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  Subjects -> TRANSPORTATION (Total: 164 journals)
    - AIR TRANSPORT (7 journals)
    - AUTOMOBILES (21 journals)
    - RAILROADS (5 journals)
    - ROADS AND TRAFFIC (6 journals)
    - SHIPS AND SHIPPING (30 journals)
    - TRANSPORTATION (95 journals)

TRANSPORTATION (95 journals)

Showing 1 - 53 of 53 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 63)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies on Transport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Economics of Transportation     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
EURO Journal of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European Transport Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IATSS Research     Open Access  
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
IET Intelligent Transport Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IFAC-PapersOnLine     Open Access  
International Innovation - Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Applied Logistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of e-Navigation and Maritime Economy     Open Access  
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Micro-Nano Scale Transport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Mobile Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Ocean Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Services Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Modern Transportation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sustainable Mobility     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Transport & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Transport Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Transport History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Transportation Safety & Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Transportation Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Transportation Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Waterway Port Coastal and Ocean Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Les Dossiers du Grihl     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Logistics & Sustainable Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Logistique & Management     Full-text available via subscription  
Modern Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Packaging, Transport, Storage & Security of Radioactive Material     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pervasive and Mobile Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Public Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Recherche Transports Sécurité     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Revista Transporte y Territorio     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Romanian Journal of Transport Infrastructure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SourceOCDE Transports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Streetnotes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Synthesis Lectures on Mobile and Pervasive Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tire Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Transactions on Transport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Transport and Telecommunication Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transport in Porous Media     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transport Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transport Reviews: A Transnational Transdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Transportation Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Transportation Letters : The International Journal of Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Transportation Research Part B: Methodological     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Transportation Research Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transportation Research Record : Journal of the Transportation Research Board     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Transportation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
TRANSPORTES     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Transportmetrica B : Transport Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Travel Behaviour and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Urban, Planning and Transport Research     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Vehicular Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Транспортні системи та технології перевезень     Open Access  
Journal Cover Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
  [SJR: 3.306]   [H-I: 70]   [30 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0191-2615
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2969 journals]
  • Stochastic modeling for vehicle platoons (I): Dynamic grouping behavior
           and online platoon recognition
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 August 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
      Author(s): Baibing Li
      A vehicle platoon is a group of vehicles traveling together at approximately the same speed. Traffic platooning is an important phenomenon that can substantially increase the capacity of roads. This two-part paper presents a new approach to stochastic dynamic modeling for vehicle platoons. In part I, we develop a vehicle platoon model with two interconnected components: a Markov regime-switching stochastic process that is used to model the dynamic behavior of platoon-to-platoon transitions, and a state space model that is employed to describe individual vehicles’ dynamic movements within each vehicle platoon. On the basis of the developed stochastic dynamic model, we then develop an algorithm for online platoon recognition. The proposed stochastic dynamic model for vehicle platoons also provides a new approach to vehicle speed filtering for traffic with a platoon structure.


      PubDate: 2016-08-14T19:54:20Z
       
  • Modeling the decoy effect with context-RUM Models: Diagrammatic analysis
           and empirical evidence from route choice SP and mode choice RP case
           studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): C. Angelo Guevara, Mitsuyoshi Fukushi
      Evidence outside transportation has suggested that the introduction of a decoy to the choice-set could increase the share of other alternatives. This evidence breaks the regularity assumption, which is at the root of the classical Random Utility Maximization (RUM) model with utilities that ignore the choice context. This article assesses the suitability of various context-RUM choice models that could overcome this limitation. For this we use a diagrammatic analysis, as well as Stated Preference (SP) and Revealed Preference (RP) transportation choice evidence. We begin confirming that the reported decoy outcomes cannot be replicated with the classical RUM models and that such a goal could be achieved instead using a set of five context-RUM models. We then show, for the first time, that the Asymmetrically Dominated (AD) and Compromise (CP) decoy effects were present in an SP route choice setting. We also show that, for a subset of individuals, the relative strength of the different decoy types was coherent with a Data Generation Process (DGP) defined by the Random Regret Minimization (RRM) or by the Regret by Aspects (RBA) parsimonious models. Then, we use cross-validation analysis where we found that RRM and RBA were superior to a classical Logit for all decoy types. Nevertheless, the ad-hoc Emergent Value (EV) model was consistently superior to all models suggesting that, although the parsimonious models may in theory replicate all decoy types, they seem to still make an incomplete representation of the DGP behind the overall decoy effect. We finally consider an RP mode choice experiment with which we detect, for the first time, an AD decoy effect in this choice setting. We also use this experiment to illustrate how to handle the decoy phenomena in a real context with various alternatives and variables. The article concludes summarizing the main contributions of this research and suggesting future lines of investigation for it.


      PubDate: 2016-08-14T19:54:20Z
       
  • A multiphase optimal control method for multi-train control and scheduling
           on railway lines
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Hongbo Ye, Ronghui Liu
      We consider a combined train control and scheduling problem involving multiple trains in a railway line with a predetermined departure/arrival sequence of the trains at stations and meeting points along the line. The problem is formulated as a multiphase optimal control problem while incorporating complex train running conditions (including undulating track, variable speed restrictions, running resistances, speed-dependent maximum tractive/braking forces) and practical train operation constraints on departure/arrival/running/dwell times. Two case studies are conducted. The first case illustrates the control and scheduling problem of two trains in a small artificial network with three nodes, where one train follows and overtakes the other. The second case optimises the control and timetable of a single train in a subway line. The case studies demonstrate that the proposed framework can provide an effective approach in solving the combined train scheduling and control problem for reducing energy consumption in railway operations.


      PubDate: 2016-08-14T19:54:20Z
       
  • Testing for regularity and stochastic transitivity using the structural
           parameter of nested logit
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Richard Batley, Stephane Hess
      We introduce regularity and stochastic transitivity as necessary and well-behaved conditions respectively, for the consistency of discrete choice preferences with the Random Utility Model (RUM). For the specific case of a three-alternative nested logit (NL) model, we synthesise these conditions in the form of a simple two-part test, and reconcile this test with the conventional zero-one bounds on the structural (‘log sum’) parameter within this model, i.e. 0 < θ ≤ 1, where θ denotes the structural parameter. We show that, whilst regularity supports the lower bound of zero, moderate and strong stochastic transitivity may, for some preference orderings, give rise to a lower bound greater than zero, i.e. impose a constraint l ≤ θ, where l > 0. On the other hand, we show that neither regularity nor stochastic transitivity constrain the upper bound at one. Therefore, if the conventional zero-one bounds are imposed in model estimation, preferences which violate regularity and/or stochastic transitivity may either go undetected (if the ‘true’ structural parameter is less than zero) and/or be unknowingly admitted (if the ‘true’ lower bound is greater than zero), and preferences which comply with regularity and stochastic transitivity may be excluded (if the ‘true’ upper bound is greater than one). Against this background, we show that imposition of the zero-one bounds may compromise model fit, inferences of willingness-to-pay, and forecasts of choice behaviour. Finally, we show that where the ‘true’ structural parameter is negative (thereby violating RUM – at least when choosing the ‘best’ alternative), positive starting values for the structural parameter in estimation may prevent the exposure of regularity and stochastic transitivity failures.


