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  Subjects -> TRANSPORTATION (Total: 130 journals)
    - AIR TRANSPORT (1 journals)
    - AUTOMOBILES (17 journals)
    - RAILROADS (4 journals)
    - ROADS AND TRAFFIC (5 journals)
    - SHIPS AND SHIPPING (10 journals)
    - TRANSPORTATION (93 journals)

TRANSPORTATION (93 journals)

Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (15 followers)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Archives of Transport     Open Access   (4 followers)
Bitácora Urbano-Territorial     Open Access   (1 follower)
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (8 followers)
Economics of Transportation     Partially Free   (11 followers)
EURO Journal of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
European Transport Research Review     Open Access   (9 followers)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
IATSS Research     Open Access  
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (5 followers)
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
IET Intelligent Transport Systems     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
International Innovation – Transport     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Logistics     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
International Journal of Automotive Technology     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
International Journal of Aviation Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Aviation Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
International Journal of Electronic Transport     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
International Journal of Micro-Nano Scale Transport     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
International Journal of Mobile Communications     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
International Journal of Ocean Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
International Journal of Services Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (10 followers)
International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
International Journal of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (1 follower)
Journal of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (9 followers)
Journal of Air Transport Management     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Journal of Airline and Airport Management     Open Access   (2 followers)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (16 followers)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Journal of the Transportation Research Forum     Open Access   (3 followers)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (7 followers)
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (4 followers)
Journal of Transport Geography     Hybrid Journal   (12 followers)
Journal of Transport History     Full-text available via subscription   (10 followers)
Journal of Transport Literature     Open Access  
Journal of Transportation Safety & Security     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Journal of Transportation Security     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (11 followers)
Journal of Transportation Technologies     Open Access   (7 followers)
Journal of Waterway Port Coastal and Ocean Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (5 followers)
Les Dossiers du Grihl     Open Access  
Logistique & Management     Full-text available via subscription  
Marine Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Maritime Affairs:Journal of the National Maritime Foundation of India     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology     Open Access  
Modern Transportation     Open Access   (1 follower)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology     Open Access   (2 followers)
Pervasive and Mobile Computing     Hybrid Journal   (9 followers)
Proceedings of IMarEST - Part A - Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
PS: Political Science & Politics     Full-text available via subscription   (17 followers)
Public Transport     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Recherche Transports Sécurité     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (3 followers)
Revista Transporte y Territorio     Open Access   (1 follower)
SourceOCDE Transports     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Streetnotes     Open Access   (2 followers)
Synthesis Lectures on Mobile and Pervasive Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Tire Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Transactions on Transport Sciences     Open Access   (3 followers)
Transport     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Transport and Telecommunication Journal     Open Access   (2 followers)
Transport in Porous Media     Hybrid Journal  
Transport Reviews: A Transnational Transdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (12 followers)
Transportation Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (20 followers)
Transportation Research Part B: Methodological     Hybrid Journal   (19 followers)
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (12 followers)
Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board     Full-text available via subscription   (26 followers)
Transportation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (14 followers)
TRANSPORTES     Open Access   (1 follower)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Transportmetrica B : Transport Dynamics     Hybrid Journal  
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Транспортні системи та технології перевезень     Open Access  
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies    [14 followers]  Follow    
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0968-090X
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2556 journals]   [SJR: 1.605]   [H-I: 47]
  • Multi-agent simulation of individual mobility behavior in carpooling
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Stéphane Galland , Luk Knapen , Ansar-Ul-Haque Yasar , Nicolas Gaud , Davy Janssens , Olivier Lamotte , Abderrafiaa Koukam , Geert Wets
      Carpooling is an emerging alternative transportation mode that is eco-friendly and sustainable as it enables commuters to save time, travel resource, reduce emission and traffic congestion. The procedure of carpooling consists of a number of steps namely; (i) create a motive to carpool, (ii) communicate this motive with other agents, (iii) negotiate a plan with the interested agents, (iv) execute the agreed plans, and (v) provide a feedback to all concerned agents. In this paper, we present a conceptual design of an agent-based model (ABM) for the carpooling a that serves as a proof of concept. Our model for the carpooling application is a computational model that is used for simulating the interactions of autonomous agents and to analyze the effects of change in factors related to the infrastructure, behavior and cost. In our carpooling application, we use agent profiles and social networks to initiate our agent communication model and then employ a route matching algorithm, and a utility function to trigger the negotiation process between agents. We developed a prototype of our agent-based carpooling application based on the work presented in this paper and carried out a validation study of our results with real data collected in Flanders, Belgium.


      PubDate: 2014-01-24T12:04:52Z
       
  • Multi-objective highway alignment optimization incorporating preference
           information
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 40
      Author(s): Ning Yang , Min-Wook Kang , Paul Schonfeld , Manoj K. Jha
      This paper presents a GIS-based multi-objective optimization model, particularly designed to aid highway engineers and planners in proposing competitive highway alignment alternatives when building a new highway or expanding an existing highway. The proposed model can effectively examine tradeoffs among various objectives that represent possibly conflicting interests of different stakeholders. A Hybrid Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm, which utilizes designers’ knowledge about the preference of decision makers, is developed to search for a set of Pareto-optimal solutions with an acceptable level of diversity. Two case studies demonstrate the capability of the proposed approach in providing multiple trade-off solutions. The results indicate that the incorporation of preference information, even if preliminary in nature, has great potential to save computation time and improve the quality of the obtained Pareto-optimal set.


      PubDate: 2014-01-24T12:04:52Z
       
  • Modelling negative interactions among pedestrians in high density
           situations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Stefania Bandini , Matteo Mondini , Giuseppe Vizzari
      Situations characterised by the presence of a high density of pedestrians involved in negative interactions (e.g. flows in opposite directions) often represent a problematic scenario for simulation models, especially those taking a discrete approach to the representation and management of spatial aspects of the environment. While these situations can be relatively infrequent, and even if architects, event organisers and crowd managers actually try to prevent them as much as possible, they simply cannot be neglected and they actually represent interesting situations to be analysed by means of simulation. The paper presents specific extensions to a floor-field Cellular Automata pedestrian model that are specifically aimed at supporting the simulation of high density situations comprising negative interactions among pedestrians without incurring in the traditional limits of discrete approaches. The models are formally described and experimented in experimental and real world situations.


      PubDate: 2014-01-24T12:04:52Z
       
  • The travel and environmental implications of shared autonomous vehicles,
           using agent-based model scenarios
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 40
      Author(s): Daniel J. Fagnant , Kara M. Kockelman
      Carsharing programs that operate as short-term vehicle rentals (often for one-way trips before ending the rental) like Car2Go and ZipCar have quickly expanded, with the number of US users doubling every 1–2years over the past decade. Such programs seek to shift personal transportation choices from an owned asset to a service used on demand. The advent of autonomous or fully self-driving vehicles will address many current carsharing barriers, including users’ travel to access available vehicles. This work describes the design of an agent-based model for shared autonomous vehicle (SAV) operations, the results of many case-study applications using this model, and the estimated environmental benefits of such settings, versus conventional vehicle ownership and use. The model operates by generating trips throughout a grid-based urban area, with each trip assigned an origin, destination and departure time, to mimic realistic travel profiles. A preliminary model run estimates the SAV fleet size required to reasonably service all trips, also using a variety of vehicle relocation strategies that seek to minimize future traveler wait times. Next, the model is run over one-hundred days, with driverless vehicles ferrying travelers from one destination to the next. During each 5-min interval, some unused SAVs relocate, attempting to shorten wait times for next-period travelers. Case studies vary trip generation rates, trip distribution patterns, network congestion levels, service area size, vehicle relocation strategies, and fleet size. Preliminary results indicate that each SAV can replace around eleven conventional vehicles, but adds up to 10% more travel distance than comparable non-SAV trips, resulting in overall beneficial emissions impacts, once fleet-efficiency changes and embodied versus in-use emissions are assessed.
      Graphical abstract image Highlights

