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  Subjects -> TRANSPORTATION (Total: 164 journals)
    - AIR TRANSPORT (7 journals)
    - AUTOMOBILES (21 journals)
    - RAILROADS (5 journals)
    - ROADS AND TRAFFIC (6 journals)
    - SHIPS AND SHIPPING (30 journals)
    - TRANSPORTATION (95 journals)

TRANSPORTATION (95 journals)

Showing 1 - 53 of 53 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 63)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies on Transport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Economics of Transportation     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
EURO Journal of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European Transport Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IATSS Research     Open Access  
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
IET Intelligent Transport Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IFAC-PapersOnLine     Open Access  
International Innovation - Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Applied Logistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of e-Navigation and Maritime Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Micro-Nano Scale Transport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Mobile Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Ocean Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Services Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Modern Transportation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sustainable Mobility     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Transport & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Transport Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Transport History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Transportation Safety & Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Transportation Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Transportation Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Waterway Port Coastal and Ocean Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Les Dossiers du Grihl     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Logistics & Sustainable Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Logistique & Management     Full-text available via subscription  
Modern Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Packaging, Transport, Storage & Security of Radioactive Material     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pervasive and Mobile Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Public Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Recherche Transports Sécurité     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Revista Transporte y Territorio     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Romanian Journal of Transport Infrastructure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SourceOCDE Transports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Streetnotes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Synthesis Lectures on Mobile and Pervasive Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tire Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Transactions on Transport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Transport and Telecommunication Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transport in Porous Media     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transport Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transport Reviews: A Transnational Transdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Transportation Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Transportation Letters : The International Journal of Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Transportation Research Part B: Methodological     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Transportation Research Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transportation Research Record : Journal of the Transportation Research Board     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Transportation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
TRANSPORTES     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Transportmetrica B : Transport Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Travel Behaviour and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Urban, Planning and Transport Research     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Vehicular Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Транспортні системи та технології перевезень     Open Access  
Journal Cover Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
  [SJR: 3.905]   [H-I: 87]   [29 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0191-2615
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3039 journals]
  • A Benders decomposition approach for the charging station location problem
           with plug-in hybrid electric vehicles
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Okan Arslan, Oya Ekin Karaşan
      The flow refueling location problem (FRLP) locates p stations in order to maximize the flow volume that can be accommodated in a road network respecting the range limitations of the vehicles. This paper introduces the charging station location problem with plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (CSLP-PHEV) as a generalization of the FRLP. We consider not only the electric vehicles but also the plug-in hybrid electric vehicles when locating the stations. Furthermore, we accommodate multiple types of these vehicles with different ranges. Our objective is to maximize the vehicle-miles-traveled using electricity and thereby minimize the total cost of transportation under the existing cost structure between electricity and gasoline. This is also indirectly equivalent to maximizing the environmental benefits. We present an arc-cover formulation and a Benders decomposition algorithm as exact solution methodologies to solve the CSLP-PHEV. The decomposition algorithm is accelerated using Pareto-optimal cut generation schemes. The structure of the formulation allows us to construct the subproblem solutions, dual solutions and nondominated Pareto-optimal cuts as closed form expressions without having to solve any linear programs. This increases the efficiency of the decomposition algorithm by orders of magnitude and the results of the computational studies show that the proposed algorithm both accelerates the solution process and effectively handles instances of realistic size for both CSLP-PHEV and FRLP.


      PubDate: 2016-09-22T07:43:35Z
       
  • Autonomous cars and dynamic bottleneck congestion: The effects on
           capacity, value of time and preference heterogeneity
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 94
      Author(s): Vincent A.C. van den Berg, Erik T. Verhoef
      ‘Autonomous cars’ are cars that can drive themselves without human control. Autonomous cars can safely drive closer together than cars driven by humans, thereby possibly increasing road capacity. By allowing drivers to perform other activities in the vehicle, they may reduce the value of travel time losses (VOT). We investigate the effects of autonomous cars using a dynamic equilibrium model of congestion that captures three main elements: the resulting increase in capacity, the decrease in the VOT for those who acquire one and the implications of the resulting changes in the heterogeneity of VOTs. We do so for three market organizations: private monopoly, perfect competition and public supply. Even though an increased share of autonomous cars raises average capacity, it may hurt existing autonomous car users as those who switch to an autonomous car will impose increased congestion externalities due to their altered departure time behaviour. Depending on which effect dominates, switching to an autonomous vehicle may impose a net negative or positive externality. Often public supply leads to 100% autonomous cars, but it may be optimal to have a mix of car types, especially when there is a net negative externality. With a positive (negative) externality, perfect competition leads to an undersupply (oversupply) of autonomous cars, and a public supplier needs to subsidise (tax) autonomous cars to maximise welfare. A monopolist supplier ignores the capacity effect and adds a mark-up to its price.


      PubDate: 2016-09-22T07:43:35Z
       
  • An integrated algorithm for the optimal design of stated choice
           experiments with partial profiles
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Daniel Palhazi Cuervo, Roselinde Kessels, Peter Goos, Kenneth Sörensen
      Stated choice experiments are conducted to identify the attributes that drive people’s preferences when choosing between competing options. They are widely used in transportation in order to support the decision making of companies and governmental authorities. A large number of attributes might increase the complexity of the choice task in a choice experiment, and have a detrimental effect on the quality of the results obtained. In order to reduce the cognitive effort required by the experiment, researchers may resort to experimental designs where the levels of some attributes are held constant within a choice situation. These designs are called partial profile designs. In this paper, we propose an integrated algorithm for the generation of D-optimal designs for stated choice experiments with partial profiles. This algorithm optimizes the set of constant attributes and the levels of the varying attributes simultaneously. An extensive computational experiment shows that the designs produced by the integrated algorithm outperform those obtained by existing algorithms, and match the optimal designs that have been analytically derived for a number of benchmark instances. Additionally, we evaluate the performance of the algorithm under varying experimental conditions and study the structure of the designs generated. We also revisit two stated choice experiments in transportation, and describe how the integrated algorithm could help to improve their designs.


      PubDate: 2016-09-17T12:17:20Z
       
  • Proactive route guidance to avoid congestion
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 94
      Author(s): E. Angelelli, I. Arsik, V. Morandi, M. Savelsbergh, M.G. Speranza
      We propose a proactive route guidance approach that integrates a system perspective: minimizing congestion, and a user perspective: minimizing travel inconvenience. The approach assigns paths to users so as to minimize congestion while not increasing their travel inconvenience too much. A maximum level of travel inconvenience is ensured and a certain level of fairness is maintained by limiting the set of considered paths for each Origin-Destination pair to those whose relative difference with respect to the shortest (least-duration) path, called travel inconvenience, is below a given threshold. The approach hierarchically minimizes the maximum arc utilization and the weighted average experienced travel inconvenience. Minimizing the maximum arc utilization in the network, i.e., the ratio of the number of vehicles entering an arc per time unit and the maximum number of vehicles per time unit at which vehicles can enter the arc and experience no slowdown due to congestion effects, is a system-oriented objective, while minimizing the weighted average experienced travel inconvenience, i.e., the average travel inconvenience over all eligible paths weighted by the number of vehicles per time unit that traverse the path, is a user-oriented objective. By design, to ensure computational efficiency, the approach only solves linear programming models. In a computational study using benchmark instances reflecting a road infrastructure encountered in many cities, we analyze, for different levels of maximum travel inconvenience and, the minimum maximum arc utilization and the weighted average experienced travel inconvenience. We find that accepting relatively small levels of maximum travel inconvenience can result in a significant reduction, or avoiding, of congestion.