      PubDate: 2016-08-14T19:54:20Z
       
  • Empirical analysis and simulation of the concave growth pattern of traffic
           oscillations
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Junfang Tian, Rui Jiang, Bin Jia, Ziyou Gao, Shoufeng Ma
      This paper has investigated the growth pattern of traffic oscillations in the NGSIM vehicle trajectories data, via measuring the standard deviation of vehicle velocity involved in oscillations. We found that the standard deviation of the velocity increases in a concave way along vehicles in the oscillations. Moreover, all datasets collapse into a single concave curve, which indicates a universal evolution law of oscillations. A comparison with traffic experiment shows that the empirical and the experimental results are highly compatible and can be fitted by a single concave curve, which demonstrates that qualitatively the growth pattern of oscillations is not affected by type of bottleneck and lane changing behavior. We have shown theoretically that small disturbance with an angular frequency ω increases in a convex way in the initial stage in the traditional models presuming a unique relationship between speed and density, which obviously deviates from our findings. Simulations show that stochastic models in which the traffic state dynamically spans a 2D region in the speed-spacing plane can qualitatively or even quantitatively reproduce the concave growth pattern of traffic oscillations.


      PubDate: 2016-08-14T19:54:20Z
       
  • Bus bunching along a corridor served by two lines
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Jan-Dirk Schmöcker, Wenzhe Sun, Achille Fonzone, Ronghui Liu
      Headway fluctuations and “bus bunching” are well known phenomena on many bus routes where an initial delay to one service can disturb the whole schedule due to resulting differences in dwell times of subsequent buses at stops. This paper deals with the influence of a frequent but so far largely neglected characteristic of bus networks on bus bunching, that is the presence of overtaking and common lines. A set of discrete state equations is implemented to obtain the departure times of a group of buses following the occurrence of an exogenous delay to one bus at a bus stop. Two models are distinguished depending on whether overtaking at stops is possible or not. If two buses board simultaneously and overtaking is not possible, passengers will board the front bus. If overtaking is possible, passengers form equilibrium queues in order to minimise their waiting times. Conditions for equilibrium queues among passengers with different choice sets are formulated. With a case study we then illustrate that, if overtaking is not allowed, the presence of common lines worsens the service regularity along the corridor. Conversely, common lines have positive effects when overtaking is possible. We suggest hence that appropriate network design is important to reduce the negative effects of delay-prone lines on the overall network performance.


      PubDate: 2016-08-09T04:42:34Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91




      PubDate: 2016-08-04T02:50:45Z
       
  • A container loading algorithm with static mechanical equilibrium stability
           constraints
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): A. Galrão Ramos, José F. Oliveira, José F. Gonçalves, Manuel P. Lopes
      The Container Loading Problem (CLP) literature has traditionally guaranteed cargo static stability by imposing the full support constraint for the base of the box. Used as a proxy for real-world static stability, this constraint excessively restricts the container space utilization and has conditioned the algorithms developed for this problem. In this paper we propose a container loading algorithm with static stability constraints based on the static mechanical equilibrium conditions applied to rigid bodies, which derive from Newton’s laws of motion. The algorithm is a multi-population biased random-key genetic algorithm, with a new placement procedure that uses the maximal-spaces representation to manage empty spaces, and a layer building strategy to fill the maximal-spaces. The new static stability criterion is embedded in the placement procedure and in the evaluation function of the algorithm. The new algorithm is extensively tested on well-known literature benchmark instances using three variants: no stability constraint, the classical full base support constraint and with the new static stability constraint—a comparison is then made with the state-of-the-art algorithms for the CLP. The computational experiments show that by using the new stability criterion it is always possible to achieve a higher percentage of space utilization than with the classical full base support constraint, for all classes of problems, while still guaranteeing static stability. Moreover, for highly heterogeneous cargo the new algorithm with full base support constraint outperforms the other literature approaches, improving the best solutions known for these classes of problems.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T02:50:45Z
       
  • Setting lines frequency and capacity in dense railway rapid transit
           networks with simultaneous passenger assignment
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): David Canca, Eva Barrena, Alicia De-Los-Santos, José Luis Andrade-Pineda
      We propose a Mixed Integer Non-Linear Programming (MINLP) model in order to determine optimal line frequencies and capacities in dense railway rapid transit (RRT) networks in which typically several lines can run over the same open tracks. Given a certain demand matrix, the model determines the most appropriate frequency and train capacity for each line taking into account infrastructure capacity constraints, allocating lines to tracks while assigning passengers to lines. The service provider and the user points of view are simultaneously taken into account. The first one is considered by selecting the most convenient set of frequencies and capacities and routing passengers from their origins to their destinations while minimizing the average trip time. The second one by minimizing operation, maintenance and fleet acquisition costs. Due to the huge number of variables and constraints appearing in real size instances, a preprocessing phase determining the best k-paths linking origin and destination stations is followed. Then, the best paths are used to define sparse index sets in order to drastically reduce the size of the problem. As illustration, the model is applied to a simplified version of the Madrid Metropolitan Railway network.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T02:50:45Z
       
  • Joint design of parking capacities and fleet size for one-way
           station-based carsharing systems with road congestion constraints
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Lu Hu, Yang Liu
      This paper formulates one-way station-based carsharing systems as a mixed queuing network model and proposes a profit-maximization model for the joint design of fleet size and station capacities. We explicitly model the road congestion by formulating each route as a queue where the travel time is an increasing function of the state. The booking process is also modeled in the rental station queue so that the efficiency loss caused by the reservation policy can be captured. The mixed queuing network falls into Baskett, Chandy, Muntz and Palacios (BCMP) networks with unique product-form equilibrium distribution. We derive the asymptotic behavior as the parking capacities and fleet size grows, and show that the performance of carsharing systems will be proportionally bounded by that of the bottleneck route. The exact mean value analysis (MVA) algorithm and the approximate Schweitzer-Bard mean value analysis (SB-MVA) algorithm are extended here to solve networks with different sizes. The numerical experiments reveal some interesting findings: (1) The higher customer service rate (the smaller pick-up time window) will generate the optimal design with lower parking capacities and lower fleet size; (2) Neglecting the efficiency loss due to reservation will lead to an overestimate of the profit and other system performances as well; and (3) Given different levels of congestion on the existing road network (the non-shared car traffic), the net revenue is maximized when the existing traffic congestion is moderate.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T02:50:45Z
       
  • The impact of travel time variability and travelers’ risk attitudes on
           the values of time and reliability
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Mickael Beaud, Thierry Blayac, Maïté Stéphan
      In this paper, we derive implementable measures of travelers’ willingness to pay to save travel time (vot) and to improve the reliability ( vor) of a given trip. We set out a simple microeconomic model of transport mode choice in which each trip is fully characterized by its price and the statistical distribution of its random travel time, assuming that travelers have expected utility preferences over the latter. We then explore how the vot and vor are affected by the statistical distribution of travel time and by travelers’ preferences towards travel time variability.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T02:50:45Z
       
