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  Subjects -> TRANSPORTATION (Total: 132 journals)
    - AIR TRANSPORT (5 journals)
    - AUTOMOBILES (19 journals)
    - RAILROADS (4 journals)
    - ROADS AND TRAFFIC (5 journals)
    - SHIPS AND SHIPPING (15 journals)
    - TRANSPORTATION (84 journals)

TRANSPORTATION (84 journals)

Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 16)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bitácora Urbano-Territorial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Economics of Transportation     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
EURO Journal of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
European Transport Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IATSS Research     Open Access  
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IET Intelligent Transport Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Innovation – Transport     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Logistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Electronic Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Micro-Nano Scale Transport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Mobile Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Ocean Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Services Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Transportation Research Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Transport Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Transport History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Transport Literature     Open Access  
Journal of Transportation Safety & Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Transportation Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Transportation Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Waterway Port Coastal and Ocean Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Les Dossiers du Grihl     Open Access  
Logistique & Management     Full-text available via subscription  
Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology     Open Access  
Modern Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pervasive and Mobile Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
PS: Political Science & Politics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Public Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Recherche Transports Sécurité     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Revista Transporte y Territorio     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SourceOCDE Transports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Streetnotes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Synthesis Lectures on Mobile and Pervasive Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tire Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Transactions on Transport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Transport and Telecommunication Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Transport in Porous Media     Hybrid Journal  
Transport Reviews: A Transnational Transdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transportation Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Transportation Research Part B: Methodological     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Transportation Research Record : Journal of the Transportation Research Board     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Transportation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
TRANSPORTES     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transportmetrica B : Transport Dynamics     Hybrid Journal  
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Urban, Planning and Transport Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Транспортні системи та технології перевезень     Open Access  
Journal Cover Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
   [21 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0191-2615
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2563 journals]   [SJR: 3.08]   [H-I: 60]
  • System optimal dynamic traffic assignment: Properties and solution
           procedures in the case of a many-to-one network
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 65
      Author(s): Wei Shen , H.M. Zhang
      Thanks to its high dimensionality and a usually non-convex constraint set, system optimal dynamic traffic assignment remains one of the most challenging problems in transportation research. This paper identifies two fundamental properties of the problem and uses them to design an efficient solution procedure. We first show that the non-convexity of the problem can be circumvented by first solving a relaxed problem and then applying a traffic holding elimination procedure to obtain the solution(s) of the original problem. To efficiently solve the relaxed problem, we explore the relationship between the relaxed problems based on different traffic flow models (PQ, SQ, CTM) and a minimal cost flow (MCF) problem for a special space-expansion network. It is shown that all the four problem formulations produce the same minimal system cost and share one common solution which does not involve inside queues in the network. Efficient solution algorithms such as the network simplex method can be applied to solve the MCF problem and identify such an optimal traffic pattern. Numerical examples are also presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed solution procedure.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T05:10:10Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 60




      PubDate: 2014-04-28T05:10:10Z
       
  • Estimating the value of travel time and of travel time reliability in road
           networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
      Author(s): Kenetsu Uchida
      This study proposes two network models which simultaneously estimate the value of travel time and of travel time reliability based on the risk-averse driver’s route choice behavior. The first model is formulated as a utility maximization problem under monotonic and separable link travel times, whereas the second model is formulated as a utility maximization problem under non-monotonic and non-separable link travel times. The proposed models have the same structure as a user equilibrium (UE) traffic assignment problem with elastic demand. It is shown that the first model, which addresses independent stochastic capacity, is formulated as an optimization problem with a unique solution and is solved by using an algorithm for a UE traffic assignment problem with fixed demand. The second model, which addresses both stochastic Origin–Destination (O–D) flow and stochastic link capacity, is formulated as a nonlinear complementary problem. O–D demand functions formulated in the proposed models are derived from the utility maximization behavior of the driver in the network. Therefore, the network models proposed in this study are consistent with those of studies that address the value of travel time and of travel time reliability based on utility maximization behavior without considering the driver’s route choice. Numerical experiments are carried out to demonstrate the models presented in this study.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T05:10:10Z
       
  • On the stochastic network equilibrium with heterogeneous choice inertia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
      Author(s): Chi Xie , Zugang Liu
      As an alternative effort for quantifying recurrent traffic dynamics caused by network variations and analyzing the impact on the network performance from information provision, we describe in this paper a new equilibrium modeling scheme for stochastic networks with a finite number of states, which takes into account the behavioral inertia. A finite-dimensional variational inequality model is formulated to describe the cross-state equilibrium conditions among heterogeneous travelers with different inertial degrees and knowledge structures. Our model allows for traveler’s partial understanding and inertial effect in perceiving varying network conditions and provides a different perspective (from existing stochastic and Markovian network equilibrium approaches) to describe traffic flow variations across multiple network scenarios. A disaggregate simplicial decomposition algorithm is suggested to solve the variational inequality problem. Numerical results from a few stochastic network examples demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of our methodology in modeling the inertia phenomenon within route choice behavior and the efficacy of using traveler information systems to eliminate the inertia effect.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T05:10:10Z
       
  • The train platforming problem: The infrastructure management company
           perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 61
      Author(s): P. Sels , P. Vansteenwegen , T. Dewilde , D. Cattrysse , B. Waquet , A. Joubert
      If railway companies ask for station capacity numbers, their underlying question is in fact one about the platformability of extra trains. Train platformability depends not only on the infrastructure, buffer times, and the desired departure and arrival times of the trains, but also on route durations, which depend on train speeds and lengths, as well as on conflicts between routes at any given time. We consider all these factors in this paper. We assume a current train set and a future one, where the second is based on the expected traffic increase through the station considered. The platforming problem is about assigning a platform to each train, together with suitable in- and out-routes. Route choices lead to different route durations and imply different in-route-begin and out-route-end times. Our module platforms the maximum possible weighted sum of trains in the current and future train set. The resulting number of trains can be seen as the realistic capacity consumption of the schedule. Our goal function allows for current trains to be preferably allocated to their current platforms. Our module is able to deal with real stations and train sets in a few seconds and has been fully integrated by Infrabel, the Belgian Infrastructure Management Company, in their application called Ocapi, which is now used to platform existing and projected train sets and to determine the capacity consumption.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T05:10:10Z
       
