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  Subjects -> TRANSPORTATION (Total: 130 journals)
    - AIR TRANSPORT (1 journals)
    - AUTOMOBILES (17 journals)
    - RAILROADS (4 journals)
    - ROADS AND TRAFFIC (5 journals)
    - SHIPS AND SHIPPING (10 journals)
    - TRANSPORTATION (93 journals)

TRANSPORTATION (93 journals)

Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (15 followers)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Archives of Transport     Open Access   (4 followers)
Bitácora Urbano-Territorial     Open Access   (1 follower)
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (8 followers)
Economics of Transportation     Partially Free   (11 followers)
EURO Journal of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
European Transport Research Review     Open Access   (9 followers)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
IATSS Research     Open Access  
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (5 followers)
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
IET Intelligent Transport Systems     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
International Innovation – Transport     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Logistics     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
International Journal of Automotive Technology     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
International Journal of Aviation Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Aviation Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
International Journal of Electronic Transport     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
International Journal of Micro-Nano Scale Transport     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
International Journal of Mobile Communications     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
International Journal of Ocean Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
International Journal of Services Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (10 followers)
International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
International Journal of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (1 follower)
Journal of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (9 followers)
Journal of Air Transport Management     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Journal of Airline and Airport Management     Open Access   (2 followers)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (17 followers)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Journal of the Transportation Research Forum     Open Access   (3 followers)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (7 followers)
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (4 followers)
Journal of Transport Geography     Hybrid Journal   (12 followers)
Journal of Transport History     Full-text available via subscription   (10 followers)
Journal of Transport Literature     Open Access  
Journal of Transportation Safety & Security     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Journal of Transportation Security     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (11 followers)
Journal of Transportation Technologies     Open Access   (7 followers)
Journal of Waterway Port Coastal and Ocean Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (5 followers)
Les Dossiers du Grihl     Open Access  
Logistique & Management     Full-text available via subscription  
Marine Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Maritime Affairs:Journal of the National Maritime Foundation of India     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology     Open Access  
Modern Transportation     Open Access   (1 follower)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology     Open Access   (2 followers)
Pervasive and Mobile Computing     Hybrid Journal   (9 followers)
Proceedings of IMarEST - Part A - Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
PS: Political Science & Politics     Full-text available via subscription   (17 followers)
Public Transport     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Recherche Transports Sécurité     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (3 followers)
Revista Transporte y Territorio     Open Access   (1 follower)
SourceOCDE Transports     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Streetnotes     Open Access   (2 followers)
Synthesis Lectures on Mobile and Pervasive Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Tire Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Transactions on Transport Sciences     Open Access   (3 followers)
Transport     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Transport and Telecommunication Journal     Open Access   (2 followers)
Transport in Porous Media     Hybrid Journal  
Transport Reviews: A Transnational Transdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (12 followers)
Transportation Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (20 followers)
Transportation Research Part B: Methodological     Hybrid Journal   (19 followers)
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (12 followers)
Transportation Research Record : Journal of the Transportation Research Board     Full-text available via subscription   (26 followers)
Transportation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (14 followers)
TRANSPORTES     Open Access   (1 follower)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Transportmetrica B : Transport Dynamics     Hybrid Journal  
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Транспортні системи та технології перевезень     Open Access  
Transportation Research Part B: Methodological    [21 followers]  Follow    
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0191-2615
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2556 journals]   [SJR: 3.08]   [H-I: 60]
  • Airline ambidextrous competition under an emissions trading scheme –
           A reference-dependent behavioral perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 60
      Author(s): Jiuh-Biing Sheu
      This study presents a reference-dependent Hotelling model for analyzing airline competition in pricing and green transportation investment, as well as the resulting financial performance under the European Union emission trading scheme. One feature of the proposed methodology is that it embeds psychological benefits/costs of consumers to characterize consumer attitudes to the increases in airline fare adjustments and improvements in green transportation. This study then investigates the equilibrium solutions for airfare adjustment and green transportation investment margins in different scenarios. The analytical results reveal specific operational conditions under which a cost-efficient airline can gain supreme competitive advantage by increasing both airfare and green transportation investment margins beyond the increases made by competitors under the emission trading scheme, whereas certain specific conditions may favor a cost leadership strategy. Conversely, a cost-inefficient airline can compete with a cost-efficient airline in both market share and profitability using the green transportation investment-differentiation strategy, particularly when consumers perceive the airfare difference as equaling the increased psychological benefit induced by the airline’s green effort.


      PubDate: 2014-01-24T10:07:11Z
       
  • Extended spectral envelope method for detecting and analyzing traffic
           oscillations
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 61
      Author(s): Tingting Zhao , Yu (Marco) Nie , Yi Zhang
      We propose using a spectral envelope method to analyze traffic oscillations using data collected from multiple sensors. Spectral envelops can reveal not only the salient frequencies of periodic oscillations of traffic flow, but also the relative strength of these oscillations at different locations. This paper first introduces time dimension into the existing spectral envelope method so that it can be applied to study the evolution of vehicular traffic oscillations. The extended spectral envelope method proposed in this paper, or ESPE, discards the normalization procedure in the standard method. A new Contributing Index (CI) is proposed to measure the relative strength of oscillations at different locations. The extended spectral envelops can be constructed on long-term or short-term time scales. While the long-term analysis helps extract salient frequencies of traffic oscillations, the short-term analysis promises to reveal their detailed spatial–temporal profiles. ESPE offers two distinctive advantages. First, it is more robust against the impacts of noises. Second, it is able to uncover complicated oscillatory behaviors which are otherwise difficult to notice. These advantages are demonstrated in case studies constructed on both simulated and real data.


      PubDate: 2014-01-24T10:07:11Z
       
  • Competition in complementary transport services
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 60
      Author(s): Derek John Clark , Finn Jørgensen , Terje Andreas Mathisen
      For passengers to reach the final destination of the trip it is often necessary to make use of the transport services provided by several firms. When these transport services follow in a natural transport chain they are characterized as complementarities and the firms providing the services can, as for substitutes, to some extent influence the demand facing the other firms by their own behaviour. A model is presented in this paper where two firms compete in complementary transport services differentiated by travel distance. Equilibria are derived for collusion and competition in price and quantity, and these are analyzed with respect to the degree of complementarity and distance. The analysis shows that the influence of type of competition on equilibrium price and quantity increases with the complementarity of the products. Moreover, it is discussed how marginal operating costs for the firms, marginal time cost for the passenger and the type of competition influences whether fares will increase with distance and which of the two firms will set the higher price. The commonly accepted ranking for complements that the collusive price is lower than the Bertrand price is not necessarily true. It is demonstrated that the collusive price of the shorter (longer) distance could be set above (lower) that of price competition. It is also addressed how mark-up of price over marginal cost is influenced by changes in own and competitors distance for the different types of competition.


