for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help
  Subjects -> TRANSPORTATION (Total: 165 journals)
    - AIR TRANSPORT (7 journals)
    - AUTOMOBILES (20 journals)
    - RAILROADS (5 journals)
    - ROADS AND TRAFFIC (5 journals)
    - SHIPS AND SHIPPING (29 journals)
    - TRANSPORTATION (99 journals)

TRANSPORTATION (99 journals)

Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 58)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Bitácora Urbano-Territorial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies on Transport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Economics of Transportation     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
EURO Journal of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European Transport Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IATSS Research     Open Access  
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IET Intelligent Transport Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Innovation - Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Applied Logistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of e-Navigation and Maritime Economy     Open Access  
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Micro-Nano Scale Transport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Mobile Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Ocean Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Services Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Modern Transportation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 116)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Sustainable Mobility     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Transport & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Transport Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Transport History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Transport Literature     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Transportation Safety & Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Transportation Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Transportation Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Waterway Port Coastal and Ocean Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Les Dossiers du Grihl     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Logistics & Sustainable Transport     Open Access  
Logistique & Management     Full-text available via subscription  
Mobility in History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Modern Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Pervasive and Mobile Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
PS: Political Science & Politics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Public Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Recherche Transports Sécurité     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Revista Transporte y Territorio     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Romanian Journal of Transport Infrastructure     Open Access  
SourceOCDE Transports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Streetnotes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Synthesis Lectures on Mobile and Pervasive Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tire Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Transactions on Transport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Transport and Telecommunication Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transport in Porous Media     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transport Reviews: A Transnational Transdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Transportation Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Transportation Letters : The International Journal of Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Transportation Research Part B: Methodological     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Transportation Research Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Transportation Research Record : Journal of the Transportation Research Board     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Transportation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
TRANSPORTES     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transportmetrica B : Transport Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Travel Behaviour and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Urban, Planning and Transport Research     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Vehicular Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Транспортні системи та технології перевезень     Open Access  
Journal Cover Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
  [SJR: 1.943]   [H-I: 55]   [19 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0968-090X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2801 journals]
  • Capacity drops at merges: New analytical investigations
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 62
      Author(s): Ludovic Leclercq, Victor L. Knoop, Florian Marczak, Serge P. Hoogendoorn
      This paper focuses on the derivation of analytical formulae to estimate the effective capacity at freeway merges. It extends previous works by proposing a generic framework able to account for (i) heterogeneous vehicle characteristics and (ii) refined description of the physical interactions between upstream waves and downstream voids created by inserting vehicles within the merge area. The provided analytical formulae permit to directly compute the capacity values when the merge is self-active, i.e. when both upstream roads are congested while downstream traffic conditions are free-flow. They show that accounting for vehicle heterogeneity is not necessary when only the mean capacity is targeted. Calculations with the proper mean value for all parameters provide almost the same results as calculations that consider the full distributions for all parameters. This means that calibrating all distributions is not necessary only the mean parameter values are important. Finally, this paper also shows that vehicle heterogeneity plays a major role in the flow dynamics just upstream of the merge.


      PubDate: 2016-01-23T08:47:15Z
       
  • Editorial Board/Copyright Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 62




      PubDate: 2016-01-23T08:47:15Z
       
  • A multiclass cell transmission model for shared human and autonomous
           vehicle roads
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 62
      Author(s): Michael W. Levin, Stephen D. Boyles
      Autonomous vehicles have the potential to improve link and intersection traffic behavior. Computer reaction times may admit reduced following headways and increase capacity and backwards wave speed. The degree of these improvements will depend on the proportion of autonomous vehicles in the network. To model arbitrary shared road scenarios, we develop a multiclass cell transmission model that admits variations in capacity and backwards wave speed in response to class proportions within each cell. The multiclass cell transmission model is shown to be consistent with the hydrodynamic theory. This paper then develops a car following model incorporating driver reaction time to predict capacity and backwards wave speed for multiclass scenarios. For intersection modeling, we adapt the legacy early method for intelligent traffic management (Bento et al., 2013) to general simulation-based dynamic traffic assignment models. Empirical results on a city network show that intersection controls are a major bottleneck in the model, and that the legacy early method improves over traffic signals when the autonomous vehicle proportion is sufficiently high.


      PubDate: 2016-01-23T08:47:15Z
       
  • Local ramp metering with distant downstream bottlenecks: A comparative
           study
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 62
      Author(s): Yuheng Kan, Yibing Wang, Markos Papageorgiou, Ioannis Papamichail
      The well-known feedback ramp metering algorithm ALINEA can be applied for local ramp metering or included as a key component in a coordinated ramp metering system. ALINEA uses real-time occupancy measurements from the ramp flow merging area that may be at most a few hundred meters downstream of the metered on-ramp nose. In many practical cases, however, bottlenecks with smaller capacities than the merging area may exist further downstream, which suggests using measurements from those downstream bottlenecks. Recent theoretical and simulation studies indicate that ALINEA may lead to poorly damped closed-loop behavior in this case, but PI-ALINEA, a suitable Proportional-Integral (PI) extension of ALINEA, can lead to satisfactory control performance. This paper addresses the same local ramp-metering problem in the presence of far-downstream bottlenecks, with a particular focus on the employment of PI-ALINEA to tackle three distinct cases of bottleneck that may often be encountered in practice: (1) an uphill case; (2) a lane-drop case; and (3) an un-controlled downstream on-ramp case. Extensive simulation studies are conducted on the basis of a macroscopic traffic flow model to show that ALINEA is not capable of carrying out ramp metering in these bottleneck cases, while PI-ALINEA operates satisfactorily in all cases. A field application example of PI-ALINEA is also reported with regard to a real case of far downstream bottlenecks. With its control parameters appropriately tuned beforehand, PI-ALINEA is found to be universally applicable, with little fine-tuning required for field applications.


      PubDate: 2016-01-23T08:47:15Z
       
  • Determining collaborative profits in coalitions formed by two partners
           with varying characteristics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Daniel Palhazi Cuervo, Christine Vanovermeire, Kenneth Sörensen
      Horizontal logistic collaboration offers a great opportunity for companies to reduce their distribution costs. By forming a coalition and carrying out a joint operational plan, companies are able to achieve a larger profit. The extent of this profit is, however, highly dependent on the partners that form the coalition and the characteristics of their operations. Different companies might have different requirements and could enforce different restrictions on the joint operational plan. In this paper, we discuss a simulation study carried out to analyse the effects of different partner characteristics on the coalition’s performance. We evaluate coalitions formed by partners with different characteristics, and analyse how these complement each other. In this way, we are able to identify opportunities for very profitable collaborations that are missed by other studies.


      PubDate: 2016-01-14T15:13:53Z
       
  • Improved driver responses at intersections with red signal countdown
           timers
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 63
      Author(s): Mohammad R. Islam, David S. Hurwitz, Kristen L. Macuga
      Traffic Signal Countdown Timers (TSCTs) are innovative, practical and cost effective technologies with the potential to improve efficiency at signalized intersections. The purpose of these devices is to assist motorists in decision-making at signalized intersections with real-time signal duration information. This study focused specifically on driver responses in the presence of a Red Signal Countdown Timer (RSCT). A Linear Mixed Effect (LME) model was developed to predict the effect of RSCT on the headway of the first vehicle waiting on a red signal. The model predicted 0.72s reduction in the headway of the first queued vehicle resulting from the presence of RSCT, while the observed difference in mean headway was 0.82s. This result is suggestive of a reduction in start-up lost time at signalized intersections, i.e., an improvement in signalized intersection efficiency when an RSCT is present.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-01-14T15:13:53Z
       