  • On the continuum approximation of the on-and-off signal control on dynamic
           traffic networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 61
      Author(s): Ke Han , Vikash V. Gayah , Benedetto Piccoli , Terry L. Friesz , Tao Yao
      In the modeling of traffic networks, a signalized junction is typically treated using a binary variable to model the on-and-off nature of signal operation. While accurate, the use of binary variables can cause problems when studying large networks with many intersections. Instead, the signal control can be approximated through a continuum approach where the on-and-off control variable is replaced by a continuous priority parameter. Advantages of such approximation include elimination of the need for binary variables, lower time resolution requirements, and more flexibility and robustness in a decision environment. It also resolves the issue of discontinuous travel time functions arising from the context of dynamic traffic assignment. Despite these advantages in application, it is not clear from a theoretical point of view how accurate is such continuum approach; i.e., to what extent is this a valid approximation for the on-and-off case. The goal of this paper is to answer these basic research questions and provide further guidance for the application of such continuum signal model. In particular, by employing the Lighthill–Whitham–Richards model (Lighthill and Whitham, 1955; Richards, 1956) on a traffic network, we investigate the convergence of the on-and-off signal model to the continuum model in regimes of diminishing signal cycles. We also provide numerical analyses on the continuum approximation error when the signal cycles are not infinitesimal. As we explain, such convergence results and error estimates depend on the type of fundamental diagram assumed and whether or not vehicle spillback occurs to the signalized intersection in question. Finally, a traffic signal optimization problem is presented and solved which illustrates the unique advantages of applying the continuum signal model instead of the on-and-off model.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T05:10:10Z
       
  • Multimodal pricing and optimal design of urban public transport: The
           interplay between traffic congestion and bus crowding
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 61
      Author(s): Alejandro Tirachini , David A. Hensher , John M. Rose
      The interplay between congestion and crowding externalities in the design of urban bus systems is identified and analysed. A multimodal social welfare maximisation model with spatially disaggregated demand is developed, in which users choose between travelling by bus, car or walking in a transport corridor. Optimisation variables are bus fare, congestion toll, bus frequency, bus size, fare collection system, bus boarding policy and the number of seats inside buses. We find that optimal bus frequency results from a trade-off between the level of congestion inside buses, i.e., passengers’ crowding, and the level of congestion outside buses, i.e., the effect of frequency on slowing down both buses and cars in mixed-traffic roads. A numerical application shows that optimal frequency is quite sensitive to the assumptions on crowding costs, impact of buses on traffic congestion, and overall congestion level. If crowding matters to users, buses should have as many seats as possible, up to a minimum area that must be left free of seats. If for any other reason planners decide to have buses with fewer seats than optimal (e.g., to increase bus capacity), frequency should be increased to compensate for the discomfort imposed on public transport users. Finally, the consideration of crowding externalities (on both seating and standing) imposes a sizeable increase in the optimal bus fare, and consequently, a reduction of the optimal bus subsidy.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T05:10:10Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 61




      PubDate: 2014-04-28T05:10:10Z
       
  • Socially-oriented flight scheduling and fleet assignment model with an
           application to Norway
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 61
      Author(s): João P. Pita , Nicole Adler , António P. Antunes
      One of the direct results of air transport liberalization has been the development of publicly supported links on thin markets in remote regions when service is deemed necessary. We present a flight scheduling and fleet assignment optimization model that may assist public authorities to establish the level of service requirements for subsidized air transport networks. With the results of the optimization model, a welfare analysis of the network is carried out, distinguishing between passenger, airline, airport and government surpluses. The optimization model and subsequent welfare analysis were applied to the PSO network of Norway, which is currently the largest in Europe. The results indicate that improvements over the current network can be obtained for all relevant stakeholders simultaneously, with savings in the order of $1.2 million daily.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T05:10:10Z
       
  • Transit assignment: Approach-based formulation, extragradient method, and
           paradox
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 62
      Author(s): W.Y. Szeto , Y. Jiang
      This paper uses the concept of approach proportion to propose a novel variational inequality (VI) formulation of the frequency-based transit assignment problem. The approach proportion is defined as the proportion of passengers leaving a node through its outgoing link. To solve the VI problem, an extragradient method with adaptive stepsizes is developed. Unlike the existing methods for solving the frequency-based transit assignment problem, the convergence of our method requires only the pseudomonotone and Lipschitz continuous properties of the mapping function in VI, and it is not necessary for the Lipschitz constant to be known in advance. A Braess-like paradox in transit assignment is also discussed, where providing new lines to a transit network or increasing the frequency of an existing line may not improve the system performance in terms of expected total system travel cost. Various numerical examples are given to illustrate some paradox phenomena and to test the performance of our proposed algorithm.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T05:10:10Z
       
  • Parking reservation policies in one-way vehicle sharing systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 62
      Author(s): Mor Kaspi , Tal Raviv , Michal Tzur
      In this study, we propose improving the performance of one-way vehicle sharing systems by incorporating parking reservation policies. In particular, we study a parking space reservation policy in which, upon rental, the users are required to state their destination and the system then reserves a parking space for them until they arrive at their destinations. We measure the performance of the vehicle sharing system by the total excess time users spend in the system. The excess time is defined as the difference between the actual journey time and the shortest possible travel time from the desired origin to the desired destination. A Markovian model of the system is formulated. Using this model, we prove that under realistic demand rates, this policy improves the performance of the system. This result is confirmed via a simulation study of a large real system, Tel-O-Fun, the bike-sharing system in Tel-Aviv. For all the tested demand scenarios, the parking reservation policy reduces the total excess time users spend in the system, with a relative reduction varying between 14% and 34%. Through the simulation we examine additional service-oriented performance measures and demonstrate that they all improve under the parking reservation policy.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T05:10:10Z
       
  • Symbiotic network design strategies in the presence of coexisting
           transportation networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 62
      Author(s): Joseph Y.J. Chow , Hamid R. Sayarshad
      As urbanization increases and new business models for transportation and mobility arise, the design of transportation networks should no longer be done in a vacuum. Design interactions between multiple networks have largely been analyzed either as non-cooperative games with non-unique Nash equilibria, even if assumptions needed for such games are not satisfied, or using knowledge-based or agent-based methods that cannot explicitly quantify network sensitivities. A new framework is proposed to model network design in the presence of coexisting networks using multiobjective optimization in a novel manner to identify symbiotic relationships. The framework does not require strict assumptions about availability of information or timing of decisions, and it can be used to examine network sensitivities that knowledge-based methods cannot. A bundled discount pricing problem and subsidy problem are derived from the symbiotic relationships. The framework is applied to formulate a symbiotic bike-sharing network design problem in the presence of a coexisting transit system as a departure-time-elastic multicommodity flow problem. A small network example demonstrates the potential dependency between transit systems and bike-sharing systems for the first time, and the existence of an optimal discount value for considering bundled fares. A larger bike-sharing network, BIXI, is examined in the presence of the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) in downtown Toronto to address the question of subsidy. It is found that BIXI is operating in a relatively transit-friendly state, and subsidy by TTC to maintain a status quo in Toronto may be worth considering if the cost of subsidy is less than a conservative average reduction achieved of 2.43 units of transit-only user cost for every 1 unit increase of bike-sharing cost.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T05:10:10Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 62




