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  Subjects -> TRANSPORTATION (Total: 154 journals)
    - AIR TRANSPORT (7 journals)
    - AUTOMOBILES (20 journals)
    - RAILROADS (4 journals)
    - ROADS AND TRAFFIC (4 journals)
    - SHIPS AND SHIPPING (26 journals)
    - TRANSPORTATION (93 journals)

TRANSPORTATION (93 journals)

Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 33)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bitácora Urbano-Territorial     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Economics of Transportation     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
EURO Journal of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
European Transport Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IATSS Research     Open Access  
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
IET Intelligent Transport Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Innovation – Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Applied Logistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Electronic Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Micro-Nano Scale Transport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Mobile Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Ocean Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Services Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Modern Transportation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Sustainable Mobility     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Transportation Research Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Transport & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Transport Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Transport History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Transport Literature     Open Access  
Journal of Transportation Safety & Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Transportation Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Transportation Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Waterway Port Coastal and Ocean Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Les Dossiers du Grihl     Open Access  
Logistique & Management     Full-text available via subscription  
Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mobility in History     Full-text available via subscription  
Modern Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Pervasive and Mobile Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
PS: Political Science & Politics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Public Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Recherche Transports Sécurité     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Revista Transporte y Territorio     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SourceOCDE Transports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Streetnotes     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Synthesis Lectures on Mobile and Pervasive Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tire Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Transactions on Transport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Transport and Telecommunication Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Transport in Porous Media     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transport Reviews: A Transnational Transdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription  
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Transportation Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Transportation Research Part B: Methodological     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Transportation Research Record : Journal of the Transportation Research Board     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Transportation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
TRANSPORTES     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transportmetrica B : Transport Dynamics     Hybrid Journal  
Travel Behaviour and Society     Full-text available via subscription  
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Urban, Planning and Transport Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Vehicular Communications     Full-text available via subscription  
World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Транспортні системи та технології перевезень     Open Access  
Journal Cover   Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
  [SJR: 3.306]   [H-I: 70]   [26 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0191-2615
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2586 journals]
  • A nested recursive logit model for route choice analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 75
      Author(s): Tien Mai , Mogens Fosgerau , Emma Frejinger
      We propose a route choice model that relaxes the independence from irrelevant alternatives property of the logit model by allowing scale parameters to be link specific. Similar to the recursive logit (RL) model proposed by Fosgerau et al. (2013), the choice of path is modeled as a sequence of link choices and the model does not require any sampling of choice sets. Furthermore, the model can be consistently estimated and efficiently used for prediction. A key challenge lies in the computation of the value functions, i.e. the expected maximum utility from any position in the network to a destination. The value functions are the solution to a system of non-linear equations. We propose an iterative method with dynamic accuracy that allows to efficiently solve these systems. We report estimation results and a cross-validation study for a real network. The results show that the NRL model yields sensible parameter estimates and the fit is significantly better than the RL model. Moreover, the NRL model outperforms the RL model in terms of prediction.


      PubDate: 2015-04-12T15:09:52Z
       
  • Impact of stop-and-go waves and lane changes on discharge rate in recovery
           flow
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 77
      Author(s): Simon Oh , Hwasoo Yeo
      In an effort to uncover traffic conditions that trigger discharge rate reductions near active bottlenecks, this paper analyzed individual vehicle trajectories at a microscopic level and documented the findings. Based on an investigation of traffic flow involving diverse traffic situations, a driver’s tendency to take a significant headway after passing stop-and-go waves was identified as one of the influencing factors for discharge rate reduction. Conversely, the pattern of lane changers caused a transient increase in the discharge rate until the situation was relaxed after completing the lane-changing event. Although we observed a high flow from the incoming lane changers, the events ultimately caused adverse impacts on the traffic such that the disturbances generated stop-and-go waves. Based on this observation, we regard upstream lane changes and stop-and-go waves as the responsible factors for the decreased capacity at downstream of active bottlenecks. This empirical investigation also supports the resignation effect, the regressive effect, and the asymmetric behavioral models in differentiating acceleration and deceleration behaviors.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-04-12T15:09:52Z
       
  • Point queue models: A unified approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 77
      Author(s): Wen-Long Jin
      In transportation and other types of facilities, various queues arise when the demands of service are higher than the supplies, and many point and fluid queue models have been proposed to study such queueing systems. However, there has been no unified approach to deriving such models, analyzing their relationships and properties, and extending them for networks. In this paper, we derive point queue models as limits of two link-based queueing model: the link transmission model and a link queue model. With two definitions for demand and supply of a point queue, we present four point queue models, four approximate models, and their discrete versions. We discuss the properties of these models, including equivalence, well-definedness, smoothness, and queue spillback, both analytically and with numerical examples. We then analytically solve Vickrey’s point queue model and stationary states in various models. We demonstrate that all existing point and fluid queue models in the literature are special cases of those derived from the link-based queueing models. Such a unified approach leads to systematic methods for studying the queueing process at a point facility and will also be helpful for studies on stochastic queues as well as networks of queues.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Mathematical programming formulations for transit network design
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 77
      Author(s): Héctor Cancela , Antonio Mauttone , María E. Urquhart