  • Technology engagement and privacy: A cluster analysis of reported social
           network use among transport survey respondents
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 63
      Author(s): Orla Thérèse McCarthy, Brian Caulfield, Margaret O’Mahony
      New technologies are constantly being researched and developed to improve the sense of security of transport users. However, security technologies could also pose their own risks with regard to transport users’ privacy through the potential for data collection and storage. Transport, in particular, allows the data collector potential access to information on the users’ habits through the location information that could be collected during an individual’s interaction with technology during their travels. Some technologies, such as personal security apps (which essentially turn a smartphone into a type of panic alarm) also allow for the linking of the security technology and social networking apps. Given this link and the extent to which personal data, including location data, can be included in an individual’s social networking account, it was decided to investigate if the use of social networks could be related to individuals’ opinions on the use of their data through new technologies, such as personal security apps. This paper presents an exploration of the possibility of grouping respondents to a transport survey (N =469) based on their answers to questions on their social networking (SNS) use. It was hypothesised that if distinct groups exist within the SNS data, then they could be used as a supplementary personal variable for underlying privacy concerns and levels of engagement with technology in future transport studies. This would be in addition to the socio-demographic information collected in the survey. This paper presents the initial dimension reduction of the response variables to create composite variables. That is followed by the exploratory clustering of responses using two-step cluster analysis. Finally, the paper discusses the hypothesis testing of the resultant clusters against the socio-demographic responses to ascertain if additional information is provided by the clustering results. The transport survey responses were collected in Ireland, and a subset of responses, from the Greater Dublin Area, were used for the analysis in this paper. The results demonstrate that there is scope for this type of method to be used when researching new security technologies in transport.


      PubDate: 2016-01-14T15:13:53Z
       
  • Short-term prediction of border crossing time and traffic volume for
           commercial trucks: A case study for the Ambassador Bridge
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 63
      Author(s): Md Moniruzzaman, Hanna Maoh, William Anderson
      Short-term forecasting of traffic characteristics, such as traffic flow, speed, travel time, and queue length, has gained considerable attention from transportation researchers and practitioners over past three decades. While past studies primarily focused on traffic characteristics on freeways or urban arterials this study places particular emphasis on modeling the crossing time over one of the busiest US–Canada bridges, the Ambassador Bridge. Using a month-long volume data from Remote Traffic Microwave Sensors and a yearlong Global Positioning System data for crossing time two sets of ANN models are designed, trained, and validated to perform short-term predictions of (1) the volume of trucks crossing the Ambassador Bridge and (2) the time it takes for the trucks to cross the bridge from one side to the other. The prediction of crossing time is contingent on truck volume on the bridge and therefore separate ANN models were trained to predict the volume. A multilayer feedforward neural network with backpropagation approach was used to train the ANN models. Predicted crossing times from the ANNs have a high correlation with the observed values. Evaluation indicators further confirmed the high forecasting capability of the trained ANN models. The ANN models from this study could be used for short-term forecasting of crossing time that would support operations of ITS technologies.


      PubDate: 2016-01-06T15:05:22Z
       
  • Hierarchical control strategies for energy management of connected hybrid
           electric vehicles in urban roads
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Baisravan HomChaudhuri, Runing Lin, Pierluigi Pisu
      This paper presents a fuel efficient control strategy for a group of connected hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) in urban road conditions. A hierarchical control architecture is proposed in this paper for every HEV, where the higher level and the lower level controller share information with each other and solve two different problems that aim at improving its fuel efficiency. The higher level controller of each HEV is considered to utilize traffic light information, through vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) communication, and state information of the vehicles in its near neighborhood, via vehicle to vehicle (V2V) communication. Apart from that, the higher level controller of each HEV uses the recuperation information from the lower level controller and provides it the optimal velocity profile by solving its problem in a model predictive control framework. Each lower level controller uses adaptive equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) for following their velocity profiles, obtained from the higher level controller, in a fuel efficient manner. In this paper, the vehicles are modeled in Autonomie software and the simulation results are provided in the paper that shows the effectiveness of the proposed control architecture.


      PubDate: 2016-01-06T15:05:22Z
       
  • Mining missing train logs from Smart Card data
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 63
      Author(s): Yun-Hong Min, Suk-Joon Ko, Kyung Min Kim, Sung-Pil Hong
      This paper shows how to recover the arrival times of trains from the gate times of metro passengers from Smart Card data. Such technique is essential when a log, the set of records indicating the actual arrival and departure time of each bus or train at each station and also a critical component in reliability analysis of a transportation system, is missing partially or entirely. The procedure reconstructs each train as a sequence of the earliest exit times, called S-epochs, among its alighting passengers at each stations. The procedure first constructs a set of passengers, also known as reference passengers, whose routing choices are easily identifiable. The procedure then computes, from the exit times of the reference passengers, a set of tentative S-epochs based on a detection measure whose validity relies on an extreme-value characteristic of the platform-to-gate movement of alighting passengers. The tentative S-epochs are then finalized to be a true one, or rejected, based on their consistencies with bounds and/or interpolation from prescribed S-epochs of adjacent trains and stations. Tested on 12 daily sets of trains, with varying degrees of missing logs, from three entire metro lines, the method restored the arrival times of 95% of trains within the error of 24s even when 100% of logs was missing. The mining procedure can also be applied to trains operating under special strategies such as short-turning and skip-stop. The recovered log seems precise enough for the current reliability analysis performed by the city of Seoul.


      PubDate: 2016-01-02T18:09:02Z
       
  • Arterial traffic signal optimization: A person-based approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 December 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Eleni Christofa, Konstantinos Ampountolas, Alexander Skabardonis
      This paper presents a real-time signal control system that optimizes signal settings based on minimization of person delay on arterials. The system’s underlying mixed integer linear program minimizes person delay by explicitly accounting for the passenger occupancy of autos and transit vehicles. This way it can provide signal priority to transit vehicles in an efficient way even when they travel in conflicting directions. Furthermore, it recognizes the importance of schedule adherence for reliable transit operations and accounts for it by assigning an additional weighting factor on transit delays. This introduces another criterion for resolving the issue of assigning priority to conflicting transit routes. At the same time, the system maintains auto vehicle progression by introducing the appropriate delays associated with interruptions of platoons. In addition to the fact that it utilizes readily available technologies to obtain the inputs for the optimization, the system’s feasibility in real-world settings is enhanced by its low computation time. The proposed signal control system is tested on a four-intersection segment of San Pablo Avenue arterial located in Berkeley, California. The findings show the system’s capability to outperform pretimed (i.e., fixed-time) optimal signal settings by reducing total person delay. They have also demonstrated its success in reducing bus person delay by efficiently providing priority to transit vehicles even when they travel in conflicting directions.


      PubDate: 2016-01-02T18:09:02Z
       
  • An automated sign retroreflectivity condition evaluation methodology using
           mobile LIDAR and computer vision
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 63
      Author(s): Chengbo Ai, Yichang James Tsai
      Traffic sign retroreflectivity condition is one of the most critical factors impacting nighttime driving safety. The federal rule on minimum traffic sign retroreflectivity incorporated in the 2009 Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) issued by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is compelling transportation agencies to evaluate how to comply. As the traditional manual methods have become financially and/or practically infeasible, there is an urgent need for an effective and efficient retroreflectivity evaluation method. This paper investigates the possibility and proposes a methodology for automatically evaluating traffic sign retroreflectivity condition using mobile light detection and ranging (LIDAR) and computer vision. The proposed methodology uses (a) the traffic sign detection and color segmentation methods that are introduced for the first time to evaluate the retroreflectivity of different traffic sign colors separately in an automated manner; (b) the proposed theoretical-empirical LIDAR retro-intensity normalization scheme to more reliably model the radiometric responses of traffic sign captured in the mobile LIDAR data; (c) the population-based condition assessment method for the first time to statistically quantify the retroreflectivity condition of traffic signs rather than an four-point average. An experimental test was conducted on 35 Type I Engineer Grade stop signs. The result shows that the proposed methodology can produce a promising outcome with consistent retroreflectivity evaluations based on handheld retroreflectometer measurements; the proposed methodology can, also, better identify traffic signs with non-homogeneous deteriorated retroreflectivity. The reliable retroreflectivity evaluation results make the proposed methodology an appealing alternative for transportation agencies to use to comply with the FHWA’s requirement.