  • Capacitated transit service network design with boundedly rational agents
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Jiangtao Liu, Xuesong Zhou
      This paper proposes a new alternative modeling framework to systemically account for boundedly rational decision rules of travelers in a dynamic transit service network with tight capacity constraints. Within a time-discretized space-time network, the time-dependent transit services are characterized by traveling arcs and waiting arcs with constant travel times. Instead of using traditional flow-based formulations, an agent-based integer linear formulation is proposed to represent boundedly rational decisions under strictly imposed capacity constraints, due to vehicle carrying capacity and station storage capacity. Focusing on a viable and limited sets of space-time path alternatives, the proposed single-level optimization model can be effectively decomposed to a time-dependent routing sub-problem for individual agents and a knapsack sub-problem for service arc selections through the Lagrangian decomposition. In addition, several practically important modeling issues are discussed, such as dynamic and personalized transit pricing, passenger inflow control as part of network restraint strategies, and penalty for early/late arrival. Finally, numerical experiments are performed to demonstrate the methodology and computational efficiency of our proposed model and algorithm.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T02:50:45Z
       
  • Reliability-based stochastic transit assignment: Formulations and capacity
           paradox
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Y. Jiang, W.Y. Szeto
      This study develops link-based and approach-based variational inequality (VI) formulations for the frequency-based transit assignment with supply uncertainty, where link flows and flow on each outgoing link from each node are decision variables, respectively. Both the mean and variance of travel cost, including the covariance of in-vehicle travel costs, are captured in both formulations. To address the covariance of in-vehicle travel costs between different links on the same transit line, an augmented route-section network representation is developed, allowing us to apply the dynamic programming method to compute the value of the mapping function of the VI. The approach-based formulation can be solved by an extragradient method that only requires mild assumptions for convergence. It is found that the number of links carrying flow and equilibrium cost can be underestimated if supply uncertainty is not considered. The study also introduces and examines the capacity paradox, a phenomenon in which the network maximum throughput may be reduced after new transit lines are added to a transit network or after the frequency of an existing line is increased. It is found that the capacity paradox may or may not occur simultaneously with the Braess-like paradox, a phenomenon in which providing new transit lines to a network may deteriorate the network performance in terms of the total weighted sum of the mean and variance of travel cost of all of the passengers. The demand level and the degree of risk aversion of passengers are the key factors that determine the occurrence of the capacity paradox.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T02:50:45Z
       
  • A method of integrating correlation structures for a generalized recursive
           route choice model
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Tien Mai
      We propose a way to estimate a generalized recursive route choice model. The model generalizes other existing recursive models in the literature, i.e., (Fosgerau et al., 2013b; Mai et al., 2015c), while being more flexible since it allows the choice at each stage to be any member of the network multivariate extreme value (network MEV) model (Daly and Bierlaire, 2006). The estimation of the generalized model requires defining a contraction mapping and performing contraction iterations to solve the Bellman’s equation. Given the fact that the contraction mapping is defined based on the choice probability generating functions (CPGF) (Fosgerau et al., 2013b) generated by the network MEV models, and these CPGFs are complicated, the generalized model becomes difficult to estimate. We deal with this challenge by proposing a novel method where the network of correlation structures and the structure parameters given by the network MEV models are integrated into the transport network. The approach allows to simplify the contraction mapping and to make the estimation practical on real data. We apply the new method on real data by proposing a recursive cross-nested logit (RCNL) model, a member of the generalized model, where the choice model at each stage is a cross-nested logit. We report estimation results and a prediction study based on a real network. The results show that the RCNL model performs significantly better than the other recursive models in fit and prediction.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T02:50:45Z
       
  • Introducing relations between activities and goods consumption in
           microeconomic time use models
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Sergio R. Jara-Díaz, Sebastian Astroza, Chandra R. Bhat, Marisol Castro
      We present a microeconomic model for time use and consumption for workers with an improved treatment of the (technical) relations between goods and time. In addition to the traditional time and income constraints, an improved set of restrictions involving explicit relations between consumption of goods and time assigned to activities is included in two versions. In each version, a system of equations involving a subset of the consumer's decision variables is obtained, including (1) work time, (2) activities that are assigned more time than the minimum, and (3) goods that are consumed above the minimum. The system cannot be solved explicitly in the endogenous decision variables but is used to set a stochastic system for econometric estimation through maximum likelihood. The models are applied to analyze weekly time use and consumption data from Netherlands for year 2012. The results obtained by this new ``goods and time'' framework are compared with previous research in terms of the value of leisure and the value of work, showing substantial differences in the valuation of time.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T02:50:45Z
       
  • Strategic investments in accessibility under port competition and
           inter-regional coordination
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Yulai Wan, Leonardo J. Basso, Anming Zhang
      This paper analyzes the incentives for and welfare implications of collaboration among local governments in landside port accessibility investment. In particular, we consider two seaports with their respective captive markets and a common inland market for which the ports compete. The ports and the inland belong to three independent regional governments, each making investment decisions on accessibility for its own region. We find that there is a conflict of interest between the port governments and inland government in terms of their jointly making accessibility investment decisions, and that each region's preference over various coalitions is highly affected by ownership type of the competing ports. For public ports, the inland may compensate the port regions to achieve the grand coalition that maximizes total welfare but requires a sizable investment in the port regions. For private ports, however, the port regions benefit from coordinating with the inland and hence may be able to compensate the inland to form the grand coalition.


      PubDate: 2016-07-30T00:45:26Z
       
  • Exploring alternative service schemes for busy transit corridors
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Weihua Gu, Zahra Amini, Michael J. Cassidy
      Transit systems in which buses or trains always visit each and every stop along corridors are compared against those that feature two alternative vehicle-dispatching schemes. The alternatives entail so-called skip-stop and express/local services. Continuous models found in the literature are expanded so that the alternatives could be compared under a wider array of options. Comparisons are separately drawn for systems that feature buses, BRT and metro-rail trains, both for cities that are wealthy and for those that are not. Idealizations in regard to travel demand and route symmetry are assumed in pursuit of insights useful for high-level planning. Two rounds of parametric comparisons are conducted. In the first round, optimally-designed all-stop systems are presumably converted to furnish instead the alternative strategies without altering the original stop locations. In the second round, alternative schemes are designed in fully-optimized fashion from scratch. In both rounds, alternative dispatching schemes often bring lower generalized costs than do their optimally-designed all-stop counterparts. Estimated savings can reach 10% even in the first round where the alternative schemes are hampered by sub-optimal stop locations. If designed from scratch, the savings can reach 30%. Skip-stop service is found most often to be the lowest-cost option of the three.


      PubDate: 2016-07-30T00:45:26Z
       
  • An indirect latent informational conformity social influence choice model:
           Formulation and case study
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Michael Maness, Cinzia Cirillo
      The current state-of-the-art in social influence models of travel behavior is conformity models with direct benefit social influence effects; indirect effects have seen limited development. This paper presents a latent class discrete choice model of an indirect informational conformity hypothesis. Class membership depends on the proportion of group members who adopt a behavior. Membership into the “more informed” class causes taste variation in those individuals thus making adoption more attractive. Equilibrium properties are derived for the informational conformity model showing the possibility of multiple equilibria but under different conditions than the direct-benefit formulations. Social influence elasticity is computed for both models types and non-linear elasticity behavior is represented. Additionally, a two-stage control function is developed to obtain consistent parameter estimates in the presence of an endogenous class membership model covariate that is correlated with choice utility unobservables. The modeling framework is applied in a case study on social influence for bicycle ownership in the United States. Results showed that “more informed” households had a greater chance of owning a bike due to taste variation. These households were less sensitive to smaller home footprints and limited incomes. The behavioral hypothesis of positive preference change due to information transfer was confirmed. Observed ownership share closely matched predicted local-level equilibrium in some metropolitan areas, but the model was unable to fully achieve the expected prediction rates within confidence intervals. The elasticity of social influence was found to range locally from about 0.5% to 1.0%.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-07-30T00:45:26Z
       
