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  Subjects -> TRANSPORTATION (Total: 165 journals)
    - AIR TRANSPORT (7 journals)
    - AUTOMOBILES (20 journals)
    - RAILROADS (5 journals)
    - ROADS AND TRAFFIC (5 journals)
    - SHIPS AND SHIPPING (29 journals)
    - TRANSPORTATION (99 journals)

TRANSPORTATION (99 journals)

Showing 1 - 53 of 53 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 56)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies on Transport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Economics of Transportation     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
EURO Journal of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
European Transport Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
IATSS Research     Open Access  
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IET Intelligent Transport Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Innovation - Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Applied Logistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of e-Navigation and Maritime Economy     Open Access  
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Micro-Nano Scale Transport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Mobile Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Ocean Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Services Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Modern Transportation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sustainable Mobility     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Transport & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Transport Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Transport History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Transport Literature     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Transportation Safety & Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Transportation Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Transportation Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Waterway Port Coastal and Ocean Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Les Dossiers du Grihl     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Logistics & Sustainable Transport     Open Access  
Logistique & Management     Full-text available via subscription  
Mobility in History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Modern Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Packaging, Transport, Storage & Security of Radioactive Material     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pervasive and Mobile Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
PS: Political Science & Politics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Public Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Recherche Transports Sécurité     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Revista Transporte y Territorio     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Romanian Journal of Transport Infrastructure     Open Access  
SourceOCDE Transports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Streetnotes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Synthesis Lectures on Mobile and Pervasive Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tire Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Transactions on Transport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Transport and Telecommunication Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Transport in Porous Media     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transport Reviews: A Transnational Transdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Transportation Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Transportation Letters : The International Journal of Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Transportation Research Part B: Methodological     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Transportation Research Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transportation Research Record : Journal of the Transportation Research Board     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Transportation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
TRANSPORTES     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Transportmetrica B : Transport Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Travel Behaviour and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Urban, Planning and Transport Research     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Vehicular Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Транспортні системи та технології перевезень     Open Access  
Journal Cover Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
  [SJR: 3.306]   [H-I: 70]   [30 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0191-2615
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2805 journals]
  • Can you ever be certain? Reducing hypothetical bias in stated choice
           experiments via respondent reported choice certainty
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 89
      Author(s): Matthew J. Beck, Simon Fifer, John M. Rose
      Stated choice experiments are a preeminent method for researchers and practitioners who seek to examine the behavior of consumers. However, the extent to which these experiments can replicate real markets continues to be debated in the literature, with particular reference to the potential for biased estimates as a result of the hypothetical nature of such experiments. In this paper, a first in the transportation literature, we compare stated choice responses to revealed preference behavior and examine three methods proposed in the literature for calibrating choice experiments via reported choice certainty. In doing so we provide evidence that the incorrect calibration of responses can produce stated choice results that are more biased than doing nothing at all, however we show that by jointly estimating choice and choice certainty there is a significant reduction in hypothetical bias such that stated choice responses more directly replicate real behavior.


      PubDate: 2016-04-27T16:55:08Z
       
  • A coordinated location-inventory problem in closed-loop supply chain
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 89
      Author(s): Zhi-Hai Zhang, Avinash Unnikrishnan
      This paper considers a coordinated location-inventory model under uncertain demands for a closed loop supply chain comprising of one plant, forward and reverse distribution centers, and retailers. The inventory of new and returned products is managed at forward and reverse distribution centers respectively through a periodic review policy. The proposed model determines the location of forward and reverse distribution centers and the associated capacities, the review intervals of the inventory policy at distribution centers, and the assignments of retailers to the distribution centers. We model six different coordination strategies. All the models are formulated as nonlinear integer programs with chance constraints and transformed to conic quadratic mixed-integer programs that can be efficiently solved by CPLEX. An outer approximation based solution algorithm is developed to solve the conic quadratic mixed-integer program. The benefit of different types of coordination strategies is shown through extensive computational testing.


      PubDate: 2016-04-27T16:55:08Z
       
  • Symmetries in the kinematic wave model and a parameter-free representation
           of traffic flow
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 89
      Author(s): Jorge A. Laval, Bhargava R. Chilukuri
      This paper identifies a family of linear transformations where conservation laws are invariant. In the case of a triangular fundamental diagram, it is shown that for a subset of these transformations, flow, total distance traveled and total delay are invariant. This means that for capacity or delay computations one may choose the transformation—i.e., the shape of the triangular diagram—that simplifies the problem the most, which does not require knowing the actual fundamental diagram. This is appealing also for delay-optimizing control problems since they may be solved using an isosceles fundamental diagram, which provides the most efficient numerical methods. Examples are given.


      PubDate: 2016-04-27T16:55:08Z
       
  • Passenger centric train timetabling problem
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 89
      Author(s): Tomáš Robenek, Yousef Maknoon, Shadi Sharif Azadeh, Jianghang Chen, Michel Bierlaire
      The aim of this paper is to analyze and to improve the current planning process of the passenger railway service in light of the recent railway market changes. In order to do so, we introduce the Passenger Centric Train Timetabling Problem. The originality of our approach is that we account for the passenger satisfaction in the design of the timetable. We consider both types of timetable(s): cyclic and non-cyclic. The problem is modeled as a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problem with an objective of maximizing the train operating company’s profit while maintaining ε level of passenger satisfaction. The model does not take into account conflicts between trains and does not adjust dwell times at stopping stations among the lines. By solving the model for various values of ε, the approximated Pareto frontier is constructed. The analysis, based on an experiment using realistic data, shows that an improvement of passenger satisfaction while maintaining a low profit loss for the railway company can be achieved. A sensitivity analysis on passenger congestion illustrates a quantitative evidence that the non-cyclic timetables can account better for high density demand in comparison to cyclic timetables.


      PubDate: 2016-04-27T16:55:08Z
       
  • Probabilistic speed–density relationship for pedestrian traffic
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 89
      Author(s): Marija Nikolić, Michel Bierlaire, Bilal Farooq, Matthieu de Lapparent
      We propose a probabilistic modeling approach to represent the speed–density relationship of pedestrian traffic. The approach is data-driven, and it is motivated by the presence of high scatter in the raw data that we have analyzed. We show the validity of the proposed approach, and its superiority compared to deterministic approaches from the literature using a dataset collected from a real scene and another from a controlled experiment.


      PubDate: 2016-04-22T21:45:37Z
       
  • Vehicle identification sensor models for origin–destination
           estimation
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 89
      Author(s): Majid Hadavi, Yousef Shafahi
      The traditional approach to origin–destination (OD) estimation based on data surveys is highly expensive. Therefore, researchers have attempted to develop reasonable low-cost approaches to estimating the OD vector, such as OD estimation based on traffic sensor data. In this estimation approach, the location problem for the sensors is critical. One type of sensor that can be used for this purpose, on which this paper focuses, is vehicle identification sensors. The information collected by these sensors that can be employed for OD estimation is discussed in this paper. We use data gathered by vehicle identification sensors that include an ID for each vehicle and the time at which the sensor detected it. Based on these data, the subset of sensors that detected a given vehicle and the order in which they detected it are available. In this paper, four location models are proposed, all of which consider the order of the sensors. The first model always yields the minimum number of sensors to ensure the uniqueness of path flows. The second model yields the maximum number of uniquely observed paths given a budget constraint on the sensors. The third model always yields the minimum number of sensors to ensure the uniqueness of OD flows. Finally, the fourth model yields the maximum number of uniquely observed OD flows given a budget constraint on the sensors. For several numerical examples, these four models were solved using the GAMS software. These numerical examples include several medium-sized examples, including an example of a real-world large-scale transportation network in Mashhad.