      PubDate: 2016-01-02T18:09:02Z
       
  • Geometric design safety estimation based on tire–road side friction
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 63
      Author(s): Peiqing Li, Jie He
      A closed-loop drive–vehicle–road–environment system (DVRES) model was established using Adams/Car and Matlab/Simulink. Dynamic responses of lateral tire forces based on tire–road side friction and road geometric characteristics are used to investigate vehicle side slip for geometric design safety estimation. The root mean square, the maximum values of lateral tire forces, comfort limit on curves and vehicle trajectories are used to quantify the safety margin of side friction. The simulation results show that the safety margins of lateral tire forces for radius, operating speed and superelevation rate were 18.2%, 19.3% and 17.6%, respectively, to guarantee good vehicle lateral reliability and ride comfort, while lower speeds are optimal in wet and slippery roads. Finally, a case study was conducted to illustrate the analysis of road design safety, and on-site experiment testing further validated the accuracy and reliability of the closed-loop DVRES model.


      PubDate: 2016-01-02T18:09:02Z
       
  • Optimizing train stopping patterns and schedules for high-speed passenger
           rail corridors
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 63
      Author(s): Yixiang Yue, Shifeng Wang, Leishan Zhou, Lu Tong, M. Rapik Saat
      High-speed railway (HSR) systems have been developing rapidly in China and various other countries throughout the past decade; as a result, the question of how to efficiently operate such large-scale systems is posing a new challenge to the railway industry. A high-quality train timetable should take full advantage of the system’s capacity to meet transportation demands. This paper presents a mathematical model for optimizing a train timetable for an HSR system. We propose an innovative methodology using a column-generation-based heuristic algorithm to simultaneously account for both passenger service demands and train scheduling. First, we transform a mathematical model into a simple linear programming problem using a Lagrangian relaxation method. Second, we search for the optimal solution by updating the restricted master problem (RMP) and the sub-problems in an iterative process using the column-generation-based algorithm. Finally, we consider the Beijing–Shanghai HSR line as a real-world application of the methodology; the results show that the optimization model and algorithm can improve the defined profit function by approximately 30% and increase the line capacity by approximately 27%. This methodology has the potential to improve the service level and capacity of HSR lines with no additional high-cost capital investment (e.g., the addition of new tracks, bridges and tunnels on the mainline and/or at stations).


      PubDate: 2016-01-02T18:09:02Z
       
  • A cross-entropy method and probabilistic sensitivity analysis framework
           for calibrating microscopic traffic models
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 63
      Author(s): R.X. Zhong, K.Y. Fu, A. Sumalee, D. Ngoduy, W.H.K. Lam
      Car following modeling framework seeks for a more realistic representation of car following behavior in complex driving situations to improve traffic safety and to better understand several puzzling traffic flow phenomena, such as stop-and-go oscillations. Calibration and validation techniques pave the way towards the descriptive power of car-following models and their applicability for analyzing traffic flow. However, calibrating these models is never a trivial task. This is caused by the fact that some parameters, such as reaction time, are generally not directly observable from traffic data. On the other hand, traffic data might be subject to various errors and noises. This contribution puts forward a Cross-Entropy Method (CEM) based approach to identify parameters of deterministic car-following models under noisy data by formulating it as a stochastic optimization problem. This approach allows for statistical analysis of the parameter estimations. Another challenge arising in the calibration of car following models concerns the selection of the most important parameters. This paper introduces a relative entropy based Probabilistic Sensitivity Analysis (PSA) algorithm to identify the important parameters so as to reduce the complexity, data requirement and computational effort of the calibration process. Since the CEM and the PSA are based on the Kullback–Leibler (K–L) distance, they can be simultaneously integrated into a unified framework to further reduce the computational burden. The proposed framework is applied to calibrate the intelligent driving model using vehicle trajectories data from the NGSIM project. Results confirm the great potential of this approach.


      PubDate: 2016-01-02T18:09:02Z
       
  • Time-of-day vehicle mileage fees for congestion mitigation and revenue
           generation: A simulation-based optimization method and its real-world
           application
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 63
      Author(s): Xiqun (Michael) Chen, Chenfeng Xiong, Xiang He, Zheng Zhu, Lei Zhang
      Congestion pricing of a large-scale network is characterized by expensive-to-evaluate objective functions without closed forms. This paper further enhances a computationally efficient simulation-based optimization (SBO) framework to solve the problem within tight computational budget. This paper applies surrogate models to solve the optimization problem with computationally expensive objective functions based on simulation-based dynamic traffic assignment (DTA). DIRECT (a deterministic search algorithm with modification to Lipschitzian optimization) is used for metamodel parameter tuning. A trade-off of different objectives (i.e. the average travel time minimization, expected network throughput maximization, and toll revenue maximization) are converted into a single desirability function. To demonstrate the SBO framework with an application to the vehicle mileage traveled (VMT) based pricing for a real-world freeway network, this paper utilizes a calibrated simulation-based DTA model to evaluate system performance. A stochastic mesoscopic simulator is applied. We investigate the existence of an invariant macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD) for the network, and compare simulated MFDs with measurements of fixed detectors and probe data. The proposed SBO framework is generic and can be used to solve other congestion pricing problems.


      PubDate: 2015-12-29T18:46:27Z
       
  • Bus priority at signalized intersections with single-lane approaches: A
           novel pre-signal strategy
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 63
      Author(s): S. Ilgin Guler, Vikash V. Gayah, Monica Menendez
      Signalized intersections often represent a major source of bus delays in urban environments. One strategy to mitigate this problem is to dedicate an existing car lane for bus-use only and use an additional signal to help minimize interactions between cars and buses. However, this is physically impossible at approaches where only a single travel lane is available for each direction. To this end, this research explores a novel method to provide priority to buses at signalized intersections with single-lane approaches that (nearly) eliminates bus delays while minimizing the negative impacts imparted to cars. Using additional signals to stop cars on the opposing travel lane, the bus can jump a portion of the car queue using the travel lane in the opposite direction. This paper theoretically quantifies the delay savings buses can achieve, and the negative impacts imparted onto cars when this pre-signal strategy is applied. The negative impacts are measured as the additional car delays experienced when the intersection signal is under-saturated, and the reduction in car-discharge capacity when the intersection signal is over-saturated. In the under-saturated case, the results show that moderate average bus delay savings ( ∼ 5–7s per vehicle, equivalent to about 25% of the average delay expected at the intersection) are achieved if the pre-signal is always in operation and the total passenger delay is decreased only if bus occupancies are very high. However, if the pre-signal operation is targeted to only provide priority to the buses that would benefit the most, bus delay savings can be more than doubled while reducing the total passenger delay, even if the ratio of bus to car occupancy is relatively modest (greater than about 20). In the over-saturated case, bus delay savings can be much more significant (greater than 30s per bus), and this delay saving can increase further for longer block lengths (greater than 100m). However, the capacity of the intersection decreases by up to 25% during each cycle in which a bus arrives to the intersection. Simulation tests confirmed that the general trends and magnitudes of bus delay savings and negative impacts to cars hold for more realistic behaviors. The overall benefits are slightly smaller in the simulations, but nevertheless the strategy seems promising as a bus priority strategy at intersections with single-lane approaches in the field.