      PubDate: 2016-09-17T12:17:20Z
       
  • A comparison of three idling options in long-haul truck scheduling
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Çağrı Koç, Tolga Bektaş, Ola Jabali, Gilbert Laporte
      This paper studies the Truck Driver Scheduling Problem with Idling Options (TDSP-IO), an extension of the long-haul truck driver scheduling problem with a more comprehensive objective function that accounts for driving cost, fuel cost, and idling cost. The best-known idling option is the widespread practice of keeping the vehicle engine running while the vehicle is not moving, which primarily stems from the drivers’desire to keep their vehicle at an adequate comfort level during breaks. Here, we explore two additional cleaner idling options: resting at an Electrified Parking Space (EPS) or using an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) while idling. We also account for the initial investments associated with the equipment required for the use of these technologies. We formulate a mathematical model for the TDSP-IO under these three idling options, and we perform extensive computational experiments on realistic benchmark instances. The paper sheds light on the trade-offs between various performance indicators and offers several managerial and policy insights. Our analyses quantify the advantages of using EPSs and APUs, and show that they yield both economical and environmental benefits.


      PubDate: 2016-09-17T12:17:20Z
       
  • Pavement systems reconstruction and resurfacing policies for minimization
           of life‐cycle costs under greenhouse gas emissions constraints
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Jinwoo Lee, Samer Madanat, Darren Reger
      Pavement management systems, designed to minimize total lifecycle costs, will need to evolve to meet the needs of the future. Environmental concerns are likely to add an additional consideration for the state DOTs when allocating their financial resources. Transportation agencies will be concerned with determining maintenance, resurfacing and reconstruction policies for pavement segments in their systems while also addressing the environmental impact of these activities. In this paper, we propose an efficient solution to solve for pavement resurfacing and reconstruction policies that minimize societal (agency and user) costs under a Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions constraint. The main methodological contribution of this work relative to the state of the art is that we formulate the problem to include multi-dimensional pavement segment states and heterogeneous management activities. It allows for a more realistic representation of the majority of current pavements in the world. For example, the assumption that pavements are perpetual, i.e., do not need reconstruction during their lifetime, can be relaxed. A case study using California roads is performed; we find that, for that specific group of pavement segments, the optimal policies to minimize societal costs do not vary greatly from the policies that minimize GHG emissions. An agency can use these results to determine what GHG emission budgets are feasible for the highway system that it manages.


      PubDate: 2016-09-17T12:17:20Z
       
  • Envy-minimizing pareto efficient intersection control with brokered
           utility exchanges under user heterogeneity
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 94
      Author(s): Roger Lloret-Batlle, R. Jayakrishnan
      We propose PEXIC (Priced EXchanges in Intersection Control), a new concept and algorithm for traffic signal control that incorporates user heterogeneity on value of delay savings. The algorithm assigns phases with associated delays, taking into account the vehicle travelers’ values for experienced delay. Applying principles of envy-freeness, we develop a pricing scheme that addresses fairness by minimizing user envy via compensatory monetary transfers among users. PEXIC is Pareto efficient and budget balanced, and thus financially self-sustainable without external subsidy. The optimization is solved sequentially on a rolling horizon basis: first the phasing, and next the pricing. PEXIC achieves significant cost reductions for a large range of volumes and users’ value heterogeneity levels. Inclusion of user heterogeneity also proved to be fairer than standard delay minimization that disregards individual vehicles’ values for delay savings. Furthermore, we show that arbitrage is not possible, thus there are no incentives to drive just to collect those payments. The method used has polynomial complexity and it is suitable for real-world implementation.


      PubDate: 2016-09-17T12:17:20Z
       
  • Private parking slot sharing
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Su Xiu Xu, Meng Cheng, Xiang T.R. Kong, Hai Yang, George Q. Huang
      This paper addresses the private parking slot sharing problem during regular working hours in a big city. Our results extend the existing market design theory so that money flow is allowed in the matching mechanisms. We consider two cases of money flow: (i) one agent who fails to exchange his parking slot can join the leasing mechanism as a lessor; and (ii) one agent who fails in parking slot exchange can always “transfer” (rent) his parking slots to the platform. Each agent is self-interested. We propose the (price-compatible) top trading cycles and deals (TTCD) mechanism for case (i) and the price-compatible top trading cycles and chains (PC-TTCC) mechanism for case (ii). Both mechanisms are effective in terms of the compatibility with money flow, agents’ welfare, and strategy-proofness. Our experimental results further show that the proposed mechanisms would result in remarkable social welfare, and (ex post) budget balance for the platform in a big city with large population. In some realistic settings, our proposed mechanisms can almost realize cost saving of 60% and make more than 50% of agents strictly better off. There is no private parking slot sharing in the benchmark case. Overall, this paper opens the door to the solutions of a host of price-compatible matching problems.


      PubDate: 2016-09-09T15:06:48Z
       
  • Discrete choice models with q-product random utilities
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Makoto Chikaraishi, Shoichiro Nakayama
      While most existing closed-form discrete choice models can be regarded as special cases of McFadden's generalized extreme value model, recently, alternative frameworks of McFadden's generalized extreme value model, which maintain closed-form expressions, have been proposed; these include the weibit model, which uses the Weibull distribution for its random component. In this paper, we develop a generalized closed-form discrete choice model which include both logit and weibit models as special cases, by introducing the q-product random utility, in which the relationship between the systematic component and the random component can be either additive, multiplicative, or in-between, depending on the value of the parameter q. We show that, when imposing the Gumbel distribution on its error component (instead of assuming the additive case as the logit model), the parameter q depicts decision maker's risk attitude in the sense of the Arrow–Pratt measure of relative risk aversion, which would be a behavioral foundation of the model. We also show that the model can be straightforwardly extended to incorporate statistical dependence across alternatives. The performance of the proposed model is examined by using two case studies; one on travel-route choices and the other on transport-mode choices.


      PubDate: 2016-09-09T15:06:48Z
       
  • Modeling flight delay propagation: A new analytical-econometric approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Nabin Kafle, Bo Zou
      Flight delay presents a widespread phenomenon in the air transportation system, costing billions of dollars every year. Some delay originating from an upstream flight spreads to downstream flights. This phenomenon is defined as delay propagation. To understand the delay propagation patterns and associated mitigation measures, this study proposes a novel analytical-econometric approach. Considering that airlines deliberately insert buffer into flight schedules and ground turnaround operations, an analytical model is developed to quantify propagated and newly formed delays that occur to each sequence of flights that an aircraft flies in a day, from three perspectives on the ways that delays are absorbed by the buffer. With delays computed from the analytical model, we further develop a joint discrete-continuous econometric model and use the Heckman's two-step procedure to reveal the effects of various influencing factors on the initiation and progression of propagated delays. Results from the econometric analysis provide estimates on how much propagated delay will be generated out of each minute of newly formed delay, for the US domestic aviation system as well as for individual major airports and airlines. The impacts of various factors on the initiation and progression of propagated delay are quantified. These results may help aviation system planners gain additional insights into flight delay propagation patterns and consequently prioritize resource allocation while improving system overall performance. Airlines can also be better informed to assign buffer to their flight schedules to mitigate delay propagation.