      PubDate: 2014-04-28T05:10:10Z
       
  • Macroscopic Fundamental Diagrams: A cross-comparison of estimation methods
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 62
      Author(s): Ludovic Leclercq , Nicolas Chiabaut , Béatrice Trinquier
      This paper aims to cross-compare existing estimation methods for the Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram. Raw data are provided by a mesoscopic simulation tool for two typical networks that mimic an urban corridor and a meshed urban center. We mainly focus on homogenous network loading in order to fairly cross-compare the different methods with the analytical reference. It appears that the only way to estimate the MFD without bias is to have the full information of vehicle trajectories over the network and to apply Edie’s definitions. Combining information from probes (mean network speed) and loop detectors (mean network flow) also provides accurate results even for low sampling rate (<10%). Loop detectors fail to provide a good estimation for mean network speed or density because they cannot capture the traffic spatial dynamics over links. This paper proposes a simple adjustment technic in order to reduce the discrepancy when only loop detectors are available.
      Graphical abstract image Highlights

      PubDate: 2014-04-28T05:10:10Z
       
  • Waiting for public transport services: Queueing analysis with balking and
           reneging behaviors of impatient passengers
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 63
      Author(s): Yibing Wang , Jingqiu Guo , Avishai (Avi) Ceder , Graham Currie , Wei Dong , Hao Yuan
      Queues of batch arrivals and bulk service including balking and reneging behaviors of customers are commonly observed in real life. This study formulates queues of this type using compound Poisson processes and determines some key probabilistic measures. Analytical investigation is undertaken yielding a range of mathematical results. The developed mathematical model and approaches apply to a variety of practical queueing processes that are featured with bulk queues, balking, and reneging. A bus bridging response to rail disruption is considered as an application example. And large-scale Monte-Carlo simulations are conducted to demonstrate the mathematical results.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T05:10:10Z
       
  • A multivariate hurdle count data model with an endogenous multiple
           discrete–continuous selection system
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 63
      Author(s): Chandra R. Bhat , Sebastian Astroza , Raghuprasad Sidharthan , Prerna C. Bhat
      This paper proposes a new econometric formulation and an associated estimation method for multivariate count data that are themselves observed conditional on a participation selection system that takes a multiple discrete–continuous model structure. This leads to a joint model system of a multivariate count and a multiple discrete–continuous selection system in a hurdle-type model. The model is applied to analyze the participation and time investment of households in out-of-home activities by activity purpose, along with the frequency of participation in each selected activity. The results suggest that the number of episodes of activities as well as the time investment in those activities may be more of a lifestyle- and lifecycle-driven choice than one related to the availability of opportunities for activity participation.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T05:10:10Z
       
  • Joint optimization of freight facility location and pavement
           infrastructure rehabilitation under network traffic equilibrium
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 63
      Author(s): Leila Hajibabai , Yun Bai , Yanfeng Ouyang
      Establishment of industry facilities often induces heavy vehicle traffic that exacerbates congestion and pavement deterioration in the neighboring highway network. While planning facility locations and land use developments, it is important to take into account the routing of freight vehicles, the impact on public traffic, as well as the planning of pavement rehabilitation. This paper presents an integrated facility location model that simultaneously considers traffic routing under congestion and pavement rehabilitation under deterioration. The objective is to minimize the total cost due to facility investment, transportation cost including traffic delay, and pavement life-cycle costs. Building upon analytical results on optimal pavement rehabilitation, the problem is formulated into a bi-level mixed-integer non-linear program (MINLP), with facility location, freight shipment routing and pavement rehabilitation decisions in the upper level and traffic equilibrium in the lower level. This problem is then reformulated into an equivalent single-level MINLP based on Karush–Kuhn–Tucker (KKT) conditions and approximation by piece-wise linear functions. Numerical experiments on hypothetical and empirical network examples are conducted to show performance of the proposed algorithm and to draw managerial insights.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T05:10:10Z
       
  • An overview of recovery models and algorithms for real-time railway
           rescheduling
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 63
      Author(s): Valentina Cacchiani , Dennis Huisman , Martin Kidd , Leo Kroon , Paolo Toth , Lucas Veelenturf , Joris Wagenaar
      This paper presents an overview of recovery models and algorithms for real-time railway disturbance and disruption management. This area is currently an active research area in Operations Research, including real-time timetable rescheduling and real-time rescheduling of the rolling stock and crew duties. These topics are addressed in this paper. Also research dealing with the integration of more than one rescheduling phase is discussed. Currently, the developed methods have been tested mainly in an experimental setting, thereby showing promising results, both in terms of their solution quality and in terms of their computation times. The application of these models and algorithms in real-life railway systems will be instrumental for increasing the quality of the provided railway services, leading to an increased utilization of the involved railway systems.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T05:10:10Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 63




      PubDate: 2014-04-28T05:10:10Z
       
  • Real-time control of express pickup and delivery processes in a dynamic
           environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 63
      Author(s): Francesco Ferrucci , Stefan Bock
      In this paper we introduce the Dynamic Pickup and Delivery Problem with Real-Time Control (DPDPRC) in order to map urgent real-world transportation services. Specifically, the DPDPRC considers intra-day transportation services of express courier service companies and integrates real-world aspects that are crucial for a practical application. Vehicles have heterogeneous properties and operate on a detailed real road network. Various dynamic events that may occur unexpectedly during the day, such as new request arrivals, traffic congestion, and vehicle disturbances, are integrated. Because of the mentioned urgency, minimizing lateness at request locations is the primary objective. As a secondary objective, the minimization of vehicle operating costs is pursued. In order to adapt the transportation plan in response to dynamic events and enable a timely service of requests, a real-time control approach that performs plan adaptations simultaneous to the execution of the transportation service is applied. Plan adaptations are carried out by a Tabu Search algorithm whose search process is guided by a multi-stage neighborhood operator selection scheme which dynamically switches between intensification and diversification phases. We evaluate various test scenarios which comprise different occurrences of the dynamic events. Computational results show that a continuous adaptation of the transportation plan according to dynamic events improves the solution quality in many scenarios.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T05:10:10Z
       