      PubDate: 2015-12-29T18:46:27Z
       
  • Virtual 3D city model as a priori information source for vehicle
           localization system
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 63
      Author(s): Maya Dawood, Cindy Cappelle, Maan E. El Najjar, Mohamad Khalil, Bachar El Hassan, Denis Pomorski, Jing Peng
      This paper aims at demonstrating the usefulness of integrating virtual 3D models in vehicle localization systems. Usually, vehicle localization algorithms are based on multi-sensor data fusion. Global Navigation Satellite Systems GNSS, as Global Positioning System GPS, are used to provide measurements of the geographic location. Nevertheless, GNSS solutions suffer from signal attenuation and masking, multipath phenomena and lack of visibility, especially in urban areas. That leads to degradation or even a total loss of the positioning information and then unsatisfactory performances. Dead-reckoning and inertial sensors are then often added to back up GPS in case of inaccurate or unavailable measurements or if high frequency location estimation is required. However, the dead-reckoning localization may drift in the long term due to error accumulation. To back up GPS and compensate the drift of the dead reckoning sensors based localization, two approaches integrating a virtual 3D model are proposed in registered with respect to the scene perceived by an on-board sensor. From the real/virtual scenes matching, the transformation (rotation and translation) between the real sensor and the virtual sensor (whose position and orientation are known) can be computed. These two approaches lead to determine the pose of the real sensor embedded on the vehicle. In the first approach, the considered perception sensor is a camera and in the second approach, it is a laser scanner. The first approach is based on image matching between the virtual image extracted from the 3D city model and the real image acquired by the camera. The two major parts are: 1. Detection and matching of feature points in real and virtual images (three features points are compared: Harris corner detector, SIFT and SURF). 2. Pose computation using POSIT algorithm. The second approach is based on the on–board horizontal laser scanner that provides a set of distances between it and the environment. This set of distances is matched with depth information (virtual laser scan data), provided by the virtual 3D city model. The pose estimation provided by these two approaches can be integrated in data fusion formalism. In this paper the result of the first approach is integrated in IMM UKF data fusion formalism. Experimental results obtained using real data illustrate the feasibility and the performances of the proposed approaches.


      PubDate: 2015-12-29T18:46:27Z
       
  • The ON-TIME real-time railway traffic management framework: A
           proof-of-concept using a scalable standardised data communication
           architecture
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 63
      Author(s): Egidio Quaglietta, Paola Pellegrini, Rob M.P. Goverde, Thomas Albrecht, Birgit Jaekel, Grégory Marlière, Joaquin Rodriguez, Twan Dollevoet, Bruno Ambrogio, Daniele Carcasole, Marco Giaroli, Gemma Nicholson
      Automatic real-time control of traffic perturbations has recently become a central issue for many European railway infrastructure managers. The aim is to make use of mathematical algorithms to maintain the required service availability during unplanned disturbances to operations. In the literature many tools for real-time traffic control are proposed, but their effects on traffic have never been studied neither in real life nor in fully realistic simulation environments. We can mention only a few pilot tests and a unique installation in the Lötschberg Base tunnel in Switzerland, which uses a replanning framework that is generally applicable but does not consider a standard data communication format. Standardisation of railway data is instead one of the main requirements of the European Railway Traffic Management System (ERTMS) to enable traffic interoperability across different countries along the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T). Following this direction, this paper introduces one of the outputs of the European project ON-TIME: a framework for the automatic real-time management of railway traffic, designed for being standard and interoperable across different European railways. We make use of a web-based Service-Oriented Architecture to ensure scalability and flexibility of application. A standard railML interface is used for the input/output data of the modules, allowing immediate applicability of the framework to any network having a railML representation. A proof-of-concept is provided where the framework is tested in a closed-loop with the simulation environment HERMES for perturbed traffic scenarios on different networks in the UK, the Netherlands and Sweden. Tests are performed for two different replanning algorithms (ROMA and RECIFE) used for the automatic detection and optimised resolution of train conflicts. The two algorithms are compared on the test case in Sweden. Results show that the design of the proposed framework is effective in managing traffic perturbations and is extendible to real-life systems.


      PubDate: 2015-12-29T18:46:27Z
       
  • Categorization of the lane change decision process on freeways
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Mehdi Keyvan-Ekbatani, Victor L. Knoop, Winnie Daamen
      Traffic operations for new road layouts are often simulated using microscopic traffic simulation packages. These traffic simulation packages usually simulate traffic on freeways by a combination of a car-following model and a lane change model. The car-following models have gained attention of researchers and are well calibrated versus data. The proposed lane change models are often representations of assumed reasonable behavior, not necessarily corresponding to reality. The current simulation packages apply solely one specific type of model for car-following or lane changing for all vehicles during the simulation. This paper investigates the decision process of lane changing maneuvers for a variety of drivers based on a two-stage test-drive. Participants are asked to take a drive on a freeway in the Netherlands in a camera-equipped vehicle. Afterwards, the drivers are asked to comment on their choices related to lane and speed choice, while watching the video. This paper reveals that different drivers have completely different strategies to choose lanes, and the choices to change lane are related to their speed choice. Four distinct strategies are empirically found. These strategies differ not only in parameter values, as is currently being modeled in most simulation packages, but also in their reasoning. Most remarkably, all drivers perceive their strategy as an obvious behavior and expect all other drivers to drive in a similar way. In addition to the interviews of the participants in the test-drive, 11 people who did not take part in the experiment were interviewed and questioned on lane change decisions. Moreover, the findings of this study have been presented to various groups of audience with different backgrounds (about 150 people). Their comments and feedback on the derived driving strategies have added some value to this study. The findings in this paper form a starting point for developing a novel lane change model which considers four different driving strategies among the drivers on freeway. This is a significant contribution in the area of driving behavior modeling, since the existing microscopic simulators consider only one type of lane change models for all drivers during the simulation. This could lead to significant changes in the way lane changes on freeways are modeled.


      PubDate: 2015-12-21T12:27:06Z
       
  • A dynamic automated lane change maneuver based on vehicle-to-vehicle
           communication
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Yugong Luo, Yong Xiang, Kun Cao, Keqiang Li
      Automated driving is gaining increasing amounts of attention from both industry and academic communities because it is regarded as the most promising technology for improving road safety in the future. The ability to make an automated lane change is one of the most important parts of automated driving. However, there has been little research into automated lane change maneuvers, and current research has not identified a way to avoid potential collisions during lane changes, which result from the state variations of the other vehicles. One important reason is that the lane change vehicle cannot acquire accurate information regarding the other vehicles, especially the vehicles in the adjacent lane. However, vehicle-to-vehicle communication has the advantage of providing more information, and this information is more accurate than that obtained from other sensors, such as radars and lasers. Therefore, we propose a dynamic automated lane change maneuver based on vehicle-to-vehicle communication to accomplish an automated lane change and eliminate potential collisions during the lane change process. The key technologies for this maneuver are trajectory planning and trajectory tracking. Trajectory planning calculates a reference trajectory satisfying the demands of safety, comfort and traffic efficiency and updates it to avoid potential collisions until the lane change is complete. The trajectory planning method converts the planning problem into a constrained optimization problem using the lane change time and distance. This method is capable of planning a reference trajectory for a normal lane change, an emergency lane change and a change back to the original lane. A trajectory-tracking controller based on sliding mode control calculates the control inputs to make the host vehicle travel along the reference trajectory. Finally, simulations and experiments using a driving simulator are conducted. They demonstrate that the proposed dynamic automated lane change maneuver can avoid potential collisions during the lane change process effectively.


      PubDate: 2015-12-17T11:37:28Z
       
  • Temporary user-centred networks for transport systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 62
      Author(s): António A. Nunes, Teresa Galvão Dias, Chris Zegras, João Falcão e Cunha
      The concept of Temporary User-Centred Networks (TUNs) for transport systems is introduced. Affinity in these networks is defined as the time-specific degree of equivalence between travel patterns of users in the system. TUNs reveal latent social structures typically invisible to their users, enabling circumstantial collaboration opportunities amongst them. To make TUNs explicit we quantify affinity as a combination of two measures: journey similarity and journey substitutability. In the urban public transport domain, TUNs enable the diffusion of knowledge across the system in real-time. This can assist passengers adjusting travel decisions to their preferences and objectives according to service status. An enriched Automated Fare Collection (AFC) system dataset is used to demonstrate the market potential of TUNs in the urban public transport domain.