      In this work, we study the transit network design problem from the perspective of mathematical programming. More precisely, we consider the problem of defining the number and itinerary of bus routes and their frequencies, for a public transportation system. In this problem, the routes should be defined in terms of a given infrastructure of streets and stops and should cover a given origin–destination demand. The solution (routes and frequencies) should be convenient for the users and the operators. We review existing mathematical programming formulations and propose a new one, paying attention to the following aspects of public transportation systems, that are identified as key elements in order to have a realistic model: (a) the interest of the users, (b) the interest of the operators, (c) the behavior of the users, and (d) constraints regarding transfer, infrastructure and bus capacity. First, we discuss the formulations existing on the literature, in terms of the aspects mentioned above. Second, we propose a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulation, that incorporates the waiting time and the existence of multiple lines in the behavior of the users. We validate the proposed formulation using several cases, including a real one. Also, we compare the obtained results against results from the existing literature. In order to include transfer, infrastructure and bus capacity constraints, we propose an extension to the formulation and we discuss its impact in the structure of the model, based on concepts of bi-level mathematical programming. The mathematical formulations developed contribute towards a more realistic modeling effort, taking into account important aspects of the real system which were not included in previous proposals in the literature.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Planning, operation, and control of bus transport systems: A literature
           review
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 77
      Author(s): O.J. Ibarra-Rojas , F. Delgado , R. Giesen , J.C. Muñoz
      The efficiency of a transport system depends on several elements, such as available technology, governmental policies, the planning process, and control strategies. Indeed, the interaction between these elements is quite complex, leading to intractable decision making problems. The planning process and real-time control strategies have been widely studied in recent years, and there are several practical implementations with promising results. In this paper, we review the literature on Transit Network Planning problems and real-time control strategies suitable to bus transport systems. Our goal is to present a comprehensive review, emphasizing recent studies as well as works not addressed in previous reviews.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • A general approach for controlling vehicle en-route diversions in dynamic
           vehicle routing problems
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 77
      Author(s): Francesco Ferrucci , Stefan Bock
      Previous research has shown that vehicle en-route diversion can improve the efficiency of dynamic vehicle routing processes. However, an uncontrolled utilization of en-route diversions may increase demands on drivers and cause distraction. This is likely to result in more accidents or reduced productivity which generates additional costs. Since the benefits to the solution quality make a prohibition of en-route diversions unattractive, we propose a general penalty cost based approach for controlling diversions. In contrast to known approaches that allow all diversions, the proposed approach also considers negative application-dependent consequences of diversions on drivers. The approach limits diversions to those which improve the solution quality above a customizable and application-dependent threshold that estimates their negative consequences. We evaluate the proposed general approach by applying it on an exemplary basis to recent deterministic and pro-active real-time routing approaches. Computational experiments show the impact of different penalty cost values on the resulting number of diversions as well as on the attained solution quality. Based on these results, we derive reasonable application-dependent penalty cost values for considering both the contradicting aims of quick request delivery and reducing diversions to a desired extent.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Inference on mode preferences, vehicle purchases, and the energy paradox
           using a Bayesian structural choice model
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 76
      Author(s): Ricardo A. Daziano
      Discrete choice modeling is experiencing a reemergence of research interest in the inclusion of latent variables as explanatory variables of consumer behavior. There are several reasons that motivate the integration of latent attributes, including better-informed modeling of random consumer heterogeneity and treatment of endogeneity. However, current work still is at an early stage and multiple simplifying assumptions are usually imposed. For instance, most previous applications assume all of the following: independence of taste shocks and of latent attributes, exclusion restrictions, linearity of the effect of the latent attributes on the utility function, continuous manifest variables, and an a priori bound for the number of latent constructs. We derive and apply a structural choice model with a multinomial probit kernel and discrete effect indicators to analyze continuous latent segments of travel behavior, including inference on the energy paradox. Our estimator allows for interaction and simultaneity among the latent attributes, residual correlation, nonlinear effects on the utility function, flexible substitution patterns, and temporal correlation within responses of the same individual. Statistical properties of the Bayes estimator that we propose are exact and are not affected by the number of latent attributes.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Nonlinear multivariate time–space threshold vector error correction
           model for short term traffic state prediction
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 76
      Author(s): Tao Ma , Zhou Zhou , Baher Abdulhai
      We propose Time–Space Threshold Vector Error Correction (TS-TVEC) model for short term (hourly) traffic state prediction. The theory and method of cointegration with error correction mechanism is employed in the general design of the new statistical model TS-TVEC. An inherent connection between mathematical form of error correction model and traffic flow theory is revealed through the transformation of the well-known Fundamental Traffic Diagrams. A threshold regime switching framework is implemented to overcome any unknown structural changes in traffic time series. Spatial cross correlated information is incorporated with a piecewise linear vector error correction model. A Neural Network model is also constructed in parallel to comparatively test the effectiveness and robustness of the new statistical model. Our empirical study shows that the TS-TVEC model is an effective tool that is capable of modeling the complexity of stochastic traffic flow processes and potentially applicable to real time traffic state prediction.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • The economic speed of an oceangoing vessel in a dynamic setting
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 76
      Author(s): Evangelos F. Magirou , Harilaos N. Psaraftis , Theodore Bouritas
      The optimal (economic) speed of oceangoing vessels has become of increased importance due to the combined effect of low freight rates and volatile bunker prices. We examine the problem for vessels operating in the spot market in a tramp mode. In the case of known freight rates between origin destination combinations, a dynamic programming formulation can be applied to determine both the optimal speed and the optimal voyage sequence. Analogous results are derived for random freight rates of known distributions. In the case of independent rates the economic speed depends on fuel price and the expected freight rate, but is independent of the revenue of the particular voyage. For freight rates that depend on a state of the market Markovian random variable, economic speed depends on the market state as well, with increased speed corresponding to good states of the market. The dynamic programming equations in our models differ from those of Markovian decision processes so we develop modifications of standard solution methods, and apply them to small examples.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • A rolling horizon algorithm for auto-carrier transportation
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 76
      Author(s): Jean-François Cordeau , Mauro Dell’Amico , Simone Falavigna , Manuel Iori
      This paper introduces a rolling horizon algorithm to plan the delivery of vehicles to automotive dealers by a heterogeneous fleet of auto-carriers. The problem consists in scheduling the deliveries over a multiple-day planning horizon during which requests for transportation arrive dynamically. In addition, the routing of the auto-carriers must take into account constraints related to the loading of the vehicles on the carriers. The objective is to minimize the sum of traveled distances, fixed costs for auto-carrier operation, service costs, and penalties for late deliveries. The problem is solved by a heuristic that first selects the vehicles to be delivered in the next few days and then optimizes the deliveries by an iterated local search procedure. A branch-and-bound search is used to check the feasibility of the loading. To handle the dynamic nature of the problem, the complete algorithm is applied repeatedly in a rolling horizon framework. Computational results on data from a major European logistics service provider show that the heuristic is fast and yields significant improvements compared to the sequential solution of independent daily problems.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Repeatability & reproducibility: Implications of using GPS data
           for freight activity chains
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 76
      Author(s): Johan W. Joubert , Sumarie Meintjes