      PubDate: 2016-09-03T15:00:26Z
       
  • Designing robust schedule coordination scheme for transit networks with
           safety control margins
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Weitiao Wu, Ronghui Liu, Wenzhou Jin
      We propose a robust schedule coordination scheme which combines timetable planning with a semi-flexible departure delayed control strategy in case of disruptions. The flexibility is provided by allowing holding for the late incoming bus within a safety control margin (SCM). In this way, the stochastic travel time is addressed by the integration of real-time control and slacks at the planning phase. The schedule coordination problem then jointly optimises the planning headways and slack times in the timetable subject to SCM. Analytical formulations of cost functions are derived for three types of operating modes: uncoordinated operation, departure punctual control and departure delayed control. The problem is formulated as a stochastic mixed integer programming model and solved by a branch-and-bound algorithm. Numerical results provide an insight into the interaction between SCM and slack times, and demonstrate that the proposed model leads to cost saving and higher efficiency when SCM is considered. Compared to the conventional operating modes, the proposed method also presents advantages in transfer reliability and robustness to delay and demand variation.


      PubDate: 2016-09-03T15:00:26Z
       
  • Modeling the morning commute for urban networks with cruising-for-parking:
           An MFD approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Wei Liu, Nikolas Geroliminis
      This study focuses on the morning commute problem with explicit consideration of cruising-for-parking, and its adverse impacts on traffic congestion. The cruising-for-parking is modeled through a dynamic aggregated traffic model for networks: the Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram (MFD). Firstly, we formulate the commuting equilibrium in a congested downtown network where travelers have to cruise for curbside parking spaces. The cruising-for-parking would yield longer trip distance and smaller network outflow, and thus can induce severe congestion and lengthen the morning peak. We then develop a dynamic model of pricing for the network to reduce total social cost, which includes cruising time cost, moving time cost (moving or in-transit time, which is the duration during which vehicles move close to the destination but do not cruise for parking yet), and schedule delay cost. We show that under specific assumptions, at the system optimum, the downtown network should be operating at the maximum production of its MFD. However, the cruising effect is not fully eliminated. We also show that the time-dependent toll to support the system optimum has a different shape than the classical fine toll in Vickrey's bottleneck model. In the end, analytical results are illustrated and verified with numerical experiments.


      PubDate: 2016-09-03T15:00:26Z
       
  • Dynamic collective routing using crowdsourcing data
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Siyuan Liu, Qiang Qu
      With the development of information technology, crowdsourcing data from a crowd of cooperative vehicles and online social platforms have been becoming available. The crowdsourcing data, reflecting real-time context of road segments in transportation systems, enable vehicles to be routed adaptively in uncertain and dynamic traffic environments. We consider the problem of adaptively routing a fleet of cooperative vehicles within a road network. To tackle this problem, we first propose a Crowdsourcing Dynamic Congestion Model. The model is based on topic-aware Gaussian Process considering the crowdsourced data collected from social platforms and probing vehicle traces that can effectively characterize both the dynamics and the uncertainty of road conditions. Our model is efficient and thus facilitates real-time adaptive routing in the face of uncertainty. Using this congestion model, we develop efficient algorithms for non-myopic adaptive routing to minimize the collective travel time of all vehicles in the entire transportation system. A key property of our approach is the ability to efficiently reason about the long-term value of exploration, which enables collectively balancing the exploration/exploitation trade-off for entire fleets of vehicles. Our approach is validated by real-life traffic and geo-tagged social network data from two large cities. Our congestion model is shown to be effective in modeling dynamic congestion conditions. Our routing algorithms also generate significantly faster routes compared to standard baselines, and approximate optimal performance compared to an omniscient routing algorithm. We also present the results from a preliminary field study, which showcases the efficacy of our approach.


      PubDate: 2016-09-03T15:00:26Z
       
  • Rescheduling a metro line in an over-crowded situation after disruptions
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Yuan Gao, Leo Kroon, Marie Schmidt, Lixing Yang
      In the case of a metro disruption, the planned timetable cannot be operated and a large number of passengers are left stranded in the stations. When the disruption is over, some stations may be skipped in the recovery period, which speeds up the circulation of trains and makes the number of stranded passengers reduce faster. Considering an over-crowded and time-dependent passenger flow, this paper proposes an optimization model to reschedule a metro line. To achieve a balance between theoretical validity and computational convenience, the optimization model is decomposed, and an iterative algorithm is proposed to solve the model. Numerical experiments based on the Beijing Metro are carried out, the results of which verify the effectiveness and efficiency of our method.


      PubDate: 2016-09-03T15:00:26Z
       
  • Cellular automaton model simulating spatiotemporal patterns, phase
           transitions and concave growth pattern of oscillations in traffic flow
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Junfang Tian, Guangyu Li, Martin Treiber, Rui Jiang, Ning Jia, Shoufeng Ma
      This paper firstly shows that a recent model (Tian et al., Transpn. Res. B 71, 138–157, 2015) is not able to replicate well the concave growth pattern of traffic oscillations (i.e., the standard deviation of speed is a concave function of the vehicle number in the platoon) observed from car following experiments. We propose an improved model by introducing a safe speed and the logistic function for the randomization probability. Simulations show that the improved model can reproduce well the metastable state, the spatiotemporal patterns, and the phase transitions of traffic flow. Calibration and validation results show that the concave growth pattern of oscillations and the empirical detector data can be simulated with a quantitative agreement.


      PubDate: 2016-09-03T15:00:26Z
       
  • On the equivalence between continuum and car-following models of traffic
           flow
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Wen-Long Jin
      Recently different formulations of the first-order Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) model have been identified in different coordinates and state variables. However, relationships between higher-order continuum and car-following traffic flow models are still not well understood. In this study, we first categorize traffic flow models according to their coordinates, state variables, and orders in the three-dimensional representation of traffic flow and propose a unified approach to convert higher-order car-following models into continuum models and vice versa. The conversion method consists of two steps: equivalent transformations between the secondary Eulerian (E-S) formulations and the primary Lagrangian (L-P) formulations, and approximations of L-P derivatives with anisotropic (upwind) finite differences. We use the method to derive continuum models from general second- and third-order car-following models and derive car-following models from second-order continuum models. Furthermore, we demonstrate that corresponding higher-order continuum and car-following models have the same fundamental diagrams, and that the string stability conditions for vehicle-continuous car-following models are the same as the linear stability conditions for the corresponding continuum models. A numerical example verifies the analytical results. In a sense, we establish a weak equivalence between continuum and car-following models, subject to errors introduced by the finite difference approximation. Such an equivalence relation can help us to pick out anisotropic solutions of higher-order models with non-concave fundamental diagrams.


      PubDate: 2016-09-03T15:00:26Z
       
  • A polynomial-time algorithm for sailing speed optimization with
           containership resource sharing
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Shuaian Wang, Xinchang Wang
      The sailing speed optimization problem aims to determine the optimal cruising speeds of ships by balancing the number of ships required on services, the fuel consumption, and the level of service provided for customers. The level of service can be incorporated into a sailing speed optimization model from the perspective of supply chain management or from the perspective of shipping lines. We design a polynomial-time algorithm workable to solve the two models based on bi-section search methods. The novelties of the algorithm include constructing a new parameter on which the bi-section search will be executed and deriving a near-optimal solution by taking advantage of the problem structure. We also provide theoretical results that guarantee the validity of the polynomial-time algorithm.


