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  Subjects -> TRANSPORTATION (Total: 168 journals)
    - AIR TRANSPORT (8 journals)
    - AUTOMOBILES (22 journals)
    - RAILROADS (5 journals)
    - ROADS AND TRAFFIC (6 journals)
    - SHIPS AND SHIPPING (32 journals)
    - TRANSPORTATION (95 journals)

TRANSPORTATION (95 journals)

Showing 1 - 53 of 53 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 81)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies on Transport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Economics of Transportation     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
EURO Journal of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
European Transport Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IATSS Research     Open Access  
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
IET Intelligent Transport Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IFAC-PapersOnLine     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Logistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of e-Navigation and Maritime Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Mobile Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Ocean Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Services Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Modern Transportation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 198)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sustainable Mobility     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Transport & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Transport Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Transport History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Transportation Safety & Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Transportation Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Transportation Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Waterway Port Coastal and Ocean Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Les Dossiers du Grihl     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Logistics & Sustainable Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Logistique & Management     Full-text available via subscription  
Mobility in History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Modern Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Packaging, Transport, Storage & Security of Radioactive Material     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pervasive and Mobile Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Public Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Recherche Transports Sécurité     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Revista Transporte y Territorio     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Romanian Journal of Transport Infrastructure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SourceOCDE Transports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Streetnotes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Synthesis Lectures on Mobile and Pervasive Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tire Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Transactions on Transport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Transport and Telecommunication Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transport in Porous Media     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transport Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transport Reviews: A Transnational Transdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Transportation Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Transportation Letters : The International Journal of Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Transportation Research Part B: Methodological     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Transportation Research Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transportation Research Record : Journal of the Transportation Research Board     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Transportation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
TRANSPORTES     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Transportmetrica B : Transport Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Travel Behaviour and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Urban, Planning and Transport Research     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Vehicular Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Транспортні системи та технології перевезень     Open Access  
Journal Cover Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
  [SJR: 2.062]   [H-I: 72]   [20 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0968-090X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • What are the value and implications of two-car households for the electric
           car?
    • Authors: Sten Karlsson
      Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Sten Karlsson
      The major barriers to a more widespread introduction of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) beyond early adopters are the limited range, charging limitations, and costly batteries. An important question is therefore where these effects can be most effectively mitigated. An optimization model is developed to estimate the potential for BEVs to replace one of the conventional cars in two-car households and to viably contribute to the households’ driving demand. It uses data from 1 to 3months of simultaneous GPS logging of the movement patterns for both cars in 64 commuting Swedish two-car households in the Gothenburg region. The results show that, for home charging only, a flexible vehicle use strategy can considerably increase BEV driving and nearly eliminate the unfulfilled driving in the household due to the range and charging limitations with a small battery. The present value of this flexibility is estimated to be on average $6000–$7000 but varies considerably between households. With possible near-future prices for BEVs based on mass production cost estimates, this flexibility makes the total cost of ownership (TCO) for a BEV advantageous in almost all the investigated households compared to a conventional vehicle or a hybrid electric vehicle. Because of the ubiquity of multi-car households in developed economies, these families could be ideal candidates for the initial efforts to enhance BEV adoptions beyond the early adopters. The results of this research can inform the design and marketing of cheaper BEVs with small but enough range and contribute to increased knowledge and awareness of the suitability of BEVs in such households.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T10:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • Coordinated multi-aircraft 4D trajectories planning considering buffer
           safety distance and fuel consumption optimization via pure-strategy game
    • Authors: Xiongwen Qian; Jianfeng Mao; Chun-Hsien Chen; Songlin Chen; Changpeng Yang
      Pages: 18 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Xiongwen Qian, Jianfeng Mao, Chun-Hsien Chen, Songlin Chen, Changpeng Yang
      In this paper, we consider a coordinated multi-aircraft 4D (3D space plus time) trajectories planning problem which is illustrated by planning 4D trajectories for aircraft traversing an Air Traffic Control (ATC) sector. The planned 4D trajectories need to specify each aircraft’s position at any time, ensuring conflict-free and reducing fuel and delay costs, with possible aircraft maneuvers such as speed adjustment and flight level change. Different from most existing literature, the impact of buffer safety distance is also under consideration, and conflict-free is guaranteed at any given time (not only at discrete time instances). The problem is formulated as a pure-strategy game with aircraft as players and all possible 4D trajectories as strategies. An efficient maximum improvement distributed algorithm is developed to find equilibrium at which every aircraft cannot unilaterally improve further, without enumerating all possible 4D trajectories in advance. Proof of existence of the equilibrium and convergence of the algorithm are given. A case study based on real air traffic data shows that the algorithm is able to solve 4D trajectories for online application with estimated 16.7% reduction in monetary costs, and allocate abundant buffer safety distance at minimum separation point. Scalability of the algorithm is verified by computational experiments.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T10:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.05.008
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • Electric vehicle charging choices: Modelling and implications for smart
           charging services
    • Authors: Nicolò Daina; Aruna Sivakumar; John W. Polak
      Pages: 36 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Nicolò Daina, Aruna Sivakumar, John W. Polak
      The rollout of electric vehicles (EV) occurring in parallel with the decarbonisation of the power sector can bring uncontested environmental benefits, in terms of CO2 emission reduction and air quality. This roll out, however, poses challenges to power systems, as additional power demand is injected in context of increasingly volatile supply from renewable energy sources. Smart EV charging services can provide a solution to such challenges. The development of effective smart charging services requires evaluating pre-emptively EV drivers’ response. The current practice in the appraisal of smart charging strategies largely relies on simplistic or theoretical representation of drivers’ charging and travel behaviour. We propose a random utility model for joint EV drivers’ activity-travel scheduling and charging choices. Our model easily integrates in activity-based demand modelling systems for the analyses of integrated transport and energy systems. However, unlike previous charging behaviour models used in integrated transport and energy system analyses, our model empirically captures the behavioural nuances of tactical charging choices in smart grid context, using empirically estimated charging preferences. We present model estimation results that provide insights into the value placed by individuals on the main attributes of the charging choice and draw implications charging service providers.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T10:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.05.006
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • Controlling road congestion via a low-complexity route reservation
           approach
    • Authors: C. Menelaou; P. Kolios; S. Timotheou; C.G. Panayiotou; M.P. Polycarpou
      Pages: 118 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): C. Menelaou, P. Kolios, S. Timotheou, C.G. Panayiotou, M.P. Polycarpou
      This work introduces a novel route reservation architecture to manage road traffic within an urban area. The developed routing architecture decomposes the road infrastructure into slots in the spatial and temporal domains and for every vehicle, it makes the appropriate route reservations to avoid traffic congestion while minimizing the traveling time. Under this architecture, any road segment is admissible to be traversed only during time-slots when the accumulated reservations do not exceed its critical density. A road-side unit keeps track of all reservations which are subsequently used to solve the routing problem for each vehicle. Through this routing mechanism, vehicles can either be delayed at their origin or are routed through longer but non-congested routes such that their traveling time is minimized. In this work, the proposed architecture is presented and the resulting route reservation problem is mathematically formulated. Through a complexity analysis of the routing problem, it is shown that for certain cases, the problem reduces to an NP-complete problem. A heuristic solution to the problem is also proposed and is used to conduct realistic simulations across a particular region of the San Francisco area, demonstrating the promising gains of the proposed solution to alleviate traffic congestion.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T19:31:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.05.005