      PubDate: 2016-04-22T21:45:37Z
       
  • A dynamic stochastic model for evaluating congestion and crowding effects
           in transit systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 89
      Author(s): Oded Cats, Jens West, Jonas Eliasson
      One of the most common motivations for public transport investments is to reduce congestion and increase capacity. Public transport congestion leads to crowding discomfort, denied boardings and lower service reliability. However, transit assignment models and appraisal methodologies usually do not account for the dynamics of public transport congestion and crowding and thus potentially underestimate the related benefits. This study develops a method to capture the benefits of increased capacity by using a dynamic and stochastic transit assignment model. Using an agent-based public transport simulation model, we dynamically model the evolution of network reliability and on-board crowding. The model is embedded in a comprehensive framework for project appraisal. A case study of a metro extension that partially replaces an overloaded bus network in Stockholm demonstrates that congestion effects may account for a substantial share of the expected benefits. A cost-benefit analysis based on a conventional static model will miss more than a third of the benefits. This suggests that failure to represent dynamic congestion effects may substantially underestimate the benefits of projects, especially if they are primarily intended to increase capacity rather than to reduce travel times.


      PubDate: 2016-04-22T21:45:37Z
       
  • Nonlinear pricing for stochastic container leasing system
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 89
      Author(s): Wen Jiao, Hong Yan, King-Wah Pang
      With the substantial upsurge of container traffic, the container leasing company thrives on the financial benefits and operational flexibility of leasing containers requested by shippers. In practice, container lease pricing problem is different from the consumer product pricing in consideration of the fair value of container, limited customer types and monopolistic supply market. In view of the durability of container and the diversified lease time and quantity, the pricing is a challenging task for the leasing company. This paper examines the monopolist’s nonlinear pricing problems in static and dynamic environments. In particular, the leasing company designs and commits a menu of price and hire quantity/time pairs to maximize the expected profit and in turn customers choose hire quantities/time to maximize their surpluses according to their hire preferences. In a static environment, closed-form solutions are obtained for different groups of customers with multiple types subject to capacity constraint. In a dynamic environment, we address two customer types and derive closed-form solutions for the problem of customers with hire time preference. Further, we show that the effect of the capacity constraint increases with time of the planning horizon when customers have the same hire time preference; while in the case with different hire time preferences, the capacity constraint has opposite effects on the low and high type customers. Last, the case of customers with hire quantity preference is discussed. We focus on the lease with alternative given sets of hire time and use dynamic programming to derive the numerical optimal hire time sequence.


      PubDate: 2016-04-17T21:43:11Z
       
  • Reinforcement learning approach for train rescheduling on a single-track
           railway
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 86
      Author(s): D. Šemrov, R. Marsetič, M. Žura, L. Todorovski, A. Srdic
      Optimal rail network infrastructure and rolling stock utilization can be achieved with use of different scheduling tools by extensive planning a long time before actual operations. The initial train timetable takes into account possible smaller disturbances, which can be compensated within the schedule. Bigger disruptions, such as accidents, rolling stock breakdown, prolonged passenger boarding, and changed speed limit cause delays that require train rescheduling. In this paper, we introduce a train rescheduling method based on reinforcement learning, and more specifically, Q-learning. We present here the Q-learning principles for train rescheduling, which consist of a learning agent and its actions, environment and its states, as well as rewards. The use of the proposed approach is first illustrated on a simple rescheduling problem comprising a single-lane track with three trains. The evaluation of the approach is performed on extensive set of experiments carried out on a real-world railway network in Slovenia. The empirical results show that Q-learning lead to rescheduling solutions that are at least equivalent and often superior to those of several basic rescheduling methods that do not rely on learning agents. The solutions are learned within reasonable computational time, a crucial factor for real-time applications.


      PubDate: 2016-04-17T21:43:11Z
       
  • On allowing a general form for unobserved heterogeneity in the multiple
           discrete–continuous probit model: Formulation and application to
           tourism travel
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 86
      Author(s): Chandra R. Bhat, Sebastian Astroza, Aarti C. Bhat
      This paper proposes a new econometric formulation and an associated estimation method for a finite discrete mixture of normals (FDMN) version of the multiple discrete–continuous probit (MDCP) model. To our knowledge, this is the first such formulation and application of an MDCP model in the econometric literature. Using the New Zealand Domestic Travel Survey data set, the model is applied to analyze individual-level decisions regarding recreational destination locations and the number of trips to each destination. The results provide insights into the demographic and other factors that influence individuals’ preferences for different destinations, and show that the FDMN MDCP model is able to identify different segments of the sample, each one of them with different effects of the exogenous variables on destination choice.


      PubDate: 2016-04-17T21:43:11Z
       
  • Traffic flow on pedestrianized streets
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 86
      Author(s): Carlos F. Daganzo, Victor L. Knoop
      Giving pedestrians priority to cross a street enhances pedestrian life, especially if crosswalks are closely spaced. Explored here is the effect of this management decision on car traffic. Since queuing theory suggests that for a given pedestrian flux the closer the crosswalk spacing the lower the effect of pedestrians on cars, scenarios where pedestrians can cross anywhere should be best for both cars and pedestrians. This is the kind of pedestrianization studied. Analytic formulas are proposed for a pedestrianized street’s capacity, free-flow speed and macroscopic fundamental diagram. Of these, only the free-flow speed formula is exact. The analytic form of the capacity formula is inspired by analytic upper and lower bounds derived with variational theory for a version of the problem where cars are treated as a fluid. The formula is then calibrated against microscopic simulations with discrete cars. The MFD for the fluid version of the problem is shown to be concave and have a certain symmetry. These two geometrical properties, together with the formulae for capacity and free-flow speed, yield a simple approximation for the MFD. Both the capacity and MFD formulae match simulations with discrete cars well for all values of the pedestrian flux – errors for the capacity are well under 0.2% of the capacity before pedestrianization. Qualitatively, the formulas predict that the street’s capacity is inversely proportional to the square root of the pedestrian flux for low pedestrian fluxes, and that pedestrians increase the cars’ free-flow pace by an amount that is proportional to the pedestrian flux.