      PubDate: 2014-01-24T10:07:11Z
       
  • Optimal choices of fare collection systems for public transportations:
           Barrier versus barrier-free
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 60
      Author(s): Yasuo Sasaki
      The present study focuses on two major types of fare collection systems for public transportations, barrier and barrier-free, and provides a mathematical framework to evaluate optimal choices between them, i.e., which system can be more profitable for a transit agency. In particular, we consider game-theoretic interactions between the transit agency and passengers for the barrier-free system and suppose that frequencies of free rides of passengers as well as inspections of the transit agency are given as a Nash equilibrium. Then the optimal choice of fare collection system is described as a subgame perfection solution in an extensive form game. We also conduct a comparative static analysis and examine how each parameter can affect the choice. As an application, we use the framework to explain various choices of fare collection systems in our society depending on local circumstances or transportation types.


      PubDate: 2014-01-08T21:27:35Z
       
  • Pareto efficiency of reliability-based traffic equilibria and risk-taking
           behavior of travelers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
      Author(s): Zhijia Tan , Hai Yang , Renyong Guo
      This paper investigates the Pareto efficiency of the various reliability-based traffic equilibria proposed in the literature and the risk-taking behavior of travelers. Reliability indexes such as the percentile travel time (PTT), travel time budget (TTB), mean excess travel time (METT) and the quadratic disutility function (QDF) are examined in terms of the mean and standard deviation (SD) of travel times. The downward sloping mean-SD indifference curve is introduced to geometrically analyze the risk-taking behavior of travelers. Both the diversifying and plunging behaviors of risk-averse travelers are investigated by examining the curvature of the mean-SD indifference curves at traffic equilibria based on the PTT, TTB, METT and QDF. Several specific probability distributions are adopted to elucidate the theoretical results obtained.


      PubDate: 2014-01-08T21:27:35Z
       
  • Capacity optimization of an isolated intersection under the phase swap
           sorting strategy
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 60
      Author(s): Chiwei Yan , Hai Jiang , Siyang Xie
      It is well recognized that the left turn reduces the intersection capacity significantly, because some of the traffic lanes cannot be used to discharge vehicles during its green phases. In this paper, we operationalize the phase swap sorting strategy (Xuan, 2011) to use most, if not all, traffic lanes to discharge vehicles at the intersection cross-section to increase its capacity. We explicitly take into consideration all through, left- and right-turning movements on all arms and formulate the capacity maximization problem as a Binary-Mixed-Integer-Linear-Programming (BMILP) model. The model is efficiently solved by standard branch-and-bound algorithms and outputs optimal signal timings, lane allocations, and other decisions. Numerical experiments show that substantially higher reserve capacity can be obtained under our approach.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T22:43:26Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 59




      PubDate: 2013-12-31T22:43:26Z
       
  • Competitive transit network design in cities with radial street patterns
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 59
      Author(s): Hugo Badia , Miquel Estrada , Francesc Robusté
      This paper presents a reformulation of the hybrid model developed by Daganzo (2010) to extend its applicability to a greater number of cities, especially those characterized by a radial street pattern. The new transit network structure is also composed of two types of schemes: radial/circular in the central area and hub and spoke in the periphery. This analytical model defines the optimal network layout through minimizing its objective function, which is composed of agency and user costs. Its decision variables are central area size, headway, line spacing, and stop spacing. In this reformulation, stops with single coverage, those only served by one line, are introduced in the hybrid model to improve spatial accessibility to avoid an increase in agency investment. This model is a tool to design competitive transit systems topologically characterized by simple schemes adapted to the urban structure and concentrated transit flows, and also operatively by high frequencies and speeds. Ultimately, all this allows for easy use and management of transit networks. The model’s robustness with regard to input parameters and decision variables reinforces its results and estimates what implementations on real road networks would be like. It presents coherent behavior regarding real-world standards, where high, concentrated and temporally well distributed demands lead to more efficient and effective transit systems. High performance bus (HPB) is the transport technology used throughout this paper because, as has been proved in this paper, it is the best transit mode in urban areas for a wide range of demand values. Main system characteristics have been obtained such as central areas greater than a 25% of the city, low headways of around 2min, high commercial speeds ranges between 14 and 17km/h, and suitable spatial accessibility, where stop spacing moves between 350 and 550m.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T22:43:26Z
       
  • Effects of high-speed rail and airline cooperation under hub airport
           capacity constraint
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 60
      Author(s): Changmin Jiang , Anming Zhang
      This paper analyzes the effects of cooperation between a hub-and-spoke airline and a high-speed rail (HSR) operator when the hub airport may be capacity-constrained. We find that such cooperation reduces traffic in markets where prior modal competition occurs, but may increase traffic in other markets of the network. The cooperation improves welfare, independent of whether or not the hub capacity is constrained, as long as the modal substitutability in the overlapping markets is low. However, if the modal substitutability is high, then hub capacity plays an important role in assessing the welfare impact: If the hub airports are significantly capacity-constrained, the cooperation improves welfare; otherwise, it is likely welfare reducing. Through simulations we further study the welfare effects of modal asymmetries in the demands and costs, heterogeneous passenger types, and economies of traffic density. Our analysis shows that the economies of traffic density alone cannot justify airline–HSR cooperation.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T22:43:26Z
       
  • Stochastic service network design with rerouting
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 60
      Author(s): Ruibin Bai , Stein W. Wallace , Jingpeng Li , Alain Yee-Loong Chong
      Service network design under uncertainty is fundamentally crucial for all freight transportation companies. The main challenge is to strike a balance between two conflicting objectives: low network setup costs and low expected operational costs. Together these have a significant impact on the quality of freight services. Increasing redundancy at crucial network links is a common way to improve network flexibility. However, in a highly uncertain environment, a single predefined network is unlikely to suit all possible future scenarios, unless it is prohibitively costly. Hence, rescheduling is often an effective alternative. In this paper, we proposed a new stochastic freight service network design model with vehicle rerouting options. The proposed model explicitly introduces a set of integer variables for vehicle rerouting in the second stage of the stochastic program. Although computationally more expensive, the resultant model provides more options (i.e. rerouting) and flexibility for planners to deal with uncertainties more effectively. The new model was tested on a set of instances adapted from the literature and its performance and characteristics are studied through both comparative studies and detailed analyses at the solution structure level. Implications for practical applications are discussed and further research directions are also provided.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T22:43:26Z
       