  • Preference endogeneity in discrete choice models
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 64
      Author(s): Akshay Vij , Joan L. Walker
      Existing models of disaggregate decision-making assume that preferences, as indicated by taste parameters and choice sets, are characteristics of the decision-maker that are exogenous to the choice situation and stable over time. Though the assumption has allowed travel demand analysts to use these models to forecast changes in observable behavior in response to changes in the decision-making environment, the assumption has overlooked the influence of these changes on the preferences underlying observable behavior. As a consequence, the use of these models has been limited to forecasting horizons over which preferences can reasonably be assumed to be stable. We build on Latent Class Choice Models (LCCMs) to allow for preference endogeneity. Conventional LCCMs formulate class membership as some function of the decision-maker’s characteristics, but they ignore the impact of alternative attributes, which usually enter the class-specific choice models, on class membership. In this paper we introduce LCCMs with feedback from the class-specific choice models to the class membership model through the construct of consumer surplus. Class membership is hypothesized to be a function not only of the characteristics of the decision-maker but also of the consumer surplus offered by each class, which in turn is a function of alternative attributes, taste parameters and choice sets. The framework is applied to a case study on travel mode choice behavior. A comparison between LCCMs with feedback and traditional models that do not allow for preference endogeneity finds that the former performs better in terms of fit and offers greater behavioral insights, and that the latter can lead to biased forecasts.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T05:10:10Z
       
  • An energy-efficient scheduling and speed control approach for metro rail
           operations
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 64
      Author(s): Xiang Li , Hong K. Lo
      Due to increasing environmental concerns and energy prices, what is very important but has not been given due consideration is the energy efficiency of metro rail systems. Train energy-efficient operation consists of timetable optimization and speed control. The former synchronizes the accelerating and braking actions of trains to maximize the utilization of regenerative energy, and the latter controls the train driving strategy to minimize the tractive energy consumption under the timetable constraints. To achieve a better performance on the net energy consumption, i.e., the difference between the tractive energy consumption and the utilization of regenerative energy, this paper formulates an integrated energy-efficient operation model to jointly optimize the timetable and speed profile. We design a genetic algorithm to solve the model and present some numerical experiments based on the actual operation data of Beijing Metro Yizhuang Line of China. It is shown that a larger headway leads to smaller energy saving rate, and the maximum energy saving rate achieved is around 25% when we use the minimum allowable headway of 90s. In addition, compared with the two-step approach optimizing the timetable and speed profile separately, the integrated approach can reduce the net energy consumption around 20%.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T05:10:10Z
       
  • Reliable p-median facility location problem: two-stage robust models and
           algorithms
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 64
      Author(s): Yu An , Bo Zeng , Yu Zhang , Long Zhao
      In this paper, we propose a set of two-stage robust optimization models to design reliable p-median facility location networks subject to disruptions. We analyze their structural properties, and implement the column-and-constraint generation method with customized enhancement strategies, which is more effective than Benders cutting plane method. Numerical experiments are performed on real data and management insights on system design are presented. In particular, our study demonstrates the strong modeling capability of two-stage robust optimization scheme by including two practical issues, i.e., demand changes due to disruptions and facility capacities, which receive little attention in reliable distribution network design research. Results show the significant influence of the demand change on the network configuration.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T05:10:10Z
       
  • Analytical formulation and empirical evaluation of pre-signals for bus
           priority
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 64
      Author(s): S. Ilgin Guler , Monica Menendez
      One of the major causes of bus delays in urban environments are signalized intersections. A commonly used solution to give priority to buses at signalized intersections is to dedicate a lane for bus-use only. However this strategy can waste valuable green time at signals and impose additional delays to cars, especially when bus flows are low. Overall, the total person hours of delays in the system (i.e., buses and cars) can increase due to excessive delays experienced by car users. To this end, an additional signal upstream of the main signal, called a pre-signal, can be used to better utilize the capacity of the main signal while still providing bus priority to reduce the system-wide person hours of delays. The aim of this research is to analytically quantify and empirically evaluate the delays encountered by cars and buses with the use of pre-signals. The ultimate goal is to provide domains of applications for the proposed strategy. The paper presents analytical formulations to compute bus and car delays using queuing theory. The analytical models show that for a wide range of cases pre-signals can minimize the system-wide person hours of delays, as compared to dedicating a lane for bus-use only or operating buses and cars completely mixed. The analytical model is validated with empirical data collected at an existing pre-signal, which shows that the delay predictions of the model closely follow reality.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T05:10:10Z
       
  • A spatial Difference-in-Differences estimator to evaluate the effect of
           change in public mass transit systems on house prices
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 64
      Author(s): Jean Dubé , Diègo Legros , Marius Thériault , François Des Rosiers
      Evaluating the impact of public mass transit systems on real-estate values is an important application of the hedonic price model (HPM). Recently, a mathematical transformation of this approach has been proposed to account for the potential omission of latent spatial variables that may overestimate the impact of accessibility to mass transit systems on values. The development of a Difference-in-Differences (DID) estimator, based on the repeat-sales approach, is a move in the right direction. However, such an estimator neglects the possibility that specification of the price equation may follow a spatial autoregressive process with respect to the dependent variable. The objective of this paper is to propose a spatial Difference-in-Differences (SDID) estimator accounting for possible spatial spillover effects. Particular emphasis is placed on the development of a suitable weights matrix accounting for spatial links between observations. Finally, an empirical application of the SDID estimator based on the development of a new commuter rail transit system for the suburban agglomeration of Montréal (Canada) is presented and compared to the usual DID estimator.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T05:10:10Z
       
  • Coarse tolling with heterogeneous preferences
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 64
      Author(s): Vincent A.C. van den Berg
      This paper analyses optimal coarse tolling of congestion under heterogeneous preferences, and in particular its welfare and distributional effects. With coarse tolling, the toll equals a fixed value during the centre of the peak, whereas outside this period it is zero. This paper separately investigates three dimensions of heterogeneity. With the first, all values of time and schedule delay vary in fixed proportions, and this heterogeneity may stem from income differences. The second has differences in the flexibility of users in when to arrive. The third captures differences in willingness to arrive before or after the preferred arrival time. The paper uses three models of coarse tolling: the ‘Laih’, ‘ADL’ and ‘Braking’ model. All three dimensions affect the welfare gain of coarse tolling. In the Laih model, the generalised price with coarse tolling is always in between the no-toll and first-best prices. In the other models, this is not the case, and the distributional effects of coarse tolling may be non-monotonic and very different from the distributional effects with first-best tolling. In the Braking model, the bottleneck capacity goes unused for some time during the tolled period. Compared to in the Laih model, this raises the total cost, and it is most harmful for users with low values of time and schedule delay and for users with a relatively high value of schedule delay late: these users could, for instance, be low-income users with a strict work start time or travelling to a doctor’s appointment.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T05:10:10Z
       