      PubDate: 2016-04-17T21:43:11Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 86




      PubDate: 2016-04-17T21:43:11Z
       
  • Infrastructure maintenance, regeneration and service quality economics: A
           rail example
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 86
      Author(s): Marc Gaudry, Bernard Lapeyre, Émile Quinet
      This paper proposes a formalized framework for the joint economic optimization of continuous maintenance and periodic regeneration of rail transport infrastructure taking into account output consisting not only in traffic levels but also in track service quality. In contrast with much optimization work pertaining to spatially contiguous maintenance works, its principal economic emphasis and objective focus are centered on the optimal allocation of current maintenance and periodic renewal expenses, on their yearly distribution among large network partitions, and on infrastructure pricing. The model equations are based on very simple assumptions of infrastructure degradation laws and on a manager's objective function optimized through optimal control procedures. Equations are tested on national French rail track segment databases using Box–Cox transformations and match rail regeneration and maintenance practices prevailing in France. More generally, the paper makes a broad contribution to capital theory, on the optimal maintenance and renewal of equipment, and defines a method applicable not only to other transport infrastructure but to a wide range of capital goods, including housing, cars and industrial machines.


      PubDate: 2016-04-17T21:43:11Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 87




      PubDate: 2016-04-17T21:43:11Z
       
  • Solving a Dynamic User Equilibrium model based on splitting rates with
           Gradient Projection algorithms
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
      Author(s): Guido Gentile
      This article shows how Gradient Projection (GP) algorithms are capable of solving with high precision a Dynamic User Equilibrium (UE) model based on Splitting Rates, i.e. turning movements fractions by destination. Dynamic Traffic Assignment (DTA) is formulated as a Variational Inequality problem defined on temporal profiles of arc conditional probabilities that express a sequence of deterministic route choices taken at nodes by road users directed toward each destination. Congestion is represented through a macroscopic traffic model capable to reproduce a range of phenomena having increasing complexity, from links with bottleneck to intersections with spillback. Different time discretizations, from few seconds to few minutes, are also possible, which allows a range of applications from planning to operation. This assignment model, which is fully link based, is proved to be equivalent to a path based formulation. It also allows for the computation of a handy gap function for analyzing convergence to equilibrium. Numerical experiments on test networks are presented, showing that the proposed GP algorithms converge to dynamic equilibrium in a reasonable number of iterations, outperforming the Method of Successive Averages (MSA).


      PubDate: 2016-04-17T21:43:11Z
       
  • Finding optimal solutions for vehicle routing problem with pickup and
           delivery services with time windows: A dynamic programming approach based
           on state–space–time network representations
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 89
      Author(s): Monirehalsadat Mahmoudi, Xuesong Zhou
      Optimization of on-demand transportation systems and ride-sharing services involves solving a class of complex vehicle routing problems with pickup and delivery with time windows (VRPPDTW). This paper first proposes a new time-discretized multi-commodity network flow model for the VRPPDTW based on the integration of vehicles’ carrying states within space–time transportation networks, so as to allow a joint optimization of passenger-to-vehicle assignment and turn-by-turn routing in congested transportation networks. Our three-dimensional state–space–time network construct is able to comprehensively enumerate possible transportation states at any given time along vehicle space–time paths, and further allows a forward dynamic programming solution algorithm to solve the single vehicle VRPPDTW problem. By utilizing a Lagrangian relaxation approach, the primal multi-vehicle routing problem is decomposed to a sequence of single vehicle routing sub-problems, with Lagrangian multipliers for individual passengers’ requests being updated by sub-gradient-based algorithms. We further discuss a number of search space reduction strategies and test our algorithms, implemented through a specialized program in C++, on medium-scale and large-scale transportation networks, namely the Chicago sketch and Phoenix regional networks.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-04-17T21:43:11Z
       
  • The economics of workplace charging
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 88
      Author(s): Gebeyehu M. Fetene, Georg Hirte, Sigal Kaplan, Carlo G. Prato, Stefan Tscharaktschiew
      To overcome the range-anxiety problem and further shortcomings associated with electric vehicles, workplace charging (WPC) is gaining increasing attention. We propose a microeconomic model of WPC and use the approach to shed light on the incentives and barriers employees and employers face when deciding on demand for and supply of WPC. It is shown that under market conditions there is no WPC contract an employer is willing to offer and at the same time the majority of employees is willing to accept. To overcome the lack of demand or underprovision of WPC we discuss various ‘remedies’, involving subsidies to charging facility costs and adjustments in electricity tariffs or loading technologies. We find that direct subsidies to WPC facilities or subsidies combined with specific energy price policies could be a way to foster WPC provision. In contrast measures on the employee side that may help to stimulate the demand for WPC turn out to be less feasible. Hence, our results suggest that in order to promote WPC it is more promising to support employers in offering WPC contracts than to provide employees an incentive to accept WPC contracts. The study therefore gives a rationale for public initiatives being undertaken to boost WPC provision, as e.g. in the case of the US.


      PubDate: 2016-04-12T18:39:51Z
       
  • A rough-cut approach for evaluating location-routing decisions via
           approximation algorithms
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 87
      Author(s): Mozart B.C. Menezes, Diego Ruiz-Hernández, Vedat Verter
      The first step in most location-routing projects involves bringing the primary stakeholders on board and securing funding for implementation of the required changes. To this end, practitioners often need a good feasible solution together with a lower bound on the cost of any solution to the problem at hand, rather than exact solutions based on detailed and accurate parameter estimates. In this article, we present a simple methodology for assessing the quality of the current distribution network as well as for identifying opportunities for improvement. We incorporate the potential use of different transportation technologies at different layers of the network. We demonstrate the versatility of the proposed rough-cut approach by means of two real life implementations: (i) redesigning the supply network of the Casino Group, a supermarket chain in southeast France, and (ii) redesigning the household material recycling network of the city of Calgary, in Canada.


      PubDate: 2016-04-12T18:39:51Z
       
  • Biased standard error estimations in transport model calibration due to
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 88
      Author(s): Wai Wong, S.C. Wong
      Reliable transport models calibrated from accurate traffic data are crucial for predicating transportation system performance and ensuring better traffic planning. However, due to the impracticability of collecting data from an entire population, methods of data inference such as the linear data projection are commonly adopted. A recent study has shown that systematic bias may be embedded in the parameters calibrated due to linearly projected data that do not account for scaling factor variability. Adjustment factors for reducing such biases in the calibrated parameters have been proposed for a generalized multivariate polynomial model. However, the effects of linear data projection on the dispersion of and confidence in the adjusted parameters have not been explored. Without appropriate statistics examining the statistical significance of the adjusted model, their validity in applications remains unknown and dubious. This study reveals that heteroscedasticity is inherently introduced by data projection with a varying scaling factor. Parameter standard errors that are estimated by linearly projected data without any appropriate treatments for non-homoscedasticity are definitely biased, and possibly above or below their true values. To ensure valid statistical tests of significance and prevent exposure to uninformed and unnecessary risk in applications, a generic analytical distribution-free (ADF) method and an equivalent scaling factor (ESF) method are proposed to adjust the parameter standard errors for a generalized multivariate polynomial model, based on the reported residual sum of squares. The ESF method transforms a transport model into a linear function of the scaling factor before calibration, which provides an alternative solution path for achieving unbiased parameter estimations. Simulation results demonstrate the robustness of the ESF method compared with the ADF method at high model nonlinearity. Case studies are conducted to illustrate the applicability of the ESF method for the parameter standard error estimations of six Macroscopic Bureau of Public Road functions, which are calibrated using real-world global positioning system data obtained from Hong Kong.