  • A two-step linear programming model for energy-efficient timetables in
           metro railway networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Shuvomoy Das Gupta, J. Kevin Tobin, Lacra Pavel
      In this paper we propose a novel two-step linear optimization model to calculate energy-efficient timetables in metro railway networks. The resultant timetable minimizes the total energy consumed by all trains and maximizes the utilization of regenerative energy produced by braking trains, subject to the constraints in the railway network. In contrast to other existing models, which are NP -hard, our model is computationally the most tractable one being a linear program. We apply our optimization model to different instances of service PES2-SFM2 of line 8 of Shanghai Metro network spanning a full service period of one day (18 h) with thousands of active trains. For every instance, our model finds an optimal timetable very quickly (largest runtime being less than 13 s) with significant reduction in effective energy consumption (the worst case being 19.27%). Code based on the model has been integrated with Thales Timetable Compiler - the industrial timetable compiler of Thales Inc that has the largest installed base of communication-based train control systems worldwide.


      PubDate: 2016-07-30T00:45:26Z
       
  • Bus network structure and mobility pattern: A monocentric analytical
           approach on a grid street layout
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Hugo Badia, Miquel Estrada, Francesc Robusté
      This study discusses which transit network structure is the best option to serve urban mobility. As a consequence of the evolution of urban form, cities have undergone a process of dispersion of their activities that has caused a change in mobility needs in the last few decades. Mobility networks and services should progressively adapt to the new demand patterns, especially the bus transit network, which has more flexibility to absorb the changes. We compare four base transit network structures: a radial scheme, a direct trip-based network, and a transfer-based system by means of either a complete grid or a hybrid structure. An analytical model is used to estimate the behavior of these structures for idealized monocentric mobility patterns with several degrees of concentration. The purpose is to determine the right range of situations for the applicability of each bus transit structure, and to determine guidelines about the transit network planning process. It turns out that the best structure is not always the same, and depends on the mobility spatial pattern. A radial network is the best alternative in very concentrated cities; however, a direct trip-based system is more suitable for intermediate degrees of dispersion. A transfer-based structure is the best option when the activities are more decentralized. Nevertheless, the decentralization degree that justifies a specific transit structure is not constant. This degree depends on the characteristics of the city, transport technology and users.


      PubDate: 2016-07-30T00:45:26Z
       
  • Gap-based transit assignment algorithm with vehicle capacity constraints:
           Simulation-based implementation and large-scale application
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Ömer Verbas, Hani S. Mahmassani, Michael F. Hyland
      This paper presents a gap-based solution method for the time-dependent transit assignment problem with vehicle capacity constraints. A two-level, simulation-based methodology is proposed, which finds the least cost hyperpaths at the upper level and performs the assignment of transit travelers on the hyperpaths at the lower level. The detailed simulation of travelers and vehicles at the lower level allows modelers to capture transit network complexities such as transfers/missed connections, receiving a seat/standing and boarding/being rejected to board. This ‘hard’ implementation of vehicle capacity constraints at the lower level is aggregated into ‘soft constraints’ at the upper level for the least cost hyperpath calculation. Using a gap-based assignment procedure, user equilibrium is reached on large-scale networks in a computationally efficient manner. The algorithm is tested on the large-scale Chicago Transit Authority network. The gap-based approach outperforms the commonly used method of successive averages approach in terms of rate of convergence and quality of results. Furthermore, sensitivity analyses with respect to network parameters illustrate the robustness of the proposed two-level solution procedure.


      PubDate: 2016-07-30T00:45:26Z
       
  • Modeling the first train timetabling problem with minimal missed trains
           and synchronization time differences in subway networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 93, Part A
      Author(s): Liujiang Kang, Xiaoning Zhu, Huijun Sun, Jakob Puchinger, Mario Ruthmair, Bin Hu
      Urban railway transportation organization is a systematic activity that is usually composed of several stages, including network design, line planning, timetabling, rolling stock and staffing. In this paper, we study the optimization of first train timetables for an urban railway network that focuses on designing convenient and smooth timetables for morning passengers. We propose a mixed integer programming (MIP) model for minimizing train arrival time differences and the number of missed trains, i.e., the number of trains without transfers within a reasonable time at interchange stations as an alternative to minimize passenger transfer waiting times. This is interesting from the operator's point of view, and we show that both criteria are equivalent. Starting from an intuitive model for the first train transfer problem, we then linearize the non-linear constraints by utilizing problem specific knowledge. In addition, a local search algorithm is developed to solve the timetabling problem. Through computational experiments involving the Beijing subway system, we demonstrate the computational efficiency of the exact model and the heuristic approach. Finally, three practical suggestions are proposed for the operation and management of the urban railway transit system.


      PubDate: 2016-07-30T00:45:26Z
       
  • The cost of travel time variability: Three measures with properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Leonid Engelson, Mogens Fosgerau
      This paper explores the relationships between three types of measures of the cost of travel time variability: measures based on scheduling preferences and implicit departure time choice, Bernoulli type measures based on a univariate function of travel time, and mean-dispersion measures. We characterise measures that are both scheduling measures and mean-dispersion measures and measures that are both Bernoulli and mean-dispersion. There are no measures that are both scheduling and Bernoulli. We consider the impact of requiring that measures are additive or homogeneous, proving also a new strong result on the utility rates in an additive scheduling measure. These insights are useful for selecting cost measures to use in applications.


      PubDate: 2016-07-06T05:51:05Z
       
  • Traffic state estimation through compressed sensing and Markov random
           field
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Zuduo Zheng, Dongcai Su
      This study focuses on information recovery from noisy traffic data and traffic state estimation. The main contributions of this paper are: i) a novel algorithm based on the compressed sensing theory is developed to recover traffic data with Gaussian measurement noise, partial data missing, and corrupted noise; ii) the accuracy of traffic state estimation (TSE) is improved by using Markov random field and total variation (TV) regularization, with introduction of smoothness prior; and iii) a recent TSE method is extended to handle traffic state variables with high dimension. Numerical experiments and field data are used to test performances of these proposed methods; consistent and satisfactory results are obtained.


      PubDate: 2016-07-01T19:13:54Z
       
  • Understanding urban mobility patterns with a probabilistic tensor
           factorization framework
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Lijun Sun, Kay W. Axhausen
      The rapid developments of ubiquitous mobile computing provide planners and researchers with new opportunities to understand and build smart cities by mining the massive spatial-temporal mobility data. However, given the increasing complexity and volume of the emerging mobility datasets, it also becomes challenging to build novel analytical framework that is capable of understanding the structural properties and critical features. In this paper, we introduce an analytical framework to deal with high-dimensional human mobility data. To this end, we formulate mobility data in a probabilistic setting and consider each record a multivariate observation sampled from an underlying distribution. In order to characterize this distribution, we use a multi-way probabilistic factorization model based on the concept of tensor decomposition and probabilistic latent semantic analysis (PLSA). The model provides us with a flexible approach to understand multi-way mobility involving higher-order interactions—which are difficult to characterize with conventional approaches—using simple latent structures. The model can be efficiently estimated using the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. As a numerical example, this model is applied on a four-way dataset recording 14 million public transport journeys extracted from smart card transactions in Singapore. This framework can shed light on the modeling of urban structure by understanding mobility flows in both spatial and temporal dimensions.