      As transport modellers we are interested in capturing the behaviour of freight vehicles that includes the locations at which vehicles perform their activities, the duration of activities, how often these locations are visited, and the sequence in which they are visited. With disaggregated freight behaviour data being scarce, transport modellers have identified vehicle tracking and fleet management companies as ideal third party sources for GPS travel data. GPS data does not provide us with behavioural information, but allows us to infer and extract behavioural knowledge using a variety of processing techniques. Many researchers remain sceptical as specific human intervention, referred to as ‘expert knowledge’, is often required during the processing phase: each GPS data set has unique characteristics and requires unique processing techniques and validation to extract the necessary behavioural information. Although much of the GPS data processing is automated through algorithms, human scrutiny is required to decide what algorithmic parameters as considered ‘best’, or at least ‘good’. In this paper we investigate the repeatability and reproducibility (R&R) of a method that entails variable human intervention in processing GPS data. More specifically, the judgement made by an observer with domain expertise on what clustering parameters applied to GPS data best identify the facilities where commercial vehicles perform their activities. By studying repeatability we want to answer the question ‘if the same expert analyses the GPS data more than once, how similar are the outcomes?’, and with reproducibility we want to answer the question ‘if different experts analyse the same GPS data, how similar are their outcomes?’ We follow two approaches to quantify the R&R and conclude in both cases that the measurement system is accurate. The use of GPS data and the associated expert judgements can hence be applied with confidence in freight transport models.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Train scheduling for minimizing passenger waiting time with time-dependent
           demand and skip-stop patterns: Nonlinear integer programming models with
           linear constraints
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 76
      Author(s): Huimin Niu , Xuesong Zhou , Ruhu Gao
      This paper focuses on how to minimize the total passenger waiting time at stations by computing and adjusting train timetables for a rail corridor with given time-varying origin-to-destination passenger demand matrices. Given predetermined train skip-stop patterns, a unified quadratic integer programming model with linear constraints is developed to jointly synchronize effective passenger loading time windows and train arrival and departure times at each station. A set of quadratic and quasi-quadratic objective functions are proposed to precisely formulate the total waiting time under both minute-dependent demand and hour-dependent demand volumes from different origin–destination pairs. We construct mathematically rigorous and algorithmically tractable nonlinear mixed integer programming models for both real-time scheduling and medium-term planning applications. The proposed models are implemented using general purpose high-level optimization solvers, and the model effectiveness is further examined through numerical experiments of real-world rail train timetabling test cases.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Systematic bias in transport model calibration arising from the
           variability of linear data projection
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 75
      Author(s): Wai Wong , S.C. Wong
      In transportation and traffic planning studies, accurate traffic data are required for reliable model calibration to accurately predict transportation system performance and ensure better traffic planning. However, it is impractical to gather data from an entire population for such estimations because the widely used loop detectors and other more advanced wireless sensors may be limited by various factors. Thus, making data inferences based on smaller populations is generally inevitable. Linear data projection is a commonly and intuitively adopted method for inferring population traffic characteristics. It projects a sample of observable traffic quantities such as traffic count based on a set of scaling factors. However, scaling factors are subject to different types of variability such as spatial variability. Models calibrated based on linearly projected data that do not account for variability may introduce a systematic bias into their parameters. Such a bias is surprisingly often ignored. This paper reveals the existence of a systematic bias in model calibration caused by variability in the linear data projection. A generalized multivariate polynomial model is applied to examine the effect of this variability on model parameters. Adjustment factors are derived and methods are proposed for detecting and removing the embedded systematic bias. A simulation is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. To illustrate the applicability of the method, case studies are conducted using real-world global positioning system data obtained from taxis. These data calibrate the Macroscopic Bureau of Public Road function for six 1×1km regions in Hong Kong.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • A simple algorithm for the estimation of road traffic space mean speeds
           from data available to most management centres
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 75
      Author(s): Margarita Martínez-Díaz , Ignacio Pérez
      The control of the evolution of road traffic streams is highly related to productivity, safety, sustainability and, even, comfort. Although, nowadays, the findings from research efforts and the development of new technologies enable accurate traffic forecasts in almost any conditions, these calculations are usually limited by the data and the equipment available. Most traffic management centres depend on the data provided, at best, by double-loop detectors. These loops supply time means over different aggregation periods, which are indiscriminately used as the bases for subsequent estimations. Since space mean speeds are those needed in most applications (note the fundamental relationship between flow and density in traffic flow theory), most current practice begins with an error. This paper introduces a simple algorithm that the allows estimation of space mean speeds from the data provided by the loops without the need for any additional financial outlay, as long as the traffic in each time interval of aggregation is stationary and its speed distribution is log-normal. Specifically, it is focused on the calculation of the variance of the speeds with regard to the time mean, thus making possible to use the relationship between time mean speeds and space mean speeds defined by Rakha (2005). The results obtained with real data show that the algorithm behaves well if the calculation conditions help fulfil the initial hypotheses. The primary difficulties arise with transient traffic and, in this case, other specific methodologies should be used. Data fusion seems promising in this regard. Nevertheless, it cannot be denied that the improvement provided by the algorithm turns out to be highly beneficial both when used alone in the case of stationarity or as a part of a fusion.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • An anisotropic continuum model considering bi-directional information
           impact
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 75
      Author(s): Liang Zheng , Peter J. Jin , Helai Huang
      In traffic flow with naturalistic driving only, stimulus information pre-dominantly comes from the preceding vehicles with drivers occasionally responding to the following vehicles through the inspection of rear-view mirrors. Such one-sided information propagation may potentially be altered in future connected vehicle environment. This brings new motivations of modeling vehicle dynamics under bi-directional information propagation. In this study, stemming from microscopic bi-directional car-following models, a continuum traffic flow model is put forward that incorporates the bi-directional information impact macroscopically but can still preserve the anisotropic characteristics of traffic flow and avoid non-physical phenomenon such as wrong-way travels. We then analyze the properties of the continuum model and respectively illustrate the condition that guarantees the anisotropy, eradicates the negative travel speed, preserves the traveling waves and keeps the linear stability. Through a series of numerical experiments, it is concluded that (1) under the bi-directional looking context only when the backward weight ratio belongs to an appropriate range then the anisotropic property can be maintained; (2) forward-propagating traffic density waves and standing waves emerge with the increasing consideration ratio for backward information; (3) the more aggressive driving behaviors for the forward direction can delay the backward-propagating and speed up the forward-propagating of traffic density waves; (4) positive holding effect and negative pushing effect of backward looking can also be observed under different backward weight ratios; and (5) traffic flow stability varies with different proportion of backward traffic information contribution and such stability impact is sensitive to the initial traffic density condition. This proposed continuum model may contribute to future development of traffic control and coordination in future connected vehicle environment.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • The split-demand one-commodity pickup-and-delivery travelling salesman