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • Maximizing airborne delay at no extra fuel cost by means of linear holding
    • Authors: Yan Xu; Ramon Dalmau; Xavier Prats
      Pages: 137 - 152
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Yan Xu, Ramon Dalmau, Xavier Prats
      This paper introduces a linear holding strategy based on prior works on cruise speed reduction, aimed at performing airborne delay at no extra fuel cost, as a complementary strategy to current ground and airborne holding strategies. Firstly, the equivalent speed concept is extended to climb and descent phases through an analysis of fuel consumption and speed from aircraft performance data. This gives an insight of the feasibility to implement the concept, differentiating the case where the cruise flight level initially requested is kept and the case where it can be changed before departure in order to maximize the linear holding time. Illustrative examples are given, where typical flights are simulated using an optimal trajectory generation tool where linear holding is maximized while keeping constant the initially planned fuel. Finally, the effects of linear holding are thoroughly assessed in terms of the vertical trajectory profiles, range of feasible speed intervals and trade-offs between fuel and time. Results show that the airborne delay increases significantly with nearly 3-fold time for short-haul flights and 2-fold for mid-hauls to the cases in prior works.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T00:53:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.05.012
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • Measuring fine-grained metro interchange time via smartphones
    • Authors: Weixi Gu; Kai Zhang; Zimu Zhou; Ming Jin; Yuxun Zhou; Xi Liu; Costas J. Spanos; Zuo-Jun (Max) Shen; Wei-Hua Lin; Lin Zhang
      Pages: 153 - 171
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Weixi Gu, Kai Zhang, Zimu Zhou, Ming Jin, Yuxun Zhou, Xi Liu, Costas J. Spanos, Zuo-Jun (Max) Shen, Wei-Hua Lin, Lin Zhang
      High variability interchange times often significantly affect the reliability of metro travels. Fine-grained measurements of interchange times during metro transfers can provide valuable insights on the crowdedness of stations, usage of station facilities and efficiency of metro lines. Measuring interchange times in metro systems is challenging since agent-operated systems like automatic fare collection systems only provide coarse-grained trip information and popular localization services like GPS are often inaccessible underground. In this paper, we propose a smartphone-based interchange time measuring method from the passengers’ perspective. It leverages low-power sensors embedded in modern smartphones to record ambient contextual features, and utilizes a two-tier classifier to infer interchange states during a metro trip, and further distinguishes 10 fine-grained cases during interchanges. Experimental results within 6months across over 14 subway lines in 3 major cities demonstrate that our approach yields an overall interchange state inference F1-measurement of 91.0% and an average time error of less than 2min at an inference interval of 20s, and an average accuracy of 89.3% to distinguish the 10 fine-grained interchange cases. We also conducted a series of case studies using measurements collected from crowdsourced users during 3months, which reveals findings previously unattainable without fine-grained interchange time measurements, such as portions of waiting time during interchange, interchange directions, usage of facilities (stairs/escalators/lifts), and the root causes of long interchange times.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T00:53:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.05.014
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • A Bayesian Network model for contextual versus non-contextual driving
           behavior assessment
    • Authors: Xiaoyu Zhu; Yifei Yuan; Xianbiao Hu; Yi-Chang Chiu; Yu-Luen Ma
      Pages: 172 - 187
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Xiaoyu Zhu, Yifei Yuan, Xianbiao Hu, Yi-Chang Chiu, Yu-Luen Ma
      Driving behavior is generally considered to be one of the most important factors in crash occurrence. This paper aims to evaluate the benefits of utilizing context-relevant information in the driving behavior assessment process (i.e. contextual driving behavior assessment approach). We use a Bayesian Network (BN) model that investigates the relationships between GPS driving observations, individual driving behavior, individual driving risks, and individual crash frequency. In contrast to prior studies without context information (i.e. non-contextual approach), the data used in the BN approach is a combination of contextual features in the surrounding environment that may contribute to crash risk, such as road conditions surrounding the vehicle of interest and dynamic traffic flow information, as well as the non-contextual data such as instantaneous driving speed and the acceleration/deceleration of a vehicle. An information-aggregation mechanism is developed to aggregates massive amounts of vehicle GPS data points, kinematic events and context information into drivel-level data. With the proposed model, driving behavior risks for drivers is assessed and the relationship between contextual driving behavior and crash occurrence is established. The analysis results in the case study section show that the contextual model has significantly better performance than the non-contextual model, and that drivers who drive at a speed faster than others or much slower than the speed limit at the ramp, and with more rapid acceleration or deceleration on freeways are more likely to be involved in crash events. In addition, younger drivers, and female drivers with higher VMT are found to have higher crash risk.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T00:53:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.05.015
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • An ontology-based framework to support performance monitoring in public
           transport systems
    • Authors: Filippo Benvenuti; Claudia Diamantini; Domenico Potena; Emanuele Storti
      Pages: 188 - 208
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Filippo Benvenuti, Claudia Diamantini, Domenico Potena, Emanuele Storti
      Managers of public transport systems have been facing for years the strategic challenge of maintaining high quality of transport services to improve the mobility of citizens, while reducing costs and ensuring safety and low environmental impact. A well-established way to evaluate the performance achieved by the system or by specific activities is to monitor Key Performance Indicators (KPI). However, existing management systems, which refer to flexible yet large and complex data models, provide a limited support to define and select relevant KPIs for the objectives at hand, and even the identification of whether and how the data model is capable to achieve a certain informative need is a critical and time-consuming task. This work is aimed to propose a framework to ease the development of a monitoring system in the public transport domain. The approach is based on the ontological representation of all the knowledge regarding indicators and their formulas, business objectives, dimension analysis and their relation with the Transmodel, the European reference data model for public transport information systems. On its top, a reasoning framework provides logic functionalities to interactively support designers in a set of common design tasks: the choice of the most suitable indicators for the performance monitoring needs at hand, the definition of new indicators and the identification of the minimal set of Transmodel modules needed to calculate them. A case study is included to discuss these applications, while an evaluation shows the feasibility of the approach.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T00:56:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • Feedback control speed harmonization algorithm: Methodology and
           preliminary testing
    • Authors: Hao Yang; Hesham Rakha
      Pages: 209 - 226
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Hao Yang, Hesham Rakha
      The capacity drop phenomenon, which reduces the maximum bottleneck discharge rate following the onset of congestion, is a critical restriction in transportation networks that produces additional traffic congestion. Consequently, preventing or reducing the occurrence of the capacity drop not only mitigates traffic congestion, but can also produce environmental and traffic safety benefits. In addressing this problem, the paper develops a novel bang-bang feedback control speed harmonization (SH) or Variable Speed Limit (VSL) algorithm, that attempts to prevent or delay the breakdown of a bottleneck and thus reduce traffic congestion. The novelty of the system lies in the fact that it is both proactive and reactive in responding to the dynamic stochastic nature of traffic. The system is proactive because it uses a calibrated fundamental diagram to initially identify the optimum throughput to maintain within the SH zone. Furthermore, the system is reactive (dynamic) because it monitors the traffic stream directly upstream of the bottleneck to adjustment the metering rate to capture the dynamic and stochastic nature of traffic. The steady-state traffic states in the vicinity of a lane-drop bottleneck before and after applying the SH algorithm is analyzed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm in alleviating the capacity drop. We demonstrate theoretically that the SH algorithm is effective in enhancing the bottleneck discharge rate. A microscopic simulation of the network using the INTEGRATION software further demonstrates the benefits of the algorithm in increasing the bottleneck discharge rate, decreasing vehicle delay, and reducing vehicle fuel consumption and CO2 emission levels. Specifically, compared with the base case without the SH algorithm, the advisory speed limit increases the bottleneck discharge rate by approximately 7%, reduces the overall system delay by approximately 20%, and reduces the system-wide fuel consumption and CO2 emission levels by 5%.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T00:56:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • Integrated airline planning: Robust update of scheduling and fleet
           balancing under demand uncertainty
    • Authors: Luis Cadarso; Raúl de Celis
      Pages: 227 - 245
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Luis Cadarso, Raúl de Celis