      PubDate: 2015-12-13T18:52:41Z
       
  • Enhancing the performance of existing urban traffic light control through
           extremum-seeking
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 62
      Author(s): Ronny Kutadinata, Will Moase, Chris Manzie, Lele Zhang, Tim Garoni
      Urban traffic light controllers are responsible for maintaining good performance within the transport network. Most existing and proposed controllers have design parameters that require some degree of tuning, with the sensitivity of the performance measure to the parameter often high. To date, tuning has been largely treated as a manual calibration exercise but ignores the effects of changes in traffic condition, such as demand profile evolution due to urban population growth. To address this potential shortcoming, we seek to use a newly developed extremum-seeker to calibrate the parameters of existing urban traffic light controllers in real-time such that a certain performance measure is optimised. The results are demonstrated for three categories of traffic controllers on a microscopic urban traffic simulation. It is demonstrated that the extremum-seeking scheme is able to seek the optimal parameters, with respect to a certain performance measure, for each of these traffic light controllers in an urban, uni-modal traffic environment.


      PubDate: 2015-12-08T12:48:32Z
       
  • A copula-based approach to accommodate the dependence among microscopic
           traffic variables
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Yajie Zou, Yunlong Zhang
      Developing microscopic traffic simulation models requires the knowledge of probability distributions of microscopic traffic variables. Although previous studies have proposed extensive mathematical distributions for describing traffic variables (e.g., speed, headway, vehicle length, etc.), these studies usually consider microscopic traffic observations to be independent variables and distributions for these variables are investigated separately. As a result, some traditional approaches consider microscopic traffic variables as independent inputs to the traffic simulation process and these methods may ignore the possible dependence among different traffic variables. The objectives of this paper are to investigate the dependence structure among microscopic traffic variables and to examine the applicability of the copula approach to the joint modeling of these variables. Copulas are functions that relate multivariate distribution functions of random variables to their one-dimensional marginal distribution functions. The concept of copulas has been well recognized in the statistics field and recently has been introduced in transportation studies. The proposed copula approach is applied to the 24-h traffic data collected on IH-35 in Austin, Texas. The preliminary data analysis indicates that there exists dependence among microscopic traffic variables. Moreover, the modeling and simulation results suggest that copula models can adequately accommodate and accurately reproduce the dependence structure revealed by the traffic observations. Overall, the findings in this paper provide a framework for generating multiple microscopic traffic variables simultaneously by considering their dependence.


      PubDate: 2015-12-08T12:48:32Z
       
  • Automated cars: Queue discharge at signalized intersections with
           ‘Assured-Clear-Distance-Ahead’ driving strategies
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 62
      Author(s): Scott Le Vine, Xiaobo Liu, Fangfang Zheng, John Polak
      This study addresses the impacts of automated cars on traffic flow at signalized intersections. We develop and subsequently employ a deterministic simulation model of the kinematics of automated cars at a signalized intersection approach, when proceeding forward from a stationary queue at the beginning of a signal phase. In the discrete-time simulation, each vehicle pursues an operational strategy that is consistent with the ‘Assured Clear Distance Ahead’ criterion: each vehicle limits its speed and spacing from the vehicle ahead of it by its objective of not striking it, regardless of whether or not the future behavior of the vehicle ahead is cooperative. The simulation incorporates a set of assumptions regarding the values of operational parameters that will govern automated cars’ kinematics in the immediate future, which are sourced from the relevant literature. We report several findings of note. First, under a set of assumed ‘central’ (i.e. most plausible) parameter values, the time requirement to process a standing queue of ten vehicles is decreased by 25% relative to human driven vehicles. Second, it was found that the standard queue discharge model for human–driven cars does not directly transfer to queue discharge of automated vehicles. Third, a wet roadway surface may result in an increase in capacity at signalized intersections. Fourth, a specific form of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications that allows all automated vehicles in the stationary queue to begin moving simultaneously at the beginning of a signal phase provides relatively minor increases in capacity in this analysis. Fifth, in recognition of uncertainty regarding the value of each operational parameter, we identify (via scenario analysis, calculation of arc elasticities, and Monte-Carlo methods) the relative sensitivity of overall traffic flow efficiency to the value of each operational parameter. This study comprises an incremental step towards the broader objective of adapting standard techniques for analyzing traffic operations to account for the capabilities of automated vehicles.


      PubDate: 2015-12-08T12:48:32Z
       
  • A spatiotemporal correlative k-nearest neighbor model for short-term
           traffic multistep forecasting
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 62
      Author(s): Pinlong Cai, Yunpeng Wang, Guangquan Lu, Peng Chen, Chuan Ding, Jianping Sun
      The k-nearest neighbor (KNN) model is an effective statistical model applied in short-term traffic forecasting that can provide reliable data to guide travelers. This study proposes an improved KNN model to enhance forecasting accuracy based on spatiotemporal correlation and to achieve multistep forecasting. The physical distances among road segments are replaced with equivalent distances, which are defined by the static and dynamic data collected from real road networks. The traffic state of a road segment is described by a spatiotemporal state matrix instead of only a time series as in the original KNN model. The nearest neighbors are selected according to the Gaussian weighted Euclidean distance, which adjusts the influences of time and space factors on spatiotemporal state matrices. The forecasting accuracies of the improved KNN and of four other models are compared, and experimental results indicate that the improved KNN model is more appropriate for short-term traffic multistep forecasting than the other models are. This study also discusses the application of the improved KNN model in a time-varying traffic state.


      PubDate: 2015-12-08T12:48:32Z
       
  • An agent-based model of a multimodal near-field tsunami evacuation:
           Decision-making and life safety
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Haizhong Wang, Alireza Mostafizi, Lori A. Cramer, Dan Cox, Hyoungsu Park
      This paper presents a multimodal evacuation simulation for a near-field tsunami through an agent-based modeling framework in Netlogo. The goals of this paper are to investigate (1) how the varying decisn time impacts the mortality rate, (2) how the choice of different modes of transportation (i.e., walking and automobile), and (3) how existence of vertical evacuation gates impacts the estimation of casualties. Using the city of Seaside, Oregon as a case study site, different individual decision-making time scales are included in the model to assess the mortality rate due to immediate evacuation right after initial earthquake or after a specified milling time. The results show that (1) the decision-making time ( τ ) and the variations in decision time ( σ ) are strongly correlated with the mortality rate; (2) the provision of vertical evacuation structures is effective to reduce the mortality rate; (3) the mortality rate is sensitive to the variations in walking speed of the evacuee population; and (4) the higher percentage of automobile use in tsunami evacuation, the higher the mortality rate. Following the results, this paper concludes with a description of the challenges ahead in agent-based tsunami evacuation modeling and simulation, and the modeling of complex interactions between agents (i.e., pedestrian and car interactions) that would arise for a multi-hazard scenario for the Cascadia Subduction Zone.


      PubDate: 2015-12-08T12:48:32Z
       
  • Hierarchical model predictive control for multi-lane motorways in presence
           of Vehicle Automation and Communication Systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Claudio Roncoli, Ioannis Papamichail, Markos Papageorgiou
      A widespread deployment of vehicle automation and communication systems (VACS) is expected in the next years. This may lead to improvements in traffic management efficiency because of the novel possibilities of using VACS both as sensors and as actuators, as well as of a variety of new communications channels (vehicle-to-vehicles, vehicle-to-infrastructure) and related opportunities. To achieve this traffic flow efficiency, appropriate studies, developing potential control strategies to exploit the VACS availability, are essential. This paper describes a hierarchical model predictive control framework that can be used for the coordinated and integrated control of a motorway system, considering that an amount of vehicles are equipped with specific VACS. The concept employs and exploits the synergistic (integrated) action of a number of old and new control measures, including ramp metering, vehicle speed control, and lane changing control at a macroscopic level. The effectiveness and the computational feasibility of the proposed approach are demonstrated via microscopic simulation for a variety of penetration rates of equipped vehicles.