           problem
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 75
      Author(s): Juan-José Salazar-González , Beatriz Santos-Hernández
      This paper introduces a new vehicle routing problem transferring one commodity between customers with a capacitated vehicle that can visit a customer more than once, although a maximum number of visits must be respected. It generalizes the capacitated vehicle routing problem with split demands and some other variants recently addressed in the literature. We model the problem with a single commodity flow formulation and design a branch-and-cut approach to solve it. We make use of Benders Decomposition to project out the flow variables from the formulation. Inequalities to strengthen the linear programming relaxation are also presented and separated within the approach. Extensive computational results illustrate the performance of the approach on benchmark instances from the literature.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Optimal layout of transshipment facility locations on an infinite
           homogeneous plane
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 75
      Author(s): Weijun Xie , Yanfeng Ouyang
      This paper studies optimal spatial layout of transshipment facilities and the corresponding service regions on an infinite homogeneous plane R 2 that minimize the total cost for facility set-up, outbound delivery and inbound replenishment transportation. The problem has strong implications in the context of freight logistics and transit system design. This paper first focuses on a Euclidean plane and shows that a tight upper bound can be achieved by a type of elongated cyclic hexagons, while a cost lower bound based on relaxation and idealization is also obtained. The gap between the analytical upper and lower bounds is within 0.3%. This paper then shows that a similar elongated non-cyclic hexagon shape, with proper orientation, is actually optimal for service regions on a rectilinear metric plane. Numerical experiments are conducted to verify the analytical findings and to draw further insights.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Distance-dependent congestion pricing for downtown zones
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 75
      Author(s): Carlos F. Daganzo , Lewis J. Lehe
      A growing literature exploits macroscopic theories of traffic to model congestion pricing policies in downtown zones. This study introduces trip length heterogeneity into this analysis and proposes a usage-based, time-varying congestion toll that alleviates congestion while prioritizing shorter trips. Unlike conventional trip-based tolls the scheme is intended to align the fees paid by drivers with the actual congestion damage they do, and to increase the toll’s benefits as a result. The scheme is intended to maximize the number of people that finish their trips close to their desired times. The usage-based toll is compared to a traditional, trip-based toll which neglects trip length. It is found that, like trip-based tolls, properly designed usage-based tolls alleviate congestion. But they reduce schedule delay more than trip-based tolls and do so with much smaller user fees. As a result usage-based tolls leave most of those who pay with a large welfare gain. This may increase the tolls’ political acceptability.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Dynamic ridesharing: Is there a role for dedicated drivers?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
      Author(s): Alan Lee , Martin Savelsbergh
      Growing congestion is a problem faced by cities around the world. Traditional solutions considered include new capital works to increase network capacity and expanding public transport offerings to make public transport more attractive. Dynamic ridesharing is a recent alternative in which people with similar travel plans are matched and travel together. Dynamic ridesharing requires no new network infrastructure and offers more convenience than public transport. The (long-term) success of ridesharing schemes, however, depends on their ability to attract a large number of users. We investigate the benefits, complexities, and costs of employing a small number of dedicated drivers to serve riders who would otherwise remain unmatched. An extensive computational study demonstrates the potential benefits of dedicated drivers and identifies environments in which dedicated drivers are most useful.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 74




      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Dynamics of heterogeneity in urban networks: aggregated traffic modeling
           and hierarchical control
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 74
      Author(s): Mohsen Ramezani , Jack Haddad , Nikolas Geroliminis
      Real traffic data and simulation analysis reveal that for some urban networks a well-defined Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram (MFD) exists, which provides a unimodal and low-scatter relationship between the network vehicle density and outflow. Recent studies demonstrate that link density heterogeneity plays a significant role in the shape and scatter level of MFD and can cause hysteresis loops that influence the network performance. Evidently, a more homogeneous network in terms of link density can result in higher network outflow, which implies a network performance improvement. In this article, we introduce two aggregated models, region- and subregion-based MFDs, to study the dynamics of heterogeneity and how they can affect the accuracy scatter and hysteresis of a multi-subregion MFD model. We also introduce a hierarchical perimeter flow control problem by integrating the MFD heterogeneous modeling. The perimeter flow controllers operate on the border between urban regions, and manipulate the percentages of flows that transfer between the regions such that the network delay is minimized and the distribution of congestion is more homogeneous. The first level of the hierarchical control problem can be solved by a model predictive control approach, where the prediction model is the aggregated parsimonious region-based MFD and the plant (reality) is formulated by the subregion-based MFDs, which is a more detailed model. At the lower level, a feedback controller of the hierarchical structure, tries to maximize the outflow of critical regions, by increasing their homogeneity. With inputs that can be observed with existing monitoring techniques and without the need for detailed traffic state information, the proposed framework succeeds to increase network flows and decrease the hysteresis loop of the MFD. Comparison with existing perimeter controllers without considering the more advanced heterogeneity modeling of MFD highlights the importance of such approach for traffic modeling and control.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • A family of macroscopic node models
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 74
      Author(s): Erik-Sander Smits , Michiel C.J. Bliemer , Adam J. Pel , Bart van Arem
      The family of macroscopic node models which comply to a set of basic requirements is presented and analysed. Such models are required in macro-, mesoscopic traffic flow models, including dynamic network loading models for dynamic traffic assignment. Based on the behaviour of drivers approaching and passing through intersections, the model family is presented. The headway and the turn delay of vehicles are key variables. Having demand and supply as input creates a natural connection to macroscopic link models. Properties like the invariance principle and the conservation of turning fractions are satisfied. The inherent non-uniqueness is analysed by providing the complete set of feasible solutions. The node models proposed by Tampère et al. (2011), Flötteröd and Rohde (2011) and Gibb (2011) are members of the family. Furthermore, two new models are added to the family. Solution methods for all family members are presented, as well as a qualitative and quantitative comparison. Finally, an outlook for the future development of empirically verified models is given.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Optimization of bus stop placement for routes on uneven topography
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 74
      Author(s): Avishai (Avi) Ceder , Matthew Butcher , Lingli Wang
      The improvement and expansion of public transport is an increasingly important solution to the high congestion costs and worsening environmental impacts of the car dominated transport systems seen in many cities today. The intelligent design of stop locations is one way to improve the quality of PT and thereby improve its ridership. Stop placement is a relatively complex task as it involves a trade-off between two competing goals; accessibility and operation; however this trade-off can be made explicit using an appropriate mathematical model. Many such models have been developed in the literature, however none consider the effects of uneven topography. Topography is an important but often neglected factor in the design of public transportation systems, with the potential to have a significant impact on the accessibility, operation and planning of a transit service. In this work a mathematical modelling approach to bus stop placement is developed which includes considerations of uneven topography in three ways; (1) Its effect on walking speed; (2) Its impact on the attractiveness of an access path to a transit service; and (3) Its effect on acceleration rates at stops. Because of the complexity of the model developed, a heuristic evolutionary algorithm’ is employed to approximate an optimal solution to the model. Finally, the model and solution method are applied to a case study in the Auckland CBD area in New Zealand.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Optimal housing supply in a bid-rent equilibrium framework
