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  Subjects -> TRANSPORTATION (Total: 164 journals)
    - AIR TRANSPORT (7 journals)
    - AUTOMOBILES (21 journals)
    - RAILROADS (5 journals)
    - ROADS AND TRAFFIC (6 journals)
    - SHIPS AND SHIPPING (29 journals)
    - TRANSPORTATION (96 journals)

TRANSPORTATION (96 journals)

Showing 1 - 53 of 53 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 64)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies on Transport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Economics of Transportation     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
EURO Journal of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
European Transport Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
IATSS Research     Open Access  
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
IET Intelligent Transport Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IFAC-PapersOnLine     Open Access  
International Innovation - Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Applied Logistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of e-Navigation and Maritime Economy     Open Access  
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Micro-Nano Scale Transport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Mobile Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Ocean Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Services Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Modern Transportation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 158)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sustainable Mobility     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Transport & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Transport Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Transport History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Transport Literature     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Transportation Safety & Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Transportation Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Transportation Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Waterway Port Coastal and Ocean Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Les Dossiers du Grihl     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Logistics & Sustainable Transport     Open Access  
Logistique & Management     Full-text available via subscription  
Mobility in History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Modern Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Packaging, Transport, Storage & Security of Radioactive Material     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pervasive and Mobile Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Public Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Recherche Transports Sécurité     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Revista Transporte y Territorio     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Romanian Journal of Transport Infrastructure     Open Access  
SourceOCDE Transports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Streetnotes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Synthesis Lectures on Mobile and Pervasive Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tire Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Transactions on Transport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Transport and Telecommunication Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Transport in Porous Media     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transport Problems     Open Access  
Transport Reviews: A Transnational Transdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Transportation Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Transportation Letters : The International Journal of Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Transportation Research Part B: Methodological     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Transportation Research Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transportation Research Record : Journal of the Transportation Research Board     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Transportation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
TRANSPORTES     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Transportmetrica B : Transport Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Travel Behaviour and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Urban, Planning and Transport Research     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Vehicular Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Транспортні системи та технології перевезень     Open Access  
Journal Cover Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
  [SJR: 3.306]   [H-I: 70]   [30 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0191-2615
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2970 journals]
  • Subsidizing and pricing private toll roads with noncontractible service
           quality: A relational contract approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Zhuo Feng, Shui-Bo Zhang, Ying Gao, Shuai-Jun Zhang
      In private toll roads, some elements of the private operator’s performance are noncontractible. As a result, the government cannot motivate the private operator to improve them through a formal contract but through a self-enforcing contract that both parties are unwilling to deviate unilaterally. In this paper, we use noncontractible service quality to capture these performance elements. By employing a relational contract approach, we aim to investigate the optimal subsidy plan to provide incentives for quality improvement. We show that government subsidy is feasible in quality improvement when the discount factor is sufficiently high and marginal cost of public funds is sufficiently small. Under feasible government subsidy, we have demonstrated the optimal subsidy plans in different scenarios. Moreover, some comparative statics are presented. Based on the derived subsidy plans, we further investigate the optimal toll price. We find that the optimal toll price generates zero surplus for the private operator and positive surplus for consumers. We then make two extensions of our model to re-investigate the government’s optimal decisions on subsidy plan and toll price when her decision sequence is changed and when government compensation is present upon termination of the relationship. Some implications for practice have been derived from our model results.


      PubDate: 2016-06-27T01:12:03Z
       
  • Modeling unobserved heterogeneity using finite mixture random parameters
           for spatially correlated discrete count data
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Prasad Buddhavarapu, James G. Scott, Jorge A. Prozzi
      Road segments with identical site-specific attributes often exhibit significantly different crash counts due to unobserved reasons. The extent of unobserved heterogeneity associated with a road feature is to be estimated prior to selecting the relevant safety treatment. Moreover, crash count data is often over-dispersed and spatially correlated. This paper proposes a spatial negative binomial specification with random parameters for modeling crash counts of contiguous road segments. The unobserved heterogeneity is incorporated using a finite multi-variate normal mixture prior on the random parameters; this allows for non-normality, skewness in the distribution of the random parameters, facilitates correlation across the random parameters, and relaxes any distributional assumptions. The model extracts the inherent groups of road segments with crash counts that are equally sensitive to the road attributes on an average; the heterogeneity within these groups is also allowed in the proposed framework. The specification simultaneously accounts for potential spatial correlation of the crash counts from neighboring road segments. A Gibbs sampling framework is proposed that leverages recent theoretical developments on data-augmentation algorithms, and elegantly sidesteps many of the computational difficulties usually associated with Bayesian inference of count models. Empirical results suggests the presence of two latent groups and spatial correlation within the study road network. Road features with significantly different effect on crash counts across two latent groups of road segments were identified.