      PubDate: 2016-04-12T18:39:51Z
       
  • Service type assignment and container routing with transit time
           constraints and empty container repositioning for liner shipping service
           networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 88
      Author(s): M. Hakan Akyüz, Chung-Yee Lee
      A decision tool is developed for a liner shipping company to deploy its fleet considering vessel speeds and to find routes for cargos with repositioning of empty containers and transit time constraints. This problem is referred as the simultaneous Service type Assignment and container Routing Problem (SARP) in the sequel. A path-flow based mixed-integer linear programming formulation is suggested for the SARP. A Branch and Bound (BB) algorithm is used to solve the SARP exactly. A Column Generation (CG) procedure, embedded within the BB framework, is devised to solve the linear programming relaxation of the SARP. The CG subproblems arises as Shortest Path Problems (SPP). Yet incorporating transit time requirements yields constrained SPP which is NP-hard and solved by a label correcting algorithm. Computational experiments are performed on randomly generated test instances mimicking real life. The BB algorithm yields promising solutions for the SARP. The SARP with and without transit time constraints is compared with each other. Our results suggest a potential to increase profit margins of liner shipping companies by considering transit time requirements of cargos.


      PubDate: 2016-04-12T18:39:51Z
       
  • Design framework of large-scale one-way electric vehicle sharing systems:
           A continuum approximation model
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 88
      Author(s): Xiaopeng Li, Jiaqi Ma, Jianxun Cui, Amir Ghiasi, Fang Zhou
      This paper proposes a Continuum Approximation (CA) model for design of a one-way Electrical Vehicle (EV) sharing system that serves a metropolitan area. This model determines the optimal EV sharing station locations and the corresponding EV fleet sizes to minimize the comprehensive system cost, including station construction investment, vehicle charging, transportation and vehicle balancing, under stochastic and dynamic trip demands. This is a very complex problem due to the NP-hard nature of location design, the large number of individual users, and the stochasticity and dynamics of generated trips. Further, the considerable charging time required by EVs distinguishes this problem from traditional car sharing problems where a vehicle is immediately available for pickup after being dropped at a station. We find that the CA approach can overcome these modeling challenges by decomposing the studied area into a number of small neighborhoods that each can be approximated by an Infinite Homogeneous Plane (IHP). We find that the system cost of an IHP is a unimodal function of the station service area size and can be efficiently solved in a sub-linear time by the bisection algorithm. Then integrating the solutions of all IHPs yields an approximate solution to the original heterogeneous area. With numerical experiments, we show that the CA solution is able to estimate the total system cost of the discrete counterpart solution efficiently with good accuracy, even for large-scale heterogeneous problems. This implies that the proposed CA approach is capable of providing a near-optimum solution to the comprehensive design of a practical large-scale EV sharing system. With this model, we also conduct sensitivity analysis to reveal insights into how cost components and system design vary with key parameter values. As far as the author’s knowledge, this study is the first work that addresses design of an EV sharing system considering both longer-term location and fleet size planning and daily vehicle operations. The proposed CA model also extends the CA methodology literature from traditional location problems with stationary demand, single-facility based service to EV sharing problems considering dynamic demands, OD trips, and nonlinear vehicle charging times.


      PubDate: 2016-04-12T18:39:51Z
       
  • Finding potential hub locations for liner shipping
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
      Author(s): Zhuo Sun, Jianfeng Zheng
      The current models for hub location problems are unable to find potential hub locations in uncharted areas that currently have no port. To explore hub locations that are not selected from the present ports, this study proposes a two-stage method to address this gap in knowledge. A concave cost multicommodity network flow model is solved in the first stage to obtain container traffic in waterways. Then, in the second stage, a hubbing probability is evaluated for each node to indicate potential hub locations. A case study including emerging Arctic routes is provided to demonstrate this method.


      PubDate: 2016-04-07T09:36:22Z
       
  • Solving the User Optimum Privately Owned Automated Vehicles Assignment
           Problem (UO-POAVAP): A model to explore the impacts of self-driving
           vehicles on urban mobility
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 87
      Author(s): Gonçalo Homem de Almeida Correia, Bart van Arem
      Interest in vehicle automation has been growing in recent years, especially with the very visible Google car project. Although full automation is not yet a reality there has been significant research on the impacts of self-driving vehicles on traffic flows, mainly on interurban roads. However, little attention has been given to what could happen to urban mobility when all vehicles are automated. In this paper we propose a new method to study how replacing privately owned conventional vehicles with automated ones affects traffic delays and parking demand in a city. The model solves what we designate as the User Optimum Privately Owned Automated Vehicles Assignment Problem (UO-POAVAP), which dynamically assigns family trips in their automated vehicles in an urban road network from a user equilibrium perspective where, in equilibrium, households with similar trips should have similar transport costs. Automation allows a vehicle to travel without passengers to satisfy multiple household trips and, if needed, to park itself in any of the network nodes to benefit from lower parking charges. Nonetheless, the empty trips can also represent added congestion in the network. The model was applied to a case study based on the city of Delft, the Netherlands. Several experiments were done, comparing scenarios where parking policies and value of travel time (VTT) are changed. The model shows good equilibrium convergence with a small difference between the general costs of traveling for similar families. We were able to conclude that vehicle automation reduces generalized transport costs, satisfies more trips by car and is associated with increased traffic congestion because empty vehicles have to be relocated. It is possible for a city to charge for all street parking and create free central parking lots that will keep total transport costs the same, or reduce them. However, this will add to congestion as traffic competes to access those central nodes. In a scenario where a lower VTT is experienced by the travelers, because of the added comfort of vehicle automation, the car mode share increases. Nevertheless this may help to reduce traffic congestion because some vehicles will reroute to satisfy trips which previously were not cost efficient to be done by car. Placing the free parking in the outskirts is less attractive due to the extra kilometers but with a lower VTT the same private vehicle demand would be attended with the advantage of freeing space in the city center.


      PubDate: 2016-04-03T04:57:41Z
       
  • Robust network sensor location for complete link flow observability under
           uncertainty
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 88
      Author(s): Xiangdong Xu, Hong K. Lo, Anthony Chen, Enrique Castillo
      The link observability problem is to identify the minimum set of links to be installed with sensors that allow the full determination of flows on all the unobserved links. Inevitably, the observed link flows are subject to measurement errors, which will accumulate and propagate in the inference of the unobserved link flows, leading to uncertainty in the inference process. In this paper, we develop a robust network sensor location model for complete link flow observability, while considering the propagation of measurement errors in the link flow inference. Our model development relies on two observations: (1) multiple sensor location schemes exist for the complete inference of the unobserved link flows, and different schemes can have different accumulated variances of the inferred flows as propagated from the measurement errors. (2) Fewer unobserved links involved in the nodal flow conservation equations will have a lower chance of accumulating measurement errors, and hence a lower uncertainty in the inferred link flows. These observations motivate a new way to formulate the sensor location problem. Mathematically, we formulate the problem as min–max and min–sum binary integer linear programs. The objective function minimizes the largest or cumulative number of unobserved links connected to each node, which reduces the chance of incurring higher variances in the inference process. Computationally, the resultant binary integer linear program permits the use of a number of commercial software packages for its globally optimal solution. Furthermore, considering the non-uniqueness of the minimum set of observed links for complete link flow observability, the optimization programs also consider a secondary criterion for selecting the sensor location scheme with the minimum accumulated uncertainty of the complete link flow inference.