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 74
      Author(s): Ka Fai Ng , Hong K. Lo
      In this study, we examine how the spatial distribution of housing supply impacts people’s residential choices and developers’ profitability. By optimally providing housing supply in a region, developers attempt to maximize their profits; on the other hand, if residents were given a chance to decide on housing supply, what patterns of housing supply they would prefer in order to maximize their consumer surpluses. This paper studies the interplay between these two perspectives. A nested multinomial-logit choice structure that encapsulates the bid-rent process is used to capture residents’ location and travel choices simultaneously, and the resultant rents at different locations. To investigate the optimal housing supply for these two stakeholders, we conduct sensitivity analyzes to explore the impact of different housing supply patterns on total rental profit and total consumer surplus. Specifically, analytical results are derived for a simple linear network with two residential locations and one destination under homogeneous and heterogeneous value(s) of time. The results of the sensitivity analyzes indicate that segregation of housing supplies at different locations for different income classes is, surprisingly, a “preferred” outcome by residents under consumer surplus maximization, whereas creating housing supply shortages at convenient locations is a natural outcome under housing profit maximization. These results provide insights on revealing the differences and tradeoffs in performance between these two different perspectives, and on where land use regulations may be needed to balance these two objectives.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Container vessel fleet deployment for liner shipping with stochastic
           dependencies in shipping demand
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 74
      Author(s): ManWo Ng
      The problem of optimal container vessels deployment is one of great significance for the liner shipping industry. Although the pioneering work on this problem dates back to the early 1990s, only until recently have researchers started to acknowledge and account for the significant amount of uncertainty present in shipping demand in real world container shipping. In this paper, new analytical results are presented to further relax the input requirements for this problem. Specifically, only the mean and variance of the maximum shipping demand are required to be known. An optional symmetry assumption is shown to further reduce the feasible region and deployment cost for typical confidence levels. Moreover, unlike previous work that tends to ignore stochastic dependencies between the shipping demands on the various routes (that are known to exist in the real world), our models account for such dependencies in the most general setting to date. A salient feature of our modeling approach is that the exact dependence structure does not need to be specified, something that is hard, if not simply impossible, to determine in practice. A numerical case study is provided to illustrate the proposed models.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Continuous formulations and analytical properties of the link transmission
           model
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 74
      Author(s): Wen-Long Jin
      The link transmission model (LTM) has great potential for simulating traffic flow in large-scale networks since it is much more efficient and accurate than the Cell Transmission Model (CTM). However, there lack general continuous formulations of LTM, and there has been no systematic study on its analytical properties such as stationary states and stability of network traffic flow. In this study we attempt to fill the gaps. First we apply the Hopf–Lax formula to derive Newell’s simplified kinematic wave model with given boundary cumulative flows and the triangular fundamental diagram. We then apply the Hopf–Lax formula to define link demand and supply functions, as well as link queue and vacancy functions, and present two continuous formulations of LTM, by incorporating boundary demands and supplies as well as invariant macroscopic junction models. With continuous LTM, we define and solve the stationary states in a road network. We also apply LTM to directly derive a Poincaré map to analyze the stability of stationary states in a diverge-merge network. Finally we present an example to show that LTM is not well-defined with non-invariant junction models. We can see that Newell’s model and continuous LTM complement each other and provide an alternative formulation of the network kinematic wave theory. This study paves the way for further extensions, analyses, and applications of LTM in the future.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Dynamic stride length adaptation according to utility and personal space
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 74
      Author(s): Isabella von Sivers , Gerta Köster
      Pedestrians adjust both speed and stride length when they navigate difficult situations such as tight corners or dense crowds. They try to avoid collisions and to preserve their personal space. State-of-the-art pedestrian motion models automatically reduce speed in dense crowds simply because there is no space where the pedestrians could go. The stride length and its correct adaptation, however, are rarely considered. This leads to artefacts that impact macroscopic observation parameters such as densities in front of bottlenecks and, through this, flow. Hence modelling stride adaptation is important to increase the predictive power of pedestrian models. To achieve this we reformulate the problem as an optimisation problem on a disk around the pedestrian. Each pedestrian seeks the position that is most attractive in a sense of balanced goals between the search for targets, the need for individual space and the need to keep a distance from obstacles. The need for space is modelled according to findings from psychology defining zones around a person that, when invaded, cause unease. The result is a fully automatic adjustment that allows calibration through meaningful social parameters and that gives visually natural results with an excellent fit to measured experimental data.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Would competition between air transport and high-speed rail benefit
           environment and social welfare?
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 74
      Author(s): Tiziana D’Alfonso , Changmin Jiang , Valentina Bracaglia
      We develop a duopoly model to analyze the impact of air transport and high-speed rail (HSR) competition on the environment and social welfare. We show that the introduction of HSR may have a net negative effect on the environment, since it may result in additional demand, i.e., there is a trade-off between the substitution effect and the traffic generation effect. Furthermore, if environmental externalities are taken into account when assessing social welfare, the surplus measure may be higher when only air transport serves the market than when the two modes compete. When the airline and the HSR operator decide frequencies, the airline reduces the aircraft size in order to keep load factors high while offering lower frequency and carrying fewer passengers. In these circumstances, the introduction of HSR may be beneficial to the environment on a per seat basis only if the market size is large enough. When the HSR operator decides speed, it has incentive to keep it at the maximum level in order to reduce travel time. When the increase in the emissions of HSR due to the increase in the speed of the train is sufficiently high, the overall level of emissions grows after the introduction of HSR. Therefore, there can be a trade-off between the attractiveness of the service due to reduced travel time and the effects on the environment.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • A Lagrangian heuristic framework for a real-life integrated planning
           problem of railway transportation resources
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 74
      Author(s): Stéphane Dauzère-Pérès , David De Almeida , Olivier Guyon , Faten Benhizia
      Train path (infrastructure), rolling stock and crew scheduling are three critical planning decisions in railway transportation. These resources are usually planned separately in a sequential process that typically starts from planning (1) train paths and goes further on to (2) rolling stock and (3) train drivers. Such a sequential approach helps to handle the complexity of the planning process and simplify the underlying mathematical models. However, it generates solutions with higher costs because the decisions taken at one step can drastically reduce the set of feasible solutions in the following steps. In this paper, we propose a Lagrangian heuristic framework to solve an integrated problem which globally and simultaneously considers the planning of two railway resources: Rolling stock units and train drivers. Based on a mixed integer linear programming formulation, this approach has two important characteristics in an industrial context: (i) It can tackle real-life integrated planning problems and (ii) the Lagrangian dual is solved by calling two proprietary software modules available at SNCF. Various relaxation schemes are analyzed. Moreover, coupling constraints are rewritten to improve the heuristic effectiveness. Numerical experiments on real-life instances illustrate the effectiveness of the Lagrangian heuristic, and the impact of various parameters is analyzed. Compared to a sequential approach, it leads to cost reductions and generates good solutions in a reasonable CPU time.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Approximation methods for large-scale spatial queueing systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 74