  • Metaheuristic procedure for a bi-objective supply chain design problem
           with uncertainty
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 60
      Author(s): Y. Cardona-Valdés , A. Álvarez , J. Pacheco
      We consider the design of a two echelon production distribution network with multiple manufacturing plants, distribution centers (DC’s) and a set of candidate warehouses. One of the main contributions of the study is to extend the existing literature by incorporating the demand uncertainty of DC’s within the warehouse location and transportation mode allocation decisions, as well as providing a network design satisfying the both economical and service quality objectives of the decision maker within two echelon supply network setting. In order to take into account the effects of the uncertainty we apply an scenario-based approach and a two-stage stochastic problem is formulated in order to minimize total cost and total service time, simultaneously. Another important contribution is the development of a solution procedure for this bi-objective stochastic problem by applying tabu search within the framework of Multi-objective Adaptive Memory Programming. Results are compared with the optimal Pareto fronts obtained for small instances using the ∊ -constraint method and standard branch and bound techniques. Numerical results demonstrate the computational effectiveness of the algorithm proposed. Finally, we include some results that confirm the convenience of including the randomness in the demand parameter.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T22:43:26Z
       
  • Recent developments and research needs in modeling lane changing
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 60
      Author(s): Zuduo Zheng
      This paper comprehensively reviews recent developments in modeling lane-changing behavior. The major lane changing models in the literature are categorized into two groups: models that aim to capture the lane changing decision-making process, and models that aim to quantify the impact of lane changing behavior on surrounding vehicles. The methodologies and important features (including their limitations) of representative models in each category are outlined and discussed. Future research needs are determined.


      PubDate: 2013-12-27T19:34:39Z
       
  • Fast algorithms to generate individualized designs for the mixed logit
           choice model
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 60
      Author(s): Marjolein Crabbe , Deniz Akinc , Martina Vandebroek
      The mixed logit choice model has become the common standard to analyze transport behavior. Moreover, more and more transport studies start to make use of stated preference data to obtain precise knowledge on travelers’ preferences. Accounting for the individual-specific coefficients in the mixed logit choice model, this research advocates an individualized design approach to generate these stated choice experiments. Individualized designs are sequentially generated for each person separately, using the answers from previous choice sets to select the next best set in a survey. In this way they are adapted to the specific preferences of an individual and therefore more efficient than an aggregate design. In order for individual sequential designs to be practicable, the speed of designing an additional choice set in an experiment is obviously a key issue. This paper introduces three design criteria used in optimal test design, based on Kullback–Leibler information, and compares them with the well known D -efficiency criterion to obtain individually adapted choice designs for the mixed logit choice model. Being equally efficient to D -efficiency and at the same time much faster, the Kullback–Leibler criteria are well suited for the design of individualized choice experiments.


      PubDate: 2013-12-27T19:34:39Z
       
  • Depot location in degradable transport networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
      Author(s): Michael G.H. Bell , Achille Fonzone , Chrisanthi Polyzoni
      Areas subject to natural or man-made disasters, such as earthquakes, fires, floods or attacks, are reliant on the residual transport network for the rescue of survivors and subsequent recovery. Pre-disaster planning requires assumptions about how the transport network may degrade. This paper presents a game theoretic approach modelling network degradation and applies this to depot location, with a case study based on Sichuan province in China, which is prone to earthquakes. To facilitate a cautious approach to depot location, the method assumes that the transport network is subject to attack by node-specific demons with the power to degrade links. The mixed strategy Nash equilibrium for the non-cooperative zero sum game between dispatchers and demons is used to define rescue hyperpaths. These in turn define the best depot locations. Two forms of the drop heuristic are used to find good depot locations.


      PubDate: 2013-12-19T18:25:09Z
       
  • A general unconstrained optimization formulation for the combined
           distribution and assignment problem
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 59
      Author(s): Jia Yao , Anthony Chen , Seungkyu Ryu , Feng Shi
      This paper proposes an alternate formulation for the combined distribution and assignment (CDA) problem, which seeks to determine consistent level-of-service and flow values of the trip distribution and traffic assignment steps. The CDA problem is modeled as a hierarchical travel choice problem based on random utility theory, which forms the basis for constructing as a general unconstrained optimization formulation. It has the flexibility to handle general probabilistic distributions (not just the Gumbel distribution) in a hierarchical travel choice structure. Qualitative properties of the general unconstrained CDA formulation are rigorously proved to ensure the equivalence and uniqueness of the solution. Particularly, the model is analyzed for two logit CDA models where the choice probability can be expressed in a closed form. The first logit CDA model with the independently and identically distributed (IID) Gumbel distribution is shown to be equivalent to several well-known existing CDA models. The second logit CDA model handles the independence assumption by accounting for the unobserved similarities among destinations in the destination choice level using a spatially correlated logit model and the route overlapping in the route choice level using the path size logit model. A descent direction algorithm with the self-regulated averaging (SRA) scheme is also developed for solving the unconstrained optimization formulation of two logit CDA models. Numerical experiments are conducted to demonstrate the features of the proposed general unconstrained CDA formulations and the computational performance of the descent SRA algorithm. The results reveal that route overlapping, destination similarity, congestion, and distribution errors can have a significant influence on the network equilibrium flow allocations.


      PubDate: 2013-12-15T16:55:20Z
       
  • Analysis of common-cause and special-cause variation in the deterioration
           of transportation infrastructure: A field application of statistical
           process control for structural health monitoring
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 59
      Author(s): Yikai Chen , David J. Corr , Pablo L. Durango-Cohen
      We present a statistical process control framework to support structural health monitoring of transportation infrastructure. We contribute an integrated, generally-applicable (to various types of structural response data) statistical approach that links the literatures on statistical performance modeling and on structural health monitoring. The framework consists of two parts: The first, estimation of statistical models to explain, predict, and control for common-cause variation in the data, i.e., changes, including serial dependence, that can be attributed to usual operating conditions. The ensuing standardized innovation series are analyzed in the second part of the framework, which consists of using Shewhart and Memory Control Charts to detect special-cause or unusual events. We apply the framework to analyze strain and displacement data from the monitoring system on the Hurley Bridge (Wisconsin Structure B-26-7). Data were collected from April 1, 2010 to June 29, 2011. Our analysis reveals that, after controlling for seasonal effects, linear trends are significant components of the response measurements. Persistent displacement may be an indication of deterioration of the bridge supports. Trends in the strain data may indicate changes in the material properties, i.e., fatigue, sensor calibration, or traffic loading. The results also show that autocorrelation and conditional heteroscedasticity are significant sources of common-cause variation. Use of the control charts detected 43 possible special-cause events, with approximately 50% displaying persisting effects, and 25% lasting longer than one week. Analysis of traffic data shows that unusually heavy loading is a possible cause of the longest special-cause event, which lasted 11days.