      PubDate: 2014-01-24T12:04:52Z
       
  • Multi-criteria route planning based on a driver’s preferences in
           multi-criteria route selection
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 40
      Author(s): Parham Pahlavani , Mahmoud R. Delavar
      In this study, some different approaches were designed, implemented, and evaluated to perform multi-criteria route planning by considering a driver’s preferences in multi-criteria route selection. At first, by using a designed neuro-fuzzy toolbox, the driver’s preferences in multi-criteria route selection such as the preferred criteria in route selection, the number of route-rating classes, and the routes with the same rate were received. Next, to learn the driver’s preferences in multi-criteria route selection and to classify any route based on these preferences, a methodology was proposed using a locally linear neuro-fuzzy model (LLNFM) trained with an incremental tree based learning algorithm. In this regard, the proposed LLNFM-based methodology reached better results for running-times, as well as root mean square error (RMSE) estimations in learning and testing processes of training/checking data-set in comparison with those of the proposed adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based methodology. Finally, the trained LLNFM-based methodology was utilized to plan and predict a driver’s preferred routes by classifying Pareto-optimal routes obtained by running the modified invasive weed optimization (IWO) algorithm between an origin and a destination of a real urban transportation network based on the driver’s preferences in multi-criteria route selection.


      PubDate: 2014-01-24T12:04:52Z
       
  • Editorial Board/Copyright Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 38




      PubDate: 2014-01-20T12:05:49Z
       
  • Transit network design based on travel time reliability
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Baozhen Yao , Ping Hu , Xiaohong Lu , Junjie Gao , Mingheng Zhang
      This paper presents a transit network optimization method, in which travel time reliability on road is considered. A robust optimization model, taking into account the stochastic travel time, is formulated to satisfy the demand of passengers and provide reliable transit service. The optimization model aims to maximize the efficiency of passenger trips in the optimized transit network. Tabu search algorithm is defined and implemented to solve the problem. Then, transit network optimization method proposed in this paper is tested with two numerical examples: a simple route and a medium-size network. The results show the proposed method can effectively improve the reliability of a transit network and reduce the travel time of passengers in general.


      PubDate: 2014-01-20T12:05:49Z
       
  • The marginal social cost of travel time variability
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Nicolas Coulombel , André de Palma
      This paper investigates the cost of travel time variability for car users at the peak hour. In particular, we derive the marginal social cost of travel time variability, which takes the feedback of travel time unreliability on the congestion profile into account. This is in contrast with the value of travel time variability, which treats congestion as an exogenous phenomenon. Congestion is modeled using the standard bottleneck model of road congestion, which we amend by adding a random delay. For individuals with (α, β, γ) preferences and uniformly distributed delays, the marginal social cost of travel time variability is strictly lower than the value of travel time variability. Moreover, we show that the former tends toward the latter when σ, the standard deviation of the random delay, tends toward +∞. For normally distributed delays, numerical application leads to similar conclusions. Analysis of data from the Paris area suggests that given the plausible range of σ, the marginal social cost of travel time variability is markedly lower than the value of travel time variability. When appraising the economic benefits of reliability improvements, one should prefer the marginal social cost of travel time variability for the peak period, and the value of travel time variability for the off-peak period.


      PubDate: 2014-01-12T12:08:54Z
       
  • Predicting short-term bus passenger demand using a pattern hybrid approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 39
      Author(s): Zhenliang Ma , Jianping Xing , Mahmoud Mesbah , Luis Ferreira
      This paper proposes an Interactive Multiple Model-based Pattern Hybrid (IMMPH) approach to predict short-term passenger demand. The approach maximizes the effective information content by assembling the knowledge from pattern models using historical data and optimizing the interaction between them using real-time observations. It can dynamically estimate the priori pattern models combination in advance for the next time interval. The source demand data were collected by Smart Card system along one bus service route over one year. After correlation analysis, three temporal relevant pattern time series are generated, namely, the weekly, daily and hourly pattern time series. Then statistical pattern models are developed to capture different time series patterns. Finally, an amended IMM algorithm is applied to dynamically combine the pattern models estimations to output the final demand prediction. The proposed IMMPH model is validated by comparing with statistical methods and an artificial neural network based hybrid model. The results suggest that the IMMPH model provides a better forecast performance than its alternatives, including prediction accuracy, robustness, explanatory power and model complexity. The proposed approach can be potentially extended to other short-term time series forecast applications as well, such as traffic flow forecast.


      PubDate: 2014-01-12T12:08:54Z
       
  • Strategic de-confliction in the presence of a large number of 4D
           trajectories using a causal modeling approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 39
      Author(s): Sergio Ruiz , Miquel A. Piera , Jenaro Nosedal , Andrea Ranieri
      This paper presents a strategic de-confliction algorithm based on causal modeling developed under the STREAM project and launched under the umbrella of the Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) Program. The basic underlying concept makes use of the enriched information included in the Shared Business Trajectories (SBTs) of the flights prior to takeoff (or in the Reference Business Trajectories (RBTs) if the flight is airborne) to allocate conflict-free trajectories in a traffic planning phase that should lead to an actual conflict-free scenario in the flight execution phase in the absence of flight and/or network uncertainties. The proposed approach could decrease the workload of the air traffic controllers, thus improving the Air Traffic Management (ATM) capacity while meeting the maximum possible expectations of the Airspace Users’ requirements in terms of horizontal flight efficiency. The main modules of the implemented system are also presented in this paper; these modules are designed to enable the processing of thousands of trajectories within a few seconds or minutes and encompass a global network scope with a planning horizon of approximately 2–3h. The causal model applied for network conflict resolution and flight routing allocation is analyzed to demonstrate how the emergent dynamics (i.e., domino effects) of local trajectory amendments can be efficiently explored to identify conflict-free Pareto-efficient network scenarios. Various performance indicators can be taken into account in the multi-criteria optimization process, thus offering to the network manager a flexible tool for fostering a collaborative planning process.


      PubDate: 2014-01-12T12:08:54Z
       
  • Robust real-time pedestrians detection in urban environments with
           low-resolution cameras
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 39
      Author(s): A. Alahi , M. Bierlaire , P. Vandergheynst
      Detecting that pedestrians are present in front of a vehicle is highly desirable to avoid dangerous traffic situations. A novel vision-based system is presented to automatically detect far-away pedestrians with low-resolution cameras mounted in vehicles given the contributions of fixed cameras present in the scene. Fixed cameras detect pedestrians by solving an inverse problem built upon a multi-class dictionary of atoms approximating the foreground silhouettes. A sparse-sensing strategy is proposed to extract the foreground silhouettes and classify them in real-time. Mobile cameras detect pedestrians given only their appearance in the fixed cameras. A cascade of compact binary strings is presented to model the appearance of pedestrians and match them across cameras. The proposed system addresses the practical requirements of transportation systems: it runs in real-time with low memory loads and bandwidth consumption. We evaluate the performance of our system when extracted features are severely degraded and the sensing devices are of low quality. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of our collaborative vision-based system.