      PubDate: 2016-09-03T15:00:26Z
       
  • New insights and improvements of using paired alternative segments for
           traffic assignment
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Jun Xie, Chi Xie
      The recent literature observes that the development of advanced algorithms for the traffic assignment problem (TAP) heavily relies on the proper use of some specific topological structures. This paper focuses on discussing a particular topological structure named paired alternative segment (PAS), which consists of two path segments sharing the same starting and ending nodes but no other common nodes. We first present two alternative conditions that establish an equivalency relationship between user equilibrium (UE) flows and PAS structures. Starting from the traffic assignment method by paired alternative segments (TAPAS), we then examine the utilization of PASs for TAP and explored some algorithmic and implementation issues, which leads to the birth of an improved TAPAS procedure (termed iTAPAS in this paper). Compared to the original TAPAS, iTAPAS enhances the algorithmic efficiency in two aspects: (1) a more effective PAS identification method is used; (2) each PAS is set as being associated with only one origin in the UE-finding process. Some analytical results based on the new PAS identification method are presented to justify the convergence and efficiency of iTAPAS. A simplified post-process procedure is also presented to achieve the proportionality for iTAPAS. Numerical results obtained from applying the new and original algorithms for several large networks reveal that iTAPAS is nearly two times faster than TAPAS in achieving highly precise link flow solutions while it is practically identical to TAPAS in finding stable path flow solutions that meet consistency and proportionality.


      PubDate: 2016-09-03T15:00:26Z
       
  • Modeling the decoy effect with context-RUM Models: Diagrammatic analysis
           and empirical evidence from route choice SP and mode choice RP case
           studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): C. Angelo Guevara, Mitsuyoshi Fukushi
      Evidence outside transportation has suggested that the introduction of a decoy to the choice-set could increase the share of other alternatives. This evidence breaks the regularity assumption, which is at the root of the classical Random Utility Maximization (RUM) model with utilities that ignore the choice context. This article assesses the suitability of various context-RUM choice models that could overcome this limitation. For this we use a diagrammatic analysis, as well as Stated Preference (SP) and Revealed Preference (RP) transportation choice evidence. We begin confirming that the reported decoy outcomes cannot be replicated with the classical RUM models and that such a goal could be achieved instead using a set of five context-RUM models. We then show, for the first time, that the Asymmetrically Dominated (AD) and Compromise (CP) decoy effects were present in an SP route choice setting. We also show that, for a subset of individuals, the relative strength of the different decoy types was coherent with a Data Generation Process (DGP) defined by the Random Regret Minimization (RRM) or by the Regret by Aspects (RBA) parsimonious models. Then, we use cross-validation analysis where we found that RRM and RBA were superior to a classical Logit for all decoy types. Nevertheless, the ad-hoc Emergent Value (EV) model was consistently superior to all models suggesting that, although the parsimonious models may in theory replicate all decoy types, they seem to still make an incomplete representation of the DGP behind the overall decoy effect. We finally consider an RP mode choice experiment with which we detect, for the first time, an AD decoy effect in this choice setting. We also use this experiment to illustrate how to handle the decoy phenomena in a real context with various alternatives and variables. The article concludes summarizing the main contributions of this research and suggesting future lines of investigation for it.


      PubDate: 2016-08-14T19:54:20Z
       
  • A multiphase optimal control method for multi-train control and scheduling
           on railway lines
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Hongbo Ye, Ronghui Liu
      We consider a combined train control and scheduling problem involving multiple trains in a railway line with a predetermined departure/arrival sequence of the trains at stations and meeting points along the line. The problem is formulated as a multiphase optimal control problem while incorporating complex train running conditions (including undulating track, variable speed restrictions, running resistances, speed-dependent maximum tractive/braking forces) and practical train operation constraints on departure/arrival/running/dwell times. Two case studies are conducted. The first case illustrates the control and scheduling problem of two trains in a small artificial network with three nodes, where one train follows and overtakes the other. The second case optimises the control and timetable of a single train in a subway line. The case studies demonstrate that the proposed framework can provide an effective approach in solving the combined train scheduling and control problem for reducing energy consumption in railway operations.


      PubDate: 2016-08-14T19:54:20Z
       
  • Testing for regularity and stochastic transitivity using the structural
           parameter of nested logit
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Richard Batley, Stephane Hess
      We introduce regularity and stochastic transitivity as necessary and well-behaved conditions respectively, for the consistency of discrete choice preferences with the Random Utility Model (RUM). For the specific case of a three-alternative nested logit (NL) model, we synthesise these conditions in the form of a simple two-part test, and reconcile this test with the conventional zero-one bounds on the structural (‘log sum’) parameter within this model, i.e. 0 < θ ≤ 1, where θ denotes the structural parameter. We show that, whilst regularity supports the lower bound of zero, moderate and strong stochastic transitivity may, for some preference orderings, give rise to a lower bound greater than zero, i.e. impose a constraint l ≤ θ, where l > 0. On the other hand, we show that neither regularity nor stochastic transitivity constrain the upper bound at one. Therefore, if the conventional zero-one bounds are imposed in model estimation, preferences which violate regularity and/or stochastic transitivity may either go undetected (if the ‘true’ structural parameter is less than zero) and/or be unknowingly admitted (if the ‘true’ lower bound is greater than zero), and preferences which comply with regularity and stochastic transitivity may be excluded (if the ‘true’ upper bound is greater than one). Against this background, we show that imposition of the zero-one bounds may compromise model fit, inferences of willingness-to-pay, and forecasts of choice behaviour. Finally, we show that where the ‘true’ structural parameter is negative (thereby violating RUM – at least when choosing the ‘best’ alternative), positive starting values for the structural parameter in estimation may prevent the exposure of regularity and stochastic transitivity failures.


      PubDate: 2016-08-14T19:54:20Z
       
  • Empirical analysis and simulation of the concave growth pattern of traffic
           oscillations
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Junfang Tian, Rui Jiang, Bin Jia, Ziyou Gao, Shoufeng Ma
      This paper has investigated the growth pattern of traffic oscillations in the NGSIM vehicle trajectories data, via measuring the standard deviation of vehicle velocity involved in oscillations. We found that the standard deviation of the velocity increases in a concave way along vehicles in the oscillations. Moreover, all datasets collapse into a single concave curve, which indicates a universal evolution law of oscillations. A comparison with traffic experiment shows that the empirical and the experimental results are highly compatible and can be fitted by a single concave curve, which demonstrates that qualitatively the growth pattern of oscillations is not affected by type of bottleneck and lane changing behavior. We have shown theoretically that small disturbance with an angular frequency ω increases in a convex way in the initial stage in the traditional models presuming a unique relationship between speed and density, which obviously deviates from our findings. Simulations show that stochastic models in which the traffic state dynamically spans a 2D region in the speed-spacing plane can qualitatively or even quantitatively reproduce the concave growth pattern of traffic oscillations.


      PubDate: 2016-08-14T19:54:20Z
       
  • Bus bunching along a corridor served by two lines
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Jan-Dirk Schmöcker, Wenzhe Sun, Achille Fonzone, Ronghui Liu
      Headway fluctuations and “bus bunching” are well known phenomena on many bus routes where an initial delay to one service can disturb the whole schedule due to resulting differences in dwell times of subsequent buses at stops. This paper deals with the influence of a frequent but so far largely neglected characteristic of bus networks on bus bunching, that is the presence of overtaking and common lines. A set of discrete state equations is implemented to obtain the departure times of a group of buses following the occurrence of an exogenous delay to one bus at a bus stop. Two models are distinguished depending on whether overtaking at stops is possible or not. If two buses board simultaneously and overtaking is not possible, passengers will board the front bus. If overtaking is possible, passengers form equilibrium queues in order to minimise their waiting times. Conditions for equilibrium queues among passengers with different choice sets are formulated. With a case study we then illustrate that, if overtaking is not allowed, the presence of common lines worsens the service regularity along the corridor. Conversely, common lines have positive effects when overtaking is possible. We suggest hence that appropriate network design is important to reduce the negative effects of delay-prone lines on the overall network performance.