      PubDate: 2013-12-11T16:25:05Z
       
  • On the periodicity of traffic oscillations and capacity drop: The role of
           driver characteristics
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 59
      Author(s): Danjue Chen , Soyoung Ahn , Jorge Laval , Zuduo Zheng
      This paper shows that traffic hysteresis arises due to variable driver characteristics within each driver and has a profound reproducible impact on the periodicity and development of traffic oscillations and the bottleneck discharge rate. Following an oscillation, traffic initially exhibits lower density and flow; then it evolves toward and eventually exceeds the equilibrium, whereupon another oscillation is instigated by an aggressive driver(s) with relatively small response time and minimum spacing. Thereafter, traffic reverts to lower density and flow and repeats the evolutionary cycle. Aggressive driver behavior also leads to hysteresis loops that induce the upstream propagation of oscillations; with larger hysteresis loops inducing larger oscillation growth. Our finding also suggests that the bottleneck discharge rate can diminish by 8–23% when drivers adopt larger response times in reaction to disturbances. This finding suggests that existing capacity-drop theories, with lane-changes as the main factor, may be incomplete.


      PubDate: 2013-12-11T16:25:05Z
       
  • Extreme values, invariance and choice probabilities
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 59
      Author(s): Lars-Göran Mattsson , Jörgen W. Weibull , Per Olov Lindberg
      Since the pioneering work of McFadden (1974), discrete choice random-utility models have become work horses in many areas in transportation analysis and economics. In these models, the random variables enter additively or multiplicatively and the noise distributions take a particular parametric form. We show that the same qualitative results, with closed-form choice probabilities, can be obtained for a wide class of distributions without such specifications. This class generalizes the statistically independent distributions where any two c.d.f.:s are powers of each others to a class that allows for statistical dependence, in a way analogous to how the independent distributions in the MNL models were generalized into the subclass of MEV distributions that generates the GEV choice models. We show that this generalization is sufficient, and under statistical independence also necessary, for the following invariance property: all conditional random variables, when conditioning upon a certain alternative having been chosen, are identically distributed. While some of these results have been published earlier, we place them in a general unified framework that allows us to extend several of the results and to provide proofs that are simpler, more direct and transparent. Well-known results are obtained as special cases, and we characterize the Gumbel, Fréchet and Weibull distributions.


      PubDate: 2013-12-07T15:56:17Z
       
  • Optimal train routing and scheduling for managing traffic perturbations in
           complex junctions
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 59
      Author(s): Paola Pellegrini , Grégory Marlière , Joaquin Rodriguez
      Real-time traffic management in railway aims to minimize delays after an unexpected event perturbs the operations. It can be formalized as the real-time railway traffic management problem, which seeks for the best train routing and scheduling in case of perturbation, in a given time horizon. We propose a mixed-integer linear programming formulation for tackling this problem, representing the infrastructure with fine granularity. This is seldom done in the literature, unless stringent artificial constraints are imposed for reducing the size of the search space. In a thorough experimental analysis, we assess the impact of the granularity of the representation of the infrastructure on the optimal solution. We tackle randomly generated instances representing traffic in the control area named triangle of Gagny, and instances obtained from the real timetable of the control area including the Lille-Flandres station (both in France) and we consider multiple perturbation scenarios. In these experiments, the negative impact of a rough granularity on the delay suffered by trains is remarkable and statistically significant.


      PubDate: 2013-12-07T15:56:17Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 58




      PubDate: 2013-12-03T14:16:14Z
       
  • A latent segmentation based multiple discrete continuous extreme value
           model
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 58
      Author(s): Anae Sobhani , Naveen Eluru , Ahmadreza Faghih-Imani
      We examine an alternative method to incorporate potential presence of population heterogeneity within the Multiple Discrete Continuous Extreme Value (MDCEV) model structure. Towards this end, an endogenous segmentation approach is proposed that allocates decision makers probabilistically to various segments as a function of exogenous variables. Within each endogenously determined segment, a segment specific MDCEV model is estimated. This approach provides insights on the various population segments present while evaluating distinct choice regimes for each of these segments. The segmentation approach addresses two concerns: (1) ensures that the parameters are estimated employing the full sample for each segment while using all the population records for model estimation, and (2) provides valuable insights on how the exogenous variables affect segmentation. An Expectation–Maximization algorithm is proposed to address the challenges of estimating the resulting endogenous segmentation based econometric model. A prediction procedure to employ the estimated latent MDCEV models for forecasting is also developed. The proposed model is estimated using data from 2009 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) for the New York region. The results of the model estimates and prediction exercises illustrate the benefits of employing an endogenous segmentation based MDCEV model. The challenges associated with the estimation of latent MDCEV models are also documented.


      PubDate: 2013-12-03T14:16:14Z
       
  • Sampling of alternatives in Logit Mixture models
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 58
      Author(s): C. Angelo Guevara , Moshe E. Ben-Akiva
      Employing a strategy of sampling of alternatives is necessary for various transportation models that have to deal with large choice-sets. In this article, we propose a method to obtain consistent, asymptotically normal and relatively efficient estimators for Logit Mixture models while sampling alternatives. Our method is an extension of previous results for Logit and MEV models. We show that the practical application of the proposed method for Logit Mixture can result in a Naïve approach, in which the kernel is replaced by the usual sampling correction for Logit. We give theoretical support for previous applications of the Naïve approach, showing not only that it yields consistent estimators, but also providing its asymptotic distribution for proper hypothesis testing. We illustrate the proposed method using Monte Carlo experimentation and real data. Results provide further evidence that the Naïve approach is suitable and practical. The article concludes by summarizing the findings of this research, assessing their potential impact, and suggesting extensions of the research in this area.


      PubDate: 2013-12-03T14:16:14Z
       
  • Formulating the within-day dynamic stochastic traffic assignment problem
           from a Bayesian perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 59
      Author(s): Chong Wei , Yasuo Asakura , Takamasa Iryo
      This study proposes a formulation of the within-day dynamic stochastic traffic assignment problem. Considering the stochastic nature of route choice behavior, we treat the solution to the assignment problem as the conditional joint distribution of route traffic, given that the network is in dynamic stochastic user equilibrium. We acquire the conditional joint probability distribution using Bayes’ theorem. A Metropolis–Hastings sampling scheme is developed to estimate the characteristics (e.g., mean and variance) of the route traffic. The proposed formulation has no special requirements for the traffic flow models and user behavior models, and so is easily implemented.