      PubDate: 2016-06-27T01:12:03Z
       
  • Convexity and robustness of dynamic traffic assignment and freeway network
           control
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Giacomo Como, Enrico Lovisari, Ketan Savla
      We study the use of the System Optimum (SO) Dynamic Traffic Assignment (DTA) problem to design optimal traffic flow controls for freeway networks as modeled by the Cell Transmission Model, using variable speed limit, ramp metering, and routing. We consider two optimal control problems: the DTA problem, where turning ratios are part of the control inputs, and the Freeway Network Control (FNC), where turning ratios are instead assigned exogenous parameters. It is known that relaxation of the supply and demand constraints in the cell-based formulations of the DTA problem results in a linear program. However, solutions to the relaxed problem can be infeasible with respect to traffic dynamics. Previous work has shown that such solutions can be made feasible by proper choice of ramp metering and variable speed limit control for specific traffic networks. We extend this procedure to arbitrary networks and provide insight into the structure and robustness of the proposed optimal controllers. For a network consisting only of ordinary, merge, and diverge junctions, where the cells have linear demand functions and affine supply functions with identical slopes, and the cost is the total traffic volume, we show, using the Pontryagin maximum principle, that variable speed limits are not needed in order to achieve optimality in the FNC problem, and ramp metering is sufficient. We also prove bounds on perturbation of the controlled system trajectory in terms of perturbations in initial traffic volume and exogenous inflows. These bounds, which leverage monotonicity properties of the controlled trajectory, are shown to be in close agreement with numerical simulation results.


      PubDate: 2016-06-27T01:12:03Z
       
  • Network based temporary facility location for the Emergency Medical
           Services considering the disaster induced demand and the transportation
           infrastructure in disaster response
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Albert Y. Chen, Ting-Yi Yu
      Pre-hospital Emergency Medical Service (EMS) provides the immediate and appropriate aid to patients in emergencies. As part of the traditional triad of first responders, EMS plays an important role in disaster response. In this work, the transportation infrastructure, which the EMS is dependent on, is considered. The objective of this research is to improve the effectiveness of EMS after the disaster by applying integer programming and the network-based partitioning to determine temporary locations for on-post EMS facilities. Integer Programming problems are formed for the optimization problem in different scales, and the Lagrangian Relaxation is adapted to extend the problem further into larger scale. Network based partitioning of demands are also proposed and tested. Numerical results are provided, and a case study is presented. In the case study, the facility location problem takes into consideration of both disaster triggered and usual EMS demand that forms a worst-case scenario. The analytical results are expected to facilitate decision making, and to serve as benchmarks for the planning of post-disaster EMS.


      PubDate: 2016-06-27T01:12:03Z
       
  • A stochastic model for the integrated optimization on metro timetable and
           speed profile with uncertain train mass
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Xin Yang, Anthony Chen, Bin Ning, Tao Tang
      The integrated timetable and speed profile optimization model has recently attracted more attention because of its good achievements on energy conservation in metro systems. However, most previous studies often ignore the spatial and temporal uncertainties of train mass, and the variabilities of tractive force, braking force and basic running resistance on energy consumption in order to simplify the model formulation and solution algorithm. In this paper, we develop an integrated metro timetable and speed profile optimization model to minimize the total tractive energy consumption, where these real-world operating conditions are explicitly considered in the model formulation and solution algorithm. Firstly, we formulate a two-phase stochastic programming model to determine the timetable and speed profile. Given the speed profile, the first phase determines the timetable by scheduling the arrival and departure times for each station, and the second phase determines the speed profile for each inter-station with the scheduled arrival and departure times. Secondly, we design a simulation-based genetic algorithm procedure incorporated with the optimal train control algorithm to find the optimal solution. Finally, we present a simple example and a real-world example based on the operation data from the Beijing Metro Yizhuang Line in Beijing, China. The results of the real-world example show that, during peak hours, off-peak hours and night hours, the total tractive energy consumptions can be reduced by: (1) 10.66%, 9.94% and 9.13% in comparison with the current timetable and speed profile; and (2) 3.35%, 3.12% and 3.04% in comparison with the deterministic model.