      PubDate: 2016-07-01T19:13:54Z
       
  • Subsidizing and pricing private toll roads with noncontractible service
           quality: A relational contract approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Zhuo Feng, Shui-Bo Zhang, Ying Gao, Shuai-Jun Zhang
      In private toll roads, some elements of the private operator’s performance are noncontractible. As a result, the government cannot motivate the private operator to improve them through a formal contract but through a self-enforcing contract that both parties are unwilling to deviate unilaterally. In this paper, we use noncontractible service quality to capture these performance elements. By employing a relational contract approach, we aim to investigate the optimal subsidy plan to provide incentives for quality improvement. We show that government subsidy is feasible in quality improvement when the discount factor is sufficiently high and marginal cost of public funds is sufficiently small. Under feasible government subsidy, we have demonstrated the optimal subsidy plans in different scenarios. Moreover, some comparative statics are presented. Based on the derived subsidy plans, we further investigate the optimal toll price. We find that the optimal toll price generates zero surplus for the private operator and positive surplus for consumers. We then make two extensions of our model to re-investigate the government’s optimal decisions on subsidy plan and toll price when her decision sequence is changed and when government compensation is present upon termination of the relationship. Some implications for practice have been derived from our model results.


      PubDate: 2016-06-27T01:12:03Z
       
  • Modeling unobserved heterogeneity using finite mixture random parameters
           for spatially correlated discrete count data
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Prasad Buddhavarapu, James G. Scott, Jorge A. Prozzi
      Road segments with identical site-specific attributes often exhibit significantly different crash counts due to unobserved reasons. The extent of unobserved heterogeneity associated with a road feature is to be estimated prior to selecting the relevant safety treatment. Moreover, crash count data is often over-dispersed and spatially correlated. This paper proposes a spatial negative binomial specification with random parameters for modeling crash counts of contiguous road segments. The unobserved heterogeneity is incorporated using a finite multi-variate normal mixture prior on the random parameters; this allows for non-normality, skewness in the distribution of the random parameters, facilitates correlation across the random parameters, and relaxes any distributional assumptions. The model extracts the inherent groups of road segments with crash counts that are equally sensitive to the road attributes on an average; the heterogeneity within these groups is also allowed in the proposed framework. The specification simultaneously accounts for potential spatial correlation of the crash counts from neighboring road segments. A Gibbs sampling framework is proposed that leverages recent theoretical developments on data-augmentation algorithms, and elegantly sidesteps many of the computational difficulties usually associated with Bayesian inference of count models. Empirical results suggests the presence of two latent groups and spatial correlation within the study road network. Road features with significantly different effect on crash counts across two latent groups of road segments were identified.


      PubDate: 2016-06-27T01:12:03Z
       
  • Convexity and robustness of dynamic traffic assignment and freeway network
           control
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Giacomo Como, Enrico Lovisari, Ketan Savla
      We study the use of the System Optimum (SO) Dynamic Traffic Assignment (DTA) problem to design optimal traffic flow controls for freeway networks as modeled by the Cell Transmission Model, using variable speed limit, ramp metering, and routing. We consider two optimal control problems: the DTA problem, where turning ratios are part of the control inputs, and the Freeway Network Control (FNC), where turning ratios are instead assigned exogenous parameters. It is known that relaxation of the supply and demand constraints in the cell-based formulations of the DTA problem results in a linear program. However, solutions to the relaxed problem can be infeasible with respect to traffic dynamics. Previous work has shown that such solutions can be made feasible by proper choice of ramp metering and variable speed limit control for specific traffic networks. We extend this procedure to arbitrary networks and provide insight into the structure and robustness of the proposed optimal controllers. For a network consisting only of ordinary, merge, and diverge junctions, where the cells have linear demand functions and affine supply functions with identical slopes, and the cost is the total traffic volume, we show, using the Pontryagin maximum principle, that variable speed limits are not needed in order to achieve optimality in the FNC problem, and ramp metering is sufficient. We also prove bounds on perturbation of the controlled system trajectory in terms of perturbations in initial traffic volume and exogenous inflows. These bounds, which leverage monotonicity properties of the controlled trajectory, are shown to be in close agreement with numerical simulation results.


      PubDate: 2016-06-27T01:12:03Z
       
  • Network based temporary facility location for the Emergency Medical
           Services considering the disaster induced demand and the transportation
           infrastructure in disaster response
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Albert Y. Chen, Ting-Yi Yu
      Pre-hospital Emergency Medical Service (EMS) provides the immediate and appropriate aid to patients in emergencies. As part of the traditional triad of first responders, EMS plays an important role in disaster response. In this work, the transportation infrastructure, which the EMS is dependent on, is considered. The objective of this research is to improve the effectiveness of EMS after the disaster by applying integer programming and the network-based partitioning to determine temporary locations for on-post EMS facilities. Integer Programming problems are formed for the optimization problem in different scales, and the Lagrangian Relaxation is adapted to extend the problem further into larger scale. Network based partitioning of demands are also proposed and tested. Numerical results are provided, and a case study is presented. In the case study, the facility location problem takes into consideration of both disaster triggered and usual EMS demand that forms a worst-case scenario. The analytical results are expected to facilitate decision making, and to serve as benchmarks for the planning of post-disaster EMS.


      PubDate: 2016-06-27T01:12:03Z
       
  • A stochastic model for the integrated optimization on metro timetable and
           speed profile with uncertain train mass
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Xin Yang, Anthony Chen, Bin Ning, Tao Tang
      The integrated timetable and speed profile optimization model has recently attracted more attention because of its good achievements on energy conservation in metro systems. However, most previous studies often ignore the spatial and temporal uncertainties of train mass, and the variabilities of tractive force, braking force and basic running resistance on energy consumption in order to simplify the model formulation and solution algorithm. In this paper, we develop an integrated metro timetable and speed profile optimization model to minimize the total tractive energy consumption, where these real-world operating conditions are explicitly considered in the model formulation and solution algorithm. Firstly, we formulate a two-phase stochastic programming model to determine the timetable and speed profile. Given the speed profile, the first phase determines the timetable by scheduling the arrival and departure times for each station, and the second phase determines the speed profile for each inter-station with the scheduled arrival and departure times. Secondly, we design a simulation-based genetic algorithm procedure incorporated with the optimal train control algorithm to find the optimal solution. Finally, we present a simple example and a real-world example based on the operation data from the Beijing Metro Yizhuang Line in Beijing, China. The results of the real-world example show that, during peak hours, off-peak hours and night hours, the total tractive energy consumptions can be reduced by: (1) 10.66%, 9.94% and 9.13% in comparison with the current timetable and speed profile; and (2) 3.35%, 3.12% and 3.04% in comparison with the deterministic model.