      The airline schedule planning problem is defined as the sequence of decisions that need to be made to obtain a fully operational flight schedule. Historically, the airline scheduling problem has been sequentially solved. However, there have already been many attempts in order to obtain airline schedules in an integrated way. But due to tractability issues it is nowadays impossible to determine a fully operative and optimal schedule with an integrated model which accounts for all the key airline related aspects such as competitive effects, stochastic demand figures and uncertain operating conditions. Airlines usually develop base schedules, which are obtained much time in advance to the day of operations and not accounting for all the related uncertainty. This paper proposes a mathematical model in order to update base schedules in terms of timetable and fleet assignments while considering stochastic demand figures and uncertain operating conditions, and where robust itineraries are introduced in order to ameliorate miss-connected passengers. The proposed model leads to a large-scale problem which is difficult to be solved. Therefore, a novel improved and accelerated Benders decomposition approach is proposed. The analytical work is supported with case studies involving the Spanish legacy airline, IBERIA. The presented approach shows that the number of miss-connected passengers may be reduced when robust planning is applied.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T00:56:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.06.003
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • Real-time automatic rescheduling strategy for an urban rail line by
           integrating the information of fault handling
    • Authors: Yuan Gao; Lixing Yang; Ziyou Gao
      Pages: 246 - 267
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Yuan Gao, Lixing Yang, Ziyou Gao
      In the operation of urban rails, faults are inevitable, which leads to deviation between the actual timetable and the planned timetable. In nowadays, timetable rescheduling strategies rarely integrate the information of fault handling. In this paper, we develop a real-time automatic rescheduling strategy, which integrates the dynamic information of fault handling. The rescheduled timetable is obtained by a mathematical optimization model, the constraints set of which is automatically generated and adjusted as more information of fault handling is feedback. Compared with the experience-based rescheduling methods, the automatic rescheduling strategy reacts more quickly, and uses the information of fault handling more efficiently. A simulation system for testing the automatic rescheduling strategy is built, which uses the data of the Beijing Yizhuang metro line. Via testing on the simulation system, the effectiveness and efficiency of the automatic rescheduling strategy are validated.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T00:56:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.06.005
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • Auction-based tolling systems in a connected and automated vehicles
           environment: Public opinion and implications for toll revenue and capacity
           utilization
    • Authors: Gulsevi Basar; Mecit Cetin
      Pages: 268 - 285
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Gulsevi Basar, Mecit Cetin
      Autonomous and connected vehicles are expected to enable new tolling mechanisms, such as auction-based tolls, for allocating the limited roadway capacity. This research examines the public perception of futuristic auction-based tolling systems, with a focus on the public acceptance of such systems over current tolling practices on highways (e.g., dynamic and fixed tolling methodologies). Through a stated-preference survey, responses from 159 road-users residing in Virginia are elicited to understand route choice behavior under a descending price auction implemented on a hypothetical two-route network. Analysis of the survey data shows that there is no outright rejection of the presented auction-based tolling among those who are familiar with the current tolling methods. While males strongly support the new method, no clear pattern emerges among other demographic variables such as income and education level, and age. While high income respondents and regular commuters are more likely to pay higher tolls, no statistical significance between different genders, age groups, household sizes, and education levels is found. Based on the modeling results and the hypothetical road network, it is found that descending price tolling method yields higher average toll rates, and generates at least 70% more revenue when travel time saving is 30min, and improves capacity utilization of the toll road significantly compared to fixed tolls.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T00:58:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.06.006
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • A conceptualization of vehicle platoons and platoon operations
    • Authors: Santa Maiti; Stephan Winter; Lars Kulik
      Pages: 1 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): Santa Maiti, Stephan Winter, Lars Kulik
      Vehicle platooning, a coordinated movement strategy, has been proposed to address a range of current transport challenges such as traffic congestion, road safety, energy consumption and pollution. But in order to form platoons in an ad-hoc manner the vehicles have to ‘speak the same language’, which is in current practice limited to vehicles of particular manufacturers. There is no standard language yet. Also in research, while the current literature focuses on platoon control strategies, intra-platoon communication, or platooning impacts on traffic, the conceptualization of platooning objects and their operations remained unattended. This paper aims to fill this fundamental gap by developing a formal model of platooning concepts. The paper proposes an ontological model of platooning objects and properties and abstract basic building blocks of platoon operations that can then be aggregated to complex platooning behavior. The presented ontological model provides the logical reasoning to support vital decision-making during platoon lifecycles. The ontological model is implemented and demonstrated.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T09:44:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • The GRAAL of carpooling: GReen And sociAL optimization from crowd-sourced
           data
    • Authors: Michele Berlingerio; Bissan Ghaddar; Riccardo Guidotti; Alessandra Pascale; Andrea Sassi
      Pages: 20 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): Michele Berlingerio, Bissan Ghaddar, Riccardo Guidotti, Alessandra Pascale, Andrea Sassi
      Carpooling, i.e. the sharing of vehicles to reach common destinations, is often performed to reduce costs and pollution. Recent work on carpooling takes into account, besides mobility matches, also social aspects and, more generally, non-monetary incentives. In line with this, we present GRAAL, a data-driven methodology for GReen And sociAL carpooling. GRAAL optimizes a carpooling system not only by minimizing the number of cars needed at the city level, but also by maximizing the enjoyability of people sharing a trip. We introduce a measure of enjoyability based on people’s interests, social links, and tendency to connect to people with similar or dissimilar interests. GRAAL computes the enjoyability within a set of users from crowd-sourced data, and then uses it on real world datasets to optimize a weighted linear combination of number of cars and enjoyability. To tune this weight, and to investigate the users’ interest on the social aspects of carpooling, we conducted an online survey on potential carpooling users. We present the results of applying GRAAL on real world crowd-sourced data from the cities of Rome and San Francisco. Computational results are presented from both the city and the user perspective. Using the crowd-sourced weight, GRAAL is able to significantly reduce the number of cars needed, while keeping a high level of enjoyability on the tested data-set. From the user perspective, we show how the entire per-car distribution of enjoyability is increased with respect to the baselines.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T09:44:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.02.025
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • Specification and calibration of a microscopic model for pedestrian
           dynamic simulation at signalized intersections: A hybrid approach
    • Authors: Weiliang Zeng; Peng Chen; Guizhen Yu; Yunpeng Wang
      Pages: 37 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): Weiliang Zeng, Peng Chen, Guizhen Yu, Yunpeng Wang
      Macroscopic pedestrian models for bidirectional flow analysis encounter limitations in describing microscopic dynamics at crosswalks. Pedestrian behavior at crosswalks is typically characterized by the evasive effect with conflicting pedestrians and vehicles and the following effect with leading pedestrians. This study proposes a hybrid approach (i.e., route search and social force-based approach) for modeling of pedestrian movement at signalized crosswalks. The key influential factors, i.e., leading pedestrians, conflict with opposite pedestrians, collision avoidance with vehicles, and compromise with traffic lights, are considered. Aerial video data collected at one intersection in Beijing, China were recorded and extracted. A new calibration approach based on a genetic algorithm is proposed that enables optimization of the relative error of pedestrian trajectory in two dimensions, i.e., moving distance and angle. Model validation is conducted by comparison with the observed trajectories in five typical cases of pedestrian crossing with or without conflict between pedestrians and vehicles. The characteristics of pedestrian flow, speed, acceleration, pedestrian-vehicle conflict, and the lane formation phenomenon were compared with those from two competitive models, thus demonstrating the advantage of the proposed model.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T09:44:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.04.009
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • Vehicle routing with roaming delivery locations
    • Authors: Damián Reyes; Martin Savelsbergh; Alejandro Toriello
      Pages: 71 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): Damián Reyes, Martin Savelsbergh, Alejandro Toriello
      We propose the vehicle routing problem with roaming delivery locations (VRPRDL) to model an innovation in last-mile delivery where a customer’s order is delivered to the trunk of his car. We develop construction and improvement heuristics for the VRPRDL based on two problem-specific techniques: (1) efficiently optimizing the delivery locations for a fixed customer delivery sequence and (2) efficiently switching a predecessor’s or successor’s delivery location during the insertion or deletion of a customer in a route. Furthermore, we conduct an extensive computation study to assess and quantify the benefits of trunk delivery in a variety of settings. The study reveals that a significant reduction in total distance travelled can be achieved, especially when trunk delivery is combined with traditional home delivery, which has both economic and environmental benefits.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T09:46:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • Free-floating bike sharing: Solving real-life large-scale static
           rebalancing problems
    • Authors: Aritra Pal; Yu Zhang
      Pages: 92 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): Aritra Pal, Yu Zhang