  • A bilevel model for multivariate risk analysis of pedestrians’
           crossing behavior at signalized intersections
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 65
      Author(s): Baibing Li
      Pedestrians who cross streets during the red-man phase of traffic light signals expose themselves to safety and health hazards and hence are considered to be at risk. Pedestrians’ street-crossing behavior is in general the outcome of interaction between pedestrians and vehicles: the gaps between vehicles provide an opportunity for pedestrians to cross the street, and pedestrians may or may not accept the street-crossing risk during the red-man phase. In this paper, we propose a multivariate method to investigate pedestrians’ risk exposure associated with unsafe crossings. The proposed method consists of two hierarchically interconnected generalized linear models that characterize two different facets of the unsafe crossing behavior. It gauges pedestrians’ attitudes toward risk-taking and also measures the impact of potential risk factors on pedestrians’ intended waiting times during the red-man phase of the traffic lights. A Bayesian approach with the data augmentation method is used to draw statistical inference for the parameters associated with risk exposure. The proposed method is illustrated using field traffic data.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T05:10:10Z
       
  • Airline ambidextrous competition under an emissions trading scheme –
           A reference-dependent behavioral perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 60
      Author(s): Jiuh-Biing Sheu
      This study presents a reference-dependent Hotelling model for analyzing airline competition in pricing and green transportation investment, as well as the resulting financial performance under the European Union emission trading scheme. One feature of the proposed methodology is that it embeds psychological benefits/costs of consumers to characterize consumer attitudes to the increases in airline fare adjustments and improvements in green transportation. This study then investigates the equilibrium solutions for airfare adjustment and green transportation investment margins in different scenarios. The analytical results reveal specific operational conditions under which a cost-efficient airline can gain supreme competitive advantage by increasing both airfare and green transportation investment margins beyond the increases made by competitors under the emission trading scheme, whereas certain specific conditions may favor a cost leadership strategy. Conversely, a cost-inefficient airline can compete with a cost-efficient airline in both market share and profitability using the green transportation investment-differentiation strategy, particularly when consumers perceive the airfare difference as equaling the increased psychological benefit induced by the airline’s green effort.


      PubDate: 2014-01-24T10:07:11Z
       
  • Extended spectral envelope method for detecting and analyzing traffic
           oscillations
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 61
      Author(s): Tingting Zhao , Yu (Marco) Nie , Yi Zhang
      We propose using a spectral envelope method to analyze traffic oscillations using data collected from multiple sensors. Spectral envelops can reveal not only the salient frequencies of periodic oscillations of traffic flow, but also the relative strength of these oscillations at different locations. This paper first introduces time dimension into the existing spectral envelope method so that it can be applied to study the evolution of vehicular traffic oscillations. The extended spectral envelope method proposed in this paper, or ESPE, discards the normalization procedure in the standard method. A new Contributing Index (CI) is proposed to measure the relative strength of oscillations at different locations. The extended spectral envelops can be constructed on long-term or short-term time scales. While the long-term analysis helps extract salient frequencies of traffic oscillations, the short-term analysis promises to reveal their detailed spatial–temporal profiles. ESPE offers two distinctive advantages. First, it is more robust against the impacts of noises. Second, it is able to uncover complicated oscillatory behaviors which are otherwise difficult to notice. These advantages are demonstrated in case studies constructed on both simulated and real data.


      PubDate: 2014-01-24T10:07:11Z
       
  • Competition in complementary transport services
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 60
      Author(s): Derek John Clark , Finn Jørgensen , Terje Andreas Mathisen
      For passengers to reach the final destination of the trip it is often necessary to make use of the transport services provided by several firms. When these transport services follow in a natural transport chain they are characterized as complementarities and the firms providing the services can, as for substitutes, to some extent influence the demand facing the other firms by their own behaviour. A model is presented in this paper where two firms compete in complementary transport services differentiated by travel distance. Equilibria are derived for collusion and competition in price and quantity, and these are analyzed with respect to the degree of complementarity and distance. The analysis shows that the influence of type of competition on equilibrium price and quantity increases with the complementarity of the products. Moreover, it is discussed how marginal operating costs for the firms, marginal time cost for the passenger and the type of competition influences whether fares will increase with distance and which of the two firms will set the higher price. The commonly accepted ranking for complements that the collusive price is lower than the Bertrand price is not necessarily true. It is demonstrated that the collusive price of the shorter (longer) distance could be set above (lower) that of price competition. It is also addressed how mark-up of price over marginal cost is influenced by changes in own and competitors distance for the different types of competition.


      PubDate: 2014-01-24T10:07:11Z
       
  • Optimal choices of fare collection systems for public transportations:
           Barrier versus barrier-free
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 60
      Author(s): Yasuo Sasaki
      The present study focuses on two major types of fare collection systems for public transportations, barrier and barrier-free, and provides a mathematical framework to evaluate optimal choices between them, i.e., which system can be more profitable for a transit agency. In particular, we consider game-theoretic interactions between the transit agency and passengers for the barrier-free system and suppose that frequencies of free rides of passengers as well as inspections of the transit agency are given as a Nash equilibrium. Then the optimal choice of fare collection system is described as a subgame perfection solution in an extensive form game. We also conduct a comparative static analysis and examine how each parameter can affect the choice. As an application, we use the framework to explain various choices of fare collection systems in our society depending on local circumstances or transportation types.


      PubDate: 2014-01-08T21:27:35Z
       
  • Pareto efficiency of reliability-based traffic equilibria and risk-taking
           behavior of travelers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
      Author(s): Zhijia Tan , Hai Yang , Renyong Guo
      This paper investigates the Pareto efficiency of the various reliability-based traffic equilibria proposed in the literature and the risk-taking behavior of travelers. Reliability indexes such as the percentile travel time (PTT), travel time budget (TTB), mean excess travel time (METT) and the quadratic disutility function (QDF) are examined in terms of the mean and standard deviation (SD) of travel times. The downward sloping mean-SD indifference curve is introduced to geometrically analyze the risk-taking behavior of travelers. Both the diversifying and plunging behaviors of risk-averse travelers are investigated by examining the curvature of the mean-SD indifference curves at traffic equilibria based on the PTT, TTB, METT and QDF. Several specific probability distributions are adopted to elucidate the theoretical results obtained.


