell may experience congestion under certain initial states. In a downstream-bottleneck system, the congestion starts downstream, and then gradually propagates upstream. Furthermore, based on the different congestion mechanisms, two demand adjustment strategies are proposed, which redistribute the stationary feasible demand. The simulation results indicate that both systems can converge to uncongested equilibriums after demand adjustment. The ramp demand adjustment methods provide a scientific basis for urban traffic system management.


      PubDate: 2015-07-08T01:46:09Z
       
  • Traffic flow optimisation in presence of vehicle automation and
           communication systems – Part I: A first-order multi-lane model for
           motorway traffic
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Claudio Roncoli , Markos Papageorgiou , Ioannis Papamichail
      Proposed or emerging vehicle automation and communication systems (VACS) may contribute to the mitigation of motorway traffic congestion on the basis of appropriate traffic control strategies. In this context, this paper presents a novel first-order multi-lane macroscopic traffic flow model for motorways which is mainly intended for use within a related optimal control problem formulation. The model’s starting point is close to the well-known CTM (cell-transmission model), which is modified and extended to consider additional aspects of the traffic dynamics, such as lane changing and the capacity drop, via appropriate procedures for computing lateral and longitudinal flows. The model has been derived with a view to combine realistic traffic flow description with a simple (linear or piecewise linear) mathematical form, which can be exploited for efficient optimal control problem formulations, as described in a companion (Part II) paper. Although the model has been primarily derived for use in future traffic conditions including VACS, it may also be used for conventional traffic flow representation. In fact, the accuracy of the proposed modelling approach is demonstrated through calibration and validation procedures using real data from an urban motorway located in Melbourne, Australia.


      PubDate: 2015-07-08T01:46:09Z
       
  • Routing and fleet deployment in liner shipping with spot voyages
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 57
      Author(s): Rodrigo Moretti Branchini , Vinícius Amaral Armentano , Reinaldo Morabito
      The routing, scheduling and fleet deployment is an important integrated planning problem faced by liner shipping companies which also lift load from the spot market. This paper is concerned with coordinating the decisions of the assignment of ships to contractual and spot voyages, and the determination of ship routes and schedules in order to maximize profit. We propose a new model for representing voyages as nodes of a directed graph which is used to build a mixed integer programming formulation. Besides contractual and spot nodes, another type of node is put forward to represent a combination of a contractual voyage with one or more spot voyages. In addition, the concept of dominated nodes is introduced in order to discard them and reduce the effort of the search for an optimal solution. A set of test problems has been generated taking into account real world assumptions. The test problems are solved by an optimization software and computational results are reported. The results show the potential of the approach to solve test problems of moderate size.


      PubDate: 2015-07-08T01:46:09Z
       
  • An RFID-based inventory management framework for emergency relief
           operations
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 57
      Author(s): Eren Erman Ozguven , Kaan Ozbay
      In the aftermath of super storm Sandy, a large region from North Carolina to Maine endured food shortages, power outages, and long lines at gas stations forced to ration fuel due to low supply and high demand. These issues were largely the result of the affected transportation network’s inability to effectively cope with random and highly dynamic changes, and a lack of available resources and suppliers who were capable of enacting adequate emergency response measures. These problems experienced during super storm Sandy further underscored the need for a robust emergency inventory management system, where planning policies can be integrated with real-time on-line inventory management strategies to keep track of fluctuations of vital commodities such as food, water, medicine, fuel and power supplies. Motivated by this important problem, this paper investigates a comprehensive feedback-based emergency management framework for disasters such as super storm Sandy that provides integration with an emerging intelligent transportation systems technology, namely Radio Frequency Identification Devices (RFID). Within this framework, the offline-planning problem is solved by the stochastic humanitarian inventory management approach; and the online modeling strategy includes the application of a continuous time model predictive control technique. After introducing the mathematical background, the proposed framework is discussed using case studies built based on super storm Sandy in order to understand the efficiency and practicality of this RFID-based methodology. Results suggest that the methodology can properly account for and react to the rapidly changing needs for vital supplies that occur during the emergency relief operations. Based on this approach, planners and decision makers can be aware of the time delay that can happen due to disaster-related disruptions and thus maintain a safe level of buffer for vital supplies.


      PubDate: 2015-07-08T01:46:09Z
       
  • Time-dependent fuzzy random location-scheduling programming for hazardous
           materials transportation
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 57
      Author(s): Wei Meiyi , Li Xiang , Yu Lean
      The tremendous use of hazardous materials has promoted the economic development, which also brings about a growing risk causing a widespread concern. In this work, we consider a location-scheduling problem on hazardous materials transportation under the assumption that transportation risks are time-dependent fuzzy random variables. First, we formulate a scheduling optimization model and design a fuzzy random simulation based genetic algorithm to optimize the departure time and dwell times for each depot–customer pair. Then we establish an expected value model and design a modified particle swarm optimization algorithm to minimize the en route risks and site risks. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed models and algorithms.