      Free-floating bike sharing (FFBS) is an innovative bike sharing model. FFBS saves on start-up cost, in comparison to station-based bike sharing (SBBS), by avoiding construction of expensive docking stations and kiosk machines. FFBS prevents bike theft and offers significant opportunities for smart management by tracking bikes in real-time with built-in GPS. However, like SBBS, the success of FFBS depends on the efficiency of its rebalancing operations to serve the maximal demand as possible. Bicycle rebalancing refers to the reestablishment of the number of bikes at sites to desired quantities by using a fleet of vehicles transporting the bicycles. Static rebalancing for SBBS is a challenging combinatorial optimization problem. FFBS takes it a step further, with an increase in the scale of the problem. This article is the first effort in a series of studies of FFBS planning and management, tackling static rebalancing with single and multiple vehicles. We present a Novel Mixed Integer Linear Program for solving the Static Complete Rebalancing Problem. The proposed formulation, can not only handle single as well as multiple vehicles, but also allows for multiple visits to a node by the same vehicle. We present a hybrid nested large neighborhood search with variable neighborhood descent algorithm, which is both effective and efficient in solving static complete rebalancing problems for large-scale bike sharing programs. Computational experiments were carried out on the 1 Commodity Pickup and Delivery Traveling Salesman Problem (1-PDTSP) instances used previously in the literature and on three new sets of instances, two (one real-life and one general) based on Share-A-Bull Bikes (SABB) FFBS program recently launched at the Tampa campus of University of South Florida and the other based on Divvy SBBS in Chicago. Computational experiments on the 1-PDTSP instances demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms a tabu search algorithm and is highly competitive with exact algorithms previously reported in the literature for solving static rebalancing problems in SBSS. Computational experiments on the SABB and Divvy instances, demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is able to deal with the increase in scale of the static rebalancing problem pertaining to both FFBS and SBBS, while deriving high-quality solutions in a reasonable amount of CPU time.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T09:46:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.03.016
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • Combining pickups and deliveries in vehicle routing – An assessment
           of carbon emission effects
    • Authors: Marcel Turkensteen; Geir Hasle
      Pages: 117 - 132
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): Marcel Turkensteen, Geir Hasle
      This paper studies the effect on carbon emissions of consolidation of shipments on trucks. New positioning and communication technologies, as well as decision support systems for vehicle routing, enable better utilization of vehicle capacity, reduced travel distance, and thereby carbon emission reductions. We present a novel carbon emission analysis method that determines the emission savings obtained by an individual transport provider, who receives customer orders for outbound deliveries as well as pickup orders from supply locations. The transport provider can improve vehicle utilization by performing pickups and deliveries jointly instead of using separate trucks. In our model we assume that the transport provider minimizes costs by use of a tool that calculates detailed vehicle routing plans, i.e., an assignment of each transport order to a specific vehicle in the fleet, and the sequence of customer visit for each vehicle. We compare a basic set-up, in which pickups and deliveries are segregated and performed with separate vehicles, with two consolidation set-ups where pickups and deliveries may be mixed more or less freely on a single vehicle. By allowing mixing, the average vehicle load will increase and the total driven distance will decrease. To compare carbon emissions for the three set-ups, we use a carbon assessment method that uses the distance driven and the average load factor. An increase in the load factor can reduce part of the emission savings from consolidation. We find that emission savings are relatively large in case of small vehicles and for delivery and pickup locations that are relatively far from the depot. However, if a truck visits many demand and supply locations before returning to the depot, we observe negligible carbon emission decreases or even emission increases for consolidation set-ups, meaning that in such cases investing in consolidation through joint pickups and deliveries may not be effective. The results of our study will be useful for transport users and providers, policymakers, as well as vehicle routing technology vendors.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T09:46:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.04.006
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • Passenger oriented railway disruption management by adapting timetables
           and rolling stock schedules
    • Authors: Lucas P. Veelenturf; Leo G. Kroon; Gábor Maróti
      Pages: 133 - 147
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): Lucas P. Veelenturf, Leo G. Kroon, Gábor Maróti
      In passenger railway operations, unforeseen events require railway operators to adjust their timetable and their resource schedules. The passengers will also adapt their routes to their destinations. When determining the new timetable and rolling stock schedule, the railway operator has to take passenger behavior into account. The operator should increase the capacity of trains for which the operator expects more demand than on a regular day. Furthermore, the operator could increase the frequency of the trains that serve stations with an additional demand. This paper describes a real-time disruption management approach which integrates the rescheduling of the rolling stock and the timetable by taking the changed passenger demand into account. The timetable decisions are limited to additional stops of trains at stations at which they normally would not call. Several variants of the approach are suggested, with the difference in how to determine which additional stops should be executed. Real-time rescheduling requires fast solutions. Therefore a heuristic approach is used. We demonstrate the performance of the several variants of our algorithm on realistic instances of Netherlands Railways, the major railway operator in the Netherlands.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T09:46:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.04.012
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • Non-discriminatory train dispatching in a rail transport market with
           multiple competing and collaborative train operating companies
    • Authors: Xiaojie Luan; Francesco Corman; Lingyun Meng
      Pages: 148 - 174
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): Xiaojie Luan, Francesco Corman, Lingyun Meng
      Train dispatching is vital for the punctuality of train services, which is critical for a train operating company (TOC) to maintain its competitiveness. Due to the introduction of competition in the railway transport market, the issue of discrimination is attracting more and more attention. This paper focuses on delivering non-discriminatory train dispatching solutions while multiple TOCs are competing in a rail transport market, and investigating impacting factors of the inequity of train dispatching solutions. A mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model is first proposed, in which the inequity of competitors (i.e., trains and TOCs) is formalized by a set of constraints. In order to provide a more flexible framework, a model is further reformulated where the inequity of competitors is formalized as the maximum individual deviation of competitors’ delay cost from average delay cost in the objective function. Complex infrastructure capacity constraints are considered and modelled through a big M-based approach. The proposed models are solved by a standard MILP solver. A set of comprehensive experiments is conducted on a real-world dataset adapted from the Dutch railway network to test the efficiency, effectiveness, and applicability of the proposed models, as well as determine the trade-off between train delays and delay equity.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T09:46:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.04.011
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • Response of electric vehicle drivers to dynamic pricing of parking and
           charging services: Risky choice in early reservations
    • Authors: C. Latinopoulos; A. Sivakumar; J.W. Polak
      Pages: 175 - 189
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): C. Latinopoulos, A. Sivakumar, J.W. Polak
      When clusters of electric vehicles charge simultaneously in urban areas, the capacity of the power network might not be adequate to accommodate the additional electricity demand. Recent studies suggest that real-time control strategies, like dynamic pricing of electricity, can spread the demand and help operators to avoid costly infrastructure investments. To assess the effectiveness of dynamic pricing, it is necessary to understand how electric vehicle drivers respond to uncertain future prices when they charge their vehicle away from home. Even when data is available from electric vehicle trials, the lack of variability in electricity prices renders them insufficient for this analysis. We resolve this problem by designing a survey where we observe the stated preferences of the respondents for hypothetical charging services. A novel feature of this survey is its interface, which resembles an online or smartphone application for parking-and-charging reservations. The time-of-booking choices are evaluated within a risky-choice modelling framework, where expected utility and non-expected utility specifications are compared to understand how people perceive price probabilities. In the progress, we bring together theoretical frameworks of forward-looking behaviour in contexts where individuals were subject to equivalent price uncertainties. The results suggest that (a) the majority of the electric vehicle drivers are risk averse by choosing a certain price to an uncertain one and (b) there is a non-linearity in their choices, with a disproportional influence by the upper end of the price distribution. This approach gives new perspectives in the way people plan their travel activities in advance and highlights the impact of uncertainty when managing limited resources in dense urban centres. Similar surveys and analyses could provide valuable insights in a wide range of innovative mobility applications, including car-sharing, ride-sharing and on-demand services.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T09:46:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.04.008
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • Efficient control of fully automated connected vehicles at freeway merge
           segments
    • Authors: Clark Letter; Lily Elefteriadou
      Pages: 190 - 205
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): Clark Letter, Lily Elefteriadou