      PubDate: 2015-12-03T12:45:12Z
       
  • Predictive path following with arrival time awareness for waterborne AGVs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Huarong Zheng, Rudy R. Negenborn, Gabriël Lodewijks
      Large ports are seeking innovative logistical ways to improve their competitiveness world-wide. This article proposes waterborne AGVs, inspired by conventional automated guided vehicles and autonomous surface vessels, for transport over water. A predictive path following with arrival time awareness controller is proposed for such waterborne AGVs. The controller is able to achieve smooth tracking and energy efficiency with arrival time awareness for transport oriented applications. Tracking errors are conveniently formulated with vessel dynamics modeled in connected reference path coordinate systems and a coordinate transformation at switching coordinate systems. Binary decision variables and logic constraints based on an along-track state are proposed for modeling switches in the framework of Model Predictive Control (MPC) so that overshoots are avoided. Moreover, timing-aware along-track references are generated by a two-level double integrator scheme. The lower level is embedded in online MPC optimizations for smooth tracking. The higher level solves a mixed-integer quadratic programming problem considering distance-to-go and time-to-go before each MPC optimization. References over the next prediction horizon are generated being aware of the requirements on arrival time. Furthermore, successive linearizations of nonlinear vessel dynamics about a shifted previous optimal system trajectory are implemented to maintain a trade-off between computational complexity and optimality. Simulation results of two industrially relevant Inter Terminal Transport case studies illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed modeling and control design for waterborne AGVs.


      PubDate: 2015-12-03T12:45:12Z
       
  • Time-dependent area-based pricing for multimodal systems with
           heterogeneous users in an agent-based environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Nan Zheng, Guillaume Rérat, Nikolas Geroliminis
      In this paper, we investigate an area-based pricing scheme for congested multimodal urban networks with the consideration of user heterogeneity. We propose a time-dependent pricing scheme where the tolls are iteratively adjusted through a Proportional–Integral type feedback controller, based on the level of vehicular traffic congestion and traveler’s behavioral adaptation to the cost of pricing. The level of congestion is described at the network level by a Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram, which has been recently applied to develop network-level traffic management strategies. Within this dynamic congestion pricing scheme, we differentiate two groups of users with respect to their value-of-time (which related to income levels). We then integrate incentives, such as improving public transport services or return part of the toll to some users, to motivate mode shift and increase the efficiency of pricing and to attain equitable savings for all users. A case study of a medium size network is carried out using an agent-based simulator. The developed pricing scheme demonstrates high efficiency in congestion reduction. Comparing to pricing schemes that utilize similar control mechanisms in literature which do not treat the adaptivity of users, the proposed pricing scheme shows higher flexibility in toll adjustment and a smooth behavioral stabilization in long-term operation. Significant differences in behavioral responses are found between the two user groups, highlighting the importance of equity treatment in the design of congestion pricing schemes. By integrating incentive programs for public transport using the collected toll revenue, more efficient pricing strategies can be developed where savings in travel time outweigh the cost of pricing, achieving substantial welfare gain.


      PubDate: 2015-11-29T12:43:04Z
       
  • Lane changing intention recognition based on speech recognition models
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Keqiang Li, Xiao Wang, Youchun Xu, Jianqiang Wang
      Poor driving habits such as not using turn signals when changing lanes present a major challenge to advanced driver assistance systems that rely on turn signals. To address this problem, we propose a novel algorithm combining the hidden Markov model (HMM) and Bayesian filtering (BF) techniques to recognize a driver’s lane changing intention. In the HMM component, the grammar definition is inspired by speech recognition models, and the output is a preliminary behavior classification. As for the BF component, the final behavior classification is produced based on the current and preceding outputs of the HMMs. A naturalistic data set is used to train and validate the proposed algorithm. The results reveal that the proposed HMM–BF framework can achieve a recognition accuracy of 93.5% and 90.3% for right and left lane changing, respectively, which is a significant improvement compared with the HMM-only algorithm. The recognition time results show that the proposed algorithm can recognize a behavior correctly at an early stage.


      PubDate: 2015-11-29T12:43:04Z
       
  • Editorial Board/Copyright Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 61




      PubDate: 2015-11-25T12:38:42Z
       
  • Optimal vehicle speed trajectory on a signalized arterial with
           consideration of queue
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 61
      Author(s): Xiaozheng He, Henry X. Liu, Xiaobo Liu
      Vehicle speed trajectory significantly impacts fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, especially for trips on signalized arterials. Although a large amount of research has been conducted aiming at providing optimal speed advisory to drivers, impacts from queues at intersections are not considered. Ignoring the constraints induced by queues could result in suboptimal or infeasible solutions. In this study, a multi-stage optimal control formulation is proposed to obtain the optimal vehicle trajectory on signalized arterials, where both vehicle queue and traffic light status are considered. To facilitate the real-time update of the optimal speed trajectory, a constrained optimization model is proposed as an approximation approach, which can be solved much quicker. Numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimal control model and the solution efficiency of the proposed approach.


      PubDate: 2015-11-20T17:19:47Z
       
  • Real-time bus route state forecasting using particle filter and mesoscopic
           modeling
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 61
      Author(s): Etienne Hans, Nicolas Chiabaut, Ludovic Leclercq, Robert L. Bertini
      In the absence of system control strategies, it is common to observe bus bunching in transit operations. A transit operator would benefit from an accurate forecast of bus operations in order to control the system before it becomes too disrupted to be restored to a stable condition. To accomplish this, we present a general bus prediction framework. This framework relies on a stochastic and event-based bus operation model that provides sets of possible bus trajectories based on the observation of current bus positions, available via global positioning system (GPS) data. The median of the set of possible trajectories, called a particle, is used as the prediction. In particular, this enables the anticipation of irregularities between buses. Several bus models are proposed depending on the dwell and inter-stop running time representations. These models are calibrated and applied to a real case study thanks to the high quality data provided by TriMet (the Portland, Oregon, USA transit district). Predictions are finally evaluated by an a posteriori comparison with the real trajectories. The results highlight that only bus models accounting for the bus load can provide valid forecasts of a bus route over a large prediction horizon, especially for headway variations. Accounting for traffic signal timings and actual traffic flows does not significantly improves the prediction. Such a framework paves the way for further development of refined dynamic control strategies for bus operations.


      PubDate: 2015-11-20T17:19:47Z
       
  • Robust stop-skipping patterns in urban railway operations under traffic
           alteration situation
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 61
      Author(s): A. Jamili, M. Pourseyed Aghaee
      In this paper an operation mode which is based on the stop-skipping approach is studied in urban railway lines under uncertainty. In this mode, each train follows a specific stop schedule. Trains are allowed to skip any intermediate stations to increase the commercial speed and to save energy consumption. As the commercial speed increases, the number of required trains in operation reduces and results eliminating unnecessary costs. To that end, a new mathematical model is proposed to reach the optimum stop schedule patterns. In the planning step, based on the traffic studies, the headway distributions are computed for different weekdays, and holidays. However, in practice, because of many unexpected events, the traffic may alter from what is planned. Therefore, in this condition, a robust plan is required that is optimized and immunized from uncertainty. In this paper, a new robust mathematical model, as well as two heuristic algorithms including (1) a decomposition-based algorithm and (2) a Simulated Annealing (SA) based algorithm is proposed. Finally, an Iranian metro line is studied and the optimum patterns are presented and analyzed.