      PubDate: 2016-08-09T04:42:34Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91




      PubDate: 2016-08-04T02:50:45Z
       
  • Setting lines frequency and capacity in dense railway rapid transit
           networks with simultaneous passenger assignment
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): David Canca, Eva Barrena, Alicia De-Los-Santos, José Luis Andrade-Pineda
      We propose a Mixed Integer Non-Linear Programming (MINLP) model in order to determine optimal line frequencies and capacities in dense railway rapid transit (RRT) networks in which typically several lines can run over the same open tracks. Given a certain demand matrix, the model determines the most appropriate frequency and train capacity for each line taking into account infrastructure capacity constraints, allocating lines to tracks while assigning passengers to lines. The service provider and the user points of view are simultaneously taken into account. The first one is considered by selecting the most convenient set of frequencies and capacities and routing passengers from their origins to their destinations while minimizing the average trip time. The second one by minimizing operation, maintenance and fleet acquisition costs. Due to the huge number of variables and constraints appearing in real size instances, a preprocessing phase determining the best k-paths linking origin and destination stations is followed. Then, the best paths are used to define sparse index sets in order to drastically reduce the size of the problem. As illustration, the model is applied to a simplified version of the Madrid Metropolitan Railway network.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T02:50:45Z
       
  • Joint design of parking capacities and fleet size for one-way
           station-based carsharing systems with road congestion constraints
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Lu Hu, Yang Liu
      This paper formulates one-way station-based carsharing systems as a mixed queuing network model and proposes a profit-maximization model for the joint design of fleet size and station capacities. We explicitly model the road congestion by formulating each route as a queue where the travel time is an increasing function of the state. The booking process is also modeled in the rental station queue so that the efficiency loss caused by the reservation policy can be captured. The mixed queuing network falls into Baskett, Chandy, Muntz and Palacios (BCMP) networks with unique product-form equilibrium distribution. We derive the asymptotic behavior as the parking capacities and fleet size grows, and show that the performance of carsharing systems will be proportionally bounded by that of the bottleneck route. The exact mean value analysis (MVA) algorithm and the approximate Schweitzer-Bard mean value analysis (SB-MVA) algorithm are extended here to solve networks with different sizes. The numerical experiments reveal some interesting findings: (1) The higher customer service rate (the smaller pick-up time window) will generate the optimal design with lower parking capacities and lower fleet size; (2) Neglecting the efficiency loss due to reservation will lead to an overestimate of the profit and other system performances as well; and (3) Given different levels of congestion on the existing road network (the non-shared car traffic), the net revenue is maximized when the existing traffic congestion is moderate.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T02:50:45Z
       
  • The impact of travel time variability and travelers’ risk attitudes on
           the values of time and reliability
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Mickael Beaud, Thierry Blayac, Maïté Stéphan
      In this paper, we derive implementable measures of travelers’ willingness to pay to save travel time (vot) and to improve the reliability ( vor) of a given trip. We set out a simple microeconomic model of transport mode choice in which each trip is fully characterized by its price and the statistical distribution of its random travel time, assuming that travelers have expected utility preferences over the latter. We then explore how the vot and vor are affected by the statistical distribution of travel time and by travelers’ preferences towards travel time variability.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T02:50:45Z
       
  • Capacitated transit service network design with boundedly rational agents
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Jiangtao Liu, Xuesong Zhou
      This paper proposes a new alternative modeling framework to systemically account for boundedly rational decision rules of travelers in a dynamic transit service network with tight capacity constraints. Within a time-discretized space-time network, the time-dependent transit services are characterized by traveling arcs and waiting arcs with constant travel times. Instead of using traditional flow-based formulations, an agent-based integer linear formulation is proposed to represent boundedly rational decisions under strictly imposed capacity constraints, due to vehicle carrying capacity and station storage capacity. Focusing on a viable and limited sets of space-time path alternatives, the proposed single-level optimization model can be effectively decomposed to a time-dependent routing sub-problem for individual agents and a knapsack sub-problem for service arc selections through the Lagrangian decomposition. In addition, several practically important modeling issues are discussed, such as dynamic and personalized transit pricing, passenger inflow control as part of network restraint strategies, and penalty for early/late arrival. Finally, numerical experiments are performed to demonstrate the methodology and computational efficiency of our proposed model and algorithm.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T02:50:45Z
       
  • Reliability-based stochastic transit assignment: Formulations and capacity
           paradox
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Y. Jiang, W.Y. Szeto
      This study develops link-based and approach-based variational inequality (VI) formulations for the frequency-based transit assignment with supply uncertainty, where link flows and flow on each outgoing link from each node are decision variables, respectively. Both the mean and variance of travel cost, including the covariance of in-vehicle travel costs, are captured in both formulations. To address the covariance of in-vehicle travel costs between different links on the same transit line, an augmented route-section network representation is developed, allowing us to apply the dynamic programming method to compute the value of the mapping function of the VI. The approach-based formulation can be solved by an extragradient method that only requires mild assumptions for convergence. It is found that the number of links carrying flow and equilibrium cost can be underestimated if supply uncertainty is not considered. The study also introduces and examines the capacity paradox, a phenomenon in which the network maximum throughput may be reduced after new transit lines are added to a transit network or after the frequency of an existing line is increased. It is found that the capacity paradox may or may not occur simultaneously with the Braess-like paradox, a phenomenon in which providing new transit lines to a network may deteriorate the network performance in terms of the total weighted sum of the mean and variance of travel cost of all of the passengers. The demand level and the degree of risk aversion of passengers are the key factors that determine the occurrence of the capacity paradox.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T02:50:45Z
       
  • A method of integrating correlation structures for a generalized recursive
           route choice model
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Tien Mai
      We propose a way to estimate a generalized recursive route choice model. The model generalizes other existing recursive models in the literature, i.e., (Fosgerau et al., 2013b; Mai et al., 2015c), while being more flexible since it allows the choice at each stage to be any member of the network multivariate extreme value (network MEV) model (Daly and Bierlaire, 2006). The estimation of the generalized model requires defining a contraction mapping and performing contraction iterations to solve the Bellman’s equation. Given the fact that the contraction mapping is defined based on the choice probability generating functions (CPGF) (Fosgerau et al., 2013b) generated by the network MEV models, and these CPGFs are complicated, the generalized model becomes difficult to estimate. We deal with this challenge by proposing a novel method where the network of correlation structures and the structure parameters given by the network MEV models are integrated into the transport network. The approach allows to simplify the contraction mapping and to make the estimation practical on real data. We apply the new method on real data by proposing a recursive cross-nested logit (RCNL) model, a member of the generalized model, where the choice model at each stage is a cross-nested logit. We report estimation results and a prediction study based on a real network. The results show that the RCNL model performs significantly better than the other recursive models in fit and prediction.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T02:50:45Z
       