      PubDate: 2016-06-27T01:12:03Z
       
  • On the morning commute problem with carpooling behavior under parking
           space constraint
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Ling-Ling Xiao, Tian-Liang Liu, Hai-Jun Huang
      Morning commuters choose their departure times and travel modes based on a combinational evaluation of factors associated with the chances of running into bottleneck congestion, likely schedule delays, parking space availability as well as monetary costs of traveling and parking. This study investigates a morning commute problem with carpooling behavior under parking space constraint at destination. We consider such a scenario that as a competing mode of the transit line, the highway contains a carpool lane only used by carpoolers while all solo drivers are forced to use a general purpose (GP) lane. Unlike the standard bottleneck model, the rush-hour dynamic departure patterns with a binding parking supply vary with the relative proportion of the two lanes’ capacities. The possible departure pattern domain with different parking supply and lane capacity allocation is explored in terms of the relative extra carpool cost and distinguished between the bi-mode and multi-mode equilibria. It is found that compared with solo drivers, carpoolers have shorter rush hour in order to smooth the extra carpool cost. With the decrease of parking spots, the number of solo drivers cuts down gradually, whilst the number of carpoolers climbs up firstly and then declines in the multi-mode system. Under mild assumptions, the best system performance can be realized with the joint consideration of total travel cost and vehicle emission cost through optimizing the lane capacity allocation and the parking supply.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Creating complex congestion patterns via multi-objective optimal freeway
           traffic control with application to cyber-security
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Jack Reilly, Sébastien Martin, Mathias Payer, Alexandre M. Bayen
      This article presents a study on freeway networks instrumented with coordinated ramp metering and the ability of such control systems to produce arbitrarily complex congestion patterns within the dynamical limits of the traffic system. The developed method is used to evaluate the potential for an adversary with access to control infrastructure to enact high-level attacks on the underlying freeway system. The attacks are executed using a predictive, coordinated ramp metering controller based on finite-horizon optimal control and multi-objective optimization techniques. The efficacy of the control schemes in carrying out the prescribed attacks is determined via simulations of traffic network models based on the cell transmission model with onramps modeled as queue buffers. Freeway attacks with high-level objectives are presented on two illustrative examples: congestion-on-demand, which aims to create precise, user-specified pockets of congestion, and catch-me-if-you-can, which attempts to aid a fleeing vehicle from pursuant vehicles.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Optimal deployment of charging lanes for electric vehicles in
           transportation networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Zhibin Chen, Fang He, Yafeng Yin
      Given the rapid development of charging-while-driving technology, we envision that charging lanes for electric vehicles can be deployed in regional or even urban road networks in the future and thus attempt to optimize their deployment in this paper. We first develop a new user equilibrium model to describe the equilibrium flow distribution across a road network where charging lanes are deployed. Drivers of electric vehicles, when traveling between their origins and destinations, are assumed to select routes and decide battery recharging plans to minimize their trip times while ensuring to complete their trips without running out of charge. The battery recharging plan will dictate which charging lane to use, how long to charge and at what speed to operate an electric vehicle. The speed will affect the amount of energy recharged as well as travel time. With the established user equilibrium conditions, we further formulate the deployment of charging lanes as a mathematical program with complementarity constraints. Both the network equilibrium and design models are solved by effective solution algorithms and demonstrated with numerical examples.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Pareto-improving transportation network design and ownership regimes
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Zhijia Tan, Hai Yang, Wei Tan, Zhichun Li
      Private provision of public roads signifies co-existence of free, public-tolled and private-tolled roads. This paper investigates the Pareto-improving transportation network design problem under various ownership regimes by allowing joint choice of road pricing and capacity enhancement on free links. The problem of interest is formulated as a bi-objective mathematical programming model that considers the travel cost of road users in each origin-destination pair and the investment return of the whole network. The non-dominated Pareto-improving solutions of toll and/or capacity enhancement schemes are sought for achieving a win-win situation. A sufficient condition is provided for the existence of the non-dominated Pareto-improving schemes and then the properties of those schemes are analyzed. It is found that, under some mild assumptions, the optimal capacity enhancement is uniquely determined by the link flow under any non-dominated Pareto-improving scheme. As a result, the joint road pricing and capacity enhancement problem reduces to a bi-objective second-best road pricing problem. A revenue distribution mechanism with return rate guarantee is proposed to implement the non-dominated Pareto-improving schemes.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Travel itinerary problem
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Xiang Li, Jiandong Zhou, Xiande Zhao
      In this study, we propose a travel itinerary problem (TIP) which aims to find itineraries with the lowest cost for travelers visiting multiple cities, under the constraints of time horizon, stop times at cities and transport alternatives with fixed departure times, arrival times, and ticket prices. First, we formulate the TIP into a 0–1 integer programming model. Then, we decompose the itinerary optimization into a macroscopic tour (i.e., visiting sequence between cities) selection process and a microscopic number (i.e., flight number, train number for each piece of movement) selection process, and use an implicit enumeration algorithm to solve the optimal combination of tour and numbers. By integrating the itinerary optimization approach and Web crawler technology, we develop a smart travel system that is able to capture online transport data and recommend the optimal itinerary that satisfies travelers’ preferences in departure time, arrival time, cabin class, and transport mode. Finally, we present case studies based on real-life transport data to illustrate the usefulness of itinerary optimization for minimizing travel cost, the computational efficiency of the implicit enumeration algorithm, and the feasibility of the smart travel system.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Optimal allocation of limited and random network resources to discrete
           stochastic demands for standardized cargo transportation networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Xinchang Wang
      We consider the resource allocation problem with discrete random demands and discrete random resource capacities for standardized cargo transportation networks, in which a freight operator needs to determine the integral quantity of booking requests to be accepted for each product to maximize the expected profit. We formulate the problem as a stochastic integer programming model and provide theoretical results that completely characterize the optimal solution to the stochastic model under a special case. We present a progressive augmentation algorithm and a sampling based method for solving the stochastic model under a general case. We also offer numerical experiments to test the two methods and shed light on their performances.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Inferring origin-destination pairs and utility-based travel preferences of
           shared mobility system users in a multi-modal environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Anshuman Anjani Kumar, Jee Eun Kang, Changhyun Kwon, Alexander Nikolaev
      This paper presents a methodological framework to identify population-wide traveler type distribution and simultaneously infer individual travelers’ Origin-Destination (OD) pairs, based on the individual records of a shared mobility (bike) system use in a multimodal travel environment. Given the information about the travelers’ outbound and inbound bike stations under varied price settings, the developed Selective Set Expectation Maximization (SSEM) algorithm infers an underlying distribution of travelers over the given traveler “types,” or “classes,” treating each traveler’s OD pair as a latent variable; the inferred most likely traveler type for each traveler then informs their most likely OD pair. The experimental results based on simulated data demonstrate high SSEM learning accuracy both on the aggregate and dissagregate levels.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Clustering of heterogeneous networks with directional flows based on
           “Snake” similarities
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Mohammadreza Saeedmanesh, Nikolas Geroliminis
      Aggregated network level modeling and control of traffic in urban networks have recently gained a lot of interest due to unpredictability of travel behaviors and high complexity of physical modeling in microscopic level. Recent research has shown the existence of well-defined Macroscopic Fundamental Diagrams (MFDs) relating average flow and density in homogeneous networks. The concept of MFD allows to design real-time traffic control schemes specifically hierarchical perimeter control approaches to alleviate or postpone congestion. Considering the fact that congestion is spatially correlated in adjacent roads and it propagates spatiotemporaly with finite speed, describing the main pockets of congestion in a heterogeneous city with small number of clusters is conceivable. In this paper, we propose a three-step clustering algorithm to partition heterogeneous networks into connected homogeneous regions, which makes the application of perimeter control feasible. The advantages of the proposed method compared to the existing ones are the ability of finding directional congestion within a cluster, robustness with respect to parameters calibration, and its good performance for networks with low connectivity and missing data. Firstly, we start to find a connected homogeneous area around each road of the network in an iterative way (i.e. it forms a sequence of roads). Each sequence of roads, defined as ‘snake’, is built by starting from a single road and iteratively adding one adjacent road based on its similarity to join previously added roads in that sequence. Secondly, based on the obtained sequences from the first step, a similarity measure is defined between each pair of the roads in the network. The similarities are computed in a way that put more weight on neighboring roads and facilitate connectivity of the clusters. Finally, Symmetric Non-negative Matrix Factorization (SNMF) framework is utilized to assign roads to proper clusters with high intra-similarity and low inter-similarity. SNMF partitions the data by providing a lower rank approximation of the similarity matrix. The proposed clustering framework is applied in medium and large-size networks based on micro-simulation and empirical data from probe vehicles. In addition, the extension of the algorithm is proposed to deal with the networks with sparse measurements where information of some links is missing. The results show the effectiveness and robustness of the extended algorithm applied to simulated network under different penetration rates (percentage of links with data).