      PubDate: 2015-11-08T03:18:05Z
       
  • Operating cost sensitivity to required time of arrival commands to ensure
           separation in optimal aircraft 4D trajectories
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 61
      Author(s): Santi Vilardaga, Xavier Prats
      Trajectory optimisation has shown good potential to reduce environmental impact in aviation. However, a recurring problem is the loss in airspace capacity that fuel optimal procedures pose, usually overcome with speed, altitude or heading advisories that lead to more costly trajectories. This paper aims at the quantification in terms of fuel and time consumption of implementing suboptimal trajectories in a 4D trajectory context that use required times of arrival at specific navigation fixes. A case study is presented by simulating conflicting Airbus A320 departures from two major airports in Catalonia. It is shown how requiring an aircraft to arrive at a waypoint early or late leads to increased fuel burn. In addition, the efficiency of such methods to resolve air traffic conflicts is studied in terms of both fuel burn and resulting aircraft separations. Finally, various scenarios are studied reflecting various airline preferences with regards to cost and fuel burn, as well as different route and conflict geometries for a broader scope of study.


      PubDate: 2015-11-08T03:18:05Z
       
  • Dynamic congestion pricing with day-to-day flow evolution and user
           heterogeneity
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 61
      Author(s): Zhijia Tan, Hai Yang, Ren-Yong Guo
      This paper investigates evolutionary implementation of congestion pricing schemes to minimize the system cost and time, measured in monetary and time units, respectively, with the travelers’ day-to-day route adjustment behavior and their heterogeneity. The travelers’ heterogeneity is captured by their value-of-times. First, the multi-class flow dynamical system is proposed to model the travelers’ route adjustment behavior in a tolled transportation network with multiple user classes. Then, the stability condition and properties of equilibrium is examined. We further investigate the trajectory control problem via dynamic congestion pricing scheme to derive the system cost, time optimum, and generally, Pareto optimum in the sense of simultaneous minimization of system cost and time. The trajectory control problem is modeled by a differential–algebraic system with the differential sub-system capturing the flow dynamics and the algebraic one capturing the pricing constraint. The explicit Runge–Kutta method is proposed to calculate the dynamic flow trajectories and anonymous link tolls. The method allows the link tolls to be updated with any predetermined periods and forces the system cost and/or time to approach the optimum levels. Both analytical and numerical examples are adopted to examine the efficiency of the method.


      PubDate: 2015-11-08T03:18:05Z
       
  • Optimal operation of displaced left-turn intersections: A lane-based
           approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 61
      Author(s): Jing Zhao, Wanjing Ma, K. Larry Head, Xiaoguang Yang
      Displaced left-turn (DLT) intersections that resolve the conflict between left-turn and opposing-through movements at the pre-signal are probably the most extensively used innovative intersection designs. The DLT intersection concept can be extended to ten different types according to the location of the left-turn transition area, the number of DLT approaches, and the possible setting of the bypass right-turn lane. This paper presents a generalized lane-based optimization model for the integrated design of DLT intersection types, lane markings, the length of the displaced left-turn lane, and the signal timings. The optimization is formulated as a mixed-integer non-linear program. This program is further transformed to a series of mixed-integer linear programming problems that can be solved by the standard branch-and-bound technique. Results from extensive numerical analyses reveal the effectiveness of the proposed method, as well as the promising property of assisting transportation professionals in the proper selection of DLT intersection types, and the design of geometric layout and signal timings.


      PubDate: 2015-11-04T15:40:18Z
       
  • A Bayesian network approach for population synthesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 61
      Author(s): Lijun Sun, Alexander Erath
      Agent-based micro-simulation models require a complete list of agents with detailed demographic/socioeconomic information for the purpose of behavior modeling and simulation. This paper introduces a new alternative for population synthesis based on Bayesian networks. A Bayesian network is a graphical representation of a joint probability distribution, encoding probabilistic relationships among a set of variables in an efficient way. Similar to the previously developed probabilistic approach, in this paper, we consider the population synthesis problem to be the inference of a joint probability distribution. In this sense, the Bayesian network model becomes an efficient tool that allows us to compactly represent/reproduce the structure of the population system and preserve privacy and confidentiality in the meanwhile. We demonstrate and assess the performance of this approach in generating synthetic population for Singapore, by using the Household Interview Travel Survey (HITS) data as the known test population. Our results show that the introduced Bayesian network approach is powerful in characterizing the underlying joint distribution, and meanwhile the overfitting of data can be avoided as much as possible.


      PubDate: 2015-11-04T15:40:18Z
       
  • Editorial Board/Copyright Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 60




      PubDate: 2015-11-04T15:40:18Z
       
  • Network traffic control based on a mesoscopic dynamic flow model
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Massimo Di Gangi, Giulio E. Cantarella, Roberta Di Pace, Silvio Memoli
      The paper focuses on Network Traffic Control based on aggregate traffic flow variables, aiming at signal settings which are consistent with within-day traffic flow dynamics. The proposed optimisation strategy is based on two successive steps: the first step refers to each single junction optimisation (green timings), the second to network coordination (offsets). Both of the optimisation problems are solved through meta-heuristic algorithms: the optimisation of green timings is carried out through a multi-criteria Genetic Algorithm whereas offset optimisation is achieved with the mono-criterion Hill Climbing algorithm. To guarantee proper queuing and spillback simulation, an advanced mesoscopic traffic flow model is embedded within the network optimisation method. The adopted mesoscopic traffic flow model also includes link horizontal queue modelling. The results attained through the proposed optimisation framework are compared with those obtained through benchmark tools.


      PubDate: 2015-11-04T15:40:18Z
       
  • An optimization model to fit airspace demand considering a spatio-temporal
           analysis of airspace capacity
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 61
      Author(s): Jenaro Nosedal, Miquel A. Piera, Adriano O. Solis, Carles Ferrer
      The European and U.S. airspace systems are highly congested at certain peak time intervals. Controllers’ workloads have reached generally accepted limits; therefore, many highly demanded sectors are subject to traffic regulations and restrictions during many hours of each day. A lack of a spatio-temporal analysis of the airside capacity management tools generates airside delays at the destination airport in the form of holding or path-stretching in terminal manoeuvring areas, or even during the cruise by re-routing. These emergent dynamics are demonstrated every day by the urgent need for new and better tools for analyzing and making strategic and tactical decisions that neither induce delays nor negatively impact daily operations. This paper presents an optimization model for airspace capacity–demand management that performs an efficient departure time bounded adjustment configuration for trajectory based operations. This optimization model is supported by the 4D trajectories paradigm, in which a discrete event model has been developed to formalize the trajectories’ spatio-temporal interdependencies. Based on the elements and parameters declared on the validated coloured Petri net model, a set of constraints is obtained. By means of constraint programming, feasible solutions for demand–capacity imbalances are proposed for a case study scenario, while the original departure slots are preserved in addition to the airspace users’ preferences. The results obtained show the advantages in terms of capacity and robustness that can be achieved by applying an efficient departure time bounded adjustment configuration.


      PubDate: 2015-11-04T15:40:18Z
       
  • Real-time crash prediction for expressway weaving segments
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 61
      Author(s): Ling Wang, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Qi Shi, Juneyoung Park
      Weaving segments are potential recurrent bottlenecks which affect the efficiency and safety of expressways during peak hours. Meanwhile, they are one of the most complicated segments, since on- and off-ramp traffic merges, diverges and weaves in the limited space. One effective way to improve the safety of weaving segments is to study crash likelihood using real-time crash data with the objective of, identifying hazardous conditions and reducing the risk of crashes by Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) traffic control. This study presents a multilevel Bayesian logistic regression model for crashes at expressway weaving segments using crash, geometric, Microwave Vehicle Detection System (MVDS) and weather data. The results show that the mainline speed at the beginning of the weaving segments, the speed difference between the beginning and the end of weaving segment, logarithm of volume have significant impacts on the crash risk of the following 5–10min for weaving segments. The configuration is also an important factor. Weaving segment, in which there is no need for on- or off-ramp traffic to change lane, is with high crash risk because it has more traffic interactions and higher speed differences between weaving and non-weaving traffic. Meanwhile, maximum length, which measures the distance at which weaving turbulence no longer has impact, is found to be positively related to the crash risk at the 95% confidence interval. In addition to traffic and geometric factors, wet pavement surface condition significantly increases the crash ratio by 77%. The proposed model along with ITS, e.g., ramp metering, Dynamic Message Sign (DMS), and high friction surface treatment can be used to enhance the safety of weaving segments in real-time.