      PubDate: 2014-01-08T21:27:35Z
       
  • Capacity optimization of an isolated intersection under the phase swap
           sorting strategy
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 60
      Author(s): Chiwei Yan , Hai Jiang , Siyang Xie
      It is well recognized that the left turn reduces the intersection capacity significantly, because some of the traffic lanes cannot be used to discharge vehicles during its green phases. In this paper, we operationalize the phase swap sorting strategy (Xuan, 2011) to use most, if not all, traffic lanes to discharge vehicles at the intersection cross-section to increase its capacity. We explicitly take into consideration all through, left- and right-turning movements on all arms and formulate the capacity maximization problem as a Binary-Mixed-Integer-Linear-Programming (BMILP) model. The model is efficiently solved by standard branch-and-bound algorithms and outputs optimal signal timings, lane allocations, and other decisions. Numerical experiments show that substantially higher reserve capacity can be obtained under our approach.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T22:43:26Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 59




      PubDate: 2013-12-31T22:43:26Z
       
  • Competitive transit network design in cities with radial street patterns
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 59
      Author(s): Hugo Badia , Miquel Estrada , Francesc Robusté
      This paper presents a reformulation of the hybrid model developed by Daganzo (2010) to extend its applicability to a greater number of cities, especially those characterized by a radial street pattern. The new transit network structure is also composed of two types of schemes: radial/circular in the central area and hub and spoke in the periphery. This analytical model defines the optimal network layout through minimizing its objective function, which is composed of agency and user costs. Its decision variables are central area size, headway, line spacing, and stop spacing. In this reformulation, stops with single coverage, those only served by one line, are introduced in the hybrid model to improve spatial accessibility to avoid an increase in agency investment. This model is a tool to design competitive transit systems topologically characterized by simple schemes adapted to the urban structure and concentrated transit flows, and also operatively by high frequencies and speeds. Ultimately, all this allows for easy use and management of transit networks. The model’s robustness with regard to input parameters and decision variables reinforces its results and estimates what implementations on real road networks would be like. It presents coherent behavior regarding real-world standards, where high, concentrated and temporally well distributed demands lead to more efficient and effective transit systems. High performance bus (HPB) is the transport technology used throughout this paper because, as has been proved in this paper, it is the best transit mode in urban areas for a wide range of demand values. Main system characteristics have been obtained such as central areas greater than a 25% of the city, low headways of around 2min, high commercial speeds ranges between 14 and 17km/h, and suitable spatial accessibility, where stop spacing moves between 350 and 550m.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T22:43:26Z
       
  • Effects of high-speed rail and airline cooperation under hub airport
           capacity constraint
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 60
      Author(s): Changmin Jiang , Anming Zhang
      This paper analyzes the effects of cooperation between a hub-and-spoke airline and a high-speed rail (HSR) operator when the hub airport may be capacity-constrained. We find that such cooperation reduces traffic in markets where prior modal competition occurs, but may increase traffic in other markets of the network. The cooperation improves welfare, independent of whether or not the hub capacity is constrained, as long as the modal substitutability in the overlapping markets is low. However, if the modal substitutability is high, then hub capacity plays an important role in assessing the welfare impact: If the hub airports are significantly capacity-constrained, the cooperation improves welfare; otherwise, it is likely welfare reducing. Through simulations we further study the welfare effects of modal asymmetries in the demands and costs, heterogeneous passenger types, and economies of traffic density. Our analysis shows that the economies of traffic density alone cannot justify airline–HSR cooperation.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T22:43:26Z
       
  • Stochastic service network design with rerouting
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 60
      Author(s): Ruibin Bai , Stein W. Wallace , Jingpeng Li , Alain Yee-Loong Chong
      Service network design under uncertainty is fundamentally crucial for all freight transportation companies. The main challenge is to strike a balance between two conflicting objectives: low network setup costs and low expected operational costs. Together these have a significant impact on the quality of freight services. Increasing redundancy at crucial network links is a common way to improve network flexibility. However, in a highly uncertain environment, a single predefined network is unlikely to suit all possible future scenarios, unless it is prohibitively costly. Hence, rescheduling is often an effective alternative. In this paper, we proposed a new stochastic freight service network design model with vehicle rerouting options. The proposed model explicitly introduces a set of integer variables for vehicle rerouting in the second stage of the stochastic program. Although computationally more expensive, the resultant model provides more options (i.e. rerouting) and flexibility for planners to deal with uncertainties more effectively. The new model was tested on a set of instances adapted from the literature and its performance and characteristics are studied through both comparative studies and detailed analyses at the solution structure level. Implications for practical applications are discussed and further research directions are also provided.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T22:43:26Z
       
  • Metaheuristic procedure for a bi-objective supply chain design problem
           with uncertainty
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 60
      Author(s): Y. Cardona-Valdés , A. Álvarez , J. Pacheco
      We consider the design of a two echelon production distribution network with multiple manufacturing plants, distribution centers (DC’s) and a set of candidate warehouses. One of the main contributions of the study is to extend the existing literature by incorporating the demand uncertainty of DC’s within the warehouse location and transportation mode allocation decisions, as well as providing a network design satisfying the both economical and service quality objectives of the decision maker within two echelon supply network setting. In order to take into account the effects of the uncertainty we apply an scenario-based approach and a two-stage stochastic problem is formulated in order to minimize total cost and total service time, simultaneously. Another important contribution is the development of a solution procedure for this bi-objective stochastic problem by applying tabu search within the framework of Multi-objective Adaptive Memory Programming. Results are compared with the optimal Pareto fronts obtained for small instances using the ∊ -constraint method and standard branch and bound techniques. Numerical results demonstrate the computational effectiveness of the algorithm proposed. Finally, we include some results that confirm the convenience of including the randomness in the demand parameter.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T22:43:26Z
       
  • Recent developments and research needs in modeling lane changing
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 60
      Author(s): Zuduo Zheng
      This paper comprehensively reviews recent developments in modeling lane-changing behavior. The major lane changing models in the literature are categorized into two groups: models that aim to capture the lane changing decision-making process, and models that aim to quantify the impact of lane changing behavior on surrounding vehicles. The methodologies and important features (including their limitations) of representative models in each category are outlined and discussed. Future research needs are determined.