      This paper presents a longitudinal freeway merging control algorithm for maximizing the average travel speed of fully automated connected vehicles. Communication with a roadside unit allows the computation and transmission of optimized trajectories to the equipped vehicles. These vehicles then carry out the trajectories and resume normal operation once they cease communication with the roadside controller. A tool was developed to simulate and carry out the merging algorithm, while interfacing with the optimization software LINGO. A hypothetical merging segment was simulated to evaluate the effectiveness of the merging algorithm, and its performance is compared to conventional vehicle operation. During uncongested conditions the algorithm is able to reduce travel time, increase average travel speed and improve throughput. The capacity of the merge segment is directly related to the safe time gap selected to run the algorithm. Once capacity is reached, queuing forms on both the ramp and mainline segments upstream of the merge area. The algorithm provides safe merging operations during this congested traffic state.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T09:50:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.04.015
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • When human beings are like drunk robots: Driverless vehicles, ethics, and
           the future of transport
    • Authors: Robert Sparrow; Mark Howard
      Pages: 206 - 215
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): Robert Sparrow, Mark Howard
      It is often argued that driverless vehicles will save lives. In this paper, we treat the ethical case for driverless vehicles seriously and show that it has radical implications for the future of transport. After briefly discussing the current state of driverless vehicle technology, we suggest that systems that rely upon human supervision are likely to be dangerous when used by ordinary people in real-world driving conditions and are unlikely to satisfy the desires of consumers. We then argue that the invention of fully autonomous vehicles that pose a lower risk to third parties than human drivers will establish a compelling case against the moral permissibility of manual driving. As long as driverless vehicles aren’t safer than human drivers, it will be unethical to sell them. Once they are safer than human drivers when it comes to risks to 3rd parties, then it should be illegal to drive them: at that point human drivers will be the moral equivalent of drunk robots. We also describe two plausible mechanisms whereby this ethical argument may generate political pressure to have it reflected in legislation. Freeing people from the necessity of driving, though, will transform the relationship people have with their cars, which will in turn open up new possibilities for the transport uses of the automobile. The ethical challenge posed by driverless vehicles for transport policy is therefore to ensure that the most socially and environmentally beneficial of these possibilities is realised. We highlight several key policy choices that will determine how likely it is that this challenge will be met.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T09:50:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.04.014
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • A real time forecasting tool for dynamic travel time from clustered time
           series
    • Authors: A. Ladino; A.Y. Kibangou; C. Canudas de Wit; H. Fourati
      Pages: 216 - 238
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): A. Ladino, A.Y. Kibangou, C. Canudas de Wit, H. Fourati
      This paper addresses the problem of dynamic travel time (DTT) forecasting within highway traffic networks using speed measurements. Definitions, computational details and properties in the construction of DTT are provided. DTT is dynamically clustered using a K-means algorithm and then information on the level and the trend of the centroid of the clusters is used to devise a predictor computationally simple to be implemented. To take into account the lack of information in the cluster assignment for the new predicted values, a weighted average fusion based on a similarity measurement is proposed to combine the predictions of each model. The algorithm is deployed in a real time application and the performance is evaluated using real traffic data from the South Ring of the Grenoble city in France.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T09:50:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • Simulation of electric vehicle driver behaviour in road transport and
           electric power networks
    • Authors: Charalampos Marmaras; Erotokritos Xydas; Liana Cipcigan
      Pages: 239 - 256
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): Charalampos Marmaras, Erotokritos Xydas, Liana Cipcigan
      The integration of electric vehicles (EVs) will affect both electricity and transport systems and research is needed on finding possible ways to make a smooth transition to the electrification of the road transport. To fully understand the EV integration consequences, the behaviour of the EV drivers and its impact on these two systems should be studied. This paper describes an integrated simulation-based approach, modelling the EV and its interactions in both road transport and electric power systems. The main components of both systems have been considered, and the EV driver behaviour was modelled using a multi-agent simulation platform. Considering a fleet of 1000EV agents, two behavioural profiles were studied (Unaware/Aware) to model EV driver behaviour. The two behavioural profiles represent the EV driver in different stages of EV adoption starting with Unaware EV drivers when the public acceptance of EVs is limited, and developing to Aware EV drivers as the electrification of road transport is promoted in an overall context. The EV agents were modelled to follow a realistic activity-based trip pattern, and the impact of EV driver behaviour was simulated on a road transport and electricity grid. It was found that the EV agents’ behaviour has direct and indirect impact on both the road transport network and the electricity grid, affecting the traffic of the roads, the stress of the distribution network and the utilization of the charging infrastructure.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T09:50:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • Urban single-lane roundabouts: A new analytical approach using
           multi-criteria and simultaneous multi-objective optimization of geometry
           design, efficiency and safety
    • Authors: Hrvoje Pilko; Sadko Mandžuka; Danijela Barić
      Pages: 257 - 271
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): Hrvoje Pilko, Sadko Mandžuka, Danijela Barić
      Building safe and effective roundabouts requires optimizing traffic (operational) efficiency (TE) and traffic safety (TS) while taking into account geometric factors, traffic characteristics and local constraints. Most existing simulation-based optimization models do not simultaneously optimize all these factors. To capture the relationship among geometry, efficiency and safety, we put forward a model formulation in this paper. We present a new multi-criteria and simultaneous multi-objective optimization (MOO) model approach to optimize geometry, TE and TS of urban unsignalized single-lane roundabouts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first model that uses the multi-criteria decision-making method known as analytic hierarchy process to evaluate and rank traffic parameters and geometric elements of urban single-lane roundabouts. The model was built based on comprehensive review of the research literature and existing roundabout simulation software, a field survey of 61 civil and traffic expert engineers in Croatia, and field studies of roundabouts in the Croatian capital city of Zagreb. We started from the basis of Kimber’s capacity model, HCM2010 serviceability model, and Maycock and Hall's accident prediction model, which we extended by adding sensitivity analysis and powerful MOO procedures of the bounded objective function method and interactive optimization. Preliminary validation of the model was achieved by identifying the optimal and most robust of three geometric alternatives (V.1-V.3) for an unsignalized single-lane roundabout in Zagreb, Croatia. The geometric parameters in variant V.1 had significantly higher values than in the existing design V.0, while approaches 1 and 3 in variant V.2 were enlarged as much as possible within allowed spatial limits and Croatian guidelines, reflecting their higher traffic demand. Sensitivity analysis indicated that variant V.2 showed the overall highest TE and TS across the entire range of traffic flow demand and pedestrian crossing flow demand at approaches. At the same time, the number of predicted traffic accidents was similar for all three variants, although it was lowest overall for V.2. The similarity in predicted accident frequency for the three variants suggests that V.2 provides the greatest safety within the predefined constraints and parameter ranges explored in our study. These preliminary results suggest that the proposed model can optimize geometry, TE and TS of urban single-lane roundabouts.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T09:56:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.04.018
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • Distributed coordinated signal timing optimization in connected
           transportation networks
    • Authors: S.M.A. Bin Al Islam; Ali Hajbabaie
      Pages: 272 - 285
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): S.M.A. Bin Al Islam, Ali Hajbabaie
      This paper presents a Distributed-Coordinated methodology for signal timing optimization in connected urban street networks. The underlying assumption is that all vehicles and intersections are connected and intersections can share information with each other. The novelty of the work arises from reformulating the signal timing optimization problem from a central architecture, where all signal timing parameters are optimized in one mathematical program, to a decentralized approach, where a mathematical program controls the timing of only a single intersection. As a result of this distribution, the complexity of the problem is significantly reduced thus, the proposed approach is real-time and scalable. Furthermore, distributed mathematical programs continuously coordinate with each other to avoid finding locally optimal solutions and to move towards global optimality. We proposed a real-time and scalable solution technique to solve the problem and applied it to several case study networks under various demand patterns. The algorithm controlled queue length and maximized intersection throughput (between 1% and 5% increase compared to the actuated coordinated signals optimized in VISTRO) and reduced travel time (between 17% and 48% decrease compared to actuated coordinated signals) in all cases.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T09:56:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.04.017
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • Who you are is how you travel: A framework for transportation mode
           detection using individual and environmental characteristics
    • Authors: Thanos Bantis; James Haworth
      Pages: 286 - 309
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): Thanos Bantis, James Haworth