      PubDate: 2016-04-03T04:57:41Z
       
  • A self-adaptive method to equalize headways: Numerical analysis and
           comparison
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 87
      Author(s): Shidong Liang, Shuzhi Zhao, Chunxiu Lu, Minghui Ma
      In uncontrolled bus systems, buses tend to bunch due to the stochastic nature of traffic flows and passenger demand at bus stops. Although schedules and priori target methods introduce slack time to delay buses at control points to maintain constant headways between successive buses, too much slack required delay passengers on-board. In addition, these methods focus on regular headways and do not consider the rates of convergence of headways after disturbances. We propose a self-adaptive control scheme to equalize the headways of buses with little slack in a single line automatically. The proposed method only requires the information from the current bus at the control point and both its leading and following buses. This elegant method is shown to regulate headways faster than existing methods. In addition, compared to previous self-equalizing methods, the proposed method can improve the travel time of buses by about 12%, while keeping the waiting time of passengers almost the same.


      PubDate: 2016-03-29T04:16:25Z
       
  • Stochastic Poisson game for an online decentralized and coordinated
           parking mechanism
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 87
      Author(s): Lili Du, Siyuan Gong
      This paper proposes a decentralized and coordinated online parking mechanism (DCPM), which seeks to reduce parking congestion at multiple parking facilities in a central business district (CBD) through guiding the parking decisions of a parking coordination group. To establish this DCPM, this study develops a stochastic Poisson game to model the competitions among parking vehicles en route at multiple parking facilities. The equilibrium condition for the proposed stochastic Poisson game is formulated through involving travelers’ parking choice behavior described by multinomial logit model. Furthermore, we prove that the stochastic Poisson game is a potential game with a unique equilibrium. A simultaneously updating distributed algorithm is developed to search the equilibrium solution of the DCPM. Its convergence is proved by both mathematical analysis and numerical experiments. The numerical experiments are conducted to test the efficiency of the DCPM, based on a real-world CBD covering Guicheng Community, Nanhai District at Foshan in China. The performance of the DCPM is compared to three greedy strategies following the nearest first, cheapest first, and least cruise first policies, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the DCPM significantly reduces cruise vehicles and average cruise distance per vehicle from all other three greedy strategies; the least cruise first strategy, which takes advantage of the real-time open spots information at parking facilities, performs better than the nearest first and the cheapest first strategies without the access to real-time information. The DCPM can further improve the benefit of the real-time information. Additionally, in terms of walking distance and parking cost, the DCPM provide a trade-off solution between the nearest first and the cheapest first strategies.


      PubDate: 2016-03-29T04:16:25Z
       
  • An integrated micro–macro approach to robust railway timetabling
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 87
      Author(s): Nikola Bešinović, Rob M.P. Goverde, Egidio Quaglietta, Roberto Roberti
      With the increasing demand for railway transportation infrastructure managers need improved automatic timetabling tools that provide feasible timetables with enhanced performance in short computation times. This paper proposes a hierarchical framework for timetable design which combines a microscopic and a macroscopic model of the network. The framework performs an iterative adjustment of train running and minimum headway times until a feasible and stable timetable has been generated at the microscopic level. The macroscopic model optimizes a trade-off between minimal travel times and maximal robustness using an Integer Linear Programming formulation which includes a measure for delay recovery computed by an integrated delay propagation model in a Monte Carlo setting. The application to an area of the Dutch railway network shows the ability of the approach to automatically compute a feasible, stable and robust timetable. Practitioners can use this approach both for effective timetabling and post-evaluation of existing timetables.


      PubDate: 2016-03-13T17:29:07Z
       
  • Effect of stochastic transition in the fundamental diagram of traffic flow
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 87
      Author(s): Adriano F. Siqueira, Carlos J.T. Peixoto, Chen Wu, Wei-Liang Qian
      In this work, we propose an alternative stochastic model for the fundamental diagram of traffic flow with minimal number of parameters. Our approach is based on a mesoscopic viewpoint of the traffic system in terms of the dynamics of vehicle speed transitions. A key feature of the present approach lies in its stochastic nature which makes it possible to study not only the flow-concentration relation, namely, the fundamental diagram, but also its uncertainty, namely, the variance of the fundamental diagram—an important characteristic in the observed traffic flow data. It is shown that in the simplified versions of the model consisting of only a few speed states, analytic solutions for both quantities can be obtained, which facilitate the discussion of the corresponding physical content. We also show that the effect of vehicle size can be included into the model by introducing the maximal congestion density kmax . By making use of this parameter, the free flow region and congested flow region are naturally divided, and the transition is characterized by the capacity drop at the maximum of the flow-concentration relation. The model parameters are then adjusted to the observed traffic flow on the I-80 Freeway Dataset in the San Francisco area from the NGSIM program, where both the fundamental diagram and its variance are reasonably reproduced. Despite its simplicity, we argue that the current model provides an alternative description for the fundamental diagram and its uncertainty in the study of traffic flow.


      PubDate: 2016-03-13T17:29:07Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 85




      PubDate: 2016-03-08T16:28:41Z
       
  • Measuring reliability of transportation networks using snapshots of
           movements in the network – An analytical and empirical study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
      Author(s): David Gillen, Hamed Hasheminia
      In this paper we introduce an analytical framework based on discrete Likelihood Maximization techniques that provides estimates of operational level data of Queuing models and Transportation networks based on snapshots of data on movements of commodities in a network. We apply our methodology to detailed data on movements of containers imported from S.E. Asian ports to marine ports on the west coast of Canada, unloaded at these ports, moved to rail cars, and transported by rail to destinations in U.S. and Canada. We show how one can estimate operational level parameters such as the number of servers at the ports, schedules of departure and capacity of trains, and even speed of trains based on only snapshots of container movements in the network. Subsequently, we were able to calibrate the entire inter-continental transportation network, were able to identify the sources of variability in the network and were able to measure the reliability of the network to shocks.