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • The time dimension of parking economics
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Roman Zakharenko
      A model of demand for parking, evolving over time, is proposed. The model features both extensive (whether to park) and intensive (for how long to park) margins of parking demand, allows multidimensional heterogeneity of parkers, and evolution of demand throughout the day. I show that the optimal price for parking is proportional to the rate of arrival of new parkers and is inversely related to the square of the occupancy rate, which is different from previously discussed pricing methods. I show that the primary purpose of pricing is to regulate departures, rather than arrivals, of parkers. I also find that asymmetric information about parkers’ characteristics does not prevent the parking authority from achieving the social optimum. A numerical example compares the optimal policy against the alternatives.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Node modeling for congested urban road networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Saif Eddin Jabari
      First-order network flow models are coupled systems of differential equations which describe the build-up and dissipation of congestion along network road segments, known as link models. Models describing flows across network junctions, referred to as node models, play the role of the coupling between the link models and are responsible for capturing the propagation of traffic dynamics through the network. Node models are typically stated as optimization problems, so that the coupling between the link dynamics is not known explicitly. This renders network flow models analytically intractable. This paper examines the properties of node models for urban networks. Solutions to node models that are free of traffic holding, referred to as holding-free solutions, are formally defined and it is shown that flow maximization is only a sufficient condition for holding-free solutions. A simple greedy algorithm is shown to produce holding-free solutions while also respecting the invariance principle. Staging movements through nodes in a manner that prevents conflicting flows from proceeding through the nodes simultaneously is shown to simplify the node models considerably and promote unique solutions. The staging also models intersection capacities in a more realistic way by preventing unrealistically large flows when there is ample supply in the downstream and preventing artificial blocking when some of the downstream supplies are restricted.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • A class of RUM choice models that includes the model in which the utility
           has logistic distributed errors
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): J.M. del Castillo
      A class of random utility maximization (RUM) models is introduced. For these RUM models the utility errors are the sum of two independent random variables, where one of them follows a Gumbel distribution. For this class of RUM models an integral representation of the choice probability generating function has been derived which is substantially different from the usual integral representation arising from the RUM theory. Four types of models belonging to the class are presented. Thanks to the new integral representation, a closed-form expression for the choice probability generating function for these four models may be easily obtained. The resulting choice probabilities are fairly manageable and this fact makes the proposed models an interesting alternative to the logit model. The proposed models have been applied to two samples of interurban trips in Japan and some of them yield a better fit than the logit model. Finally, the concavity of the log-likelihood of the proposed models with respect to the utility coefficients is also analyzed.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Energy-efficient metro train rescheduling with uncertain time-variant
           passenger demands: An approximate dynamic programming approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Jiateng Yin, Tao Tang, Lixing Yang, Ziyou Gao, Bin Ran
      In a heavily congested metro line, unexpected disturbances often occur to cause the delay of the traveling passengers, infeasibility of the current timetable and reduction of the operational efficiency. Due to the uncertain and dynamic characteristics of passenger demands, the commonly used method to recover from disturbances in practice is to change the timetable and rolling stock manually based on the experiences and professional judgements. In this paper, we develop a stochastic programming model for metro train rescheduling problem in order to jointly reduce the time delay of affected passengers, their total traveling time and operational costs of trains. To capture the complexity of passenger traveling characteristics, the arriving ratio of passengers at each station is modeled as a non-homogeneous poisson distribution, in which the intensity function is treated as time-varying origin-to-destination passenger demand matrices. By considering the number of on-board passengers, the total energy usage is modeled as the difference between the tractive energy consumption and the regenerative energy. Then, we design an approximate dynamic programming based algorithm to solve the proposed model, which can obtain a high-quality solution in a short time. Finally, numerical examples with real-world data sets are implemented to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approaches.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Instantaneous multihop connectivity of one-dimensional vehicular ad hoc
           networks with general distributions of communication nodes
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Wen-Long Jin, Wilfred W. Recker, Xiubin B. Wang
      Connected and automated vehicle technologies hold great promises for improving the safety, efficiency, and environmental impacts of the transportation sector. In this study we are concerned with multihop connectivity of instantaneous vehicular one-dimensional ad hoc networks (VANETs) formed by connected vehicles along a communication path in a road network with given either vehicle locations or traffic densities, market penetration rates, and transmission ranges. We first define a new random variable for the location of the end node of a communication chain, which is a discrete random variable with given vehicle locations and a mixed random variable with given traffic densities. Then recursive, iterative, or differential equation models of instantaneous multihop connectivity between two communication nodes are derived from the relationships between end node probability mass or density function and connectivity. Assuming a simple communication model, the new models are applicable for general distribution patterns of vehicles and communication nodes, including non-evenly placed vehicles and nonhomogeneous Poisson distributions of nodes. With given vehicle locations, the computational cost for this new model is linear to the number of vehicles; with given traffic densities, we derive a new closed-form connectivity model for homogeneous Poisson distributions of communication nodes and an approximate closed-form model when distribution patterns of communication nodes are given by spatial renewal processes. We then apply the models to evaluate impacts on connectivity of traffic patterns, including shock waves, and road-side stations. The connectivity model could be helpful for designing routing protocols in VANETs and developing their applications in transportation systems.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • On the flexibility of using marginal distribution choice models in traffic
           equilibrium
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Selin Damla Ahipaşaoğlu, Uğur Arıkan, Karthik Natarajan
      Traffic equilibrium models are fundamental to the analysis of transportation systems. The stochastic user equilibrium (SUE) model which relaxes the perfect information assumption of the deterministic user equilibrium is one such model. The aim of this paper is to develop a new user equilibrium model, namely the MDM-SUE model, that uses the marginal distribution model (MDM) as the underlying route choice model. In this choice model, the marginal distributions of the path utilities are specified but the joint distribution is not. By focusing on the joint distribution that maximizes expected utility, we show that MDM-SUE exists and is unique under mild assumptions on the marginal distributions. We develop a convex optimization formulation for the MDM-SUE. For specific choices of marginal distributions, the MDM-SUE model recreates the optimization formulation of logit SUE and weibit SUE. Moreover, the model is flexible since it can capture perception variance scaling at the route level and allows for modeling different user preferences by allowing for skewed distributions and heavy tailed distributions. The model can also be generalized to incorporate bounded support distributions and discrete distributions which allows to distinguish between used and unused routes within the SUE framework. We adapt the method of successive averages to develop an efficient approach to compute MDM-SUE traffic flows. In our numerical experiments, we test the ability of MDM-SUE to relax the assumption that the error terms are independently and identically distributed random variables as in the logit models and study the additional modeling flexibility that MDM-SUE provides on small-sized networks as well as on the large network of the city of Winnipeg. The results indicate that the model provides both modeling flexibility and computational tractability in traffic equilibrium.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Profit maximization by a private toll road with cars and trucks
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Xiaolei Guo, Da Xu
      This paper examines the profit maximizing behavior of a private firm which operates a toll road competing against a free alternative in presence of cars and trucks. Trucks differ from cars in value of time (VOT), congestion externality, pavement damage, and link travel time function. We find that the firm takes either a car-strategy or a truck-strategy for profit maximization. For a traffic mix with relatively large car volume and small truck volume, the car-strategy results in no trucks using the toll road, while the truck-strategy results in all trucks using the toll road. We derive the equilibrium flow pattern under any combination of car-toll and truck-toll, based on which we identify a profit-maximizing frontier and a strategy-switching frontier in the car-toll and truck-toll two-dimensional space. By geometrically comparing the two frontiers, we establish general conditions under which each strategy will be taken, which suggest that the truck-to-car VOT ratio, the total traffic demand, and the difference in travel distance between the two roads are critical in shaping the firm's strategy.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 89