      Author(s): Burak Boyacı , Nikolas Geroliminis
      Different than the conventional queueing systems, in spatial queueing systems (SQS) the service rate for each customer-server pairs differs and the server that intervenes for a specific customer is not known a priori, depending on the availability of servers at the moment a request was made. These features make the SQS computationally expensive (almost intractable for large scale) but at the same time more suitable for real-life problems with high reliability expectations. Emergency response and on-demand transportation systems are two similar systems that can be modeled with the SQS. In this research, we aim to solve facility location problems as SQS with stochastic demand and service time. The stochasticity concerned here is temporal and spatial, that emerges from the uncertainty in the demand and service time. In order to tackle this problem Larson (1974)’s 2 n hypercube queueing model (HQM) is extended to 3 n HQM. In this model, there are two different possible service types for each server: (i) service for locations in the proximity of a server (area of responsibility) and (ii) service for other locations where the first responsible server is busy during this event. In addition, to decrease the dimension of the problem, which is intractable due to their size, a new 3 n aggregate hypercube queueing model (AHQM) is developed that treats group of servers (bins) in a similar manner by considering interactions among bins. An efficient graph partitioning algorithm is proposed to cluster servers in groups with an objective to minimize the interactions among groups. Both exact and approximate approaches are integrated inside two optimization methods (i.e. variable neighborhood search and simulated annealing) to find server locations that improve system performance. Computational experiments showed that both models are applicable to use inside optimization algorithms to find good server locations and to improve system performance measures of SQS.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • An intersection-movement-based stochastic dynamic user optimal route
           choice model for assessing network performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 74
      Author(s): Jiancheng Long , W.Y. Szeto , Hai-Jun Huang , Ziyou Gao
      Different from traditional methods, this paper formulates the logit-based stochastic dynamic user optimal (SDUO) route choice problem as a fixed point (FP) problem in terms of intersection movement choice probabilities, which contain travelers’ route information so that the realistic effects of physical queues can be captured in the formulation when a physical-queue traffic flow model is adopted, and that route enumeration and column generation heuristics can be avoided in the solution procedure when efficient path sets are used. The choice probability can be either destination specific or origin–destination specific, resulting into two formulations. To capture the effect of physical queues in these FP formulations, the link transmission model is modified for the network loading and travel time determination. The self-regulated averaging method (SRAM) was adopted to solve the FP formulations. Numerical examples were developed to illustrate the properties of the problem and the effectiveness of the solution method. The proposed models were further used to evaluate the effect of information quality and road network improvement on the network performance in terms of total system travel time (TSTT) and the cost of total vehicle emissions (CTVE). Numerical results show that providing better information quality, enhancing link outflow capacity, or constructing a new road can lead to poor network performance.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Beyond normality: A cross moment-stochastic user equilibrium model
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 March 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
      Author(s): Selin Damla Ahipaşaoğlu , Rudabeh Meskarian , Thomas L. Magnanti , Karthik Natarajan
      The Stochastic User Equilibrium (SUE) model predicts traffic equilibrium flow assuming that users choose their perceived maximum utility paths (or perceived shortest paths) while accounting for the effects of congestion that arise due to users sharing links. Inspired by recent work on distributionally robust optimization, specifically a Cross Moment (CMM) choice model, we develop a new SUE model that uses the mean and covariance information on path utilities but does not assume the particular form of the distribution. Robustness to distributional assumptions is obtained in this model by minimizing the worst-case expected cost over all distributions with fixed two moments. We show that under mild conditions, the CMM-SUE (Cross Moment-Stochastic User Equilibrium) exists and is unique. By combining a simple projected gradient ascent method to evaluate path choice probabilities with a gradient descent method to find flows, we show that the CMM-SUE is efficiently computable. CMM-SUE provides both modeling flexibility and computational advantages over approaches such as the well-known MNP-SUE (Multinomial Probit-Stochastic User Equilibrium) model that require distributional (normality) assumptions to model correlation effects from overlapping paths. In particular, it avoids the use of simulation methods employed in computations for the distribution-based MNP-SUE model. Preliminary computational results indicate that CMM-SUE provides a practical distributionally robust alternative to MNP-SUE.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Evaluation of a multimodal urban arterial: The passenger macroscopic
           fundamental diagram
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
      Author(s): Nicolas Chiabaut
      This paper aims to extend the concept of macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD) to combine different transportation modes. Especially, we propose a unified relationship that accounts for cars and buses because the classical MFD is not sufficient to capture the traffic flow interactions of a multimodal traffic. The concept of passenger macroscopic fundamental diagram (p-MFD) is introduced. With this new relationship, the efficiency of the global transport system, i.e. behaviors of cars and buses, can be assessed. Intuitively, the p-MFD shape strongly depends on the mode ratio. Thus, user equilibrium and system optimum are studied and compared. Finally, this relationship is used to design bus system characteristics and to identify the optimal domains of applications for different transit strategies.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 73




      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Pricing of parking games with atomic players
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 73
      Author(s): Fang He , Yafeng Yin , Zhibin Chen , Jing Zhou
      This paper considers a parking competition game where a finite number of vehicles from different origins compete for the same number of parking spaces located at various places in a downtown area to minimize their own parking costs. If one vehicle reaches a desired vacant parking space before another vehicle, it will occupy the space and the other vehicle would have to search elsewhere. We first present a system of nonlinear equations to describe the equilibrium assignment of parking spaces to vehicles, and then discuss optimal pricing schemes that steer such parking competition to a system optimum assignment of parking spaces. These schemes are characterized by a union of polyhedrons. Given that the equilibrium state of parking competition is not unique, we further introduce a valid price vector to ensure that the parking competition outcome will always be system optimum. A sufficient condition is provided for the existence of such a valid price vector. Lastly, we seek for a robust price vector that yields the best worst-case outcome of the parking competition.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • GHG-emission models for assessing the eco-friendliness of road and rail
           freight transports
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 73
      Author(s): Thomas Kirschstein , Frank Meisel
      Intermodal rail/road transportation is an instrument of green logistics, which may help reducing transport related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In order to assess the environmental impact of road and rail transports, researchers have formulated very detailed microscopic models, which determine vehicle emissions precisely based on a vast number of parameters. They also developed macroscopic models, which estimate emissions more roughly from few parameters that are considered most influential. One of the goals of this paper is to develop mesoscopic models that combine the preciseness of micro-models while requiring only little more information than macro-models. We propose emission models designed for transport planning purposes which are simple to calibrate by transport managers. Despite their compactness, our models are able to reflect the influence of various traffic conditions on a transport’s total emissions. Furthermore, contrasting most papers considering either the road or the rail mode, we provide models on a common basis for both modes of transportation. We validate our models using popular micro- and macroscopic models and we apply them to artificial and real world transport scenarios to identify under which circumstances intermodal transports actually effect lower emissions. We find that travel speed and country-specific energy emission factors influence the eco-friendliness of intermodal transports most severely. Hence, the particular route chosen for a transnational intermodal transport is an important but so far neglected option for eco-friendly transportation.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Bid price optimization for truckload carriers in simultaneous