      PubDate: 2013-12-03T14:16:14Z
       
  • Estimating GEV models with censored data
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 58
      Author(s): Jeffrey P. Newman , Mark E. Ferguson , Laurie A. Garrow
      We examine the problem of estimating parameters for Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) models when one or more alternatives are censored in the sample data, i.e., all decision makers who choose these censored alternatives are excluded from the sample; however, information about the censored alternatives is still available. This problem is common in marketing and revenue management applications, and is essentially an extreme form of choice-based sampling. We review estimators typically used with GEV models, describe why many of these estimators cannot be used for these censored samples, and present two approaches that can be used to estimate parameters associated with censored alternatives. We detail necessary conditions for the identification of parameters associated exclusively with the utility of censored alternatives. These conditions are derived for single-level nested logit, multi-level nested logit and cross-nested logit models. One of the more surprising results shows that alternative specific constants for multiple censored alternatives that belong to the same nest can still be separately identified in nested logit models. Empirical examples based on simulated datasets demonstrate the large-sample consistency of estimators and provide insights into data requirements needed to estimate these models for finite samples.


      PubDate: 2013-12-03T14:16:14Z
       
  • Ferry service network design with stochastic demand under user equilibrium
           flows
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
      Author(s): Kun An , Hong K. Lo
      This paper develops a service reliability-based formulation for ferry service network design with stochastic demand under user equilibrium flows while considering two types of services, regular and ad hoc. Regular services operate with a fixed schedule; whereas ad hoc services are those subcontracted or outsourced to a third party and have a higher unit cost. Two ad hoc provision schemes are studied. Scheme A considers that the demand information is known in advance by passenger reservation, and the company makes use of this information to plan for ad hoc services. In Scheme B, the demand realization is only known as passengers arrive at the piers and the company calls upon ad hoc services in case of demand overflow. In Scheme A, we utilize the notion of service reliability (SR) to address the issue of demand uncertainty and formulate the problem as a two-phase stochastic program in which the schedule of regular services and ad hoc services are derived sequentially. The user equilibrium (UE) assignment with capacity constraint is formulated via a linear programming (LP) approach considering overflow delays. A SR-based gradient solution approach is developed to solve the model. Scheme B, as expected, requires more resources to operate, for which a SR-based non-linear model is developed. The value of reservation to the company is defined as the operating cost difference between these two schemes. We apply the methods to ferry service network design in Hong Kong, and then compare the UE (Scheme A) and system optimal (SO) solutions, in terms of service deployment and computation time, to contrast the solution quality arising from the inclusion of equilibrium flows. The value of advance reservation information between Scheme A and Scheme B is presented as well.


      PubDate: 2013-12-03T14:16:14Z
       
  • Finding most reliable paths on networks with correlated and shifted
           log–normal travel times
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 November 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
      Author(s): Karthik K. Srinivasan , A.A. Prakash , Ravi Seshadri
      There is a growing interest in modeling travel time uncertainty in transportation networks in addition to optimizing the reliability of travel times at the path and network level. This paper focuses on the analysis and optimization of travel time (including stopped delays) Reliability on the Urban Road Network in Chennai. Specifically, two objectives are investigated. The first objective involves the quantification of travel time reliability at the link and path level. In particular, the distribution of link travel times is quantified for the Chennai Urban road network using empirical data. The results indicate that the shifted log–normal distribution (SLN) reasonably represents link travel time for all facility types and relevant facility wise distribution parameters are estimated. Further, the resulting path travel time distribution is approximated by a SLN distribution, which is computationally less expensive than traditional Monte-Carlo estimation techniques with an acceptable compromise on accuracy. The second objective addresses the optimal reliability path problem on a network with SLN link travel times with general correlation structure. For this problem, it is shown that the sub-path optimality property of shortest path problems does not hold making traditional label-setting/label correcting algorithms inapplicable. Consequently, a sufficient optimality condition based on reliability bounds is established and a new network optimization algorithm is proposed and proof of correctness is presented. The convergence rate of the algorithm was shown to increase at every iteration under some mild conditions. The computational performance of the proposed algorithm is investigated using synthetic and real-world networks and found to be reasonably accurate.


      PubDate: 2013-11-29T12:58:13Z
       
  • Constraint reformulation and a Lagrangian relaxation-based solution
           algorithm for a least expected time path problem
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 59
      Author(s): Lixing Yang , Xuesong Zhou
      Using a sample-based representation scheme to capture spatial and temporal travel time correlations, this article constructs an integer programming model for finding the a priori least expected time paths. We explicitly consider the non-anticipativity constraint associated with the a priori path in a time-dependent and stochastic network, and propose a number of reformulations to establish linear inequalities that can be easily dualized by a Lagrangian relaxation solution approach. The relaxed model is further decomposed into two sub-problems, which can be solved directly by using a modified label-correcting algorithm and a simple single-value linear programming method. Several solution algorithms, including a sub-gradient method, a branch and bound method, and heuristics with additional constraints on Lagrangian multipliers, are proposed to improve solution quality and find approximate optimal solutions. The numerical experiments investigate the quality and computational efficiency of the proposed solution approach.


      PubDate: 2013-11-29T12:58:13Z
       
  • Unconstrained weibit stochastic user equilibrium model with extensions
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 59
      Author(s): Songyot Kitthamkesorn , Anthony Chen
      This study provides an unconstrained minimization program as an alternative formulation for the multinomial weibit (MNW) stochastic user equilibrium (SUE) model that explicitly considers the heterogeneous perception variances with respect to different trip lengths under congested conditions. Qualitative properties of the unconstrained minimization program are given to establish the equivalency and uniqueness of the MNW-SUE solution. The advantage of the unconstrained minimization programming formulation is that it allows the development of a link-based algorithm, which obviates path storage and enumeration. The methodological contributions lie in the derivation of the expected perceived travel cost (or the satisfaction function) that enables the development of an unconstrained MNW-SUE minimization program and a link-based stochastic loading mechanism combined with recent advances in line search strategies in the link-based algorithm. Numerical examples are also provided to illustrate the features of the MNW-SUE model and the link-based algorithm along with several extensions for future research.


      PubDate: 2013-11-21T23:06:36Z
       
  • A bi-objective user equilibrium model of travel time reliability in a road
           network
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
      Author(s): Judith Y.T. Wang , Matthias Ehrgott , Anthony Chen
      Travel time, travel time reliability and monetary cost have been empirically identified as the most important criteria influencing route choice behaviour. We concentrate on travel time and travel time reliability and review two prominent user equilibrium models incorporating these two factors. We discuss some shortcomings of these models and propose alternative bi-objective user equilibrium models that overcome the shortcomings. Finally, based on the observation that both models use standard deviation of travel time within their measure of travel time reliability, we propose a general travel time reliability bi-objective user equilibrium model. We prove that this model encompasses those discussed previously and hence forms a general framework for the study of reliability related user equilibrium. We demonstrate and validate our concepts on a small three-link example.