      PubDate: 2016-03-08T16:28:41Z
       
  • The electric vehicle touring problem
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 86
      Author(s): Chung-Shou Liao, Shang-Hung Lu, Zuo-Jun Max Shen
      The increasing concern over global warming has led to the rapid development of the electric vehicle industry. Electric vehicles (EVs) have the potential to reduce the greenhouse effect and facilitate more efficient use of energy resources. In this paper, we study several EV route planning problems that take into consideration possible battery charging or swapping operations. Given a road network, the objective is to determine the shortest (travel time) route that a vehicle with a given battery capacity can take to travel between a pair of vertices or to visit a set of vertices with several stops, if necessary, at battery switch stations. We present polynomial time algorithms for the EV shortest travel time path problem and the fixed tour EV touring problem, where the fixed tour problem requires visiting a set of vertices in a given order. Based on the result, we also propose constant factor approximation algorithms for the EV touring problem, which is a generalization of the traveling salesman problem.


      PubDate: 2016-03-08T16:28:41Z
       
  • Miles, speed, and technology: Traffic safety under oligopolistic insurance
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 86
      Author(s): Maria Dementyeva, Erik T. Verhoef
      We study road safety when insurance companies have market power, and can influence drivers’ behavior via insurance premiums. We obtain first- and second-best premiums for different insurance market structures. The insurance program consists of an insurance premium, and marginal dependencies of that premium on speed and own safety technology choice of drivers. A private monopolist internalizes collision externalities up to the point where compensations to users’ benefit matches the full (intangible) costs; in oligopolistic markets, insurers do not fully internalize collision externalities. Analytical results demonstrate how insurance firms’ incentives to influence traffic safety coincide with or deviate from socially optimal incentives. Our results may be useful for design of pay-as-you-speed and alike insurances as well as policies related to driving safety.


      PubDate: 2016-03-08T16:28:41Z
       
  • Day-to-day dynamical model incorporating an explicit description of
           individuals’ information collection behaviour
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
      Author(s): Takamasa Iryo
      To forecast the performance of a congested transport system, it is necessary to model how transport system users adjust their day-to-day choice behaviour in an equilibration process. Although there are various ways of constructing a day-to-day dynamical model, the model should explicitly reflect the microscopic day-to-day adjustment behaviour of individual users to clarify which behavioural factors are incorporated in the model. From this point of view, existing day-to-day dynamical models seems not to contain sufficiently explicit mechanisms for the information collection behaviour. Several existing models implicitly incorporate user behaviour under imperfect information, but not in a way that can be explicitly related to the microscopic information acquisition processes of individual users. The present study proposes a continuous and deterministic day-to-day dynamical model that explicitly incorporates microscopic user behaviour about the information collection and can be handled easily in a mathematical manner. A microscopic model describing individuals’ day-to-day adjustment process is first constructed. Then, introducing the mean-field approximation and assuming the large number of users, a macroscopic model that does not contain any disaggregated variable is derived as an ordinary differential equation. Convergence towards a user equilibrium solution is globally or locally guaranteed for utility functions associated with a potential function and those of monotonically decreasing regardless of the variety of information collection behaviour considered by the proposed model. On the other hand, results of numerical examples imply that the variety of information collection behaviour affects how a system behaves in a transient status of the dynamics, including how the system oscillates when it does not converge to an equilibrium point.


      PubDate: 2016-02-26T14:50:26Z
       
  • A route-swapping dynamical system and Lyapunov function for stochastic
           user equilibrium
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 85
      Author(s): Michael J. Smith, David P. Watling
      An analysis of the continuous-time dynamics of a route-swap adjustment process is presented, which is a natural adaptation of that presented in Smith (1984) for deterministic choice problems, for a case in which drivers are assumed to make perceptual errors in their evaluations of travel cost according to a Random Utility Model. We show that stationary points of this system are stochastic user equilibria. A Lyapnuov function is developed for this system under the assumption of monotone, continuously differentiable and bounded cost-flow functions and a logit-based decision rule, establishing convergence and stability of trajectories of such a dynamical system with respect to a stochastic user equilibrium solution.


      PubDate: 2016-02-26T14:50:26Z
       
  • Ant colony optimization for the real-time train routing selection problem
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 85
      Author(s): Marcella Samà, Paola Pellegrini, Andrea D’Ariano, Joaquin Rodriguez, Dario Pacciarelli
      This paper deals with the real-time problem of scheduling and routing trains in a railway network. In the related literature, this problem is usually solved starting from a subset of routing alternatives and computing the near-optimal solution of the simplified routing problem. We study how to select the best subset of routing alternatives for each train among all possible alternatives. The real-time train routing selection problem is formulated as an integer linear programming formulation and solved via an algorithm inspired by the ant colonies’ behavior. The real-time railway traffic management problem takes as input the best subset of routing alternatives and is solved as a mixed-integer linear program. The proposed methodology is tested on two practical case studies of the French railway infrastructure: the Lille terminal station area and the Rouen line. The computational experiments are based on several practical disturbed scenarios. Our methodology allows the improvement of the state of the art in terms of the minimization of train consecutive delays. The improvement is around 22% for the Rouen instances and around 56% for the Lille instances.


      PubDate: 2016-02-26T14:50:26Z
       
  • The Downs–Thomson paradox with imperfect mode substitutes and
           alternative transit administration regimes
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 86
      Author(s): Fangni Zhang, Robin Lindsey, Hai Yang
      The Downs–Thomson paradox (D–T paradox) occurs when expansion of a congested and untolled highway undermines scale economies of a competing transit service, leaving users of both modes worse off. The standard analysis of the D–T paradox is based on several stringent assumptions: fixed total travel demand, perfect substitutability between automobile and transit trips, and no transit crowding. This paper re-examines the paradox when these assumptions are relaxed while retaining the usual assumption that there is no congestion interaction between the modes. It also broadens consideration to alternative transit administration regimes. In the standard treatment the transit operator is obliged to cover its costs. In this paper we also study two other regimes: transit profit maximization, and system-wide welfare maximization with no financing constraint. We examine how the transit system operator responds to highway capacity expansion in each regime, and how this affects welfare for drivers and transit users. We show that in all regimes the full price of transit declines only if the full price of driving falls as well. Thus, drivers are more likely to benefit from highway expansion than transit riders. The D–T paradox cannot occur in the profit maximization or unconstrained welfare maximization regimes. In the traditional self-financing regime transit service deteriorates, but the D–T paradox is not inevitable. Numerical analysis suggests that it can occur only when automobile and transit trips are nearly perfect substitutes.


      PubDate: 2016-02-20T04:36:33Z
       
  • Long-term planning for ring-radial urban rail transit networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 86
      Author(s): Saeid Saidi, S.C. Wirasinghe, Lina Kattan
      Extensive work exists on regular rail network planning. However, few studies exist on the planning and design of ring-radial rail transit systems. With more ring transit lines being planned and built in Asia, Europe and the America's, a detailed study on ring transit lines is timely. An analytical model to find the optimal number of radial lines in a city for any demand distribution is first introduced. Secondly, passenger route choice for different rail networks is analyzed, for a many-to-many Origin-Destination (OD) demand distribution, based on a total travel time cost per passenger basis. The routes considered are: (1) radial lines only; (2) ring line only or radial lines and ring line combined; or (3) direct access to a destination without using the rail system. Mathematica and Matlab are used to code the route choice model. A cost-benefit optimization model to identify the feasibility and optimality of a ring line is proposed. Unlike simulations and agent-based models, this model is shown to be easily transferable to many ring-radial transit networks. The City of Calgary is used as an example to illustrate the applicability of each model. The existing urban rail network and trip distribution are major influencing factors in judging the feasibility and optimal location of the ring line. This study shows the potential net benefit of introducing a ring line by assessing changes in passengers’ costs. The changes in passenger cost parameters, such as ride cost and access cost, are shown to greatly influence the feasibility of a ring line.