      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • A multiple type bike repositioning problem
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 90
      Author(s): Yanfeng Li, W.Y. Szeto, Jiancheng Long, C.S. Shui
      This paper investigates a new static bicycle repositioning problem in which multiple types of bikes are considered. Some types of bikes that are in short supply at a station can be substituted by other types, whereas some types of bikes can occupy the spaces of other types in the vehicle during repositioning. These activities provide two new strategies, substitution and occupancy, which are examined in this paper. The problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming problem to minimize the total cost, which consists of the route travel cost, penalties due to unmet demand, and penalties associated with the substitution and occupancy strategies. A combined hybrid genetic algorithm is proposed to solve this problem. This solution algorithm consists of (i) a modified version of a hybrid genetic search with adaptive diversity control to determine routing decisions and (ii) a proposed greedy heuristic to determine the loading and unloading instructions at each visited station and the substitution and occupancy strategies. The results show that the proposed method can provide high-quality solutions with short computing times. Using small examples, this paper also reveals problem properties and repositioning strategies in bike sharing systems with multiple types of bikes.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Holding decisions for correlated vehicle arrivals at intermodal freight
           transfer terminals
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 90
      Author(s): Yanshuo Sun, Paul Schonfeld
      We propose a vehicle holding method for mitigating the effect of service disruptions on coordinated intermodal freight operations. We extend existing studies mainly by (1) modeling correlations among vehicle arrivals and (2) considering decision risks with a mean-standard deviation optimization model. We prove that the expected value of the total cost in our proposed formulation is not affected by the correlations, while the variance can be miscomputed when arrival correlations are neglected. We also identify some implications of delay propagation when optimizing vehicle holding decisions in real-time. We provide general criteria for determining the boundary of the affected region and length of the numerical search, based on the frequency of information updates. Theoretical analyses are supported by three numerical examples.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Estimation of urban bus transit marginal cost without cost data
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 90
      Author(s): Marco Batarce
      We develop a method to study the industrial structure of urban bus transit without using cost data. To do so, we estimate the marginal cost function under the assumption that firms compete on frequency and adjust frequency to maximize profits. Our methodology is applied to Santiago, Chile. In this case, demand is modeled with a simplified model of transit network assignment. The goal is to consider how frequency, capacity, and on-board passengers affect the bus line’s demand. The marginal cost function is estimated by using the first-order conditions of the firm’s profit maximization problem, using the results of the demand model as data. We conclude that the urban bus transit industry in Santiago exhibits increasing returns to scale for low levels of demand and that these returns are exhausted rapidly at a moderate demand level. Additionally, firms exhibit economies of network expansion, on average.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:41Z
       