  • Introducing relations between activities and goods consumption in
           microeconomic time use models
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Sergio R. Jara-Díaz, Sebastian Astroza, Chandra R. Bhat, Marisol Castro
      We present a microeconomic model for time use and consumption for workers with an improved treatment of the (technical) relations between goods and time. In addition to the traditional time and income constraints, an improved set of restrictions involving explicit relations between consumption of goods and time assigned to activities is included in two versions. In each version, a system of equations involving a subset of the consumer's decision variables is obtained, including (1) work time, (2) activities that are assigned more time than the minimum, and (3) goods that are consumed above the minimum. The system cannot be solved explicitly in the endogenous decision variables but is used to set a stochastic system for econometric estimation through maximum likelihood. The models are applied to analyze weekly time use and consumption data from Netherlands for year 2012. The results obtained by this new ``goods and time'' framework are compared with previous research in terms of the value of leisure and the value of work, showing substantial differences in the valuation of time.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T02:50:45Z
       
  • Strategic investments in accessibility under port competition and
           inter-regional coordination
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Yulai Wan, Leonardo J. Basso, Anming Zhang
      This paper analyzes the incentives for and welfare implications of collaboration among local governments in landside port accessibility investment. In particular, we consider two seaports with their respective captive markets and a common inland market for which the ports compete. The ports and the inland belong to three independent regional governments, each making investment decisions on accessibility for its own region. We find that there is a conflict of interest between the port governments and inland government in terms of their jointly making accessibility investment decisions, and that each region's preference over various coalitions is highly affected by ownership type of the competing ports. For public ports, the inland may compensate the port regions to achieve the grand coalition that maximizes total welfare but requires a sizable investment in the port regions. For private ports, however, the port regions benefit from coordinating with the inland and hence may be able to compensate the inland to form the grand coalition.


      PubDate: 2016-07-30T00:45:26Z
       
  • Exploring alternative service schemes for busy transit corridors
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Weihua Gu, Zahra Amini, Michael J. Cassidy
      Transit systems in which buses or trains always visit each and every stop along corridors are compared against those that feature two alternative vehicle-dispatching schemes. The alternatives entail so-called skip-stop and express/local services. Continuous models found in the literature are expanded so that the alternatives could be compared under a wider array of options. Comparisons are separately drawn for systems that feature buses, BRT and metro-rail trains, both for cities that are wealthy and for those that are not. Idealizations in regard to travel demand and route symmetry are assumed in pursuit of insights useful for high-level planning. Two rounds of parametric comparisons are conducted. In the first round, optimally-designed all-stop systems are presumably converted to furnish instead the alternative strategies without altering the original stop locations. In the second round, alternative schemes are designed in fully-optimized fashion from scratch. In both rounds, alternative dispatching schemes often bring lower generalized costs than do their optimally-designed all-stop counterparts. Estimated savings can reach 10% even in the first round where the alternative schemes are hampered by sub-optimal stop locations. If designed from scratch, the savings can reach 30%. Skip-stop service is found most often to be the lowest-cost option of the three.


      PubDate: 2016-07-30T00:45:26Z
       
  • An indirect latent informational conformity social influence choice model:
           Formulation and case study
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Michael Maness, Cinzia Cirillo
      The current state-of-the-art in social influence models of travel behavior is conformity models with direct benefit social influence effects; indirect effects have seen limited development. This paper presents a latent class discrete choice model of an indirect informational conformity hypothesis. Class membership depends on the proportion of group members who adopt a behavior. Membership into the “more informed” class causes taste variation in those individuals thus making adoption more attractive. Equilibrium properties are derived for the informational conformity model showing the possibility of multiple equilibria but under different conditions than the direct-benefit formulations. Social influence elasticity is computed for both models types and non-linear elasticity behavior is represented. Additionally, a two-stage control function is developed to obtain consistent parameter estimates in the presence of an endogenous class membership model covariate that is correlated with choice utility unobservables. The modeling framework is applied in a case study on social influence for bicycle ownership in the United States. Results showed that “more informed” households had a greater chance of owning a bike due to taste variation. These households were less sensitive to smaller home footprints and limited incomes. The behavioral hypothesis of positive preference change due to information transfer was confirmed. Observed ownership share closely matched predicted local-level equilibrium in some metropolitan areas, but the model was unable to fully achieve the expected prediction rates within confidence intervals. The elasticity of social influence was found to range locally from about 0.5% to 1.0%.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-07-30T00:45:26Z
       
  • A two-step linear programming model for energy-efficient timetables in
           metro railway networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Shuvomoy Das Gupta, J. Kevin Tobin, Lacra Pavel
      In this paper we propose a novel two-step linear optimization model to calculate energy-efficient timetables in metro railway networks. The resultant timetable minimizes the total energy consumed by all trains and maximizes the utilization of regenerative energy produced by braking trains, subject to the constraints in the railway network. In contrast to other existing models, which are NP -hard, our model is computationally the most tractable one being a linear program. We apply our optimization model to different instances of service PES2-SFM2 of line 8 of Shanghai Metro network spanning a full service period of one day (18 h) with thousands of active trains. For every instance, our model finds an optimal timetable very quickly (largest runtime being less than 13 s) with significant reduction in effective energy consumption (the worst case being 19.27%). Code based on the model has been integrated with Thales Timetable Compiler - the industrial timetable compiler of Thales Inc that has the largest installed base of communication-based train control systems worldwide.


      PubDate: 2016-07-30T00:45:26Z
       
  • Bus network structure and mobility pattern: A monocentric analytical
           approach on a grid street layout
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Hugo Badia, Miquel Estrada, Francesc Robusté
      This study discusses which transit network structure is the best option to serve urban mobility. As a consequence of the evolution of urban form, cities have undergone a process of dispersion of their activities that has caused a change in mobility needs in the last few decades. Mobility networks and services should progressively adapt to the new demand patterns, especially the bus transit network, which has more flexibility to absorb the changes. We compare four base transit network structures: a radial scheme, a direct trip-based network, and a transfer-based system by means of either a complete grid or a hybrid structure. An analytical model is used to estimate the behavior of these structures for idealized monocentric mobility patterns with several degrees of concentration. The purpose is to determine the right range of situations for the applicability of each bus transit structure, and to determine guidelines about the transit network planning process. It turns out that the best structure is not always the same, and depends on the mobility spatial pattern. A radial network is the best alternative in very concentrated cities; however, a direct trip-based system is more suitable for intermediate degrees of dispersion. A transfer-based structure is the best option when the activities are more decentralized. Nevertheless, the decentralization degree that justifies a specific transit structure is not constant. This degree depends on the characteristics of the city, transport technology and users.


      PubDate: 2016-07-30T00:45:26Z
       
  • Gap-based transit assignment algorithm with vehicle capacity constraints:
           Simulation-based implementation and large-scale application
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Ömer Verbas, Hani S. Mahmassani, Michael F. Hyland
      This paper presents a gap-based solution method for the time-dependent transit assignment problem with vehicle capacity constraints. A two-level, simulation-based methodology is proposed, which finds the least cost hyperpaths at the upper level and performs the assignment of transit travelers on the hyperpaths at the lower level. The detailed simulation of travelers and vehicles at the lower level allows modelers to capture transit network complexities such as transfers/missed connections, receiving a seat/standing and boarding/being rejected to board. This ‘hard’ implementation of vehicle capacity constraints at the lower level is aggregated into ‘soft constraints’ at the upper level for the least cost hyperpath calculation. Using a gap-based assignment procedure, user equilibrium is reached on large-scale networks in a computationally efficient manner. The algorithm is tested on the large-scale Chicago Transit Authority network. The gap-based approach outperforms the commonly used method of successive averages approach in terms of rate of convergence and quality of results. Furthermore, sensitivity analyses with respect to network parameters illustrate the robustness of the proposed two-level solution procedure.