      PubDate: 2016-06-27T01:12:03Z
       
  • On the morning commute problem with carpooling behavior under parking
           space constraint
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Ling-Ling Xiao, Tian-Liang Liu, Hai-Jun Huang
      Morning commuters choose their departure times and travel modes based on a combinational evaluation of factors associated with the chances of running into bottleneck congestion, likely schedule delays, parking space availability as well as monetary costs of traveling and parking. This study investigates a morning commute problem with carpooling behavior under parking space constraint at destination. We consider such a scenario that as a competing mode of the transit line, the highway contains a carpool lane only used by carpoolers while all solo drivers are forced to use a general purpose (GP) lane. Unlike the standard bottleneck model, the rush-hour dynamic departure patterns with a binding parking supply vary with the relative proportion of the two lanes’ capacities. The possible departure pattern domain with different parking supply and lane capacity allocation is explored in terms of the relative extra carpool cost and distinguished between the bi-mode and multi-mode equilibria. It is found that compared with solo drivers, carpoolers have shorter rush hour in order to smooth the extra carpool cost. With the decrease of parking spots, the number of solo drivers cuts down gradually, whilst the number of carpoolers climbs up firstly and then declines in the multi-mode system. Under mild assumptions, the best system performance can be realized with the joint consideration of total travel cost and vehicle emission cost through optimizing the lane capacity allocation and the parking supply.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Creating complex congestion patterns via multi-objective optimal freeway
           traffic control with application to cyber-security
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Jack Reilly, Sébastien Martin, Mathias Payer, Alexandre M. Bayen
      This article presents a study on freeway networks instrumented with coordinated ramp metering and the ability of such control systems to produce arbitrarily complex congestion patterns within the dynamical limits of the traffic system. The developed method is used to evaluate the potential for an adversary with access to control infrastructure to enact high-level attacks on the underlying freeway system. The attacks are executed using a predictive, coordinated ramp metering controller based on finite-horizon optimal control and multi-objective optimization techniques. The efficacy of the control schemes in carrying out the prescribed attacks is determined via simulations of traffic network models based on the cell transmission model with onramps modeled as queue buffers. Freeway attacks with high-level objectives are presented on two illustrative examples: congestion-on-demand, which aims to create precise, user-specified pockets of congestion, and catch-me-if-you-can, which attempts to aid a fleeing vehicle from pursuant vehicles.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Optimal deployment of charging lanes for electric vehicles in
           transportation networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Zhibin Chen, Fang He, Yafeng Yin
      Given the rapid development of charging-while-driving technology, we envision that charging lanes for electric vehicles can be deployed in regional or even urban road networks in the future and thus attempt to optimize their deployment in this paper. We first develop a new user equilibrium model to describe the equilibrium flow distribution across a road network where charging lanes are deployed. Drivers of electric vehicles, when traveling between their origins and destinations, are assumed to select routes and decide battery recharging plans to minimize their trip times while ensuring to complete their trips without running out of charge. The battery recharging plan will dictate which charging lane to use, how long to charge and at what speed to operate an electric vehicle. The speed will affect the amount of energy recharged as well as travel time. With the established user equilibrium conditions, we further formulate the deployment of charging lanes as a mathematical program with complementarity constraints. Both the network equilibrium and design models are solved by effective solution algorithms and demonstrated with numerical examples.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Pareto-improving transportation network design and ownership regimes
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Zhijia Tan, Hai Yang, Wei Tan, Zhichun Li
      Private provision of public roads signifies co-existence of free, public-tolled and private-tolled roads. This paper investigates the Pareto-improving transportation network design problem under various ownership regimes by allowing joint choice of road pricing and capacity enhancement on free links. The problem of interest is formulated as a bi-objective mathematical programming model that considers the travel cost of road users in each origin-destination pair and the investment return of the whole network. The non-dominated Pareto-improving solutions of toll and/or capacity enhancement schemes are sought for achieving a win-win situation. A sufficient condition is provided for the existence of the non-dominated Pareto-improving schemes and then the properties of those schemes are analyzed. It is found that, under some mild assumptions, the optimal capacity enhancement is uniquely determined by the link flow under any non-dominated Pareto-improving scheme. As a result, the joint road pricing and capacity enhancement problem reduces to a bi-objective second-best road pricing problem. A revenue distribution mechanism with return rate guarantee is proposed to implement the non-dominated Pareto-improving schemes.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Travel itinerary problem
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Xiang Li, Jiandong Zhou, Xiande Zhao
      In this study, we propose a travel itinerary problem (TIP) which aims to find itineraries with the lowest cost for travelers visiting multiple cities, under the constraints of time horizon, stop times at cities and transport alternatives with fixed departure times, arrival times, and ticket prices. First, we formulate the TIP into a 0–1 integer programming model. Then, we decompose the itinerary optimization into a macroscopic tour (i.e., visiting sequence between cities) selection process and a microscopic number (i.e., flight number, train number for each piece of movement) selection process, and use an implicit enumeration algorithm to solve the optimal combination of tour and numbers. By integrating the itinerary optimization approach and Web crawler technology, we develop a smart travel system that is able to capture online transport data and recommend the optimal itinerary that satisfies travelers’ preferences in departure time, arrival time, cabin class, and transport mode. Finally, we present case studies based on real-life transport data to illustrate the usefulness of itinerary optimization for minimizing travel cost, the computational efficiency of the implicit enumeration algorithm, and the feasibility of the smart travel system.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Optimal allocation of limited and random network resources to discrete
           stochastic demands for standardized cargo transportation networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Xinchang Wang
      We consider the resource allocation problem with discrete random demands and discrete random resource capacities for standardized cargo transportation networks, in which a freight operator needs to determine the integral quantity of booking requests to be accepted for each product to maximize the expected profit. We formulate the problem as a stochastic integer programming model and provide theoretical results that completely characterize the optimal solution to the stochastic model under a special case. We present a progressive augmentation algorithm and a sampling based method for solving the stochastic model under a general case. We also offer numerical experiments to test the two methods and shed light on their performances.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Inferring origin-destination pairs and utility-based travel preferences of
           shared mobility system users in a multi-modal environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Anshuman Anjani Kumar, Jee Eun Kang, Changhyun Kwon, Alexander Nikolaev
      This paper presents a methodological framework to identify population-wide traveler type distribution and simultaneously infer individual travelers’ Origin-Destination (OD) pairs, based on the individual records of a shared mobility (bike) system use in a multimodal travel environment. Given the information about the travelers’ outbound and inbound bike stations under varied price settings, the developed Selective Set Expectation Maximization (SSEM) algorithm infers an underlying distribution of travelers over the given traveler “types,” or “classes,” treating each traveler’s OD pair as a latent variable; the inferred most likely traveler type for each traveler then informs their most likely OD pair. The experimental results based on simulated data demonstrate high SSEM learning accuracy both on the aggregate and dissagregate levels.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Clustering of heterogeneous networks with directional flows based on
           “Snake” similarities
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Mohammadreza Saeedmanesh, Nikolas Geroliminis
      Aggregated network level modeling and control of traffic in urban networks have recently gained a lot of interest due to unpredictability of travel behaviors and high complexity of physical modeling in microscopic level. Recent research has shown the existence of well-defined Macroscopic Fundamental Diagrams (MFDs) relating average flow and density in homogeneous networks. The concept of MFD allows to design real-time traffic control schemes specifically hierarchical perimeter control approaches to alleviate or postpone congestion. Considering the fact that congestion is spatially correlated in adjacent roads and it propagates spatiotemporaly with finite speed, describing the main pockets of congestion in a heterogeneous city with small number of clusters is conceivable. In this paper, we propose a three-step clustering algorithm to partition heterogeneous networks into connected homogeneous regions, which makes the application of perimeter control feasible. The advantages of the proposed method compared to the existing ones are the ability of finding directional congestion within a cluster, robustness with respect to parameters calibration, and its good performance for networks with low connectivity and missing data. Firstly, we start to find a connected homogeneous area around each road of the network in an iterative way (i.e. it forms a sequence of roads). Each sequence of roads, defined as ‘snake’, is built by starting from a single road and iteratively adding one adjacent road based on its similarity to join previously added roads in that sequence. Secondly, based on the obtained sequences from the first step, a similarity measure is defined between each pair of the roads in the network. The similarities are computed in a way that put more weight on neighboring roads and facilitate connectivity of the clusters. Finally, Symmetric Non-negative Matrix Factorization (SNMF) framework is utilized to assign roads to proper clusters with high intra-similarity and low inter-similarity. SNMF partitions the data by providing a lower rank approximation of the similarity matrix. The proposed clustering framework is applied in medium and large-size networks based on micro-simulation and empirical data from probe vehicles. In addition, the extension of the algorithm is proposed to deal with the networks with sparse measurements where information of some links is missing. The results show the effectiveness and robustness of the extended algorithm applied to simulated network under different penetration rates (percentage of links with data).