      PubDate: 2016-02-20T04:36:33Z
       
  • Physics of day-to-day network flow dynamics
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 86
      Author(s): Feng Xiao, Hai Yang, Hongbo Ye
      This paper offers a new look at the network flow dynamics from the viewpoint of physics by demonstrating that the traffic system, in terms of the aggregate effects of human behaviors, may exhibit like a physical system. Specifically, we look into the day-to-day evolution of network flows that arises from travelers’ route choices and their learning behavior on perceived travel costs. We show that the flow dynamics is analogous to a damped oscillatory system. The concepts of energies are introduced, including the potential energy and the kinetic energy. The potential energy, stored in each link, increases with the traffic flow on that link; the kinetic energy, generated by travelers’ day-to-day route swapping, is proportional to the square of the path flow changing speed. The potential and kinetic energies are converted to each other throughout the whole flow evolution, and the total system energy keeps decreasing owing to travelers’ tendency to stay on their current routes, which is analogous to the damping of a physical system. Finally, the system will approach the equilibrium state with minimum total potential energy and zero kinetic energy. We prove the stability of the day-to-day dynamics and provide numerical experiments to elucidate the interesting findings.


      PubDate: 2016-02-20T04:36:33Z
       
  • The design of capacitated intermodal hub networks with different vehicle
           types
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 86
      Author(s): Elif Zeynep Serper, Sibel A. Alumur
      In this study, we allow using alternative transportation modes and different types of vehicles in the hub networks to be designed. The aim of the problem is to determine the locations and capacities of hubs, which transportation modes to serve at hubs, allocation of non-hub nodes to hubs, and the number of vehicles of each type to operate on the hub network to route the demand between origin-destination pairs with minimum total cost. Total cost includes fixed costs of establishing hubs with different capacities, purchasing and operational costs of vehicles, transportation costs, and material handling costs. A mixed-integer programming model is developed and a variable neighborhood search algorithm is proposed for the solution of this problem. The heuristic algorithm is tested on instances from the Turkish network and CAB data set. Extensive computational analyzes are conducted in order to observe the effects of changes in various problem parameters on the resulting hub networks.


      PubDate: 2016-02-15T04:30:01Z
       
  • Robust intermodal hub location under polyhedral demand uncertainty
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 86
      Author(s): Merve Meraklı, Hande Yaman
      In this study, we consider the robust uncapacitated multiple allocation p-hub median problem under polyhedral demand uncertainty. We model the demand uncertainty in two different ways. The hose model assumes that the only available information is the upper limit on the total flow adjacent at each node, while the hybrid model additionally imposes lower and upper bounds on each pairwise demand. We propose linear mixed integer programming formulations using a minmax criteria and devise two Benders decomposition based exact solution algorithms in order to solve large-scale problems. We report the results of our computational experiments on the effect of incorporating uncertainty and on the performance of our exact approaches.


      PubDate: 2016-02-15T04:30:01Z
       
  • Should ports expand their facilities under congestion and uncertainty?
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 85
      Author(s): Hsiao-Chi Chen, Shi-Miin Liu
      This paper investigates simultaneous facility investments of risk-averse ports under congestion and uncertain market demand. We set up a two-period game, allowing two ports first choose their facility investment levels, and then decide their cargo-handling amounts and service prices. When investment costs of the two ports are large, the unique equilibrium is no investment. If investment costs of at least one port are small, then one or two ports will invest at equilibria. If both ports invest at equilibrium, they may become worse off than at non-equilibrium of no investment. This means that the ports may face a tradeoff between stability and efficiency. Moreover, we compare the behaviors of risk-averse and risk-neutral ports, as well as risk-averse ports’ behaviors under uncertainty and no-uncertainty. It is found that ports’ risk-averse degrees are the major factor determining their behaviors in different scenarios.


      PubDate: 2016-02-11T08:16:05Z
       
  • Collaborative truck scheduling and appointments for trucking companies and
           container terminals
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 86
      Author(s): Mai-Ha Phan, Kap Hwan Kim
      Appointment systems for truck arrivals at container terminals have been applied in many ports to reduce truck congestion. This study suggests a new appointment process by which trucking companies and terminals collaboratively determine truck operation schedules and truck arrival appointments. This study formulates a mathematical model involving a sub-problem for each trucking company to determine the optimal dispatching schedules for trucks and the other sub-problem for the terminal to estimate the expected truck system time in each time interval. An iterative collaboration process is proposed based on a decomposed mathematical formulation. Numerical experiments are conducted to investigate the performance of the decision process and the robustness of the process in practical operation conditions.


      PubDate: 2016-02-11T08:16:05Z
       
  • Transportation service procurement problem with transit time
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 86
      Author(s): Qian Hu, Zhenzhen Zhang, Andrew Lim
      In this work, we investigate transit time in transportation service procurement, which is conducted by shippers using auctions to purchase transportation service from carriers in the planning stage. Besides cost, we find that many shippers are most concerned with transit time in practice; shorter transit time indicates better transportation service. To minimize both the total cost and transit time, the problem faced by shippers is the biobjective transportation service procurement problem with transit time. To solve the problem, we introduce a biobjective integer programming model that can also accommodate some important business constraints. A biobjective branch-and-bound algorithm that finds all extreme supported nondominated solutions is developed. To speed up the algorithm, two fast feasibility checks, a network flow model for particular subproblems, and lower bounds from relaxation are proposed. In addition, a sophisticated heuristic is introduced to meet shipper’s requirements in some situations. Computational experiments on evaluating the performance of the algorithms are conducted on a set of test instances that are generated from practical data.


      PubDate: 2016-02-11T08:16:05Z
       
  • Boundedly rational route choice behavior: A review of models and
           methodologies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
      Author(s): Xuan Di, Henry X. Liu
      Perfect rationality (PR) has been widely used in modeling travel behavior. As opposed to PR, bounded rationality (BR) has recently regained researchers’ attention since it was first introduced into transportation science in the 1980s due to its power in more realistic travel behavior modeling and prediction. This paper provides a comprehensive survey on the models of BR route choice behavior, aiming to identify current research gaps and provide directions for future research. Despite a small but growing body of studies on employing bounded rationality principle, BR route choice behavior remains understudied due to the following reasons: (a) The existence of BR thresholds leads to mathematically intractable properties of equilibria; (b) BR parameters are usually latent and difficult to identify and estimate; and (c) BR is associated with human being’s cognitive process and is challenging to model. Accordingly, we will review how existing literature addresses the aforementioned challenges in substantive and procedural bounded rationality models. Substantive bounded rationality models focus on choice outcomes while procedural bounded rationality models focus on the empirical studies of choice processes. Bounded rationality models in each category can be further divided based on whether time dimension is included. Accordingly, static and dynamic traffic assignment are introduced in substantive bounded rationality while two-stage cognitive models and day-to-day learning models in procedural bounded rationality are discussed. The methodologies employed in substantive bounded rationality include game theory and interactive congestion game, while those in procedural bounded rationality mainly adopt random utility and non- or semi-compensatory models. A comparison of all existing methodologies are given and bounded rationality models’ scope and boundaries in terms of predictability, transferability, tractability, and scalability are discussed. Finally existing research gaps are presented and several promising future research directions are given.