      With the increasing prevalence of geo-enabled mobile phone applications, researchers can collect mobility data at a relatively high spatial and temporal resolution. Such data, however, lack semantic information such as the interaction of individuals with the transportation modes available. On the other hand, traditional mobility surveys provide detailed snapshots of the relation between socio-demographic characteristics and choice of transportation modes. Transportation mode detection is currently approached using features such as speed, acceleration and direction either on their own or in combination with GIS data. Combining such information with socio-demographic characteristics of travellers has the potential of offering a richer modelling framework that could facilitate better transportation mode detection using variables such as age and disability. In this paper, we explore the possibility to include both elements of the environment and individual characteristics of travellers in the task of transportation mode detection. Using dynamic Bayesian Networks, we model the transition matrix to account for such auxiliary data by using an informative Dirichlet prior constructed using data from traditional mobility surveys. Results have shown that it is possible to achieve comparable accuracy with the most widely used classification algorithms while having a rich modelling framework, even in the case of sparse mobility data.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T10:01:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • Network design of a transport system based on accelerating moving walkways
    • Authors: Riccardo Scarinci; Iliya Markov; Michel Bierlaire
      Pages: 310 - 328
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): Riccardo Scarinci, Iliya Markov, Michel Bierlaire
      Pollution, congestion and urbanistic considerations are leading to a change in the use of private vehicles in dense city centers. More frequently, the last-mile is covered with systems such as public transport, car sharing and bike sharing as well as an increase in walking and cycling. Following this trend, we assume a hypothetical scenario where the use of private cars is strongly limited in dense urban areas, and innovative transport modes must be used. This work investigates a futuristic system based on a network of accelerating moving walkways (AMW) to facilitate the movement of pedestrians in city centers where cars have been banned. Unlike constant speed moving walkways, AMWs can reach speeds of up to 15km/h thanks to an acceleration section. This paper presents a rigorous description of the system characteristics from a transportation point of view, develops a heuristic algorithm for the network design problem, and tests it on a real case study. Given a network of urban roads and an origin-destination demand, the optimization algorithm, which combines traffic assignment and supply modification, explores the trade-off curve between the total travel time and capital cost of the infrastructure. The results give practical insight on the possible dimensioning of the system, show the optimal network designs, and how these vary with a reduction of the available budget. This paper investigates for the first time the use of AMWs at a network scale, and provides results useful for analyzing the system feasibility. The results on travel time, investment budget and payback period indicates that AMWs could be an effective mode of transport in cities.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T10:01:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.04.016
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • Integrated optimization on train scheduling and preventive maintenance
           time slots planning
    • Authors: Xiaojie Luan; Jianrui Miao; Lingyun Meng; Francesco Corman; Gabriel Lodewijks
      Pages: 329 - 359
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): Xiaojie Luan, Jianrui Miao, Lingyun Meng, Francesco Corman, Gabriel Lodewijks
      We address the problem of simultaneously scheduling trains and planning preventive maintenance time slots (PMTSs) on a general railway network. Based on network cumulative flow variables, a novel integrated mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model is proposed to simultaneously optimize train routes, orders and passing times at each station, as well as work-time of preventive maintenance tasks (PMTSs). In order to provide an easy decomposition mechanism, the limited capacity of complex tracks is modelled as side constraints and a PMTS is modelled as a virtual train. A Lagrangian relaxation solution framework is proposed, in which the difficult track capacity constraints are relaxed, to decompose the original complex integrated train scheduling and PMTSs planning problem into a sequence of single train-based sub-problems. For each sub-problem, a standard label correcting algorithm is employed for finding the time-dependent least cost path on a time-space network. The resulting dual solutions can be transformed to feasible solutions through priority rules. Numerical experiments are conducted on a small artificial network and a real-world network adapted from a Chinese railway network, to evaluate the effectiveness and computational efficiency of the integrated optimization model and the proposed Lagrangian relaxation solution framework. The benefits of simultaneously scheduling trains and planning PMTSs are demonstrated, compared with a commonly-used sequential scheduling method.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T10:01:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.04.010
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • Design, analysis and performance evaluation of a third order distributed
           protocol for platooning in the presence of time-varying delays and
           switching topologies
    • Authors: Alessandro Salvi; Stefania Santini; Antonio Saverio Valente
      Pages: 360 - 383
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): Alessandro Salvi, Stefania Santini, Antonio Saverio Valente
      This paper is concerned with the problem of designing a decentralized consensus protocol for platooning of non-identical vehicles in the presence of heterogeneous time-varying communication delays. The proposed control protocol makes use of a state feedback and to this aim drivetrain dynamics are modeled as third-order linear systems. Necessary and sufficient conditions for convergence and exponential stability, derived by using an appropriate Krasovskii functional, demonstrate the ability of the platoon in reaching the required regime with an exponentially bounded behavior. The proposed LMI-based approach allows to estimate both delay margin and decay rate. Moreover, convergence is proven under switching communication network topologies by means of a Lyapunov-Razumikhin function, and the assessment of a string stable behavior has been also theoretically investigated. High-fidelity simulations with Plexe show the effectiveness of the theoretical results in different driving conditions and in the presence of external disturbances and communication impairment. Different communication channel models are used in the validation stage to further prove robustness of the proposed methodology with respect hard delay and packets losses.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T10:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.04.013
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • A multi-class model-based control scheme for reducing congestion and
           emissions in freeway networks by combining ramp metering and route
           guidance
    • Authors: C. Pasquale; S. Sacone; S. Siri; B. De Schutter
      Pages: 384 - 408
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): C. Pasquale, S. Sacone, S. Siri, B. De Schutter
      The paper proposes a multi-class control scheme for freeway traffic networks. This control scheme combines two control strategies, i.e. ramp metering and route guidance, in order to reduce the total time spent and the total emissions in a balanced way. In particular, the ramp metering and route guidance controllers are feedback predictive controllers, i.e. they compute the control actions not only on the basis of the measured system state, but also on the basis of the prediction of the system evolution, in terms of traffic conditions and traffic emissions. Another important feature of the controllers is that they have a multi-class nature: different classes of vehicles are considered and specific control actions are computed for each class. Since the controllers are based on a set of parameters that need to be tuned, the overall control framework also includes a module to properly determine the gains of the controllers. The simulation analysis reported in the paper shows the effectiveness of the proposed control framework and, in particular, the possibility of implementing control policies that are specific for each vehicle type.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T10:01:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.04.007
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • Time-dependent drivers’ merging behavior model in work zone merging
           areas
    • Authors: Jinxian Weng; Guorong Li; Yao Yu
      Pages: 409 - 422
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): Jinxian Weng, Guorong Li, Yao Yu
      This study investigates the drivers’ merging behavior in work zone merging areas during the entire merging implementation period from the time of starting a merging maneuver to that of completing the maneuver. With the actual work zone merging traffic data, we propose a time-dependent logistic regression model considering the possible time-varying effects of influencing factors, and a standard logistic regression model for the purpose of model comparison. Model comparison results show that the time-dependent model performs better than the standard model because the former can provide higher prediction accuracy. The time-dependent model results show that seven factors exhibit time-varying effects on the drivers’ merging behavior, including merging vehicle speed, through lane lead vehicle speed and through lane lag vehicle speed, longitudinal gap between the merging and lead vehicles, longitudinal gap between the merging and through lane lead vehicles, types of through lane lead and through lane lag vehicles. Interestingly, both the through lane lead vehicle speed and the through lane lag vehicle speed are found to exhibit heterogeneous effects at different times of the merging implementation period. One important finding from this study is that the merging vehicle has a decreasing willingness to take the choice of “complete a merging maneuver” as the elapsed time increases if the through lane lead vehicle is a heavy vehicle.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T10:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.05.007
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • Editorial
    • Authors: Yu Zhang; Hamsa Balakrishnan
      First page: 423
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): Yu Zhang, Hamsa Balakrishnan


      PubDate: 2017-06-02T19:31:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.05.010
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • Solving the gate assignment problem through the Fuzzy Bee Colony
           Optimization
    • Authors: Mauro Dell'Orco; Mario Marinelli; Maria Giovanna Altieri
      Pages: 424 - 438
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): Mauro Dell'Orco, Mario Marinelli, Maria Giovanna Altieri