      PubDate: 2013-11-21T23:06:36Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 57




      PubDate: 2013-11-17T20:19:13Z
       
  • Door-to-door travel times in RP departure time choice models: An
           approximation method using GPS data
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 58
      Author(s): Stefanie Peer , Jasper Knockaert , Paul Koster , Yin-Yen Tseng , Erik T. Verhoef
      A common way to determine values of travel time and schedule delay is to estimate departure time choice models, using stated preference (SP) or revealed preference (RP) data. The latter are used less frequently, mainly because of the difficulties to collect the data required for the model estimation. One main requirement is knowledge of the (expected) travel times for both chosen and unchosen departure time alternatives. As the availability of such data is limited, most RP-based scheduling models only take into account travel times on trip segments rather than door-to-door travel times, or use very rough measures of door-to-door travel times. We show that ignoring the temporal and spatial variation of travel times, and, in particular, the correlation of travel times across links may lead to biased estimates of the value of time (VOT). To approximate door-to-door travel times for which no complete measurement is possible, we develop a method that relates travel times on links with continuous speed measurements to travel times on links where relatively infrequent GPS-based speed measurements are available. We use geographically weighted regression to estimate the location-specific relation between the speeds on these two types of links, which is then used for travel time prediction at different locations, days, and times of the day. This method is not only useful for the approximation of door-to-door travel times in departure time choice models, but is generally relevant for predicting travel times in situations where continuous speed measurements can be enriched with GPS data.


      PubDate: 2013-11-17T20:19:13Z
       
  • Publisher’s note
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological




      PubDate: 2013-11-10T04:21:36Z
       
  • Deconstructing delay: A non-parametric approach to analyzing delay changes
           in single server queuing systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 58
      Author(s): Amy Kim , Mark Hansen
      This paper introduces an empirically driven, non-parametric method to isolate and estimate the effects that changes in demand and changes in throughput have on delay – in particular, arrival and departure flight delay at airport runways. Classic queuing concepts were used to develop a method by which an intermediate, or counterfactual, queuing scenario could be constructed, to isolate the delay effects due to shifts in demand and throughput. This method includes the development of a stochastic throughput function that is based entirely on data and has three key features. Firstly, the function relies on non-parametric, empirically-based probability distributions of throughput counts. Secondly, facility capacity needs not be explicitly defined, as it is implicitly included in the probability distributions of throughput. Thirdly, the throughput performance function preserves the effect of factors that cause capacity (and, therefore, throughput) to fluctuate over a given period. Temporal sequences of high, moderate, and low capacity are maintained between the observed and counterfactual scenarios. The method was applied to a case study of the three major New York area airports of LaGuardia (LGA), Newark Liberty (EWR), and John F. Kennedy (JFK), using operational data extracted from the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA’s) Aviation System Performance Metrics (ASPM) database. The focus was on the peak summer travel seasons of 2006 and 2007, as these airports experienced record levels of delay in 2007. The results indicate that decreases in both demand and throughput were experienced at LGA and EWR, although the decreases in throughput had more significant effects on operational delays as they increased overall at these airports. At JFK, the increase in departure throughput was not sufficient to offset the increase in departure demands. For arrivals, demand increased and throughput decreased. These trends caused a significant growth in delay at JFK between 2006 and 2007.


      PubDate: 2013-11-10T04:21:36Z
       
  • Two-stage stochastic bilevel programming over a transportation network
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 58
      Author(s): S.M. Alizadeh , P. Marcotte , G. Savard
      We consider a two-stage stochastic extension of the bilevel pricing model introduced by Labbé et al. (1998). In the first stage, the leader sets tariffs on a subset of arcs of a transportation network, with the aim of maximizing profits while, at the lower level, flows are assigned to cheapest paths of a multicommodity transportation network. In the second stage, the situation repeats itself under the constraint that tariffs should not differ too widely from those set at the first stage, a condition that frequently arises in practice. We analyze properties of the model, provide numerical illustrations, and open avenues for further research into this area.


      PubDate: 2013-11-06T02:49:29Z
       
  • On the morning commute problem with bottleneck congestion and parking
           space constraints
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 58
      Author(s): Hai Yang , Wei Liu , Xiaolei Wang , Xiaoning Zhang
      Morning commuters choose their departure times based on a combination of factors—the chances of running into bottleneck congestion, the likely schedule delays, and parking space availability. This study investigates the morning commute problem with both bottleneck congestion and parking space constraints. In particular, it considers the situation when some commuters have reserved parking spots while others have to compete for public ones on a first-come-first-served basis. Unlike the traditional pure bottleneck model, the rush-hour dynamic traffic pattern with a binding parking capacity constraint varies with the relative proportions of the two classes of commuters. It is found that an appropriate combination of reserved and unreserved parking spots can temporally relieve traffic congestion at the bottleneck and hence reduce the total system cost, because commuters without a reserved parking spot are compelled to leave home earlier in order to secure a public parking spot. System performance is quantified in terms of the relative proportions of the two classes of commuters and is compared with those in the extreme cases when all auto commuters have to compete for parking and when none of them have to compete for one.


      PubDate: 2013-11-06T02:49:29Z
       
  • Selected articles from the 13th conference of the International
           Association of Travel Behavior Research (IATBR)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
      Author(s): Abdul Rawoof Pinjari , Khandker Nurul Habib , Eric J. Miller



      PubDate: 2013-11-02T00:40:32Z
       
  • Optimization models for differentiating quality of service levels in
           probabilistic network capacity design problems
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 58
      Author(s): Siqian Shen , Zhihao Chen
      This paper develops various chance-constrained models for optimizing the probabilistic network design problem (PNDP), where we differentiate the quality of service (QoS) and measure the related network performance under uncertain demand. The upper level problem of PNDP designs continuous/discrete link capacities shared by multi-commodity flows, and the lower level problem differentiates the corresponding QoS for demand satisfaction, to prioritize customers and/or commodities. We consider PNDP variants that have either fixed flows (formulated at the upper level) or recourse flows (at the lower level) according to different applications. We transform each probabilistic model into a mixed-integer program, and derive polynomial-time algorithms for special cases with single-row chance constraints. The paper formulates benchmark stochastic programming models by either enforcing to meet all demand or penalizing unmet demand via a linear penalty function. We compare different models and approaches by testing randomly generated network instances and an instance built on the Sioux–Falls network. Numerical results demonstrate the computational efficacy of the solution approaches and derive managerial insights.