      PubDate: 2013-12-27T19:34:39Z
       
  • Fast algorithms to generate individualized designs for the mixed logit
           choice model
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 60
      Author(s): Marjolein Crabbe , Deniz Akinc , Martina Vandebroek
      The mixed logit choice model has become the common standard to analyze transport behavior. Moreover, more and more transport studies start to make use of stated preference data to obtain precise knowledge on travelers’ preferences. Accounting for the individual-specific coefficients in the mixed logit choice model, this research advocates an individualized design approach to generate these stated choice experiments. Individualized designs are sequentially generated for each person separately, using the answers from previous choice sets to select the next best set in a survey. In this way they are adapted to the specific preferences of an individual and therefore more efficient than an aggregate design. In order for individual sequential designs to be practicable, the speed of designing an additional choice set in an experiment is obviously a key issue. This paper introduces three design criteria used in optimal test design, based on Kullback–Leibler information, and compares them with the well known D -efficiency criterion to obtain individually adapted choice designs for the mixed logit choice model. Being equally efficient to D -efficiency and at the same time much faster, the Kullback–Leibler criteria are well suited for the design of individualized choice experiments.


      PubDate: 2013-12-27T19:34:39Z
       
  • Depot location in degradable transport networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
      Author(s): Michael G.H. Bell , Achille Fonzone , Chrisanthi Polyzoni
      Areas subject to natural or man-made disasters, such as earthquakes, fires, floods or attacks, are reliant on the residual transport network for the rescue of survivors and subsequent recovery. Pre-disaster planning requires assumptions about how the transport network may degrade. This paper presents a game theoretic approach modelling network degradation and applies this to depot location, with a case study based on Sichuan province in China, which is prone to earthquakes. To facilitate a cautious approach to depot location, the method assumes that the transport network is subject to attack by node-specific demons with the power to degrade links. The mixed strategy Nash equilibrium for the non-cooperative zero sum game between dispatchers and demons is used to define rescue hyperpaths. These in turn define the best depot locations. Two forms of the drop heuristic are used to find good depot locations.


      PubDate: 2013-12-19T18:25:09Z
       
  • A general unconstrained optimization formulation for the combined
           distribution and assignment problem
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 59
      Author(s): Jia Yao , Anthony Chen , Seungkyu Ryu , Feng Shi
      This paper proposes an alternate formulation for the combined distribution and assignment (CDA) problem, which seeks to determine consistent level-of-service and flow values of the trip distribution and traffic assignment steps. The CDA problem is modeled as a hierarchical travel choice problem based on random utility theory, which forms the basis for constructing as a general unconstrained optimization formulation. It has the flexibility to handle general probabilistic distributions (not just the Gumbel distribution) in a hierarchical travel choice structure. Qualitative properties of the general unconstrained CDA formulation are rigorously proved to ensure the equivalence and uniqueness of the solution. Particularly, the model is analyzed for two logit CDA models where the choice probability can be expressed in a closed form. The first logit CDA model with the independently and identically distributed (IID) Gumbel distribution is shown to be equivalent to several well-known existing CDA models. The second logit CDA model handles the independence assumption by accounting for the unobserved similarities among destinations in the destination choice level using a spatially correlated logit model and the route overlapping in the route choice level using the path size logit model. A descent direction algorithm with the self-regulated averaging (SRA) scheme is also developed for solving the unconstrained optimization formulation of two logit CDA models. Numerical experiments are conducted to demonstrate the features of the proposed general unconstrained CDA formulations and the computational performance of the descent SRA algorithm. The results reveal that route overlapping, destination similarity, congestion, and distribution errors can have a significant influence on the network equilibrium flow allocations.


      PubDate: 2013-12-15T16:55:20Z
       
  • Analysis of common-cause and special-cause variation in the deterioration
           of transportation infrastructure: A field application of statistical
           process control for structural health monitoring
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 59
      Author(s): Yikai Chen , David J. Corr , Pablo L. Durango-Cohen
      We present a statistical process control framework to support structural health monitoring of transportation infrastructure. We contribute an integrated, generally-applicable (to various types of structural response data) statistical approach that links the literatures on statistical performance modeling and on structural health monitoring. The framework consists of two parts: The first, estimation of statistical models to explain, predict, and control for common-cause variation in the data, i.e., changes, including serial dependence, that can be attributed to usual operating conditions. The ensuing standardized innovation series are analyzed in the second part of the framework, which consists of using Shewhart and Memory Control Charts to detect special-cause or unusual events. We apply the framework to analyze strain and displacement data from the monitoring system on the Hurley Bridge (Wisconsin Structure B-26-7). Data were collected from April 1, 2010 to June 29, 2011. Our analysis reveals that, after controlling for seasonal effects, linear trends are significant components of the response measurements. Persistent displacement may be an indication of deterioration of the bridge supports. Trends in the strain data may indicate changes in the material properties, i.e., fatigue, sensor calibration, or traffic loading. The results also show that autocorrelation and conditional heteroscedasticity are significant sources of common-cause variation. Use of the control charts detected 43 possible special-cause events, with approximately 50% displaying persisting effects, and 25% lasting longer than one week. Analysis of traffic data shows that unusually heavy loading is a possible cause of the longest special-cause event, which lasted 11days.


      PubDate: 2013-12-11T16:25:05Z
       
  • On the periodicity of traffic oscillations and capacity drop: The role of
           driver characteristics
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 59
      Author(s): Danjue Chen , Soyoung Ahn , Jorge Laval , Zuduo Zheng
      This paper shows that traffic hysteresis arises due to variable driver characteristics within each driver and has a profound reproducible impact on the periodicity and development of traffic oscillations and the bottleneck discharge rate. Following an oscillation, traffic initially exhibits lower density and flow; then it evolves toward and eventually exceeds the equilibrium, whereupon another oscillation is instigated by an aggressive driver(s) with relatively small response time and minimum spacing. Thereafter, traffic reverts to lower density and flow and repeats the evolutionary cycle. Aggressive driver behavior also leads to hysteresis loops that induce the upstream propagation of oscillations; with larger hysteresis loops inducing larger oscillation growth. Our finding also suggests that the bottleneck discharge rate can diminish by 8–23% when drivers adopt larger response times in reaction to disturbances. This finding suggests that existing capacity-drop theories, with lane-changes as the main factor, may be incomplete.