           transportation procurement auctions
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 73
      Author(s): Gültekin Kuyzu , Çağla Gül Akyol , Özlem Ergun , Martin Savelsbergh
      We study simultaneous transportation procurement auctions from a truckload carrier’s perspective. We formulate a stochastic bid price optimization model aimed at maximizing the carrier’s expected profit. The model accounts for synergies among lanes and competing carriers’ bid patterns. We develop an iterative coordinate search algorithm to find high-quality solutions. The benefits of employing the bid price optimization technology are demonstrated through computational experiments involving a simulated marketplace.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Method for investigating intradriver heterogeneity using vehicle
           trajectory data: A Dynamic Time Warping approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 73
      Author(s): Jeffrey Taylor , Xuesong Zhou , Nagui M. Rouphail , Richard J. Porter
      After first extending Newell’s car-following model to incorporate time-dependent parameters, this paper describes the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) algorithm and its application for calibrating this microscopic simulation model by synthesizing driver trajectory data. Using the unique capabilities of the DTW algorithm, this paper attempts to examine driver heterogeneity in car-following behavior, as well as the driver’s heterogeneous situation-dependent behavior within a trip, based on the calibrated time-varying response times and critical jam spacing. The standard DTW algorithm is enhanced to address a number of estimation challenges in this specific application, and a numerical experiment is presented with vehicle trajectory data extracted from the Next Generation Simulation (NGSIM) project for demonstration purposes. The DTW algorithm is shown to be a reasonable method for processing large vehicle trajectory datasets, but requires significant data reduction to produce reasonable results when working with high resolution vehicle trajectory data. Additionally, singularities present an interesting match solution set to potentially help identify changing driver behavior; however, they must be avoided to reduce analysis complexity.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Analysis of fixed-time control
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 73
      Author(s): Ajith Muralidharan , Ramtin Pedarsani , Pravin Varaiya
      The paper presents an analysis of the traffic dynamics in a network of signalized intersections. The intersections are regulated by fixed-time (FT) controls, all with the same cycle length or period, T. The network is modeled as a queuing network. Vehicles arrive from outside the network at entry links in a deterministic periodic stream, also with period T. They take a fixed time to travel along each link, and at the end of the link they join a queue. There is a separate queue at each link for each movement or phase. Vehicles make turns at intersections in fixed proportions, and eventually leave the network, that is, a fraction r ( i , j ) of vehicles that leave queue i go to queue j and the fraction [ 1 - ∑ j r ( i , j ) ] leave the network. The storage capacity of the queues is infinite, so there is no spill back. The main contribution of the paper is to show that if the signal controls accommodate the demands then, starting in any initial condition, the network state converges to a unique periodic orbit. Thus, the effect of initial conditions disappears. More precisely, the state of the network at time t is the vector x ( t ) of all queue lengths, together with the position of vehicles traveling along the links. Suppose that the network is stable, that is, x ( t ) is bounded. Then (1) there exists a unique periodic trajectory x ∗ , with period T; (2) every trajectory converges to this periodic trajectory; (3) if vehicles do not follow loops, the convergence occurs in finite time. The periodic trajectory determines the performance of the entire network.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • On the fundamental diagram for freeway traffic: A novel calibration
           approach for single-regime models
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 73
      Author(s): Xiaobo Qu , Shuaian Wang , Jin Zhang
      The speed-density or flow-density relationship has been considered as the foundation of traffic flow theory. Existing single-regime models calibrated by the least square method (LSM) could not fit the empirical data consistently well both in light-traffic/free-flow conditions and congested/jam conditions. In this paper, first, we point out that the inaccuracy of single-regime models is not caused solely by their functional forms, but also by the sample selection bias. Second, we apply a weighted least square method (WLSM) that addresses the sample selection bias problem. The calibration results for six well-known single-regime models using the WLSM fit the empirical data reasonably well both in light-traffic/free-flow conditions and congested/jam conditions. Third, we conduct a theoretical investigation that reveals the deficiency associated with the LSM is because the expected value of speed (or a function of it) is nonlinear with regard to the density (or a function of it).


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Optimization of mid-block pedestrian crossing network with discrete
           demands
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 73
      Author(s): Chunhui Yu , Wanjing Ma , Hong K. Lo , Xiaoguang Yang
      In many cases, pedestrian crossing demands are distributed discretely along an arterial segment. Demand origins, destinations and crosswalks comprise a pedestrian crossing network. An integrated model for optimizing the quantity, locations and signal settings of mid-block crosswalks simultaneously is proposed to best trade-off the operational performances between pedestrians and vehicles. Pedestrian behavior of choosing crosswalks is captured under a discrete demand distribution. Detour distance and delay at signalized crosswalks are formulated as a measure of pedestrian crossing cost. Maximum bandwidths are modeled in analytical expressions as a measure of vehicular cost. To solve the proposed model, the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA II) based algorithm is designed and employed to obtain the Pareto frontier efficiently. From the numerical study, it is found that there exists an optimal number of mid-block crosswalks. Excess available crosswalks may make no contributions to improvement in pedestrian cost when the constraint of the minimum interval between crosswalks and vehicular cost are taken into account. Two-stage crosswalks are more favorable than one-stage ones for the benefits of both pedestrian and vehicles. The study results show promising properties of the proposed method to assist transportation engineers in properly designing mid-block crosswalks along a road segment.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • A comparison of price-cap and light-handed airport regulation with demand
           uncertainty
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 73
      Author(s): Hangjun Yang , Xiaowen Fu
      This study analytically compares the performance of ex ante price-cap airport regulation vs. ex post light-handed airport regulation in the presence of demand uncertainty. Our modeling results suggest that light-handed regulation is a promising method which may lead to higher welfare than price-cap regulation. However, neither regulation strictly dominates the other in terms of welfare, airport charge or service quality. The relative performance of alternative regulations depends on many market factors and the specification of penalty under light-handed regulation. Our analytical results also suggest that if service quality matters and if an airport is allowed to invest in a higher quality, average cost pricing may not be optimal due to possible sub-optimal choices of quality, and the overall performance of alternative regulatory regimes should be assessed with a comprehensive welfare analysis. Our investigation confirms that light-handed regulation is worth preserving subject to monitoring and continuous improvements.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 72




      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • A tailored branch-and-price approach for a joint tramp ship routing and
           bunkering problem
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 72
      Author(s): Qiang Meng , Shuaian Wang , Chung-Yee Lee