      PubDate: 2014-01-04T11:51:09Z
       
  • Multilayer distributed intelligent control of an autonomous car
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 39
      Author(s): Humberto Martínez-Barberá , David Herrero-Pérez
      This paper shows how the development of an intelligent vehicle application can benefit from using standard mobile robotics elements in general, and a development framework in particular. This framework, ThinkingCap-II, has been successfully used in other robotics applications. It consists of a series of modules and services that have been developed in Java and allows the distribution of these modules over a network. The framework facilitates reusing components and concepts from other developments, which permits increasing the performance of the intelligent vehicle development. This fact is especially useful for small research groups. A two car convoy application has been implemented using this architecture and the development of an autonomous vehicle. Both the ThinkingCap-II and the autonomous vehicle architectures are described in detail. Finally some experiments are presented. Simulated experiments are used to validate the convoy model, testing the activation of the different behaviors in the decision-making process. Real experiments show the actual working of the developed intelligent vehicle application.


      PubDate: 2014-01-04T11:51:09Z
       
  • A self-learning advanced booking model for railway arrival forecasting
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 39
      Author(s): Tsung-Hsien Tsai
      Accurate short-term arrival forecasting is essential information for railway operators to conduct daily operations such as demand management strategies. Conventional time series methods apply historical arrival data which is the accumulation of reservations to project future arrivals. This study aims to utilize reservation data directly and proposes a novel advanced booking model by using the framework of case-based reasoning. The proposed model contains four modules with distinctive functions for similarity evaluation, instance selection, arrival projection, and parameter search. We have the constructed model tested on fourteen daily arrival series and compared its out-of-sample accuracy with that of four traditional benchmarks. The empirical results show that in average the proposed self-learning model may reduce at least 11% of mean square errors (MSE). Moreover, the learning scheme in the model may achieve significant reduction of MSE comparing with performance of other naïve versions.


      PubDate: 2014-01-04T11:51:09Z
       
  • Rolling horizon control framework for driver assistance systems. Part II:
           Cooperative sensing and cooperative control
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Meng Wang , Winnie Daamen , Serge P. Hoogendoorn , Bart van Arem
      This contribution furthers the control framework for driver assistance systems in Part I to cooperative systems, where equipped vehicles can exchange relevant information via vehicle-to-vehicle communication to improve the awareness of the ambient situation (cooperative sensing) and to manoeuvre together under a common goal (cooperative control). To operationalize the cooperative sensing strategy, the framework is applied to the development of a multi-anticipative controller, where an equipped vehicle uses information from its direct predecessor to predict the behaviour of its pre-predecessor. To operationalize the cooperative control strategy, we design cooperative controllers for sequential equipped vehicles in a platoon, where they collaborate to optimise a joint objective. The cooperative control strategy is not restricted to cooperation between equipped vehicles. When followed by a human-driven vehicle, equipped vehicles can still exhibit cooperative behaviour by predicting the behaviour of the human-driven follower, even if the prediction is not perfect. The performance of the proposed controllers are assessed by simulating a platoon of 11 vehicles with reference to the non-cooperative controller proposed in Part I. Evaluations show that the multi-anticipative controller generates smoother behaviour in accelerating phase. By a careful choice of the running cost specification, cooperative controllers lead to smoother decelerating behaviour and more responsive and agile accelerating behaviour compared to the non-cooperative controller. The dynamic characteristics of the proposed controllers provide new insights into the potential impact of cooperative systems on traffic flow operations, particularly at the congestion head and tail.


      PubDate: 2014-01-04T11:51:09Z
       
  • Rolling horizon control framework for driver assistance systems. Part I:
           Mathematical formulation and non-cooperative systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Meng Wang , Winnie Daamen , Serge P. Hoogendoorn , Bart van Arem
      In this contribution, we put forward a novel rolling horizon control framework for driver assistance systems. Under this framework, accelerations of equipped vehicles are controlled to optimise a cost function reflecting different control objectives, taking into account the predicted behaviour of other vehicles. A new numerical solution based on Pontryagin’s Principle is proposed to solve the optimal control problem. The control framework is generic such that a large variety of objective functions can be optimised and it allows us to control not only one vehicle but a platoon of heterogeneous vehicles as well. The linear constant time gap algorithm widely used for Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) systems can be derived under the framework. The framework is applied to derive algorithm for a non-linear model predictive ACC controller. Simulation results for several representative scenarios demonstrate the desired performance of the proposed ACC controller and the sensitivity of control parameters on controller characteristics. The resultant flow capacity is largely determined by the desired time gap setting. To show the flexibility of the framework, it is also applied to controller design for Ecological ACC (EcoACC) systems, where the controlled vehicle minimises fuel consumption in addition to the objectives of the ACC systems. Compared to ACC systems, EcoACC systems lead to smoother following behaviour and a 18 % reduction of consumed fuels in the accelerating phase of the simulation. Part II of this research is devoted to controller design of cooperative driving systems, where controlled vehicles communicate and collaborate with each other.


      PubDate: 2014-01-04T11:51:09Z
       
  • Anonymizing trajectory data for passenger flow analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 39
      Author(s): Moein Ghasemzadeh , Benjamin C.M. Fung , Rui Chen , Anjali Awasthi
      The increasing use of location-aware devices provides many opportunities for analyzing and mining human mobility. The trajectory of a person can be represented as a sequence of visited locations with different timestamps. Storing, sharing, and analyzing personal trajectories may pose new privacy threats. Previous studies have shown that employing traditional privacy models and anonymization methods often leads to low information quality in the resulting data. In this paper we propose a method for achieving anonymity in a trajectory database while preserving the information to support effective passenger flow analysis. Specifically, we first extract the passenger flowgraph, which is a commonly employed representation for modeling uncertain moving objects, from the raw trajectory data. We then anonymize the data with the goal of minimizing the impact on the flowgraph. Extensive experimental results on both synthetic and real-life data sets suggest that the framework is effective to overcome the special challenges in trajectory data anonymization, namely, high dimensionality, sparseness, and sequentiality.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T10:40:30Z
       
  • Route-recording on high resolution transportation network databases for
           National Transport Surveys: An option for valid and reliable distance
           measures?
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 39
      Author(s): Timo Ohnmacht , Matthias Kowald
      The aim of this study is to investigate the results of route-recording within the Swiss National Travel Survey in the year 2010. The research questions include the following: (1) What level of accuracy and quality of georouting between addresses can be obtained within Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI)-based national travel surveys? (2) What are the differences between estimated and routed distances for stages? (3) Is it worth it to switch from self-estimated distances to technological solutions in national travel surveys with a comparison between GPS and route-recording? It was found that within the method of route-recording, a high share of address-precise geocodes is a necessity for a successful routing fulfilled by the Swiss National Travel Survey 2010. Secondly, route-recording provides reliable and valid distance measures and is one way to overcome the difficulty in participants distance estimates. Thirdly, in its current form, it is not yet an alternative to GPS in national travel surveys, if one is interested in the actual routes travelled by survey participants. Especially there is development work necessary in the routing of non-motorised travel regarding both digital networks and the survey method. The paper concludes by drawing on the findings of this examination and formulating opportunities for improvement and enhancement.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T10:40:30Z
       