  • Heterogeneous sensor location model for path reconstruction
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Chenyi Fu, Ning Zhu, Shuai Ling, Shoufeng Ma, Yongxi Huang
      A new traffic sensor location problem is developed and solved by strategically placing both passive and active sensors in a transportation network for path reconstruction. Passive sensors simply count vehicles, while active sensors can recognize vehicle plates but are more expensive. We developed a two-stage heterogeneous sensor location model to determine the most cost-effective strategies for sensor deployment. The first stage of the model adopts the path reconstruction model defined by Castillo et al. (2008b) to determine the optimal locations of active sensors in the network. In the second stage, an algebraic framework is developed to strategically replace active sensors so that the total installation cost can be reduced while maintaining path flow observation quality. Within the algebraic framework, a scalar product operator is introduced to calculate path flows. An extension matrix is generated and used to determine if a replacement scheme is able to reconstruct all path flows. A graph model is then constructed to determine feasible replacement schemes. The problem of finding the optimal replacement scheme is addressed by utilizing the theory of maximum clique to obtain the upper bound of the number of replaced sensors and then revising this upper bound to generate the optimal replacement scheme. A polynomial-time algorithm is proposed to solve the maximum clique problem, and the optimal replacement scheme can be obtained accordingly. Three numerical experiments show that our proposed two-stage method can reduce the total costs of transportation surveillance systems without affecting the system monitor quality. The locations of the active sensors play a more critical role than the locations of the passive sensors in the number of reconstructed paths.


      PubDate: 2016-05-19T02:41:58Z
       
  • Parking as a loss leader at shopping malls
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Fulya Yuksel Ersoy, Kevin Hasker, Eren Inci
      This paper investigates the pricing of malls in an environment where shoppers choose between a car and public transportation in getting to a suburban mall. The mall implicitly engages in mixed bundling; it sells goods bundled with parking to shoppers who come by car, and only goods to shoppers who come by public transportation. There are external costs of discomfort in public transportation due to crowdedness. Thus, shoppers using public transportation deter each other. The mall internalizes these external costs, much like a policy maker. To do so, it raises the sales price of the good and sets a parking fee less than parking’s marginal cost. Hence, parking is always a loss leader. Surprisingly, this pricing scheme is not necessarily distortionary.


      PubDate: 2016-05-19T02:41:58Z
       
  • How, when and why integrated choice and latent variable models are
           latently useful
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 90
      Author(s): Akshay Vij, Joan L. Walker
      Integrated Choice and Latent Variable (ICLV) models are an increasingly popular extension to discrete choice models that attempt explicitly to model the cognitive process underlying the formation of any choice. This study was born from the discovery that an ICLV model can in many cases be reduced to a choice model without latent variables that fits the choice data at least as well as the original ICLV model from which it was obtained. The failure of past studies to recognize this fact raised concerns about other benefits that have been claimed with regards to the framework. With the objective of addressing these concerns, this study undertakes a systematic comparison between the ICLV model and an appropriately specified reduced form choice model. We derive analytical proofs regarding the benefits of the framework and use synthetic datasets to corroborate any conclusions drawn from the analytical proofs. We find that the ICLV model can under certain conditions lead to an improvement in the analyst's ability to predict outcomes to the choice data, allow for the identification of structural relationships between observable and latent variables, correct for bias arising from omitted variables and measurement error, reduce the variance of parameter estimates, and abet practice and policy, all in ways that would not be possible using the reduced form choice model. We synthesize these findings into a general process of evaluation that can be used to assess what gains, if any, might be had from developing an ICLV model in a particular empirical context.