      In the field of Swarm Intelligence, the Bee Colony Optimization (BCO) has proven to be capable of solving high-level combinatorial problems, like the Flight-Gate Assignment Problem (FGAP), with fast convergence performances. However, given that the FGAP can be often affected by uncertainty or approximation in data, in this paper we develop a new metaheuristic algorithm, based on the Fuzzy Bee Colony Optimization (FBCO), which integrates the concepts of BCO with a Fuzzy Inference System. The proposed method assigns, through the multicriteria analysis, airport gates to scheduled flights based on both passengers’ total walking distance and use of remote gates, to find an optimal flight-to-gate assignment for a given schedule. Comparison of the results with the schedules of real airports has allowed us to show the characteristics of the proposed concepts and, at the same time, it stressed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T19:31:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.03.019
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • Airport apron roundabout – Operational concept and capacity
           evaluation
    • Authors: Bojana Mirković; Vojin Tošić; Peter Kanzler; Michael Höhenberger
      Pages: 439 - 453
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): Bojana Mirković, Vojin Tošić, Peter Kanzler, Michael Höhenberger
      The paper presents one of the initial steps in the evaluation process towards possible implementation of an innovative taxiway intersection design at Munich Airport apron. A roundabout is proposed as a potential solution for the 12-line intersection area expected at redesigned Apron 3. Although it is a common solution used in road transport for complex intersections, the roundabout has never previously been used for airport surface operations nor has its possible use been considered or analyzed. The paper presents preliminary design and operations concepts of the apron roundabout, followed by its capacity evaluation under Munich Airport operating conditions. The aim was to analyze whether a roundabout is suitable to replace a conventional intersection, in terms of capacity.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T19:31:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2016.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • Estimating fuel burn impacts of taxi-out delay with implications for
           gate-hold benefits
    • Authors: Lu Hao; Megan S. Ryerson; Lei Kang; Mark Hansen
      Pages: 454 - 466
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): Lu Hao, Megan S. Ryerson, Lei Kang, Mark Hansen
      The aviation community is actively investigating initiatives to reduce aircraft fuel consumption from surface operations, as surface management strategies may face fewer implementation barriers compared with en route strategies. One fuel-saving initiative for the air transportation system is the possibility of holding aircraft at the gate, or the spot, until the point at which they can taxi unimpeded to the departure runway. The extent to which gate holding strategies have financial and environmental benefits hinges on the quantity of fuel that is consumed during surface operations. A pilot of an aircraft may execute the taxi procedure on a single engine or utilize different engine thrust rates during taxi because of a delay. In the following study, we use airline fuel consumption data to estimate aircraft taxi fuel consumption rates during the “unimpeded” and “delayed” portions of taxi time. We find that the fuel consumption attributed to a minute of taxi-out delay is less than that attributed to minute of unimpeded taxi time; for some aircraft types, the fuel consumption rate for a minute of taxi delay is half of that for unimpeded taxi. It is therefore not appropriate, even for rough calculations, to apply nominal taxi fuel consumption rates to convert delayed taxi-out time into fuel burn. On average we find that eliminating taxi delay would reduce overall flight fuel consumption by about 1%. When we consider the savings on an airport-by-airport basis, we find that for some airports the potential reduction from reducing taxi delay is as much as 2%.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T19:31:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2016.05.015
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • Airport capacity increase via the use of braking profiles
    • Authors: Jacek Skorupski; Hubert Wierzbicki
      Pages: 467 - 484
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): Jacek Skorupski, Hubert Wierzbicki
      Many airports are encountering the problem of insufficient capacity, which is particularly severe in periods of increased traffic. A large number of elements influence airport capacity, but one of the most important is runway occupancy time. This time depends on many factors, including how the landing roll procedure is performed. The procedure usually does not include the objective to minimize the runway occupancy time. This paper presents an analysis which shows that the way of braking during landing roll has an essential impact on runway throughput and thus on airport capacity. For this purpose, the landing roll simulator (named ACPENSIM) was created. It uses Petri nets and is a convenient tool for dynamic analysis of aircraft movement on the runway with given input parameters and a predetermined runway exit. Simulation experiments allowed to create a set of nominal braking profiles that have different objective functions: minimizing the runway occupancy time, minimizing noise, minimizing tire wear, maximizing passenger comfort and maximizing airport capacity as a whole. The experiments show that there is great potential to increase airport capacity by optimizing the braking procedure. It has been shown that by using the proposed braking profiles it is possible to reduce the runway occupancy time even by 50%.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T19:31:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2016.05.016
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • Metaheuristics for efficient aircraft scheduling and re-routing at busy
           terminal control areas
    • Authors: Marcella Samà; Andrea D’Ariano; Francesco Corman; Dario Pacciarelli
      Pages: 485 - 511
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80
      Author(s): Marcella Samà, Andrea D’Ariano, Francesco Corman, Dario Pacciarelli
      Intelligent decision support systems for the real-time management of landing and take-off operations can be very effective in helping air traffic controllers to limit airport congestion at busy terminal control areas. The key optimization problem to be solved regards the assignment of airport resources to take-off and landing aircraft and the aircraft sequencing on them. The problem can be formulated as a mixed integer linear program. However, since this problem is strongly NP-hard, heuristic algorithms are typically adopted in practice to compute good quality solutions in a short computation time. This paper presents a number of algorithmic improvements implemented in the AGLIBRARY solver (a state-of-the-art optimization solver to deal with complex routing and scheduling problems) in order to improve the possibility of finding good quality solutions quickly. The proposed framework starts from a good initial solution for the aircraft scheduling problem with fixed routes (given the resources to be traversed by each aircraft), computed via a truncated branch-and-bound algorithm. A metaheuristic is then applied to improve the solution by re-routing some aircraft in the terminal control area. New metaheuristics, based on variable neighbourhood search, tabu search and hybrid schemes, are introduced. Computational experiments are performed on an Italian terminal control area under various types of disturbances, including multiple aircraft delays and a temporarily disrupted runway. The metaheuristics achieve solutions of remarkable quality, within a small computation time, compared with a commercial solver and with the previous versions of AGLIBRARY.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T19:31:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2016.08.012
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • Deep learning for short-term traffic flow prediction
    • Authors: Nicholas G. Polson; Vadim O. Sokolov
      Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 79
      Author(s): Nicholas G. Polson, Vadim O. Sokolov
      We develop a deep learning model to predict traffic flows. The main contribution is development of an architecture that combines a linear model that is fitted using ℓ 1 regularization and a sequence of tanh layers. The challenge of predicting traffic flows are the sharp nonlinearities due to transitions between free flow, breakdown, recovery and congestion. We show that deep learning architectures can capture these nonlinear spatio-temporal effects. The first layer identifies spatio-temporal relations among predictors and other layers model nonlinear relations. We illustrate our methodology on road sensor data from Interstate I-55 and predict traffic flows during two special events; a Chicago Bears football game and an extreme snowstorm event. Both cases have sharp traffic flow regime changes, occurring very suddenly, and we show how deep learning provides precise short term traffic flow predictions.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T03:04:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.02.024
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • An integrated framework for assessing service efficiency and stability of
           rail transit systems
    • Authors: Yung-Cheng Lai; Chi-Sang Ip
      Pages: 18 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 79
      Author(s): Yung-Cheng Lai, Chi-Sang Ip
      A well-designed service plan efficiently utilizes its infrastructure and ensures an acceptable level of service stability with consideration of potential incidents that disturb or disrupt the rail transit services. To perform service evaluation, an integrated process combining capacity, resource usage, and system reliability is required to quantify service efficiency and stability in a consistent way. This study adopts capacity-based indices, “capacity utilization” and “expected recovery time”, as the attributes for service efficiency and stability, and develops a comprehensive evaluation framework with three corresponding modules to incorporate capacity, service plan, and system reliability and maintainability simultaneously. The capacity analysis module computes the rail transit capacities under normal and degraded operations. The reliability module classifies and fits the proper reliability and maintainability distributions to the historical interruption data. The service efficiency and stability module analyzes the results of the previous two modules and evaluates the service efficiency and stability of rail transit service plans. Empirical results show that the established evaluation framework can not only evaluate the service efficiency and stability but also identify critical sections and time slots. This tool can help rail transit operators rapidly assess their operational changes and investment strategies related to efficiency and stability so as to provide efficient and stable services to their customers.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T03:04:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • Cooperative GNSS positioning aided by road-features measurements
    • Authors: Luís Conde Bento; Philippe Bonnifait; Urbano J. Nunes
      Pages: 42 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 79
      Author(s): Luís Conde Bento, Philippe Bonnifait, Urbano J. Nunes