      PubDate: 2013-11-02T00:40:32Z
       
  • Simulation based population synthesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 October 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
      Author(s): Bilal Farooq , Michel Bierlaire , Ricardo Hurtubia , Gunnar Flötteröd
      Microsimulation of urban systems evolution requires synthetic population as a key input. Currently, the focus is on treating synthesis as a fitting problem and thus various techniques have been developed, including Iterative Proportional Fitting (IPF) and Combinatorial Optimization based techniques. The key shortcomings of these procedures include: (a) fitting of one contingency table, while there may be other solutions matching the available data (b) due to cloning rather than true synthesis of the population, losing the heterogeneity that may not have been captured in the microdata (c) over reliance on the accuracy of the data to determine the cloning weights (d) poor scalability with respect to the increase in number of attributes of the synthesized agents. In order to overcome these shortcomings, we propose a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation based approach. Partial views of the joint distribution of agent’s attributes that are available from various data sources can be used to simulate draws from the original distribution. The real population from Swiss census is used to compare the performance of simulation based synthesis with the standard IPF. The standard root mean square error statistics indicated that even the worst case simulation based synthesis (SRMSE=0.35) outperformed the best case IPF synthesis (SRMSE=0.64). We also used this methodology to generate the synthetic population for Brussels, Belgium where the data availability was highly limited.


      PubDate: 2013-10-25T01:26:32Z
       
  • Daily activity pattern recognition by using support vector machines with
           multiple classes
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 58
      Author(s): Mahdieh Allahviranloo , Will Recker
      The focus of this paper is to learn the daily activity engagement patterns of travelers using Support Vector Machines (SVMs), a modeling approach that is widely used in Artificial intelligence and Machine Learning. It is postulated that an individual’s choice of activities depends not only on socio-demographic characteristics but also on previous activities of individual on the same day. In the paper, Markov Chain models are used to study the sequential choice of activities. The dependencies among activity type, activity sequence and socio-demographic data are captured by employing hidden Markov models. In order to learn model parameters, we use sequential multinomial logit models (MNL) and multiclass Support Vector Machines (K-SVM) with two different dependency structures. In the first dependency structure, it is assumed that type of activity at time ‘t’ depends on the last previous activity and socio-demographic data, whereas in the second structure we assume that activity selection at time ‘t’ depends on all of the individual’s previous activity types on the same day and socio-demographic characteristics. The models are applied to data drawn from a set of California households and a comparison of the accuracy of estimation of activity types and their sequence in the agenda, indicates the superiority of K-SVM models over MNL. Additionally, we show that accuracy in estimating activity patterns increases using different sets of explanatory variables or tuning parameters of the kernel function in K-SVM.


      PubDate: 2013-10-20T10:13:40Z
       
  • Modeling the time to the next primary and secondary incident: A
           semi-Markov stochastic process approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 58
      Author(s): ManWo Ng , Asad Khattak , Wayne K. Talley
      Incidents are notorious for their delays to road users. Secondary incidents – i.e., incidents that occur within a certain temporal and spatial distance from the first/primary incident – can further complicate clearance and add to delays. While there are numerous studies on the empirical analysis of incident data, to the best of our knowledge, an analytical model that can be used for primary and secondary incident management planning that explicitly considers both the stochastic as well as the dynamic nature of traffic does not exist. In this paper, we present such a complementary model using a semi-Markov stochastic process approach. The model allows for unprecedented generality in the modeling of stochastics during incidents on freeways. Particularly, we relax the oftentimes restrictive Poisson assumption (in the modeling of vehicle arrivals, vehicle travel times, and incidence occurrence and recovery times) and explicitly model secondary incidents. Numerical case studies are provided to illustrate the proposed model.


      PubDate: 2013-10-20T10:13:40Z
       
  • A cost-based maritime container assignment model
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 58
      Author(s): Michael G.H. Bell , Xin Liu , Jeremy Rioult , Panagiotis Angeloudis
      A recently proposed frequency-based maritime container assignment model (Bell et al., 2011) seeks an assignment of full and empty containers to paths that minimises expected container travel time, whereas containers are in practice more likely to be assigned to minimise expected cost. A cost-based container assignment model is proposed here. It is assumed that routes and service frequencies are given so ship operating costs are also fixed. The objective is to assign containers to routes to minimise container handling costs, container rental and inventory costs. The constraints in the model are extended to include route as well as port capacities. It is shown that the problem remains a linear program. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the properties of the model. The paper concludes by considering the many applications of the proposed maritime container assignment model.


      PubDate: 2013-10-20T10:13:40Z
       
  • The value of service reliability
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 58
      Author(s): Vincent Benezech , Nicolas Coulombel
      This paper studies the impact of service frequency and reliability on the choice of departure time and the travel cost of transit users. When the user has (α, β, γ) scheduling preferences, we show that the optimal head start decreases with service reliability, as expected. It does not necessarily decrease with service frequency, however. We derive the value of service headway (VoSH) and the value of service reliability (VoSR), which measure the marginal effect on the expected travel cost of a change in the mean and in the standard deviation of headways, respectively. The VoSH and the VoSR complete the value of time and the value of reliability for the economic appraisal of public transit projects by capturing the specific link between headways, waiting times, and congestion. An empirical illustration is provided, which considers two mass transit lines located in the Paris area.


      PubDate: 2013-10-20T10:13:40Z
       
  • Confidence intervals of willingness-to-pay for random coefficient logit
           models
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
      Author(s): Michiel C.J. Bliemer , John M. Rose
      Random coefficient logit (RCL) models containing random parameters are increasingly used for modelling travel choices. Willingness-to-pay (WTP) measures, such as the value of travel time savings (VTTS) are, in the case of RCL models estimated in preference space, ratios of random parameters. In this paper we apply the Delta method to compute the confidence intervals of such WTP measures, taking into account the variance–covariance matrix of the estimates of the distributional parameters. The same Delta method can be applied when the model is estimated in WTP space. Compared to simulation methods such as proposed by Krinsky and Robb, the Delta method is able to avoid most of the simulations by deriving partly analytical expressions for the standard errors. Examples of such computations are shown for different combinations of random distributions.


      PubDate: 2013-10-16T16:14:32Z
       
  • Transition choice probabilities and welfare analysis in random utility
           models with imperfect before–after correlation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
      Author(s): Paolo Delle Site , Marco Valerio Salucci
      Welfare in random utility models is used to be analysed on the basis of only the expectation of the compensating variation. De Palma and Kilani (De Palma, A., Kilani, K., 2011. Transition choice probabilities and welfare analysis in additive random utility models. Economic Theory 46(3), 427–454) have developed a framework for conditional welfare analysis which provides analytic expressions of transition choice probabilities and associated welfare measures. The contribution is of practical relevance in transportation because it allows to compute shares of shifters and non-shifters and attribute benefits to them in a rigorous way. In De Palma and Kilani (2011) the usual assumption of unchanged random terms before and after is made. The paper generalises the framework for conditional welfare analysis to cases of imperfect before–after association of the random terms. The joint before–after distribution of the random terms is introduced with postulated properties in terms of marginal distributions and covariance matrix. Analytic expressions, based on the probability density function and the cumulative distribution function of the joint before–after distribution, and simulation procedures for computation of the transition choice probabilities and the conditional expectations of the compensating variation are provided. Results are specialised for multinomial logit and probit. In the case without income effects, it is proved that the unconditional expectation of the compensating variation depends only on the marginal distributions. The theory is illustrated by a numerical example which refers to a multinomial logit applied to the choice of the transport mode with two specifications, one without and one with income effects. Results show that transition probabilities and conditional welfare measures are affected significantly by the assumption on the before–after correlation. The variability in the transition probabilities across transitions tends to decrease as the before–after correlation decreases. In the extreme case of independent random terms, the conditional expectations of the compensating variation tend to be close to the unconditional expectation.