      PubDate: 2016-07-30T00:45:26Z
       
  • Modeling the first train timetabling problem with minimal missed trains
           and synchronization time differences in subway networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Liujiang Kang, Xiaoning Zhu, Huijun Sun, Jakob Puchinger, Mario Ruthmair, Bin Hu
      Urban railway transportation organization is a systematic activity that is usually composed of several stages, including network design, line planning, timetabling, rolling stock and staffing. In this paper, we study the optimization of first train timetables for an urban railway network that focuses on designing convenient and smooth timetables for morning passengers. We propose a mixed integer programming (MIP) model for minimizing train arrival time differences and the number of missed trains, i.e., the number of trains without transfers within a reasonable time at interchange stations as an alternative to minimize passenger transfer waiting times. This is interesting from the operator's point of view, and we show that both criteria are equivalent. Starting from an intuitive model for the first train transfer problem, we then linearize the non-linear constraints by utilizing problem specific knowledge. In addition, a local search algorithm is developed to solve the timetabling problem. Through computational experiments involving the Beijing subway system, we demonstrate the computational efficiency of the exact model and the heuristic approach. Finally, three practical suggestions are proposed for the operation and management of the urban railway transit system.


      PubDate: 2016-07-30T00:45:26Z
       
  • The time dimension of parking economics
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Roman Zakharenko
      A model of demand for parking, evolving over time, is proposed. The model features both extensive (whether to park) and intensive (for how long to park) margins of parking demand, allows multidimensional heterogeneity of parkers, and evolution of demand throughout the day. I show that the optimal price for parking is proportional to the rate of arrival of new parkers and is inversely related to the square of the occupancy rate, which is different from previously discussed pricing methods. I show that the primary purpose of pricing is to regulate departures, rather than arrivals, of parkers. I also find that asymmetric information about parkers’ characteristics does not prevent the parking authority from achieving the social optimum. A numerical example compares the optimal policy against the alternatives.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Node modeling for congested urban road networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Saif Eddin Jabari
      First-order network flow models are coupled systems of differential equations which describe the build-up and dissipation of congestion along network road segments, known as link models. Models describing flows across network junctions, referred to as node models, play the role of the coupling between the link models and are responsible for capturing the propagation of traffic dynamics through the network. Node models are typically stated as optimization problems, so that the coupling between the link dynamics is not known explicitly. This renders network flow models analytically intractable. This paper examines the properties of node models for urban networks. Solutions to node models that are free of traffic holding, referred to as holding-free solutions, are formally defined and it is shown that flow maximization is only a sufficient condition for holding-free solutions. A simple greedy algorithm is shown to produce holding-free solutions while also respecting the invariance principle. Staging movements through nodes in a manner that prevents conflicting flows from proceeding through the nodes simultaneously is shown to simplify the node models considerably and promote unique solutions. The staging also models intersection capacities in a more realistic way by preventing unrealistically large flows when there is ample supply in the downstream and preventing artificial blocking when some of the downstream supplies are restricted.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • A class of RUM choice models that includes the model in which the utility
           has logistic distributed errors
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): J.M. del Castillo
      A class of random utility maximization (RUM) models is introduced. For these RUM models the utility errors are the sum of two independent random variables, where one of them follows a Gumbel distribution. For this class of RUM models an integral representation of the choice probability generating function has been derived which is substantially different from the usual integral representation arising from the RUM theory. Four types of models belonging to the class are presented. Thanks to the new integral representation, a closed-form expression for the choice probability generating function for these four models may be easily obtained. The resulting choice probabilities are fairly manageable and this fact makes the proposed models an interesting alternative to the logit model. The proposed models have been applied to two samples of interurban trips in Japan and some of them yield a better fit than the logit model. Finally, the concavity of the log-likelihood of the proposed models with respect to the utility coefficients is also analyzed.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Energy-efficient metro train rescheduling with uncertain time-variant
           passenger demands: An approximate dynamic programming approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Jiateng Yin, Tao Tang, Lixing Yang, Ziyou Gao, Bin Ran
      In a heavily congested metro line, unexpected disturbances often occur to cause the delay of the traveling passengers, infeasibility of the current timetable and reduction of the operational efficiency. Due to the uncertain and dynamic characteristics of passenger demands, the commonly used method to recover from disturbances in practice is to change the timetable and rolling stock manually based on the experiences and professional judgements. In this paper, we develop a stochastic programming model for metro train rescheduling problem in order to jointly reduce the time delay of affected passengers, their total traveling time and operational costs of trains. To capture the complexity of passenger traveling characteristics, the arriving ratio of passengers at each station is modeled as a non-homogeneous poisson distribution, in which the intensity function is treated as time-varying origin-to-destination passenger demand matrices. By considering the number of on-board passengers, the total energy usage is modeled as the difference between the tractive energy consumption and the regenerative energy. Then, we design an approximate dynamic programming based algorithm to solve the proposed model, which can obtain a high-quality solution in a short time. Finally, numerical examples with real-world data sets are implemented to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approaches.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Instantaneous multihop connectivity of one-dimensional vehicular ad hoc
           networks with general distributions of communication nodes
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Wen-Long Jin, Wilfred W. Recker, Xiubin B. Wang
      Connected and automated vehicle technologies hold great promises for improving the safety, efficiency, and environmental impacts of the transportation sector. In this study we are concerned with multihop connectivity of instantaneous vehicular one-dimensional ad hoc networks (VANETs) formed by connected vehicles along a communication path in a road network with given either vehicle locations or traffic densities, market penetration rates, and transmission ranges. We first define a new random variable for the location of the end node of a communication chain, which is a discrete random variable with given vehicle locations and a mixed random variable with given traffic densities. Then recursive, iterative, or differential equation models of instantaneous multihop connectivity between two communication nodes are derived from the relationships between end node probability mass or density function and connectivity. Assuming a simple communication model, the new models are applicable for general distribution patterns of vehicles and communication nodes, including non-evenly placed vehicles and nonhomogeneous Poisson distributions of nodes. With given vehicle locations, the computational cost for this new model is linear to the number of vehicles; with given traffic densities, we derive a new closed-form connectivity model for homogeneous Poisson distributions of communication nodes and an approximate closed-form model when distribution patterns of communication nodes are given by spatial renewal processes. We then apply the models to evaluate impacts on connectivity of traffic patterns, including shock waves, and road-side stations. The connectivity model could be helpful for designing routing protocols in VANETs and developing their applications in transportation systems.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • On the flexibility of using marginal distribution choice models in traffic
           equilibrium
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Selin Damla Ahipaşaoğlu, Uğur Arıkan, Karthik Natarajan
      Traffic equilibrium models are fundamental to the analysis of transportation systems. The stochastic user equilibrium (SUE) model which relaxes the perfect information assumption of the deterministic user equilibrium is one such model. The aim of this paper is to develop a new user equilibrium model, namely the MDM-SUE model, that uses the marginal distribution model (MDM) as the underlying route choice model. In this choice model, the marginal distributions of the path utilities are specified but the joint distribution is not. By focusing on the joint distribution that maximizes expected utility, we show that MDM-SUE exists and is unique under mild assumptions on the marginal distributions. We develop a convex optimization formulation for the MDM-SUE. For specific choices of marginal distributions, the MDM-SUE model recreates the optimization formulation of logit SUE and weibit SUE. Moreover, the model is flexible since it can capture perception variance scaling at the route level and allows for modeling different user preferences by allowing for skewed distributions and heavy tailed distributions. The model can also be generalized to incorporate bounded support distributions and discrete distributions which allows to distinguish between used and unused routes within the SUE framework. We adapt the method of successive averages to develop an efficient approach to compute MDM-SUE traffic flows. In our numerical experiments, we test the ability of MDM-SUE to relax the assumption that the error terms are independently and identically distributed random variables as in the logit models and study the additional modeling flexibility that MDM-SUE provides on small-sized networks as well as on the large network of the city of Winnipeg. The results indicate that the model provides both modeling flexibility and computational tractability in traffic equilibrium.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Profit maximization by a private toll road with cars and trucks
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Xiaolei Guo, Da Xu
      This paper examines the profit maximizing behavior of a private firm which operates a toll road competing against a free alternative in presence of cars and trucks. Trucks differ from cars in value of time (VOT), congestion externality, pavement damage, and link travel time function. We find that the firm takes either a car-strategy or a truck-strategy for profit maximization. For a traffic mix with relatively large car volume and small truck volume, the car-strategy results in no trucks using the toll road, while the truck-strategy results in all trucks using the toll road. We derive the equilibrium flow pattern under any combination of car-toll and truck-toll, based on which we identify a profit-maximizing frontier and a strategy-switching frontier in the car-toll and truck-toll two-dimensional space. By geometrically comparing the two frontiers, we establish general conditions under which each strategy will be taken, which suggest that the truck-to-car VOT ratio, the total traffic demand, and the difference in travel distance between the two roads are critical in shaping the firm's strategy.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Heterogeneous sensor location model for path reconstruction
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Chenyi Fu, Ning Zhu, Shuai Ling, Shoufeng Ma, Yongxi Huang
      A new traffic sensor location problem is developed and solved by strategically placing both passive and active sensors in a transportation network for path reconstruction. Passive sensors simply count vehicles, while active sensors can recognize vehicle plates but are more expensive. We developed a two-stage heterogeneous sensor location model to determine the most cost-effective strategies for sensor deployment. The first stage of the model adopts the path reconstruction model defined by Castillo et al. (2008b) to determine the optimal locations of active sensors in the network. In the second stage, an algebraic framework is developed to strategically replace active sensors so that the total installation cost can be reduced while maintaining path flow observation quality. Within the algebraic framework, a scalar product operator is introduced to calculate path flows. An extension matrix is generated and used to determine if a replacement scheme is able to reconstruct all path flows. A graph model is then constructed to determine feasible replacement schemes. The problem of finding the optimal replacement scheme is addressed by utilizing the theory of maximum clique to obtain the upper bound of the number of replaced sensors and then revising this upper bound to generate the optimal replacement scheme. A polynomial-time algorithm is proposed to solve the maximum clique problem, and the optimal replacement scheme can be obtained accordingly. Three numerical experiments show that our proposed two-stage method can reduce the total costs of transportation surveillance systems without affecting the system monitor quality. The locations of the active sensors play a more critical role than the locations of the passive sensors in the number of reconstructed paths.