      Cooperation between road users through V2X communication is a way to improve GNSS localization accuracy. When vehicles localization systems involve standalone GNSS receivers, the resulting accuracy can be affected by satellite-specific errors of several meters. This paper studies how road-features like lane marking detected by on-board cameras can be exploited to reduce absolute position errors of cooperative vehicles sharing information in real-time in a network. The algorithms considered in this work are based on a error bounded set membership strategy. In every vehicle, a set membership algorithm computes the absolute position and an estimation of the satellite-specific errors by using raw GNSS pseudoranges, lane boundary measurements and a 2D georeferenced road map which provides absolute geometric constraints. As lane-boundary measurements provide essentially cross-track corrections in the position estimation process, cooperation enables the vehicles to improve their own estimates thanks to the different orientation of the roads. Set-membership methods are very efficient to solve this problem since they do not involve any independence hypothesis of the errors and so, the same information can be used several times in the computation. Such class of algorithm provides a novel approach to improve position accuracy for connected vehicles guaranteeing the integrity of the computed solution which is pivoting for automated automotive systems requiring guaranteed safety-critical solutions. Results from simulations and real experiments show that sharing position corrections reduces significantly satellite-specific GNSS errors effects in both cross-track and along-track components. Moreover, it is shown that lane-boundary measurements help reducing estimation errors for all the networked vehicles even those which are not equipped with an embedded perception system.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T18:52:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • Robust optimization of distance-based tolls in a network considering
           stochastic day to day dynamics
    • Authors: Zhiyuan Liu; Shuaian Wang; Bojian Zhou; Qixiu Cheng
      Pages: 58 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 79
      Author(s): Zhiyuan Liu, Shuaian Wang, Bojian Zhou, Qixiu Cheng
      This paper investigates the nonlinear distance-based congestion pricing in a network considering stochastic day-to-day dynamics. After an implementation/adjustment of a congestion pricing scheme, the network flows in a certain period of days are not on an equilibrium state, thus it is problematic to take the equilibrium-based indexes as the pricing objective. Therefore, the concept of robust optimization is taken for the congestion toll determination problem, which takes into account the network performance of each day. First, a minimax model which minimizes the maximum regret on each day is proposed. Taking as a constraint of the minimax model, a path-based day to day dynamics model under stochastic user equilibrium (SUE) constraints is discussed in this paper. It is difficult to solve this minimax model by exact algorithms because of the implicity of the flow map function. Hence, a two-phase artificial bee colony algorithm is developed to solve the proposed minimax regret model, of which the first phase solves the minimal expected total travel cost for each day and the second phase handles the minimax robust optimization problem. Finally, a numerical example is conducted to validate the proposed models and methods.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T18:52:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • Rescheduling through stop-skipping in dense railway systems
    • Authors: Estelle Altazin; Stéphane Dauzère-Pérès; François Ramond; Sabine Tréfond
      Pages: 73 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 79
      Author(s): Estelle Altazin, Stéphane Dauzère-Pérès, François Ramond, Sabine Tréfond
      Based on the analysis of the railway system in the Paris region in France, this paper presents a rescheduling problem in which stops on train lines can be skipped and services are retimed to recover when limited disturbances occur. Indeed, in such mass transit systems, minor disturbances tend to propagate and generate larger delays through the shared use of resources, if no action is quickly taken. An integrated Integer Linear Programming model is presented whose objective function minimizes both the recovery time and the waiting time of passengers. Additional criteria related to the weighted number of train stops that are skipped are included in the objective function. Rolling-stock constraints are also taken into account to propose a feasible plan. Computational experiments on real data are conducted to show the impact of rescheduling decisions depending on key parameters such as the duration of the disturbances and the minimal turning time between trains. The trade-off between the different criteria in the objective function is also illustrated and discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T18:52:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • Integrated vehicle and powertrain optimization for passenger vehicles with
           vehicle-infrastructure communication
    • Authors: Jia Hu; Yunli Shao; Zongxuan Sun; Joe Bared
      Pages: 85 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 79
      Author(s): Jia Hu, Yunli Shao, Zongxuan Sun, Joe Bared
      This research proposes an optimal controller to improve fuel efficiency for a vehicle equipped with automatic transmission traveling on rolling terrain without the presence of a close preceding vehicle. Vehicle acceleration and transmission gear position are optimized simultaneously to achieve a better fuel efficiency. This research leverages the emerging Connected Vehicle technology and utilizes present and future information—such as real-time dynamic speed limit, vehicle speed, location and road topography—as optimization input. The optimal control is obtained using the Relaxed Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle. The benefit of the proposed optimal controller is significant compared to the regular cruise control and other eco-drive systems. It varies with the hill length, grade, and the number of available gear positions. It ranges from an increased fuel saving of 18–28% for vehicles with four-speed transmission and 25–45% for vehicles with six-speed transmission. The computational time for the optimization is 1.0–2.1s for the four-speed vehicle and 1.8–3.9s for the six-speed vehicle, given a 50s optimization time horizon and 0.1s time step. The proposed controller can potentially be used in real-time.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T18:52:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • Editorial Board/Copyright Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 80


      PubDate: 2017-06-02T19:31:12Z
       
  • On the variance of recurrent traffic flow for statistical traffic
           assignment
    • Authors: Wei Zhen; (Sean) Qian
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Wei Ma, Zhen (Sean) Qian
      This paper generalizes and extends classical traffic assignment models to characterize the statistical features of Origin-Destination (O-D) demands, link/path flow and link/path costs, all of which vary from day to day. The generalized statistical traffic assignment (GESTA) model has a clear multi-level variance structure. Flow variance is analytically decomposed into three sources, O-D demands, route choices and measurement errors. Consequently, optimal decisions on roadway design, maintenance, operations and planning can be made using estimated probability distributions of link/path flow and system performance. The statistical equilibrium in GESTA is mathematically defined. Its multi-level statistical structure well fits large-scale data mining techniques. The embedded route choice model is consistent with the settings of O-D demands considering link costs that vary from day to day. We propose a Method of Successive Averages (MSA) based solution algorithm to solve for GESTA. Its convergence and computational complexity are analyzed. Three example networks including a large-scale network are solved to provide insights for decision making and to demonstrate computational efficiency.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T10:11:15Z
       
  • Dynamic demand estimation and prediction for traffic urban networks
           adopting new data sources
    • Authors: Stefano Carrese; Ernesto Cipriani Livia Mannini Marialisa Nigro
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): Stefano Carrese, Ernesto Cipriani, Livia Mannini, Marialisa Nigro
      Nowadays, new mobility information can be derived from advanced traffic surveillance systems that collect updated traffic measurements, both in fixed locations and over specific corridors or paths. Such recent technological developments point to challenging and promising opportunities that academics and practitioners have only partially explored so far. The paper looks at some of these opportunities within the Dynamic Demand Estimation problem (DDEP). At first, data heterogeneity, accounting for different sets of data providing a wide spatial coverage, has been investigated for the benefit of off-line demand estimation. In an attempt to mimic the current urban networks monitoring, examples of complex real case applications are being reported where route travel times and route choice probabilities from probe vehicles are exploited together with common link traffic measurements. Subsequently, on-line detection of non-recurrent conditions is being recorded, adopting a sequential approach based on an extension of the Kalman Filter theory called Local Ensemble Transformed Kalman Filter (LETKF). Both the off-line and the on-line investigations adopt a simulation approach capable of capturing the highly nonlinear dependence between the travel demand and the traffic measurements through the use of dynamic traffic assignment models. Consequently, the possibility of using collected traffic information is enhanced, thus overcoming most of the limitations of current DDEP approaches found in the literature.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T10:11:15Z
       
  • Flight and passenger delay assignment optimization strategies
    • Authors: Montlaur Delgado
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 81
      Author(s): A. Montlaur, L. Delgado
      This paper compares different optimization strategies for the minimization of flight and passenger delays at two levels: pre-tactical, with on-ground delay at origin, and tactical, with airborne delay close to the destination airport. The optimization model is based on the ground holding problem and uses various cost functions. The scenario considered takes place in a busy European airport and includes realistic values of traffic. A passenger assignment with connections at the hub is modeled. Statistical models are used for passenger and connecting passenger allocation, minimum time required for turnaround and tactical noise; whereas uncertainty is also introduced in the model for tactical noise. Performance of the various optimization processes is presented and compared to ration by schedule results.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T10:11:15Z
       
  • Editorial Board/Copyright Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 79


      PubDate: 2017-05-02T09:44:29Z
       
 
 
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