  • On-line prediction of border crossing traffic using an enhanced Spinning
           Network method
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Lei Lin , Qian Wang , Shan Huang , Adel W. Sadek
      This paper improves on the Spinning Network (SPN) method, a novel forecasting technique, inspired by human memory which was recently developed by Huang and Sadek (2009). The improvement centers on the use of the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) algorithm to assess the similarity between two given time series, instead of using the Euclidean Distance as was the case with the original SPN. Following this, the enhanced method (i.e., hereafter referred to as the DTW–SPN) is used to predict hourly traffic volumes at the Peace Bridge, an international border crossing connecting Western New York State in the U.S. and Southern Ontario in Canada. The performance of the DTW–SPN is then compared to that of three other forecasting methods, namely: (1) the original SPN (referred to as the Euclidean–SPN); (2) the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) method; and (3) Support Vector Regression (SVR). Both classified as well as non-classified datasets are utilized, with the classification made on the basis of the type of the day to which the data items belong (i.e. Mondays through Thursdays, Fridays, weekends, holidays, and game days). The results indicate that, in terms of the Mean Absolute Percent Error, the DTW–SPN performed the best for all data groups with the exception of the “game day” group, where SVR performed slightly better. From a computational efficiency standpoint, the SPN-type algorithms require runtime significantly lower than that for either SARIMA or SVR. The performance of the DTW–SPN was also quite acceptable even when the data was not classified, indicating the robustness of the proposed forecasting method in dealing with heterogeneous data.


      PubDate: 2013-12-27T14:45:10Z
       
  • Improving the accessibility of urban transportation networks for people
           with disabilities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Laura Ferrari , Michele Berlingerio , Francesco Calabrese , Jon Reades
      What is the most effective way to enhance the accessibility of our oldest and largest public transportation systems for people with reduced mobility? The intersection of limits to government support with the growing mobility needs of the elderly and of people with disabilities calls for the development of tools that enable us to better prioritise investment in those areas that would deliver the greatest benefits to travellers. In principle and, to a lesser extent, in practice, many trains and buses are already accessible to nearly all users, leaving the stations and interchanges as the single largest and most expensive challenge facing operators trying to improve overall access to the network. Focussing on travel time and interchange differences, we present a method that uses network science and spatio-temporal analysis to rank stations in a way that minimises the divergence between accessible and non-accessible routes. Taking London as case study, we show that 50% of the most frequently followed journeys become 50% longer when wheelchair accessibility becomes a constraint. Prioritising accessibility upgrades using our network approach yields a total travel time that is more than 8 times better than a solution based on random choice, and 30% more effective than a solution that seeks solely to minimise the number of interchanges facing those with mobility constraints. These results highlight the potential for the analysis of ‘smart card’ data to enable network operators to obtain maximum value from their infrastructure investments in support of expanded access to all users.


      PubDate: 2013-12-23T05:16:54Z
       
  • Optimization method of alternate traffic restriction scheme based on
           elastic demand and mode choice behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 39
      Author(s): Feng Shi , Guang-ming Xu , Bing Liu , Helai Huang
      As a countermeasure to urban traffic congestion, alternate traffic restriction (ATR) involves a certain proportion of automobiles being prohibited from entering pre-determined ATR districts during specific time periods. The present study introduces an optimization method for ATR schemes in terms of both their restriction districts and the proportion of restricted automobiles. As a Stackelberg game between traffic policy makers and road users, the ATR scheme optimization problem is established using a bi-level programming model, with the upper-level examining an ATR scheme aimed at consumers’ surplus maximization under the condition of overload flow minimization, and the lower-level synthetically optimizing elastic demand, mode choice (private car, public transit and park-and-ride) and multi-class user equilibrium assignment. A genetic algorithm based on the graph theory is also proposed to solve the bi-level programming model with a gradient project algorithm for solving the lower-level model. To our knowledge, this study represents the first attempt to theoretically optimize an ATR scheme using a systematic approach with mathematical model specification.


      PubDate: 2013-12-23T05:16:54Z
       
  • Impact of service network topology on air transportation efficiency
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Tatsuya Kotegawa , Donald Fry , Daniel DeLaurentis , Ethan Puchaty
      Each stakeholder in the air transportation system has a different perspective on the performance efficiency metrics, making analysis of system-wide design options very difficult. This paper uses topological structures of service networks to examine trade-offs between efficiency metrics established around the passenger, airline, and air navigation service provider perspectives. The findings indicate that the scale-free type topologies are preferred under most of the metrics. However, with enough density, random topologies become more appealing with its high robustness feature and performance comparable to scale-free.


      PubDate: 2013-12-19T11:26:43Z
       
  • Automated parking surveys from a LIDAR equipped vehicle
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 39
      Author(s): Douglas A. Thornton , Keith Redmill , Benjamin Coifman
      Parking surveys provide quantitative data describing the spatial and temporal utilization of parking spaces within an area of interest. These surveys are important tools for parking supply management and infrastructure planning. Parking studies have typically been performed by tabulating observations by hand, limiting temporal resolution due to high labor cost. This paper investigates the possibility of automating the data gathering and information extraction in a proof of concept study using a two-dimensional scanning Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) sensor mounted on a vehicle, though the work is compatible with other ranging sensors, e.g., stereo vision. This study examines parallel parking in the opposing direction of travel. The ranging measurements are processed to estimate the location of the curb and the presence of objects in the road. Occlusion and location reasoning are then applied to determine which of the objects are vehicles, and whether a given vehicle is parked or is in the traffic-stream. The occupancy of the parking area, vehicle size, and vehicle-to-vehicle gaps are then measured. The algorithm was applied to an area with unmarked, on-street parking near a large university campus. Vehicle counts from 29 trips over 4 years were compared against concurrent ground truth with favorable results. The approach can also be applied to monitor parking in the direction of travel, eliminating the possibility of occlusions and simplifying the processing.
      Highlights • Develops an accurate LIDAR based vehicle detection system and occlusion reasoning. • Use these LIDAR tools to automate parking surveys with better than 99% accuracy. • Yields both conventional parking metrics and new parking metrics. • The system can be deployed on vehicles already traversing the network, e.g., busses. • Develops a novel curb detection algorithm with very accurate lateral positioning.

      PubDate: 2013-12-19T11:26:43Z
       
  • Aircraft trajectory forecasting using local functional regression in
           Sobolev space
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 39
      Author(s): K. Tastambekov , S. Puechmorel , D. Delahaye , C. Rabut
      This paper considers the problem of short to mid-term aircraft trajectory prediction, that is, the estimation of where an aircraft will be located over a 10–30min time horizon. Such a problem is central in decision support tools, especially in conflict detection and resolution algorithms. It also appears when an air traffic controller observes traffic on the radar screen and tries to identify convergent aircraft, which may be in conflict in the near future. An innovative approach for aircraft trajectory prediction is presented in this paper. This approach is based on local linear functional regression that considers data preprocessing, localizing and solving linear regression using wavelet decomposition. This algorithm takes into account only past radar tracks, and does not use any physical or aeronautical parameters. This approach has been successfully applied to aircraft trajectories between several airports on the data set that is one year air traffic over France. The method is intrinsic and independent from airspace structure.