      PubDate: 2016-02-11T08:16:05Z
       
  • Information metrics for improved traffic model fidelity through
           sensitivity analysis and data assimilation
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 86
      Author(s): A. Sopasakis, M.A. Katsoulakis
      We develop theoretical and computational tools which can appraise traffic flow models and optimize their performance against current time-series traffic data and prevailing conditions. The proposed methodology perturbs the parameter space and undertakes path-wise analysis of the resulting time series. Most importantly the approach is valid even under non-equilibrium conditions and is based on procuring path-space (time-series) information. More generally we propose a mathematical methodology which quantifies traffic information loss. In particular the method undertakes sensitivity analysis on available traffic data and optimizes the traffic flow model based on two information theoretic tools which we develop. One of them, the relative entropy rate, can adjust and optimize model parameter values in order to reduce the information loss. More precisely, we use the relative entropy rate as an information metric between time-series data and parameterized stochastic dynamics describing a microscopic traffic model. On the other hand, the path-space Fisher Information Matrix, (pFIM) reduces model complexity and can even be used to control fidelity. This is achieved by eliminating unimportant model parameters or their combinations. This results in easier regression of parametric models with a smaller number of parameters. The method reconstructs the Markov Chain and emulates the traffic dynamics through Monte Carlo simulations. We use the microscopic interaction model from Sopasakis and Katsoulakis (2006) as a representative traffic flow model to illustrate this parameterization methodology. During the comparisons we use both synthetic and real, rush-hour, traffic data from highway US-101 in Los Angeles, California.


      PubDate: 2016-02-11T08:16:05Z
       
  • Disruption risk management in railroad networks: An optimization-based
           methodology and a case study
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 85
      Author(s): Nader Azad, Elkafi Hassini, Manish Verma
      We propose an optimization-based methodology for recovery from random disruptions in service legs and train services in a railroad network. A network optimization model is solved for each service leg to evaluate a number of what-if scenarios. The solutions of these optimization problems are then used in a predictive model to identify the critical disruption factors and accordingly design a suitable mitigation strategy. A mitigation strategy, such as adding flexible or redundant capacity in the network, is an action that is deliberately taken by management in order to hedge against the cost and impact of disruption if it occurs. It is important that managers consider the trade-offs between the cost of mitigation strategy and the expected cost of disruption. The proposed methodology is applied to a case study built using the realistic infrastructure of a railroad network in the mid-west United States. The resulting analysis underscores the importance of accepting a slight increase in pre-disruption transportation costs, which in turn will enhance network resiliency by building dis-similar paths for train services, and by installing alternative links around critical service legs.


      PubDate: 2016-01-24T08:41:50Z
       
  • Optimal choice of capacity, toll and government guarantee for
           build-operate-transfer roads under asymmetric cost information
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 85
      Author(s): Shasha Shi, Yafeng Yin, Xiaolei Guo
      The private provision of public roads via the build-operate-transfer (BOT) mode has been increasingly used around the world. By viewing a BOT contract as a combination of road capacity, toll and government guarantee, this paper investigates optimal concession contract design under both symmetric and asymmetric information about the marginal maintenance cost of private investors. Under asymmetric information, the government guarantee serves as an instrument to induce a private investor to reveal his true cost information. Compared with the situation under symmetric information, the government will suffer a loss of social welfare; the private investor will charge a higher toll that increases in his reported marginal maintenance cost, and specify a lower capacity that decreases with the reported cost. The results also show that the private investor obtains extra information rent beyond the reservation level of return and the rent decreases with his reported cost. However, the resulting volume-capacity ratios of the BOT road under both information structures are the same.


      PubDate: 2016-01-24T08:41:50Z
       
  • Pricing and competition in a shipping market with waste shipments and
           empty container repositioning
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 85
      Author(s): Rongying Chen, Jing-Xin Dong, Chung-Yee Lee
      In this paper, we study a shipping market with carriers providing services between two locations. Shipments are classified into two categories: goods and waste. Trade imbalance allows low-valued waste to be shipped at bargain rates. If imbalance persists, empty containers must be repositioned from a surplus location to a shortage location. Carriers decide prices, which will affect the demand. We build a monopoly and a duopoly model to find the optimal pricing strategy for carriers. We also analyze how the profit of a carrier is affected by price sensitivity, cost structure and competition intensity.


      PubDate: 2016-01-24T08:41:50Z
       
  • A probabilistic model for vehicle scheduling based on stochastic trip
           times
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 85
      Author(s): Yindong Shen, Jia Xu, Jingpeng Li
      Vehicle scheduling plays a profound role in public transit planning. Traditional approaches for the Vehicle Scheduling Problem (VSP) are based on a set of predetermined trips in a given timetable. Each trip contains a departure point/time and an arrival point/time whilst the trip time (i.e. the time duration of a trip) is fixed. Based on fixed durations, the resulting schedule is hard to comply with in practice due to the variability of traffic and driving conditions. To enhance the robustness of the schedule to be compiled, the VSP based on stochastic trip times instead of fixed ones is studied. The trip times follow the probability distributions obtained from the data captured by Automatic Vehicle Locating (AVL) systems. A network flow model featuring the stochastic trips is devised to better represent this problem, meanwhile the compatibility of any pair of trips is redefined based on trip time distributions instead of fixed values as traditionally done. A novel probabilistic model of the VSP is proposed with the objectives of minimizing the total cost and maximizing the on-time performance. Experiments show that the probabilistic model may lead to more robust schedules without increasing fleet size.


      PubDate: 2016-01-20T08:40:27Z
       
  • Continuum modelling of spatial and dynamic equilibrium in a travel
           corridor with heterogeneous commuters—A partial differential
           complementarity system approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 85
      Author(s): David Z.W. Wang, Bo Du
      This paper studies on modelling and solving spatial and dynamic equilibrium travel pattern in a travel corridor. Consider a travel corridor connecting continuously distributed commuters to the city centre. The traffic is subject to flow congestion and the commuter heterogeneity is captured. The traffic flow dynamics is described by flow continuity equation and the equilibrium travel pattern is assumed to follow trip-timing condition. The continuous spatial and dynamic equilibrium travel pattern is formulated into a partial differential complementarity system, which is then solved through Godunov scheme. The proof of solution existence is provided, and a set of numerical experiments are demonstrated.


      PubDate: 2016-01-15T06:42:07Z
       
 
 
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