      PubDate: 2015-07-08T01:46:09Z
       
  • Personalised feedback and eco-driving: An explorative study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): R.F.T. Brouwer , A. Stuiver , T. Hof , L. Kroon , J. Pauwelussen , B. Holleman
      Conventional road transport has negative impact on the environment. Stimulating eco-driving through feedback to the driver about his/her energy conservation performance has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions and promote fuel cost savings. Not all drivers respond well to the same type of feedback. Research has shown that different drivers are attracted to different types of information and feedback. The goal of this paper is to explore which different driver segments with specific psychographic characteristics can be distinguished, how these characteristics can be used in the development of an ecodriving support system and whether tailoring eco-driving feedback technology to these different driver segments will lead to increased acceptance and thus effectiveness of the eco feedback technology. The driver segments are based on the value orientation theory and learning orientation theory. Different possibilities for feedback were tested in an exploratory study in a driving simulator. An explorative study was selected since the choice of the display (how and when the information is presented) may have a strong impact on the results. This makes testing of the selected driver segments very difficult. The results of the study nevertheless suggest that adapting the display to a driver segment showed an increase in acceptance in certain cases. The results showed small differences for ratings on acceptation, ease of use, favouritism and a lower general rating between matched (e.g., learning display with learning oriented drivers) and mismatched displays (e.g., learning display with performance oriented drivers). Using a display that gives historical feedback and incorporates learning elements suggested a non-verifiable increase in acceptance for learning oriented drivers. However historical feedback and learning elements may be less effective for performance oriented drivers, who may need comparative feedback and game elements to improve energy conserving driving behaviour.


      PubDate: 2015-07-03T13:00:04Z
       
  • Bus service time estimation model for a curbside bus stop
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 57
      Author(s): Bomin Bian , Ning Zhu , Shuai Ling , Shoufeng Ma
      The bus service time at bus stop areas occupies a large proportion of the total on-road bus operational time. Curbside bus stops are very common in urban transit systems, and the occurrence of bus queues forming at the entry and departure area of bus stop is quite frequent. To estimate the service time at a curbside bus stop, a compound Poisson service time estimation model (CPSTM) is proposed. The CPSTM considers the interactions among arriving buses and number of boarding and alighting passengers. Realistic observational data are acquired for a representative bus stop. Four different scenarios are presented to estimate the total expected service time. The service time estimation of each bus line is obtained via the CPSTM, and the effectiveness of the proposed CPSTM is demonstrated. The results show that the employment of real-time data is not required for accurate service time estimation.


      PubDate: 2015-07-03T13:00:04Z
       
  • A continuous-flow-intersection-lite design and traffic control for
           oversaturated bottleneck intersections
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 56
      Author(s): Weili Sun , Xinkai Wu , Yunpeng Wang , Guizhen Yu
      Oversaturation has become a severe problem for urban intersections, especially the bottleneck intersections that cause queue spillover and network gridlock. Further improvement of oversaturated arterial traffic using traditional mitigation strategies, which aim to improve intersection capacity by merely adjusting signal control parameters, becomes challenging since exiting strategies may (or already) have reached their “theoretical” limits of optimum. Under such circumstance, several novel unconventional intersection designs, including the well-recognized continuous flow intersection (CFI) design, are originated to improve the capacity at bottleneck intersections. However, the requirement of installing extra sub-intersections in a CFI design would increase vehicular stops and, more critically, is unacceptable in tight urban areas with closed spaced intersections. To address these issues, this research proposes a simplified continuous flow intersection (called CFI-Lite) design that is ideal for arterials with short links. It benefits from the CFI concept to enable simultaneous move of left-turn and through traffic at bottleneck intersections, but does not need installation of sub-intersections. Instead, the upstream intersection is utilized to allocate left-turn traffic to the displaced left-turn lane. It is found that the CFI-Lite design performs superiorly to the conventional design and regular CFI design in terms of bottleneck capacity. Pareto capacity improvement for every traffic stream in an arterial system can be achieved under effortless conditions. Case study using data collected at Foothill Blvd in Los Angeles, CA, shows that the new design is beneficial in more than 90% of the 408 studied cycles. The testing also shows that the average improvements of green bandwidths for the synchronized phases are significant.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T12:55:31Z
       
  • Editorial Board/Copyright Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 56