      PubDate: 2013-12-19T11:26:43Z
       
  • A spatio-temporal approach for identifying the sample size for transport
           mode detection from GPS-based travel surveys: A case study of
           London’s road network
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Adel Bolbol , Tao Cheng , Ioannis Tsapakis
      Compared with conventional household one/two days travel survey, GPS-based travel surveys hold many attractive features for travel behaviour studies. Different machine learning-based techniques have been developed to infer the transportation mode based upon GPS data from such surveys. However, nearly none of these studies calculate the sample size required for validating these techniques. Since different surveys target different study areas for different temporal periods and different travel modes, identifying sample sizes for all transport modes at different spatio-temporal granularities is of imperative urgency given the high time and financial costs of GPS-based travel surveys. Here we use road network journey time data of London to calculate appropriate sample sizes for travel surveys designed either for a specific period-of-the-day, day-of-the-week or month-of-the-year. We also use different transportation analysis zones (central, inner and outer London) to demonstrate the spatial variability of the data over these different survey durations. Then we finally calculate and analyse the range of required sample sizes for different travel modes within these spatio-temporal granularities. This case study provides a good reference of sample size design for GPS-based travel survey in big cities.


      PubDate: 2013-12-15T06:24:39Z
       
  • Length-based vehicle classification using event-based loop detector data
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 38
      Author(s): Henry X. Liu , Jie Sun
      Length-based vehicle classification is an important topic in traffic engineering, because estimation of traffic speed from single loop detectors usually requires the knowledge of vehicle length. In this paper, we present an algorithm that can classify vehicles passing by a loop detector into two categories: long vehicles and regular cars. The proposed algorithm takes advantage of event-based loop detector data that contains every vehicle detector actuation and de-actuation “event”, therefore time gaps between consecutive vehicles and detector occupation time for each vehicle can be easily derived. The proposed algorithm is based on an intuitive observation that, for a vehicle platoon, longer vehicles in the platoon will have relatively longer detector occupation time. Therefore, we can identify longer vehicles by examining the changes of occupation time in a vehicle platoon. The method was tested using the event-based data collected from Trunk Highway 55 in Minnesota, which is a high speed arterial corridor controlled by semi-actuated coordinated traffic signals. The result shows that the proposed method can correctly classify most of the vehicles passing by a single loop detector.


      PubDate: 2013-12-11T16:09:43Z
       
  • Supporting large-scale travel surveys with smartphones – A practical
           approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Philippe Nitsche , Peter Widhalm , Simon Breuss , Norbert Brändle , Peter Maurer
      Collection of travel data is a key task of transportation modeling. Data collection is currently based on costly and time-intensive questionnaires, and can thus only provide limited cross-sectional coverage and inadequate updates. There is an urgent need for technologically supported travel data acquisition tools. We present a novel approach for supporting travel surveys using data collected with smartphones. Individual trips of the person carrying the phone are automatically reconstructed and trip legs are classified into one of eight different modes of transport. This task is performed by an ensemble of probabilistic classifiers combined with a Discrete Hidden Markov Model (DHMM). Classification is based on features extracted from the motion trajectory recorded by the smartphone’s positioning system and signals of the embedded accelerometer. Our approach can cope with GPS signal losses by including positioning data obtained from the mobile phone cell network, and relies solely on accelerometer features when the trajectory cannot be reconstructed with sufficient accuracy. To train and evaluate the models, 355h of probe travel data were collected in the metropolitan area of Vienna, Austria by 15 volunteers over a period of 2months. Distinguishing eight different transportation modes, the classification results range from 65% (train, subway) to 95% (bicycle). The increasing popularity of smartphones gives the proposed method the potential to be used on a wide-spread basis and can complement existing travel survey methods.


      PubDate: 2013-12-11T16:09:43Z
       
  • Using cell phone data to measure quality of service and passenger flows of
           Paris transit system
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Vincent Aguiléra , Sylvain Allio , Vincent Benezech , François Combes , Chloé Milion
      This paper shows that the particular conditions under which a cellular phone network is operated underground can make it possible to measure passenger flows in an underground transit system. With the help of the mobile network operator Orange, some experiments have been conducted in Paris underground transit system to assess the potential of this new kind of data for transportation studies. The results show that good estimates of dynamic quantities, such as travel times, train occupancy levels and origin–destination flows can be derived from cellular data. The travel times, train occupancy levels and origin–destination flows inferred from cellular data have been compared to direct field observations and Automatic Fare Collection data provided by the STIF (the public transport authority in the Paris metropolitan area). The quantities inferred from cellular data are shown to be consistent with those inferred from the other data sources.


      PubDate: 2013-12-11T16:09:43Z
       
  • Toward accurate localization in guided transport: Combining GNSS data and
           imaging information
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Juliette Marais , Cyril Meurie , Dhouha Attia , Yassine Ruichek , Amaury Flancquart
      Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are widely spread (with Global Positioning System – GPS) in intelligent transport systems and offer a low cost, continuous and global solution for positioning. Unfortunately, urban users are often the most demanding of accurate localization but receive a degraded service because of signal propagation conditions. Several mitigation solutions can be developed. We propose, within CAPLOC project (2010–2013) to deal with inaccuracy by associating image processing techniques and signal propagation knowledge. In this paper, we focus on the contribution of image processing in more accurate position estimation. Thus, we use a laboratory vehicle, which is equipped with a fisheye camera and two GNSS receivers. The camera is located on the roof and oriented upwards to capture images of the sky. The GNSS receivers are used to obtain raw data, the position of the vehicle and the reference trajectory. The proposed approach consists in determining where satellites are located in the fisheye image, and then excluding those located in non-sky regions when calculating the position. For that, the strategy is based on an image simplification step coupled with a pixels classification. The image-based exclusion procedure is compared with the classical one based on the application of a threshold on carrier-to-noise (CN0) ratio to separate LOS and NLOS signals. Accuracy improvement is satisfying with the CN0-based method and show an improvement from 13m to 4.5m. Image-based detection shows mixed improvements but promising: good in a static area and too harsh in another configuration of the scenario.


      PubDate: 2013-12-11T16:09:43Z
       
  • Using the Bayesian updating approach to improve the spatial and temporal
           transferability of real-time crash risk prediction models
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 38
      Author(s): Chengcheng Xu , Wei Wang , Pan Liu , Rui Guo , Zhibin Li
      This study aimed to improve the spatial and temporal transferability of the real-time crash risk prediction models by using the Bayesian updating approach. Data from California’s I-880N freeway in 2002 and 2009 and the I-5N freeway in 2009 were used. The crash risk models for these three datasets are quite different from each other. The model parameters do not remain stable over time or space. The transferability evaluation results show that the crash risk models cannot be directly transferred across time and space. The updating results indicate that the Bayesian updating approach is effective in improving both spatial and temporal transferability even when new data are limited. The predictive performance of the updated model increases with an increase in the sample size of the new data. In addition, when limited new data are available, updating an existing model is better than developing a model using the limited new data.


      PubDate: 2013-12-11T16:09:43Z
       
  • Forecasting bunker prices; A nonstationary, multivariate methodology
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 38
      Author(s): Ch.N. Stefanakos , O. Schinas
      This paper suggests a methodological approach for the forecasting of marine fuel prices. The prediction of the bunker prices is of outmost importance for operators, as bunker prices affect heavily the economic planning and financial viability of ventures and determine decisions related to compliance with regulations. A multivariate nonstationary stochastic model available in the literature is being retrieved, after appropriate adjustment and testing. The model belongs to the class of periodically correlated stochastic processes with annual periodic components. The time series are appropriately transformed to become Gaussian, and then are decomposed to deterministic seasonal characteristics (mean value and standard deviation) and a residual time series. The residual part is proved to be stationary and then is modeled as a Vector AutoRegressive Mooving Average (VARMA) process. Finally, using the methodology presented, forecasts of a tetra-variate and an octa-variate time series of bunker prices are produced and are in good agreement with actual values. The obtained results encourages further research and deeper investigation of the driving characters of the multivariate time series of bunker prices.