      PubDate: 2015-10-31T14:57:18Z
       
  • A robust, tactic-based, real-time framework for public-transport transfer
           synchronization
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 60
      Author(s): Mahmood Mahmoodi Nesheli, Avishai (Avi) Ceder
      Missed transfers affect public transport (PT) operations by increasing passenger’s waiting and travel times and frustration. Because of the stochastic and uncertain nature of PT systems, synchronized transfers do not always materialize. This work proposes a new mathematical programming model to minimize total passenger travel time and maximize direct (without waiting) transfers. The model consists of four policies built on a combination of three tactics: holding, skip-stops, and short-turn, the last applied, for the first time, as a real-time control action. The concept is implemented in two steps: optimization and simulation. An agent-based simulation framework is used to represent real-life scenarios, generate random input data, and validate the optimization results. In order to assess the robustness of this framework, a wide range of schedule-deviation scenarios are defined using efficient algorithms for solving the control models within a rolling horizon structure. A case study of the Auckland, New Zealand, PT system is described for assessing the methodology developed. The results show a 4.7% reduction in total passenger travel time and a more than 150% increase in direct transfers. The best impressive results are attained under short headway operations.


      PubDate: 2015-09-02T21:41:17Z
       
  • Application of traffic microsimulation for evaluating safety performance
           of urban signalized intersections
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 60
      Author(s): Usama Shahdah, Frank Saccomanno, Bhagwant Persaud
      The primary objective of this paper is to provide a statistical relationship between traffic conflicts estimated from microsimulation and observed crashes in order to evaluate safety performance, in particular the effect of countermeasures. A secondary objective is to assess the effect of conflict risk tolerance and number of simulation runs on the estimates of countermeasure effects so obtained. Conflicts were simulated for a sample of signalized intersections from Toronto, Canada, using VISSIM microscopic traffic simulation and several crash–conflict relationships were obtained. A separate sample of treated intersections from Toronto was used to compare countermeasure effects from the integrated crash–conflict expression to a conventional, but rigorous crash-based Empirical Bayes before-and-after analysis that was already done, with the results published, for the same sites and treatment. The countermeasure considered for this investigation involved changing the left turn signal operation for the treated intersection sample from permissive to protected-permissive. The results support the view that countermeasure effects can be estimated reliably from conflicts derived from microsimulation, and more so when a suitable number of simulation runs and conflict tolerance thresholds are used in the crash–conflict relationship.


      PubDate: 2015-09-02T21:41:17Z
       
  • An integrated real-time traffic signal system for transit signal priority,
           incident detection and congestion management
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 60
      Author(s): F. Ahmed, Y.E. Hawas
      This paper presents a traffic control system that can work standalone to handle various boundary conditions of the recurrent, non-recurrent congestion, transit signal priority and downstream blockage conditions to improve the overall traffic network vehicular productivity and efficiency. The control system uses field detectors’ data to determine the boundary conditions of all incoming and exit links. The developed system is interfaced with CORSIM micro-simulation for rigorous evaluations with different types of signal phase settings. The comparative performance of this control logic is quite satisfactory for some of the most frequently used phase settings in the network with a high number of junctions under highly congested conditions.


      PubDate: 2015-08-28T06:07:04Z
       
  • Intermodal freight transport planning – A receding horizon control
           approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 60
      Author(s): Le Li, Rudy R. Negenborn, Bart De Schutter
      This paper investigates intermodal freight transport planning problems among deep-sea terminals and inland terminals in hinterland haulage for a horizontally fully integrated intermodal freight transport operator at the tactical container flow level. An intermodal freight transport network (IFTN) model is first developed to capture the key characteristics of intermodal freight transport such as the modality change phenomena at intermodal terminals, physical capacity constraints of the network, time-dependent transport times on freeways, and time schedules for trains and barges. After that, the intermodal freight transport planning problem is formulated as an optimal intermodal container flow control problem from a system and control perspective with the use of the proposed IFTN model. To deal with the dynamic transport demands and dynamic traffic conditions in the IFTN, a receding horizon intermodal container flow control (RIFC) approach is proposed to control and to reassign intermodal container flows in a receding horizon way. This container flow control approach involves solving linear programming problems and is suited for transport planning on large-sized networks. Both an all-or-nothing approach and the proposed RIFC approach are evaluated through simulation studies. Simulation results show the potential of the proposed RIFC approach.


      PubDate: 2015-08-28T06:07:04Z
       
  • Evaluation of exclusive bus lanes in a bi-modal degradable road network
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 60
      Author(s): Jia Yao, Feng Shi, Shi An, Jian Wang
      In this paper, we proposed an evaluation method of exclusive bus lanes (EBLs) in a bi-modal degradable road network with car and bus transit modes. Link travel time with and without EBLs for two modes is analyzed with link stochastic degradation. Furthermore, route general travel costs are formulated with the uncertainty of link travel time for both modes and the uncertainty of waiting time at a bus stop and in-vehicle congestion costs for the bus mode. The uncertainty of bus waiting time is considered to be relevant to the degradation of the front links of the bus line. A bi-modal user equilibrium model incorporating travelers’ risk adverse behavior is proposed for evaluating EBLs. Finally, two numerical examples are used to illustrate how the road degradation level, travelers’ risk aversion level and the front link’s correlation level with the uncertainty of the bus waiting time affect the results of the user equilibrium model with and without EBLs and how the road degradation level affects the optimal EBLs setting scheme. A paradox of EBLs setting is also illustrated where adding one exclusive bus lane may decrease share of bus.


      PubDate: 2015-08-28T06:07:04Z
       
  • On macroscopic freeway merge behavior: Estimation of merge ratios using
           asymmetric lane flow distribution
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 60
      Author(s): Paulina Reina, Soyoung Ahn
      Data from several freeway merges reveal that, contrary to some previous findings, merge ratio can vary within a site with respect to the merge outflow and that the existing merge ratio estimates based on lane counts are not able to predict this within-site variation. Furthermore, the merge ratios estimated based on two well-known merging principles, “fair-share” and “zipper,” are found to be inaccurate for merges where merging streams compete directly due to a lane drop. In light of these findings, we estimate merge ratios using lane flow distribution (LFD) to better predict between and within site variations of merge ratio. In addition, we propose a merging principle specific for merges with a single lane-drop. The model was developed to better represent observed non-uniform redistribution of merging flow not captured by the current merge ratio estimation methods and merging principles. Empirical observations show that the proposed methods are able to improve merge ratio estimates, reproduce within-site variations of merge ratio, and represent more accurately non-uniform redistribution of merging flow dependent on the merge geometry.


      PubDate: 2015-08-15T17:09:55Z
       
  • Passenger-demands-oriented train scheduling for an urban rail transit
           network
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 60
      Author(s): Yihui Wang, Tao Tang, Bin Ning, Ton J.J. van den Boom, Bart De Schutter
      This paper considers the train scheduling problem for an urban rail transit network. We propose an event-driven model that involves three types of events, i.e., departure events, arrival events, and passenger arrival rates change events. The routing of the arriving passengers at transfer stations is also included in the train scheduling model. Moreover, the passenger transfer behavior (i.e., walking times and transfer times of passengers) is also taken into account in the model formulation. The resulting optimization problem is a real-valued nonlinear nonconvex problem. Nonlinear programming approaches (e.g., sequential quadratic programming) and evolutionary algorithms (e.g., genetic algorithms) can be used to solve this train scheduling problem. The effectiveness of the event-driven model is evaluated through a case study.


      PubDate: 2015-08-11T16:55:25Z
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2015