      This paper deals with a practical tramp ship routing problem while taking into account different bunker prices at different ports, which is called the joint tramp ship routing and bunkering (JSRB) problem. Given a set of cargoes to be transported and a set of ports with different bunker prices, the proposed problem determines how to route ships to carry the cargoes and the amount of bunker to purchase at each port, in order to maximize the total profit. After building an integer linear programming model for the JSRB problem, we propose a tailored branch-and-price (B&P) solution approach. The B&P approach incorporates an efficient method for obtaining the optimal bunkering policy and a novel dominance rule for detecting inefficient routing options. The B&P approach is tested with randomly generated large-scale instances derived from real-world planning problems. All of the instances can be solved efficiently. Moreover, the proposed approach for the JSRB problem outperforms the conventional sequential planning approach and can incorporate the prediction of future cargo demand to avoid making myopic decisions.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Global optimization method for network design problem with stochastic user
           equilibrium
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 72
      Author(s): Haoxiang Liu , David Z.W. Wang
      In this paper, we consider the continuous road network design problem with stochastic user equilibrium constraint that aims to optimize the network performance via road capacity expansion. The network flow pattern is subject to stochastic user equilibrium, specifically, the logit route choice model. The resulting formulation, a nonlinear nonconvex programming problem, is firstly transformed into a nonlinear program with only logarithmic functions as nonlinear terms, for which a tight linear programming relaxation is derived by using an outer-approximation technique. The linear programming relaxation is then embedded within a global optimization solution algorithm based on range reduction technique, and the proposed approach is proved to converge to a global optimum.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Optimal transit routing with partial online information
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 72
      Author(s): Peng (Will) Chen , Yu (Marco) Nie
      This paper studies the routing strategy in a transit network with partial online information at stops. By partial online information, we mean that the arrival time of the incoming transit vehicles is available for a subset of the lines serving a stop. To cope with the partial information assumption, a new routing strategy is proposed and closed form formulae for computing expected waiting times and line boarding probabilities are derived. The proposed strategy unifies existing hyperpath-based transit route choice models that assume either no information or full information. Like many existing models, it ensures optimality when all information is available or the headway is exponentially distributed. The problem of determining the attractive set is discussed for each of the three information cases. In particular, a new heuristic algorithm is developed to generate the attractive set in the partial information case, which will always yield a solution no worse than that obtained without any information. The paper also reveals that, when information is available, an optimal hyperpath may contain cycles. Accordingly, the cause of such cycles is analyzed, and a sufficient condition that excludes cycles from optimal hyperpaths is proposed. Finally, numerical experiments are conducted to illustrate the impact of information availability on expected travel times and transit line load distributions. Among other findings, the results suggest that it is more useful to have information on faster lines than on slower lines.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Profit-based maritime container assignment models for liner shipping
           networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 72
      Author(s): Shuaian Wang , Zhiyuan Liu , Michael G.H. Bell
      We propose the problem of profit-based container assignment (P-CA), in which the container shipment demand is dependent on the freight rate, similar to the “elastic demand” in the literature on urban transportation networks. The problem involves determining the optimal freight rates, the number of containers to transport and how to transport the containers in a liner shipping network to maximize the total profit. We first consider a tactical-level P-CA with known demand functions that are estimated based on historical data and formulate it as a nonlinear optimization model. The tactical-level P-CA can be used for evaluating and improving the container liner shipping network. We then address the operational-level P-CA with unknown demand functions, which aims to design a mechanism that adjusts the freight rates to maximize the profit. A theoretically convergent trial-and-error approach, and a practical trial-and-error approach, are developed. A numerical example is reported to illustrate the application of the models and approaches.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • A trial-and-error congestion pricing scheme for networks with elastic
           demand and link capacity constraints
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 72
      Author(s): Bojian Zhou , Michiel Bliemer , Hai Yang , Jie He
      This paper proposes a combination of trial-and-error congestion pricing schemes that have been studied in the literature. It not only considers the minimization of the total system cost but also addresses the capacity constraints. A two-level iteration method is proposed for solving the hybrid problem, in which the approximate subgradient projection method is used for the outer level iteration phase, and the partial linearization method is used for the inner level iteration phase. We prove the convergence of the two-level iteration method, under the condition that the subproblem for the inner level iteration is only solved approximately, which makes the method efficient and practical. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the application of the two-level iteration method to the trial-and-error congestion pricing scheme.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Strategic considerations behind the network–regional airline tie ups
           – A theoretical and empirical study
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 72
      Author(s): David Gillen , Hamed Hasheminia , Changmin Jiang
      The paper examines the strategic vertical relationship between network and regional airlines. We develop a model to illustrate how network airlines can use the contractual relationship with regional airlines as an efficient tool to simultaneously drive out inefficient network airlines and also accommodate other cost efficient network airlines in any specific market. The model is tested on U.S. data using simultaneous and sequential choice models. We find that market size, cost differences between network airlines, as well as cost differences between network and regional airlines, are the chief determinants of the network airlines’ decisions on whether or not to serve a market with their own fleet, as well as how many regional airlines to contract with.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T18:55:29Z
       
  • Cordon toll competition in a network of two cities: Formulation and
           sensitivity to traveller route and demand responses
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 76
      Author(s): D.P. Watling , S.P. Shepherd , A. Koh
      While there exists extensive literature on the first- and second-best tolling of congested transportation networks, much of it presumes the existence of a single agent responsible for toll-setting. The present paper extends the small but growing body of work studying the impact of several agents independently regulating tolls on different parts of a network. Specifically we consider the problem of a network consisting of two ‘cities’, each city independently regulated by a city ‘authority’ able to set a single cordon toll for entry to the city. It is supposed that each authority aims to maximise the social welfare of its own residents, anticipating the impact of its toll on travellers’ route and demand decisions, while reacting to the toll level levied by the other authority. In addition, we model the possibility of the cities entering into a ‘tax-exporting agreement’, in which city A agrees to share with city B the toll revenues it collects from city B residents using city A’s network. It is assumed that the sensitivity of travellers, in terms of their route and demand responses, is captured by an elastic demand, Stochastic User Equilibrium (SUE) model. Conditions for a Nash Equilibrium (NE) between cities are set out as an Equilibrium Problem with Equilibrium Constraints (EPEC). It is shown that weaker, ‘local’ solutions to the EPEC (which we term LNE for local NE) satisfy a single variational inequality, using the smooth implicit function of the SUE map. Standard variational algorithms may then be used to identify such LNE solutions, allowing NE solutions to be identified from this candidate set; we test the use of a Sequential Linear Complementarity Problem algorithm. Numerical results are reported in which we see that the sensitivity of travellers may affect many factors, including: the number of LNE solutions, the initial conditions for which algorithms might determine such solutions, the gap between LNE and a global regulator solution, and the incentive for cities to cooperate in terms of tax-exporting.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T14:51:22Z
       
 
 
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