      PubDate: 2013-12-11T16:25:05Z
       
  • Extreme values, invariance and choice probabilities
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 59
      Author(s): Lars-Göran Mattsson , Jörgen W. Weibull , Per Olov Lindberg
      Since the pioneering work of McFadden (1974), discrete choice random-utility models have become work horses in many areas in transportation analysis and economics. In these models, the random variables enter additively or multiplicatively and the noise distributions take a particular parametric form. We show that the same qualitative results, with closed-form choice probabilities, can be obtained for a wide class of distributions without such specifications. This class generalizes the statistically independent distributions where any two c.d.f.:s are powers of each others to a class that allows for statistical dependence, in a way analogous to how the independent distributions in the MNL models were generalized into the subclass of MEV distributions that generates the GEV choice models. We show that this generalization is sufficient, and under statistical independence also necessary, for the following invariance property: all conditional random variables, when conditioning upon a certain alternative having been chosen, are identically distributed. While some of these results have been published earlier, we place them in a general unified framework that allows us to extend several of the results and to provide proofs that are simpler, more direct and transparent. Well-known results are obtained as special cases, and we characterize the Gumbel, Fréchet and Weibull distributions.


      PubDate: 2013-12-07T15:56:17Z
       
  • Optimal train routing and scheduling for managing traffic perturbations in
           complex junctions
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 59
      Author(s): Paola Pellegrini , Grégory Marlière , Joaquin Rodriguez
      Real-time traffic management in railway aims to minimize delays after an unexpected event perturbs the operations. It can be formalized as the real-time railway traffic management problem, which seeks for the best train routing and scheduling in case of perturbation, in a given time horizon. We propose a mixed-integer linear programming formulation for tackling this problem, representing the infrastructure with fine granularity. This is seldom done in the literature, unless stringent artificial constraints are imposed for reducing the size of the search space. In a thorough experimental analysis, we assess the impact of the granularity of the representation of the infrastructure on the optimal solution. We tackle randomly generated instances representing traffic in the control area named triangle of Gagny, and instances obtained from the real timetable of the control area including the Lille-Flandres station (both in France) and we consider multiple perturbation scenarios. In these experiments, the negative impact of a rough granularity on the delay suffered by trains is remarkable and statistically significant.


      PubDate: 2013-12-07T15:56:17Z
       
  • Formulating the within-day dynamic stochastic traffic assignment problem
           from a Bayesian perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 59
      Author(s): Chong Wei , Yasuo Asakura , Takamasa Iryo
      This study proposes a formulation of the within-day dynamic stochastic traffic assignment problem. Considering the stochastic nature of route choice behavior, we treat the solution to the assignment problem as the conditional joint distribution of route traffic, given that the network is in dynamic stochastic user equilibrium. We acquire the conditional joint probability distribution using Bayes’ theorem. A Metropolis–Hastings sampling scheme is developed to estimate the characteristics (e.g., mean and variance) of the route traffic. The proposed formulation has no special requirements for the traffic flow models and user behavior models, and so is easily implemented.


      PubDate: 2013-12-03T14:16:14Z
       
  • Ferry service network design with stochastic demand under user equilibrium
           flows
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2013
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
      Author(s): Kun An , Hong K. Lo
      This paper develops a service reliability-based formulation for ferry service network design with stochastic demand under user equilibrium flows while considering two types of services, regular and ad hoc. Regular services operate with a fixed schedule; whereas ad hoc services are those subcontracted or outsourced to a third party and have a higher unit cost. Two ad hoc provision schemes are studied. Scheme A considers that the demand information is known in advance by passenger reservation, and the company makes use of this information to plan for ad hoc services. In Scheme B, the demand realization is only known as passengers arrive at the piers and the company calls upon ad hoc services in case of demand overflow. In Scheme A, we utilize the notion of service reliability (SR) to address the issue of demand uncertainty and formulate the problem as a two-phase stochastic program in which the schedule of regular services and ad hoc services are derived sequentially. The user equilibrium (UE) assignment with capacity constraint is formulated via a linear programming (LP) approach considering overflow delays. A SR-based gradient solution approach is developed to solve the model. Scheme B, as expected, requires more resources to operate, for which a SR-based non-linear model is developed. The value of reservation to the company is defined as the operating cost difference between these two schemes. We apply the methods to ferry service network design in Hong Kong, and then compare the UE (Scheme A) and system optimal (SO) solutions, in terms of service deployment and computation time, to contrast the solution quality arising from the inclusion of equilibrium flows. The value of advance reservation information between Scheme A and Scheme B is presented as well.


      PubDate: 2013-12-03T14:16:14Z
       
  • Constraint reformulation and a Lagrangian relaxation-based solution
           algorithm for a least expected time path problem
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 59
      Author(s): Lixing Yang , Xuesong Zhou
      Using a sample-based representation scheme to capture spatial and temporal travel time correlations, this article constructs an integer programming model for finding the a priori least expected time paths. We explicitly consider the non-anticipativity constraint associated with the a priori path in a time-dependent and stochastic network, and propose a number of reformulations to establish linear inequalities that can be easily dualized by a Lagrangian relaxation solution approach. The relaxed model is further decomposed into two sub-problems, which can be solved directly by using a modified label-correcting algorithm and a simple single-value linear programming method. Several solution algorithms, including a sub-gradient method, a branch and bound method, and heuristics with additional constraints on Lagrangian multipliers, are proposed to improve solution quality and find approximate optimal solutions. The numerical experiments investigate the quality and computational efficiency of the proposed solution approach.


      PubDate: 2013-11-29T12:58:13Z
       
  • Unconstrained weibit stochastic user equilibrium model with extensions
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 59
      Author(s): Songyot Kitthamkesorn , Anthony Chen
      This study provides an unconstrained minimization program as an alternative formulation for the multinomial weibit (MNW) stochastic user equilibrium (SUE) model that explicitly considers the heterogeneous perception variances with respect to different trip lengths under congested conditions. Qualitative properties of the unconstrained minimization program are given to establish the equivalency and uniqueness of the MNW-SUE solution. The advantage of the unconstrained minimization programming formulation is that it allows the development of a link-based algorithm, which obviates path storage and enumeration. The methodological contributions lie in the derivation of the expected perceived travel cost (or the satisfaction function) that enables the development of an unconstrained MNW-SUE minimization program and a link-based stochastic loading mechanism combined with recent advances in line search strategies in the link-based algorithm. Numerical examples are also provided to illustrate the features of the MNW-SUE model and the link-based algorithm along with several extensions for future research.


      PubDate: 2013-11-21T23:06:36Z
       
 
 
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