      PubDate: 2013-12-11T16:09:43Z
       
  • Eco-driving: An economic or ecologic driving style?
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 38
      Author(s): Felicitas Mensing , Eric Bideaux , Rochdi Trigui , Julien Ribet , Bruno Jeanneret
      In this work the trade-off between economic, therefore fuel saving, and ecologic, pollutant emission reducing, driving is discussed. The term eco-driving is often used to refer to a vehicle operation that minimizes energy consumption. However, for eco-driving to be environmentally friendly not only fuel consumption but also pollutant emissions should be considered. In contrast to previous studies, this paper will discuss the advantages of eco-driving with respect to improvements in fuel consumption as well as pollutant gas emissions. Simulating a conventional passenger vehicle and applying numerical trajectory optimization methods best vehicle operation for a given trip is identified. With hardware-in-the-loop testing on an engine test bench the fuel and emissions are measured. An approach to integrate pollutant emission and dynamically choose the ecologically optimal gear is proposed.


      PubDate: 2013-12-07T11:02:06Z
       
  • A hybrid Bayesian Network approach to detect driver cognitive distraction
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 38
      Author(s): Yulan Liang , John D. Lee
      Driver cognitive distraction (e.g., hand-free cell phone conversation) can lead to unapparent, but detrimental, impairment to driving safety. Detecting cognitive distraction represents an important function for driver distraction mitigation systems. We developed a layered algorithm that integrated two data mining methods—Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) and supervised clustering—to detect cognitive distraction using eye movement and driving performance measures. In this study, the algorithm was trained and tested with the data collected in a simulator-based study, where drivers drove either with or without an auditory secondary task. We calculated 19 distraction indicators and defined cognitive distraction using the experimental condition (i.e., “distraction” as in the drives with the secondary task, and “no distraction” as in the drives without the secondary task). We compared the layered algorithm with previously developed DBN and Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithms. The results showed that the layered algorithm achieved comparable prediction performance as the two alternatives. Nonetheless, the layered algorithm shortened training and prediction time compared to the original DBN because supervised clustering improved computational efficiency by reducing the number of inputs for DBNs. Moreover, the supervised clustering of the layered algorithm revealed rich information on the relationship between driver cognitive state and performance. This study demonstrates that the layered algorithm can capitalize on the best attributes of component data mining methods and can identify human cognitive state efficiently. The study also shows the value in considering the supervised clustering method as an approach to feature reduction in data mining applications.


      PubDate: 2013-12-07T11:02:06Z
       
  • A hybrid short-term traffic flow forecasting method based on spectral
           analysis and statistical volatility model
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Yanru Zhang , Yunlong Zhang , Ali Haghani
      Short-term traffic flow prediction is a critical aspect of Intelligent Transportation System. Timely and accurate traffic forecasting results are necessary inputs for advanced traffic management systems (ATMS) and advanced traveler information systems (ATIS). Despite the proliferation of advanced methodologies, modeling the uncertainty of traffic conditions is still a challenge, especially during congested situations. This paper presents a hybrid model for multi-step ahead traffic flow forecasting in a freeway system with real-time traffic flow data. This proposed methodology forecasts traffic flow by decomposing the data into three modeling components: an intra-day or periodic trend by introducing the spectral analysis technique, a deterministic part modeled by the ARIMA model, and the volatility estimated by the GJR-GARCH model. The aim of this study is to provide deeper insights into underlining traffic patterns and to improve the prediction accuracy and reliability by modeling these patterns separately. The forecasting performance of the proposed hybrid model is investigated with real time freeway traffic flow data from Houston, Texas. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is able to unearth the underlying periodic characteristics and volatility nature of traffic flow data and show promising abilities in improving the accuracy and reliability of freeway traffic flow forecasting in multi-step ahead forecasting.


      PubDate: 2013-12-07T11:02:06Z
       
  • On the network connectivity of platoon-based vehicular cyber-physical
           systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
      Author(s): Dongyao Jia , Kejie Lu , Jianping Wang
      In the past few years, vehicular ad hoc networking (VANET) has attracted significant attention and many fundamental issues have been investigated, such as network connectivity, medium access control (MAC) mechanism, routing protocol, and quality of service (QoS). Nevertheless, most related work has been based on simplified assumptions on the underlying vehicle traffic dynamics, which has a tight interaction with VANET in practice. In this paper, we try to investigate VANET performance from the vehicular cyber-physical system (VCPS) perspective. Specifically, we consider VANET connectivity of platoon-based VCPSs where all vehicles drive in platoon-based patterns, which facilitate better traffic performance as well as information services. We first propose a novel architecture for platoon-based VCPSs, then we derive the vehicle distribution under platoon-based driving patterns on a highway. Based on the results, we further investigate inter-platoon connectivity in a bi-directional highway scenario and evaluate the expected time of safety message delivery among platoons, taking into account the effects of system parameters, such as traffic flow, velocity, platoon size and transmission range. Extensive simulations are conducted which validate the accuracy of our analysis. This study will be helpful to understand the behavior of VCPSs, and will be helpful to improve vehicle platoon design and deployment.


      PubDate: 2013-12-07T11:02:06Z
       
  • Editorial Board/Copyright Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 37




      PubDate: 2013-12-03T10:58:25Z
       
  • Understanding monthly variability in human activity spaces: A twelve-month
           study using mobile phone call detail records
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 38
      Author(s): Olle Järv , Rein Ahas , Frank Witlox
      Human activity-travel behaviour (ATB) is a complex pattern of paths and activities in space and time. Studies indicate that ATB is the construction of daily habitual, weekly, monthly and seasonal routines together with strong variety seeking behaviour. Daily habitual travel patterns are usually taken as a basis, but for transportation planners more knowledge is needed on longitudinal trends in human ATB. Empirical data on prolonged perspective are hard to come by while mobile phone based call detail records could be one means of narrowing this research gap. By implementing this method, the present study attempts to provide new insights on individual monthly spatial travel behaviour. Using call detail records obtained from a set of anonymous mobile phone users, we examined their activity locations and activity spaces for 12 consecutive months. We found modest monthly variation in the number of activity locations, whereas there were great variations in the sizes of individual activity spaces. The monthly variation in individual spatial behaviour is explained up to 17% by seasonality, although the variance is predominantly attributed to individual factors and results indicate significant intrapersonal monthly variability. Findings suggest new avenues for future work on ATB from a longitudinal perspective.


      PubDate: 2013-12-03T10:58:25Z
       
  • Using smartphones as a very low-cost tool for road inventories
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 38
      Author(s): S. Higuera de Frutos , M. Castro
      Road inventories are a key component in the planning of road networks as they allow for efficient management and a better return on the investment. Current techniques for carrying out road inventories are expensive and entail long planning processes and data postprocessing. Furthermore, these inventories are only useful to those parties interested in designing and building road networks. This study presents a new method for create road inventories based on the use of the latest generation cellular phones, also called smartphones. This paper describes the use of several mobile apps developed for this project that were implemented during the different stages of road inventory process. The results indicate that the data processing speed, its low cost, and the ease of implementation from any type of vehicle validate the proposed procedure as an invaluable tool (1) to do inventories of all types of road networks that are not accessible to cars; (2) to manage the routine maintenance of small road networks; and (3) as a basis for future research projects on road design and outline.