      PubDate: 2015-06-24T12:55:31Z
       
  • Real-time estimation of lane-based queue lengths at isolated signalized
           junctions
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 56
      Author(s): Seunghyeon Lee , S.C. Wong , Y.C. Li
      In this study, we develop a real-time estimation approach for lane-based queue lengths. Our aim is to determine the numbers of queued vehicles in each lane, based on detector information at isolated signalized junctions. The challenges involved in this task are to identify whether there is a residual queue at the start time of each cycle and to determine the proportions of lane-to-lane traffic volumes in each lane. Discriminant models are developed based on time occupancy rates and impulse memories, as calculated by the detector and signal information from a set of upstream and downstream detectors. To determine the proportions of total traffic volume in each lane, the downstream arrivals for each cycle are estimated by using the Kalman filter, which is based on upstream arrivals and downstream discharges collected during the previous cycle. Both the computer simulations and the case study of real-world traffic show that the proposed method is robust and accurate for the estimation of lane-based queue lengths in real time under a wide range of traffic conditions. Calibrated discriminant models play a significant role in determining whether there are residual queued vehicles in each lane at the start time of each cycle. In addition, downstream arrivals estimated by the Kalman filter enhance the accuracy of the estimates by minimizing any error terms caused by lane-changing behavior.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T12:55:31Z
       
  • Lane-based real-time queue length estimation using license plate
           recognition data
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 57
      Author(s): Xianyuan Zhan , Ruimin Li , Satish V. Ukkusuri
      License plate recognition (LPR) data are emerging data sources that provide rich information in estimating the traffic conditions of urban arterials. While large-scale LPR system is not common in US, last few years have seen rapid developments and implementations in many other parts of world (e.g. China, Thailand and Middle East). Due to privacy issues, LPR data are seldom available to research communities. However, when available, this data source can be valuable in estimating real-time operational metrics in transportation systems. This paper proposes a lane-based real-time queue length estimation model using the license plate recognition (LPR) data. In the model, an interpolation method based on Gaussian process is developed to reconstruct the equivalent cumulative arrival–departure curve for each lane. The missing information for unrecognized or unmatched vehicles is obtained from the reconstructed arrival curve. With the complete arrival and departure information, a car-following based simulation scheme is applied to estimate the real-time queue length for each lane. The proposed model is validated using ground truth information of the maximum queue lengths from the city of Langfang in China. The results show that the model can capture the variations in queue lengths in the ground truth data, and the maximum queue length for each signal cycle can be estimated with a reasonable accuracy. The estimated queue length information using the proposed model can serve as a useful performance metric for various real-time traffic control applications.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T12:55:31Z
       
  • Standardization of capacity unit for headway-based rail capacity analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 57
      Author(s): Yung-Cheng Lai , Yun-Hsuan Liu , Yi-Ju Lin
      Determining the required capacity upgrades to accommodate future demand is a critical process in assisting public and private financing of capacity investments. Conventional railway systems usually operate multiple types of trains on the same track. These different types of trains can exert substantially different capacity impact, and can cause serious operational conflicts. In the past, rail line capacity is commonly defined as the maximum number of trains that can be operated on a section of track within a given time period. However, a specific unit (trains/hr or trains/day) does not reflect the heterogeneity of train types. According to the concept of base train equivalents (BTE) and base train unit (BTU), this study developed headway-based models to determine BTE for transforming different train types into a standard unit (i.e., BTU). An approximate method for lines with three and more types of trains was also proposed to compute BTEs for non-base trains. Results from the case studies demonstrate that this method enables the standardization of rail capacity unit, facilitates assessment of the impact from heterogeneous trains, and allows comparison and evaluation of the capacity measurements from different lines and systems.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T12:55:31Z
       
  • Real-time identification of probe vehicle trajectories in the mixed
           traffic corridor
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 57
      Author(s): Yu Mei , Keshuang Tang , Keping Li
      This paper proposes three enhanced semi-supervised clustering algorithms, namely the Constrained-K-Means (CKM), the Seeded-K-Means (SKM), and the Semi-Supervised Fuzzy c-Means (SFCM), to identify probe vehicle trajectories in the mixed traffic corridor. The proposed algorithms are able to take advantage of the strengthens of topological relation judgment and the semi-supervised learning technique by optimizing the selection of pre-labeling samples and initial clustering centers of the original semi-supervised learning technique based on horizontal Global Positioning System data. The proposed algorithms were validated and evaluated based on the probe vehicle data collected at two mixed corridors on Shanghai’s urban expressways. Results indicate that the enhanced SFCM algorithm could achieve the best performance in terms of clustering purity and Normalized Mutual Information, followed by the CKM algorithm and the SKM algorithm. It may reach a nearly 100% clustering purity for the uncongested conditions and a clustering purity greater than 80% for the congested conditions. Meanwhile, it could improve clustering purity averagely by 21% and 14% for the congested conditions and 6.5% and 6% for the uncongested conditions, as compared with the traditional K-Means algorithm and the basic SFCM. The proposed algorithms can be applied for both on-line and off-line purposes, without the need of historical data. Clustering accuracies under different traffic conditions and possible improvements with the use of historical data are also discussed.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T12:55:31Z
       