      PubDate: 2016-05-19T02:41:58Z
       
  • Parking as a loss leader at shopping malls
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Fulya Yuksel Ersoy, Kevin Hasker, Eren Inci
      This paper investigates the pricing of malls in an environment where shoppers choose between a car and public transportation in getting to a suburban mall. The mall implicitly engages in mixed bundling; it sells goods bundled with parking to shoppers who come by car, and only goods to shoppers who come by public transportation. There are external costs of discomfort in public transportation due to crowdedness. Thus, shoppers using public transportation deter each other. The mall internalizes these external costs, much like a policy maker. To do so, it raises the sales price of the good and sets a parking fee less than parking’s marginal cost. Hence, parking is always a loss leader. Surprisingly, this pricing scheme is not necessarily distortionary.


      PubDate: 2016-05-19T02:41:58Z
       
  • Incorporating a multiple discrete-continuous outcome in the generalized
           heterogeneous data model: Application to residential self-selection
           effects analysis in an activity time-use behavior model
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Chandra R. Bhat, Sebastian Astroza, Aarti C. Bhat, Kai Nagel
      This paper makes both a methodological contribution as well as an empirical contribution. From a methodological perspective, we propose a new econometric approach for the estimation of joint mixed models that include a multiple discrete choice outcome and a nominal discrete outcome, in addition to the count, binary/ordinal outcomes, and continuous outcomes considered in traditional structural equation models. These outcomes are modeled together by specifying latent underlying unobserved individual lifestyle, personality, and attitudinal factors that impact the many outcomes, and generate the jointness among the outcomes. From an empirical perspective, we analyze residential location choice, household vehicle ownership choice, as well as time-use choices, and investigate the extent of association versus causality in the effects of residential density on activity participation and mobility choices. The sample for the empirical application is drawn from a travel survey conducted in the Puget Sound Region in 2014. The results show that residential density effects on activity participation and motorized auto ownership are both associative as well as causal, emphasizing that accounting for residential self-selection effects are not simply esoteric econometric pursuits, but can have important implications for land-use policy measures that focus on neo-urbanist design.


      PubDate: 2016-05-14T10:40:09Z
       
  • A scenario-based planning for the pickup and delivery problem with time
           windows, scheduled lines and stochastic demands
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Veaceslav Ghilas, Emrah Demir, Tom Van Woensel
      The Pickup and Delivery Problem with Time Windows, Scheduled Lines and Stochastic Demands (PDPTW-SLSD) concerns scheduling a set of vehicles to serve a set of requests, whose expected demands are known in distribution when planning, but are only revealed with certainty upon the vehicles’ arrival. In addition, a part of the transportation plan can be carried out on limited-capacity scheduled public transportation line services. This paper proposes a scenario-based sample average approximation approach for the PDPTW-SLSD. An adaptive large neighborhood search heuristic embedded into sample average approximation method is used to generate good-quality solutions. Computational results on instances with up to 40 requests (i.e., 80 locations) reveal that the integrated transportation networks can lead to operational cost savings of up to 16% compared with classical pickup and delivery systems.


      PubDate: 2016-05-14T10:40:09Z
       
  • Speed or spacing? Cumulative variables, and convolution of model errors
           and time in traffic flow models validation and calibration
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Vincenzo Punzo, Marcello Montanino
      This paper proves that in traffic flow model calibration and validation the cumulative sum of a variable has to be preferred to the variable itself as a measure of performance. As shown through analytical relationships, model residuals dynamics are preserved if discrepancy measures of a model against reality are calculated on a cumulative variable, rather than on the variable itself. Keeping memory of model residuals occurrence times is essential in traffic flow modelling where the ability of reproducing the dynamics of a phenomenon – as a bottleneck evolution or a vehicle deceleration profile – may count as much as the ability of reproducing its order of magnitude. According to the aforesaid finding, in a car-following models context, calibration on travelled space is more robust than calibration on speed or acceleration. Similarly in case of macroscopic traffic flow models validation and calibration, cumulative flows are to be preferred to flows. Actually, the findings above hold for any dynamic model.


      PubDate: 2016-05-14T10:40:09Z
       
 
 
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