      PubDate: 2016-05-14T10:40:09Z
       
  • Enhanced cooperative car-following traffic model with the combination of
           V2V and V2I communication
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 90
      Author(s): Dongyao Jia, Dong Ngoduy
      Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication are emerging components of intelligent transport systems (ITS) based on which vehicles can drive in a cooperative way and, hence, significantly improve traffic flow efficiency. However, due to the high vehicle mobility, the unreliable vehicular communications such as packet loss and transmission delay can impair the performance of the cooperative driving system (CDS). In addition, the downstream traffic information collected by roadside sensors in the V2I communication may introduce measurement errors, which also affect the performance of the CDS. The goal of this paper is to bridge the gap between traffic flow modelling and communication approaches in order to build up better cooperative traffic systems. To this end, we aim to develop an enhanced cooperative microscopic (car-following) traffic model considering V2V and V2I communication (or V2X for short), and investigate how vehicular communications affect the vehicle cooperative driving, especially in traffic disturbance scenarios. For these purposes, we design a novel consensus-based vehicle control algorithm for the CDS, in which not only the local traffic flow stability is guaranteed, but also the shock waves are supposed to be smoothed. The IEEE 802.11p, the defacto vehicular networking standard, is selected as the communication protocols, and the roadside sensors are deployed to collect the average speed in the targeted area as the downstream traffic reference. Specifically, the imperfections of vehicular communication as well as the measured information noise are taken into account. Numerical results show the efficiency of the proposed scheme. This paper attempts to theoretically investigate the relationship between vehicular communications and cooperative driving, which is needed for the future deployment of both connected vehicles and infrastructure (i.e. V2X).


      PubDate: 2016-05-14T10:40:09Z
       
  • Determining structural route components from GPS traces
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 90
      Author(s): Luk Knapen, Irith Ben-Arroyo Hartman, Daniel Schulz, Tom Bellemans, Davy Janssens, Geert Wets
      Analysis of GPS traces shows that people often do not use the least cost path through the transportation network while making trips. This leads to the question which structural path characteristics can be used to construct realistic route choice sets for use in traffic simulation models. In this paper, we investigate the hypothesis that, for utilitarian trips, the route between origin and destination consists of a small number of concatenated least cost paths. The hypothesis is verified by analyzing routes extracted from large sets of recorded GPS traces which constitute revealed preference information. Trips have been extracted from the traces and for each trip the path in the transportation network is determined by map matching. This is followed by a path decomposition phase for which the algorithm constitutes the first contribution of this paper. There are multiple ways to split a given path in a directed graph into a minimal number of subpaths of minimal cost. By calculating two specific path splittings, it is possible to identify subsets of the vertices (splitVertexSuites) that can be used to generate every possible minimum path splitting by taking one vertex from each such subset. As a second contribution, we show how the extracted information is used in microscopic travel simulation. The distribution for the size of the minimum decomposition, extracted from the GPS traces, can be used in constrained enumeration methods for route choice set generation. The sets of vertices that can act as boundary vertices separating consecutive route parts contain way points (landmarks) having a particular meaning to their user. The paper explains the theoretical aspects of route splitting as well as the process to extract splitVertexSuites from big data. It reports statistical distributions extracted from sets of GPS traces for both multimodal person movements and unimodal car trips.


      PubDate: 2016-05-14T10:40:09Z
       
  • Liner container assignment model with transit-time-sensitive container
           shipment demand and its applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 90
      Author(s): Shuaian Wang, Qiang Meng, Chung-Yee Lee
      This paper proposes a practical tactical-level liner container assignment model for liner shipping companies, in which the container shipment demand is a non-increasing function of the transit time. Given the transit-time-sensitive demand, the model aims to determine which proportion of the demand to fulfill and how to transport these containers in a liner shipping network to maximize the total profit. Although the proposed model is similar to multi-commodity network-flow (MCNF) with side constraints, unlike the MCNF with time delay constraints or reliability constraints that is NP-hard, we show that the liner container assignment model is polynomially solvable due to its weekly schedule characteristics by developing two link-based linear programing formulations. A number of practical extensions and applications are analyzed and managerial insights are discussed. The polynomially solvable liner container assignment model is then applied to address several important decision problems proposed by a global liner shipping company.


      PubDate: 2016-05-14T10:40:09Z
       
  • Analysis of timer-based message dissemination protocols for inter-vehicle
           communications
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 90
      Author(s): Andrea Baiocchi
      Message dissemination protocols are a key component of the communication infrastructure of the Intelligent Transportation System. They have been targeted by several research and standardization efforts. An especially interesting class of dissemination protocols are so called timer (or delay) based ones. The recently standardized GeoBroadcast service of the GeoNetworking protocol of ETSI falls into this category. This work lays out an analytical model of message coverage distance and delivery delay with timer-based dissemination protocols in a highway environment. The model is based on the assumption of (possibly non homogeneous) Poisson vehicle spatial distribution. The model results are compared with computer simulations and measured data driven experiments, including scenarios with traffic discontinuities (signalized intersections). The limits of applicability of the proposed model are assessed, showing that it provides accurate predictions with a wide range of system parameters for highway scenarios. It is also shown that one of the most popular timer-based dissemination protocols achieves the same connectivity and coverage performance of the ideal message flooding.