      PubDate: 2013-12-03T10:58:25Z
       
  • Controlled mechanical vibration applied to driver’s right heel to
           sustain alertness: Effects on cardiovascular behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 38
      Author(s): Takehiro Yamakoshi , Kenta Matsumura , Peter Rolfe
      Vehicle-related countermeasures to sustain driver’s alertness might improve traffic safety. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of somatosensory 20Hz mechanical vibration, applied to driver’s right heel during prolonged, simulated, monotonous driving, on their cardiovascular hemodynamic behavior. In 12 healthy young male volunteers, during 90-min periods of simulated monotonous driving, we compared cardiovascular variables during application of 20Hz mechanical vibration with 1.5Hz as a control and with no vibration. The parameters recorded were indices of key cardiovascular hemodynamic phenomena, i.e., blood pressure as an indicator of stress, cardiac output, and total peripheral-vascular resistance. The principle results were that all conditions increased the mean blood pressure, and elicited a vascular-dominant reaction pattern typically observed in monotonous driving tasks. However, mean blood pressure and total peripheral-vascular resistance during the monotonous task were significantly decreased in those receiving the 20Hz vibration as compared with 1.5Hz and with no vibration. The observed differences indicate the cardiovascular system being more relieved from monotonous driving stress with the 20Hz vibration. The major conclusion is that applying 20Hz mechanical vibration to the right heel during long-distance driving in non-sleepy drivers could facilitate more physiologically appropriate status for vehicle operation and could be a potential vehicular countermeasure technology.
      Graphical abstract image Highlights

      PubDate: 2013-11-28T16:51:59Z
       
  • Assessment of energy-saving techniques in direct-current-electrified mass
           transit systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 38
      Author(s): Álvaro J. López-López , Ramón R. Pecharromán , Antonio Fernández-Cardador , A. Paloma Cucala
      Railway rapid transit systems are key stones for the sustainability of mass transit in developed countries. The overwhelming majority of these railway systems are direct-current (DC) electrified and several energy-saving techniques have been proposed in the literature for these systems. The use of regenerative-braking in trains is generally recognised as the main tool to improve the efficiency of DC-electrified mass transit railway systems but the energy recovered in braking cannot always be handled efficiently, above all in low traffic-density situations. Several emerging technologies as energy storage systems or reversible traction substations have the potential for making it possible to efficiently use train-braking. However, a systematic evaluation of their effect is missing in the literature. In this paper, a deep, rigorous and comprehensive study on the factors which affect energy issues in a DC-electrified mass transit railway system is carried out. This study clarifies what the actual potential is for energy saving in each situation. Then, a methodology to asses several energy-saving techniques to improve energy efficiency in DC-electrified mass transit systems is presented, constituting the main contribution of this paper. This methodology has been conceived to help operators in assessing the effect of railway-infrastructure emerging technologies in transit systems, so making it possible to shape planning, capacity, etc. It is stepped out in three basic movements. First of all, a traffic-density scan analysis is conducted in order to clarify the effect of the headway on system behaviour. Secondly, several traffic-density scenarios are simulated for a set of infrastructure-expanded cases. Finally, annual energy saving is evaluated by applying a realistic operation timetable. This methodology has been applied to a case study in Madrid Metro (Spain) to illustrate the steps of its application and the effect of several energy-saving techniques on this specific system. Results confirm that regenerative braking generally leads to an important increase of system energy efficiency – especially at high traffic-density scenarios. It has also been proved that infrastructure improvements can also contribute to energy savings and their contributions are more significant at low traffic densities. Annual energy results have been obtained, which may lead to investment decisions by carrying out an appropriate economic assessment based on cost analysis. The main results of the study presented here are likely to apply to other electric traction systems, at least qualitatively.


      PubDate: 2013-11-28T16:51:59Z
       
  • An intermodal freight transport system for optimal supply chain logistics
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 38
      Author(s): Arnab Bhattacharya , Sai Anjani Kumar , M.K Tiwari , S. Talluri
      Complexity in transport networks evokes the need for instant response to the changing dynamics and uncertainties in the upstream operations, where multiple modes of transport are often available, but rarely used in conjunction. This paper proposes a model for strategic transport planning involving a network wide intermodal transport system. The system determines the spatio-temporal states of road based freight networks (unimodal) and future traffic flow in definite time intervals. This information is processed to devise efficient scheduling plans by coordinating and connecting existing rail transport schedules to road based freight systems (intermodal). The traffic flow estimation is performed by kernel based support vector mechanisms while mixed integer programming (MIP) is used to optimize schedules for intermodal transport network by considering various costs and additional capacity constraints. The model has been successfully applied to an existing Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) distribution network in India with encouraging results.


      PubDate: 2013-11-28T16:51:59Z
       
  • Modular route bus design – A method of meeting transport operation
           and vehicle manufacturing requirements
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 38
      Author(s): Robbie Napper
      This research examines the problem of route bus specification and vehicle manufacturability. In order for bus operators to provide transport services, a range of vehicle configurations must be available from bus manufacturers, generating variety which has a negative impact on the manufacturing process. Larger part inventories, uncontrolled labour tasks and more troublesome maintenance are known impacts of this variety. This research identifies the functional necessities in route bus interior design and reduces the problems in bus manufacture and operation caused by specification diversity by proposing a modularised system of bus design. In particular, it makes recommendations as to how bus configuration should be carried out, ensuring an optimum mix of operational and manufacturing needs: 1. Determine user needs before the bus specification process. 2. Designs to be developed by the manufacturer in response to user needs. 3. This design should be standardised where possible, as suggested by the user needs. 4. Where user needs dictate product variations, apply a mass customisation approach to accommodate these needs. The recommendations are communicated in design proposals for a modular bus interior, demonstrated by four cases designed to meet the present status quo of bus interior design and predictions for the future of the field.


      PubDate: 2013-11-28T16:51:59Z
       
  • Charging infrastructure planning for promoting battery electric vehicles:
           An activity-based approach using multiday travel data
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 38
      Author(s): Jing Dong , Changzheng Liu , Zhenhong Lin
      This paper studies electric vehicle charger location problems and analyzes the impact of public charging infrastructure deployment on increasing electric miles traveled, thus promoting battery electric vehicle (BEV) market penetration. An activity-based assessment method is proposed to evaluate BEV feasibility for the heterogeneous traveling population in the real world driving context. Genetic algorithm is applied to find (sub)optimal locations for siting public charging stations. A case study using the GPS-based travel survey data collected in the greater Seattle metropolitan area shows that electric miles and trips could be significantly increased by installing public chargers at popular destinations, with a reasonable infrastructure investment.
      Graphical abstract image Highlights

      PubDate: 2013-11-28T16:51:59Z
       
  • Analysis of subway station capacity with the use of queueing theory
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 38
      Author(s): Xin-yue Xu , Jun Liu , Hai-ying Li , Jian-Qiang Hu
      A new concept of subway station capacity (SSC) is defined according to the gathering and scattering process. A queuing network analytical model of station is created for calculating SSC, which is built by M/G/C/C state dependent queuing network and discrete time Markov chain (DTMC). Based on the definition and the analytical queuing network, a SSC optimization model is developed, whose objective function is to optimize SSC with a satisfactory rate of remaining passengers. Besides, a solution to the model is proposed integrating response surface methodology with iterative generalized expansion method (IGEM) and DTMC. A case study of Beijing Station in Beijing subway line 2 is implemented to verify the validity and practicability of the proposed methods by comparison with simulation model in different experiments. Finally, some sensitivity analysis results are provided to identify the nodes that have the greatest impact on SSC.