  • Modeling route choice inertia in network equilibrium with heterogeneous
           prevailing choice sets
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 57
      Author(s): Junlin Zhang , Hai Yang
      The notion of inertia is originally a term in physics that describes the tendency of an object sustaining the same mode and its resistance of change in the state of motion. In the context of social and behavioral sciences, inertia is often understood as the endurance of stable relationships or reluctance in adjustment of status quo. In this paper, a precise definition of inertia under the criteria of route choice in the transportation network is presented. We then incorporate the concept of route choice inertia into the traffic assignment problem and propose a model of inertial user equilibrium (IUE). The inertial user equilibrium is compatible with the standard user equilibrium and extends UE with heterogeneous route choice inertia patterns. The variational inequality formulation is established. We show how travelers’ heterogeneous inertia patterns may redistribute traffic flow and affect the original network equilibrium. Useful equivalent conditions for equilibrium preservation are obtained. The impact of traffic information provision to alleviate inertia is analyzed. The relationship between IUE and ε-BRUE is briefly discussed. And a number of numerical examples are conducted.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T12:55:31Z
       
  • Development of a maximum likelihood regression tree-based model for
           predicting subway incident delay
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 57
      Author(s): Jinxian Weng , Yang Zheng , Xiaobo Qu , Xuedong Yan
      This study aims to develop a maximum likelihood regression tree-based model to predict subway incident delays, which are major negative impacts caused by subway incidents from the commuter’s perspective. Using the Hong Kong subway incident data from 2005 and 2009, a tree comprising 10 terminal nodes is selected to predict subway incident delays in a case study. An accelerated failure time (AFT) analysis is conducted separately for each terminal node. The goodness-of-fit results show that our developed model outperforms the traditional AFT models with fixed and random effects because it can overcome the heterogeneity problem and over-fitting effects. The developed model is beneficial for subway engineers looking to propose effective strategies for reducing subway incident delays, especially in super-large-sized cities with huge public travel demand.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T12:55:31Z
       
  • An energy-efficient scheduling approach to improve the utilization of
           regenerative energy for metro systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 57
      Author(s): Xin Yang , Anthony Chen , Xiang Li , Bin Ning , Tao Tang
      Regenerative braking is an energy recovery mechanism that converts the kinetic energy during braking into electricity, also known as regenerative energy. In general, most of the regenerative energy is transmitted backward along the pantograph and fed back into the overhead contact line. To reduce the trains’ energy consumption, this paper develops a scheduling approach to coordinate the arrivals and departures of all trains located in the same electricity supply interval so that the energy regenerated from braking trains can be more effectively utilized to accelerate trains. Firstly, we formulate an integer programming model with real-world speed profiles to minimize the trains’ energy consumption with dwell time control. Secondly, we design a genetic algorithm and an allocation algorithm to find a good solution. Finally, we present numerical examples based on the real-life operation data from the Beijing Metro Yizhuang Line in Beijing, China. The results show that the proposed scheduling approach can reduce energy consumption by 6.97% and save about 1,054,388 CNY (or 169,223 USD) each year in comparison with the current timetable. Compared to the cooperative scheduling (CS) approach, the proposed scheduling approach can improve the utilization of regenerative energy by 36.16% and reduce the total energy consumption by 4.28%.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T12:55:31Z
       
  • Analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles’ utility factors using
           GPS-based longitudinal travel data
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 57
      Author(s): Xing Wu , Md. Aviquzzaman , Zhenhong Lin
      The benefit of using a PHEV comes from its ability to substitute gasoline with electricity in operation. Defined as the proportion of distance traveled in the electric mode, the utility factor (UF) depends mostly on the battery capacity, but also on many other factors, such as travel pattern and recharging pattern. Conventionally, the UFs are calculated based on the daily vehicle miles traveled (DVMT) by assuming motorists leave home in the morning with a full battery, and no charge occurs before returning home in the evening. Such an assumption, however, ignores the impact of the heterogeneity in both travel and charging behavior, such as going back home more than once in a day, the impact of available charging time, and the price of gasoline and electricity. Moreover, the conventional UFs are based on the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) data, which are one-day travel data of each sample vehicle. A motorist’s daily travel distance variation is ignored. This paper employs the GPS-based longitudinal travel data (covering 3–18months) collected from 403 vehicles in the Seattle metropolitan area to investigate how such travel and charging behavior affects UFs. To do this, for each vehicle, we organized trips to a series of home and work related tours. The UFs based on the DVMT are found close to those based on home-to-home tours. On the other hand, it is seen that the workplace charge opportunities significantly increase UFs if the CD range is no more than 40miles.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-06-24T12:55:31Z
       
 
 
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