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • The time dimension of parking economics
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Roman Zakharenko
      A model of demand for parking, evolving over time, is proposed. The model features both extensive (whether to park) and intensive (for how long to park) margins of parking demand, allows multidimensional heterogeneity of parkers, and evolution of demand throughout the day. I show that the optimal price for parking is proportional to the rate of arrival of new parkers and is inversely related to the square of the occupancy rate, which is different from previously discussed pricing methods. I show that the primary purpose of pricing is to regulate departures, rather than arrivals, of parkers. I also find that asymmetric information about parkers’ characteristics does not prevent the parking authority from achieving the social optimum. A numerical example compares the optimal policy against the alternatives.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Node modeling for congested urban road networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Saif Eddin Jabari
      First-order network flow models are coupled systems of differential equations which describe the build-up and dissipation of congestion along network road segments, known as link models. Models describing flows across network junctions, referred to as node models, play the role of the coupling between the link models and are responsible for capturing the propagation of traffic dynamics through the network. Node models are typically stated as optimization problems, so that the coupling between the link dynamics is not known explicitly. This renders network flow models analytically intractable. This paper examines the properties of node models for urban networks. Solutions to node models that are free of traffic holding, referred to as holding-free solutions, are formally defined and it is shown that flow maximization is only a sufficient condition for holding-free solutions. A simple greedy algorithm is shown to produce holding-free solutions while also respecting the invariance principle. Staging movements through nodes in a manner that prevents conflicting flows from proceeding through the nodes simultaneously is shown to simplify the node models considerably and promote unique solutions. The staging also models intersection capacities in a more realistic way by preventing unrealistically large flows when there is ample supply in the downstream and preventing artificial blocking when some of the downstream supplies are restricted.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • A class of RUM choice models that includes the model in which the utility
           has logistic distributed errors
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): J.M. del Castillo
      A class of random utility maximization (RUM) models is introduced. For these RUM models the utility errors are the sum of two independent random variables, where one of them follows a Gumbel distribution. For this class of RUM models an integral representation of the choice probability generating function has been derived which is substantially different from the usual integral representation arising from the RUM theory. Four types of models belonging to the class are presented. Thanks to the new integral representation, a closed-form expression for the choice probability generating function for these four models may be easily obtained. The resulting choice probabilities are fairly manageable and this fact makes the proposed models an interesting alternative to the logit model. The proposed models have been applied to two samples of interurban trips in Japan and some of them yield a better fit than the logit model. Finally, the concavity of the log-likelihood of the proposed models with respect to the utility coefficients is also analyzed.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Energy-efficient metro train rescheduling with uncertain time-variant
           passenger demands: An approximate dynamic programming approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Jiateng Yin, Tao Tang, Lixing Yang, Ziyou Gao, Bin Ran
      In a heavily congested metro line, unexpected disturbances often occur to cause the delay of the traveling passengers, infeasibility of the current timetable and reduction of the operational efficiency. Due to the uncertain and dynamic characteristics of passenger demands, the commonly used method to recover from disturbances in practice is to change the timetable and rolling stock manually based on the experiences and professional judgements. In this paper, we develop a stochastic programming model for metro train rescheduling problem in order to jointly reduce the time delay of affected passengers, their total traveling time and operational costs of trains. To capture the complexity of passenger traveling characteristics, the arriving ratio of passengers at each station is modeled as a non-homogeneous poisson distribution, in which the intensity function is treated as time-varying origin-to-destination passenger demand matrices. By considering the number of on-board passengers, the total energy usage is modeled as the difference between the tractive energy consumption and the regenerative energy. Then, we design an approximate dynamic programming based algorithm to solve the proposed model, which can obtain a high-quality solution in a short time. Finally, numerical examples with real-world data sets are implemented to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approaches.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Instantaneous multihop connectivity of one-dimensional vehicular ad hoc
           networks with general distributions of communication nodes
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Wen-Long Jin, Wilfred W. Recker, Xiubin B. Wang
      Connected and automated vehicle technologies hold great promises for improving the safety, efficiency, and environmental impacts of the transportation sector. In this study we are concerned with multihop connectivity of instantaneous vehicular one-dimensional ad hoc networks (VANETs) formed by connected vehicles along a communication path in a road network with given either vehicle locations or traffic densities, market penetration rates, and transmission ranges. We first define a new random variable for the location of the end node of a communication chain, which is a discrete random variable with given vehicle locations and a mixed random variable with given traffic densities. Then recursive, iterative, or differential equation models of instantaneous multihop connectivity between two communication nodes are derived from the relationships between end node probability mass or density function and connectivity. Assuming a simple communication model, the new models are applicable for general distribution patterns of vehicles and communication nodes, including non-evenly placed vehicles and nonhomogeneous Poisson distributions of nodes. With given vehicle locations, the computational cost for this new model is linear to the number of vehicles; with given traffic densities, we derive a new closed-form connectivity model for homogeneous Poisson distributions of communication nodes and an approximate closed-form model when distribution patterns of communication nodes are given by spatial renewal processes. We then apply the models to evaluate impacts on connectivity of traffic patterns, including shock waves, and road-side stations. The connectivity model could be helpful for designing routing protocols in VANETs and developing their applications in transportation systems.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • On the flexibility of using marginal distribution choice models in traffic
           equilibrium
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Selin Damla Ahipaşaoğlu, Uğur Arıkan, Karthik Natarajan
      Traffic equilibrium models are fundamental to the analysis of transportation systems. The stochastic user equilibrium (SUE) model which relaxes the perfect information assumption of the deterministic user equilibrium is one such model. The aim of this paper is to develop a new user equilibrium model, namely the MDM-SUE model, that uses the marginal distribution model (MDM) as the underlying route choice model. In this choice model, the marginal distributions of the path utilities are specified but the joint distribution is not. By focusing on the joint distribution that maximizes expected utility, we show that MDM-SUE exists and is unique under mild assumptions on the marginal distributions. We develop a convex optimization formulation for the MDM-SUE. For specific choices of marginal distributions, the MDM-SUE model recreates the optimization formulation of logit SUE and weibit SUE. Moreover, the model is flexible since it can capture perception variance scaling at the route level and allows for modeling different user preferences by allowing for skewed distributions and heavy tailed distributions. The model can also be generalized to incorporate bounded support distributions and discrete distributions which allows to distinguish between used and unused routes within the SUE framework. We adapt the method of successive averages to develop an efficient approach to compute MDM-SUE traffic flows. In our numerical experiments, we test the ability of MDM-SUE to relax the assumption that the error terms are independently and identically distributed random variables as in the logit models and study the additional modeling flexibility that MDM-SUE provides on small-sized networks as well as on the large network of the city of Winnipeg. The results indicate that the model provides both modeling flexibility and computational tractability in traffic equilibrium.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Profit maximization by a private toll road with cars and trucks
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Xiaolei Guo, Da Xu
      This paper examines the profit maximizing behavior of a private firm which operates a toll road competing against a free alternative in presence of cars and trucks. Trucks differ from cars in value of time (VOT), congestion externality, pavement damage, and link travel time function. We find that the firm takes either a car-strategy or a truck-strategy for profit maximization. For a traffic mix with relatively large car volume and small truck volume, the car-strategy results in no trucks using the toll road, while the truck-strategy results in all trucks using the toll road. We derive the equilibrium flow pattern under any combination of car-toll and truck-toll, based on which we identify a profit-maximizing frontier and a strategy-switching frontier in the car-toll and truck-toll two-dimensional space. By geometrically comparing the two frontiers, we establish general conditions under which each strategy will be taken, which suggest that the truck-to-car VOT ratio, the total traffic demand, and the difference in travel distance between the two roads are critical in shaping the firm's strategy.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Heterogeneous sensor location model for path reconstruction
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Chenyi Fu, Ning Zhu, Shuai Ling, Shoufeng Ma, Yongxi Huang
      A new traffic sensor location problem is developed and solved by strategically placing both passive and active sensors in a transportation network for path reconstruction. Passive sensors simply count vehicles, while active sensors can recognize vehicle plates but are more expensive. We developed a two-stage heterogeneous sensor location model to determine the most cost-effective strategies for sensor deployment. The first stage of the model adopts the path reconstruction model defined by Castillo et al. (2008b) to determine the optimal locations of active sensors in the network. In the second stage, an algebraic framework is developed to strategically replace active sensors so that the total installation cost can be reduced while maintaining path flow observation quality. Within the algebraic framework, a scalar product operator is introduced to calculate path flows. An extension matrix is generated and used to determine if a replacement scheme is able to reconstruct all path flows. A graph model is then constructed to determine feasible replacement schemes. The problem of finding the optimal replacement scheme is addressed by utilizing the theory of maximum clique to obtain the upper bound of the number of replaced sensors and then revising this upper bound to generate the optimal replacement scheme. A polynomial-time algorithm is proposed to solve the maximum clique problem, and the optimal replacement scheme can be obtained accordingly. Three numerical experiments show that our proposed two-stage method can reduce the total costs of transportation surveillance systems without affecting the system monitor quality. The locations of the active sensors play a more critical role than the locations of the passive sensors in the number of reconstructed paths.