      PubDate: 2013-11-25T05:05:30Z
       
  • Evaluating the effects of bus design on passenger flow: Is agent-based
           simulation a feasible approach?
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 38
      Author(s): O. Rexfelt , T. Schelenz , M. Karlsson , A. Suescun
      In this paper, we propose an agent-based simulation approach that is capable of simulating the flow of passengers on board buses and at bus stops. The intention is that it will be applied during vehicle development to analyze how vehicle design affects passenger flow, and thus also how it affects system performance such as dwell time. In turn, this could aid the developers in making design decisions early in the development process. Besides introducing the simulation tool itself, the paper explores the realism of the data generated by the tool. A number of passenger flow experiments featuring a full-scale bus mockup and 50 participants were carried out. The setup of these experiments mirrored a number of ‘bus journeys’ (regarding vehicle design, number of passengers boarding/alighting at each stop and so on) that had previously been simulated using the simulation tool. When the data from the simulations were compared with the data from the passenger flow experiments, it could be concluded that the tool is indeed able to generate realistic passenger flows, although with some errors when a large number of passengers board/alight. The simulated dwell times were rationally affected by the tested bus layout aspects. It was concluded that the tool makes it possible to evaluate how variations in bus layouts affect passenger flow, providing data of sufficiently high quality to be useful in early phases of vehicle design.


      PubDate: 2013-11-25T05:05:30Z
       
  • Energy consumption and cost-benefit analysis of hybrid and electric city
           buses
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 38
      Author(s): Antti Lajunen
      This paper presents a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of hybrid and electric city buses in fleet operation. The analysis is founded on an energy consumption analysis, which is carried out on the basis of extensive simulations in different bus routes. A conventional diesel city bus is used as a reference for the CBA. Five different full size hybrid and electric city bus configurations were considered in this study; two parallel and two series hybrid buses, and one electric city bus. Overall, the simulation results indicate that plug-in hybrid and electric city buses have the best potential to reduce energy consumption and emissions. The capital and energy storage system costs of city buses are the most critical factors for improving the cost-efficiency of these alternative city bus configurations. Furthermore, the operation schedule and route planning are important to take into account when selecting hybrid and electric city buses for fleet operation.


      PubDate: 2013-11-21T07:26:31Z
       
  • Does green make a differen The potential role of smartphone technology in
           transport behaviour
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 37
      Author(s): William Brazil , Brian Caulfield
      The rise of smartphone applications within the transport sector has created new and exciting opportunities to provide users with a wide range of previously unavailable information services. Unlike previously available information sources, smartphone technology enables users to access individual and trip specific information both pre-trip and en route in real-time. The combination of journey planning applications and carbon calculators, allows for the provision of trip specific information regarding the potential environmental impact of personal transport options. While these applications are becoming more readily available in the market place, little in terms of scientific research has been undertaken to examine their influence on users. This paper presents the results of a stated preference experiment examining influence of carbon dioxide emissions information on user mode choice, as part of a survey undertaken in the Greater Dublin Area in November 2012. Acknowledging research findings arising from the field of behavioural economics, this study recognises that mode choices are also influenced by factors other than the attributes presented to the user. Results indicate that, for all non driving modes, emissions play a significant role in the respondents’ mode choice, with reduced associated emissions contributing to enhanced mode utility.


      PubDate: 2013-10-24T12:33:30Z
       
  • Routing hazardous materials on time-dependent networks using conditional
           value-at-risk
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 37
      Author(s): Iakovos Toumazis , Changhyun Kwon
      We propose a new method for mitigating risk in routing hazardous materials (hazmat), based on the conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) measure on time-dependent vehicular networks. The CVaR models are shown to be flexible and suitable for hazmat transportation that can be solved efficiently. This paper extends the previous research by considering CVaR for hazmat transportation in the case where accident probabilities and accident consequences are time-dependent. We provide a numerical method to determine an optimal departure time and an optimal route for a given origin–destination pair. The proposed algorithm is tested in a realistic road network in Buffalo, NY, USA and the results are discussed.


      PubDate: 2013-10-24T12:33:30Z
       
  • Energy saving in railway timetabling: A bi-objective evolutionary approach
           for computing alternative running times
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 37
      Author(s): Rémy Chevrier , Paola Pellegrini , Joaquín Rodriguez
      The timetabling step in railway planning is based on the estimation of the running times. Usually, they are estimated as the shortest running time increased of a short time supplement. Estimating the running time amounts to define the speed profile which indicates the speed that the train driver must hold at each position. The approach proposed in this paper produces a set of solutions optimizing both the running time and energy consumption. The approach is based on an original method of speed profiling performed by a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. The speed profiles found by the evolutionary algorithm are all compromises between running time on the one hand and energy consumption on the other hand. A set of results obtained on two lines are analyzed and discussed to highlight the relevance of such an approach in a practical context.


      PubDate: 2013-10-20T11:06:09Z
       
  • Fundamental understanding on the use of Bluetooth scanner as a
           complementary transport data
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 37
      Author(s): Ashish Bhaskar , Edward Chung
      Literature is limited in its knowledge of the Bluetooth protocol based data acquisition process and in the accuracy and reliability of the analysis performed using the data. This paper extends the body of knowledge surrounding the use of data from the Bluetooth Media Access Control Scanner (BMS) as a complementary traffic data source. A multi-layer simulation model named Traffic and Communication Simulation (TCS) is developed. TCS is utilised to model the theoretical properties of the BMS data and analyse the accuracy and reliability of travel time estimation using the BMS data.


      PubDate: 2013-10-20T11:06:09Z
       
  • Ant Colony Routing algorithm for freeway networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 37
      Author(s): Zhe Cong , Bart De Schutter , Robert Babuška
      Dynamic traffic routing refers to the process of (re)directing vehicles at junctions in a traffic network according to the evolving traffic conditions. The traffic management center can determine desired routes for drivers in order to optimize the performance of the traffic network by dynamic traffic routing. However, a traffic network may have thousands of links and nodes, resulting in a large-scale and computationally complex non-linear, non-convex optimization problem. To solve this problem, Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is chosen as the optimization method in this paper because of its powerful optimization heuristic for combinatorial optimization problems. ACO is implemented online to determine the control signal – i.e., the splitting rates at each node. However, using standard ACO for traffic routing is characterized by four main disadvantages: 1. traffic flows for different origins and destinations cannot be distinguished; 2. all ants may converge to one route, causing congestion; 3. constraints cannot be taken into account; and 4. neither can dynamic link costs. These problems are addressed by adopting a novel ACO algorithm with stench pheromone and with colored ants, called Ant Colony Routing (ACR). Using the stench pheromone, the ACR algorithm can distribute the vehicles over the traffic network with less or no traffic congestion, as well as reduce the number of vehicles near some sensitive zones, such as hospitals and schools. With colored ants, the traffic flows for multiple origins and destinations can be represented. The proposed approach is also implemented in a simulation-based case study in the Walcheren area, the Netherlands, illustrating the effectiveness of the approach.


      PubDate: 2013-10-16T14:03:39Z
       
 
 
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