      PubDate: 2013-10-12T23:19:55Z
       
  • Demand uncertainty and airport capacity choice
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 57
      Author(s): Yibin Xiao , Xiaowen Fu , Anming Zhang
      This study analyzes the effects of demand uncertainty on airport capacity choices. It shows that demand uncertainty will not change optimal capacity choice if demand variation is low and capacity cost is high; otherwise the optimal airport capacity under demand uncertainty will be larger than the case when a deterministic mean demand is considered. These conclusions are robust with respect to the different market structures considered in this study and hold for both profit-maximizing and welfare-maximizing airports. The moderating effects of commercial revenue, capital cost, and airport operation cost on airport capacity choice are qualitatively the same in the cases of uncertain demand and deterministic demand.


      PubDate: 2013-10-08T06:46:55Z
       
  • Designing heterogeneous sensor networks for estimating and predicting path
           travel time dynamics: An information-theoretic modeling approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 57
      Author(s): Tao Xing , Xuesong Zhou , Jeffrey Taylor
      With a particular emphasis on the end-to-end travel time prediction problem, this paper proposes an information-theoretic sensor location model that aims to minimize total travel time uncertainties from a set of point, point-to-point and probe sensors in a traffic network. Based on a Kalman filtering structure, the proposed measurement and uncertainty quantification models explicitly take into account several important sources of errors in the travel time estimation/prediction process, such as the uncertainty associated with prior travel time estimates, measurement errors and sampling errors. By considering only critical paths and limited time intervals, this paper selects a path travel time uncertainty criterion to construct a joint sensor location and travel time estimation/prediction framework with a unified modeling of both recurring and non-recurring traffic conditions. An analytical determinant maximization model and heuristic beam-search algorithm are used to find an effective lower bound and solve the combinatorial sensor selection problem. A number of illustrative examples and one case study are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.


      PubDate: 2013-10-08T06:46:55Z
       
  • Tradable credit schemes on networks with mixed equilibrium behaviors
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 57
      Author(s): Fang He , Yafeng Yin , Nima Shirmohammadi , Yu (Marco) Nie
      This paper analyzes and designs tradable credit schemes on networks with two types of players, namely, a finite number of Cournot–Nash (CN) players and an infinite number of (infinitesimal) Wardrop-equilibrium (WE) players. We first show that there are nonnegative anonymous credit schemes that yield system optimum, when transaction costs are not considered. We then analyze how transaction costs would affect the trading and route-choice behaviors of both CN and WE players, and discuss the equilibrium conditions on the coupled credit market and transportation network in the presence of transaction costs. A variational inequality is formulated to describe the equilibrium and is subsequently applied to a numerical example to assess the impacts of transaction costs on a tradable credit system. As expected, transaction costs reduce the trading volume of credits and change their market price. They also change the way how players respond to credit charges in their route choices and cause efficiency losses to the credit schemes that are previously designed without considering transaction costs. With transaction costs, travel costs of WE players will likely increase while those of CN players may decrease due to their higher adaptability in routing strategies.


      PubDate: 2013-10-05T07:20:33Z
       
  • Ridesharing: The state-of-the-art and future directions
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 57
      Author(s): Masabumi Furuhata , Maged Dessouky , Fernando Ordóñez , Marc-Etienne Brunet , Xiaoqing Wang , Sven Koenig
      Although ridesharing can provide a wealth of benefits, such as reduced travel costs, congestion, and consequently less pollution, there are a number of challenges that have restricted its widespread adoption. In fact, even at a time when improving communication systems provide real-time detailed information that could be used to facilitate ridesharing, the share of work trips that use ridesharing has decreased by almost 10% in the past 30years. In this paper we present a classification to understand the key aspects of existing ridesharing systems. The objective is to present a framework that can help identify key challenges in the widespread use of ridesharing and thus foster the development of effective formal ridesharing mechanisms that would overcome these challenges and promote massification.


      PubDate: 2013-09-30T12:14:01Z
       
  • A practically tractable expression of the covariances of the Cross-Nested
           Logit model
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 57
      Author(s): Vittorio Marzano , Andrea Papola , Fulvio Simonelli , Roberta Vitillo
      This paper proposes a practically tractable mathematical procedure for the calculation of the covariances underlying whatever given Cross-Nested Logit (CNL) model, based on the variance of a one-dimensional random variable, whose cumulative distribution function and density probability function are given in closed form. This allows expressing the CNL covariances as a function of just a one-dimensional integral, which can be evaluated easily and effectively by means of standard numerical techniques, implementable also in basic computer spreadsheets. Firstly, a formal theoretical proof of the procedure is illustrated. Then, a comparison with the calculations performed by Marzano and Papola [Marzano, V., Papola, ., 2008. On the covariance structure of the Cross-Nested Logit model. Transportation Research B 42(2), 83–98] is proposed, and details about the practical implementation of the procedure are discussed. Finally, estimation of the CNL model in contexts with prior expectations on covariances/correlations is addressed practically, thanks to the simplification achieved in the calculation of the CNL covariances.


      PubDate: 2013-09-26T23:53:06Z
       
  • Equilibrium at a bottleneck when long-run and short-run scheduling
           preferences diverge
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 57
      Author(s): Stefanie Peer , Erik T. Verhoef
      We consider the use of a Vickrey road bottleneck in the context of repetitive scheduling choices, distinguishing between long-run and short-run scheduling preferences. The preference structure reflects that there is a distinction between the (exogenous) ‘long-run preferred arrival time’, which would be relevant if consumers were unconstrained in the scheduling of their activities, and the ‘short-run preferred arrival time’, which is the result of an adaptation of travel routines in the face of constraints caused by, in particular, time-varying congestion levels. We characterize the unpriced equilibrium, the social optimum as well as second-best situations where the availability of the pricing instruments is restricted. All of them entail a dispersed distribution of short-run preferred arrival times. We obtain the intriguing results that the dispersion is lower in the social optimum than in the unpriced equilibrium, and that the application of first-best short-run tolls does not induce efficient long-run choices of travel routines.


      PubDate: 2013-09-26T23:53:06Z
       
 
 
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