      PubDate: 2016-05-19T02:41:58Z
       
  • Parking as a loss leader at shopping malls
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Fulya Yuksel Ersoy, Kevin Hasker, Eren Inci
      This paper investigates the pricing of malls in an environment where shoppers choose between a car and public transportation in getting to a suburban mall. The mall implicitly engages in mixed bundling; it sells goods bundled with parking to shoppers who come by car, and only goods to shoppers who come by public transportation. There are external costs of discomfort in public transportation due to crowdedness. Thus, shoppers using public transportation deter each other. The mall internalizes these external costs, much like a policy maker. To do so, it raises the sales price of the good and sets a parking fee less than parking’s marginal cost. Hence, parking is always a loss leader. Surprisingly, this pricing scheme is not necessarily distortionary.


      PubDate: 2016-05-19T02:41:58Z
       
  • Incorporating a multiple discrete-continuous outcome in the generalized
           heterogeneous data model: Application to residential self-selection
           effects analysis in an activity time-use behavior model
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Chandra R. Bhat, Sebastian Astroza, Aarti C. Bhat, Kai Nagel
      This paper makes both a methodological contribution as well as an empirical contribution. From a methodological perspective, we propose a new econometric approach for the estimation of joint mixed models that include a multiple discrete choice outcome and a nominal discrete outcome, in addition to the count, binary/ordinal outcomes, and continuous outcomes considered in traditional structural equation models. These outcomes are modeled together by specifying latent underlying unobserved individual lifestyle, personality, and attitudinal factors that impact the many outcomes, and generate the jointness among the outcomes. From an empirical perspective, we analyze residential location choice, household vehicle ownership choice, as well as time-use choices, and investigate the extent of association versus causality in the effects of residential density on activity participation and mobility choices. The sample for the empirical application is drawn from a travel survey conducted in the Puget Sound Region in 2014. The results show that residential density effects on activity participation and motorized auto ownership are both associative as well as causal, emphasizing that accounting for residential self-selection effects are not simply esoteric econometric pursuits, but can have important implications for land-use policy measures that focus on neo-urbanist design.


      PubDate: 2016-05-14T10:40:09Z
       
  • A scenario-based planning for the pickup and delivery problem with time
           windows, scheduled lines and stochastic demands
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Veaceslav Ghilas, Emrah Demir, Tom Van Woensel
      The Pickup and Delivery Problem with Time Windows, Scheduled Lines and Stochastic Demands (PDPTW-SLSD) concerns scheduling a set of vehicles to serve a set of requests, whose expected demands are known in distribution when planning, but are only revealed with certainty upon the vehicles’ arrival. In addition, a part of the transportation plan can be carried out on limited-capacity scheduled public transportation line services. This paper proposes a scenario-based sample average approximation approach for the PDPTW-SLSD. An adaptive large neighborhood search heuristic embedded into sample average approximation method is used to generate good-quality solutions. Computational results on instances with up to 40 requests (i.e., 80 locations) reveal that the integrated transportation networks can lead to operational cost savings of up to 16% compared with classical pickup and delivery systems.


      PubDate: 2016-05-14T10:40:09Z
       
  • Speed or spacing? Cumulative variables, and convolution of model errors
           and time in traffic flow models validation and calibration
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Vincenzo Punzo, Marcello Montanino
      This paper proves that in traffic flow model calibration and validation the cumulative sum of a variable has to be preferred to the variable itself as a measure of performance. As shown through analytical relationships, model residuals dynamics are preserved if discrepancy measures of a model against reality are calculated on a cumulative variable, rather than on the variable itself. Keeping memory of model residuals occurrence times is essential in traffic flow modelling where the ability of reproducing the dynamics of a phenomenon – as a bottleneck evolution or a vehicle deceleration profile – may count as much as the ability of reproducing its order of magnitude. According to the aforesaid finding, in a car-following models context, calibration on travelled space is more robust than calibration on speed or acceleration. Similarly in case of macroscopic traffic flow models validation and calibration, cumulative flows are to be preferred to flows. Actually, the findings above hold for any dynamic model.


      PubDate: 2016-05-14T10:40:09Z
       
 
 
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