      PubDate: 2016-05-14T10:40:09Z
       
  • Incorporating a multiple discrete-continuous outcome in the generalized
           heterogeneous data model: Application to residential self-selection
           effects analysis in an activity time-use behavior model
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Chandra R. Bhat, Sebastian Astroza, Aarti C. Bhat, Kai Nagel
      This paper makes both a methodological contribution as well as an empirical contribution. From a methodological perspective, we propose a new econometric approach for the estimation of joint mixed models that include a multiple discrete choice outcome and a nominal discrete outcome, in addition to the count, binary/ordinal outcomes, and continuous outcomes considered in traditional structural equation models. These outcomes are modeled together by specifying latent underlying unobserved individual lifestyle, personality, and attitudinal factors that impact the many outcomes, and generate the jointness among the outcomes. From an empirical perspective, we analyze residential location choice, household vehicle ownership choice, as well as time-use choices, and investigate the extent of association versus causality in the effects of residential density on activity participation and mobility choices. The sample for the empirical application is drawn from a travel survey conducted in the Puget Sound Region in 2014. The results show that residential density effects on activity participation and motorized auto ownership are both associative as well as causal, emphasizing that accounting for residential self-selection effects are not simply esoteric econometric pursuits, but can have important implications for land-use policy measures that focus on neo-urbanist design.


      PubDate: 2016-05-14T10:40:09Z
       
  • A scenario-based planning for the pickup and delivery problem with time
           windows, scheduled lines and stochastic demands
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Veaceslav Ghilas, Emrah Demir, Tom Van Woensel
      The Pickup and Delivery Problem with Time Windows, Scheduled Lines and Stochastic Demands (PDPTW-SLSD) concerns scheduling a set of vehicles to serve a set of requests, whose expected demands are known in distribution when planning, but are only revealed with certainty upon the vehicles’ arrival. In addition, a part of the transportation plan can be carried out on limited-capacity scheduled public transportation line services. This paper proposes a scenario-based sample average approximation approach for the PDPTW-SLSD. An adaptive large neighborhood search heuristic embedded into sample average approximation method is used to generate good-quality solutions. Computational results on instances with up to 40 requests (i.e., 80 locations) reveal that the integrated transportation networks can lead to operational cost savings of up to 16% compared with classical pickup and delivery systems.


      PubDate: 2016-05-14T10:40:09Z
       
  • Market mechanism design for profitable on-demand transport services
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 89
      Author(s): Malcolm Egan, Michal Jakob
      On-demand transport services in the form of dial-a-ride and taxis are crucial parts of the transport infrastructure in all major cities. However, not all on-demand transport services are equal: not-for-profit dial-a-ride services with coordinated drivers significantly differ from profit-motivated taxi services with uncoordinated drivers. In fact, there are two key threads of work on efficient scheduling, routing, and pricing for passengers: dial-a-ride services; and taxi services. Unfortunately, there has been only limited development of algorithms for joint optimization of scheduling, routing, and pricing; largely due to the widespread assumption of fixed pricing. In this paper, we introduce another thread: profit-motivated on-demand transport services with coordinated drivers. To maximize provider profits and the efficiency of the service, we propose a new market mechanism for this new thread of on-demand transport services, where passengers negotiate with the service provider. In contrast to previous work, our mechanism jointly optimizes scheduling, routing, and pricing. Ultimately, we demonstrate that our approach can lead to higher profits and reduced passenger prices, compared with standard fixed price approaches, while also improving efficiency.


      PubDate: 2016-05-14T10:40:09Z
       
  • Speed or spacing? Cumulative variables, and convolution of model
           errors and time in traffic flow models validation and calibration
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 91
      Author(s): Vincenzo Punzo, Marcello Montanino
      This paper proves that in traffic flow model calibration and validation the cumulative sum of a variable has to be preferred to the variable itself as a measure of performance. As shown through analytical relationships, model residuals dynamics are preserved if discrepancy measures of a model against reality are calculated on a cumulative variable, rather than on the variable itself. Keeping memory of model residuals occurrence times is essential in traffic flow modelling where the ability of reproducing the dynamics of a phenomenon – as a bottleneck evolution or a vehicle deceleration profile – may count as much as the ability of reproducing its order of magnitude. According to the aforesaid finding, in a car-following models context, calibration on travelled space is more robust than calibration on speed or acceleration. Similarly in case of macroscopic traffic flow models validation and calibration, cumulative flows are to be preferred to flows. Actually, the findings above hold for any dynamic model.


      PubDate: 2016-05-14T10:40:09Z
       
  • The Time Dependent Traveling Salesman Planning Problem in Controlled
           Airspace
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 90
      Author(s): Fabio Furini, Carlo Alfredo Persiani, Paolo Toth
      The integration of drones into civil airspace is one of the most challenging problems for the automation of the controlled airspace, and the optimization of the drone route is a key step for this process. In this paper, we optimize the route planning of a drone mission that consists of departing from an airport, flying over a set of mission way points and coming back to the initial airport. We assume that during the mission a set of piloted aircraft flies in the same airspace and thus the cost of the drone route depends on the air traffic and on the avoidance maneuvers used to prevent possible conflicts. Two air traffic management techniques, i.e., routing and holding, are modeled in order to maintain a minimum separation between the drone and the piloted aircraft. The considered problem, called the Time Dependent Traveling Salesman Planning Problem in Controlled Airspace (TDTSPPCA), relates to the drone route planning phase and aims to minimize the total operational cost. Two heuristic algorithms are proposed for the solution of the problem. A mathematical formulation based on a particular version of the Time Dependent Traveling Salesman Problem, which allows holdings at mission way points, and a Branch and Cut algorithm are proposed for solving the TDTSPPCA to optimality. An additional formulation, based on a Travelling Salesman Problem variant that uses specific penalties to model the holding times, is proposed and a Cutting Plane algorithm is designed. Finally, computational experiments on real-world air traffic data from Milano Linate Terminal Maneuvering Area are reported to evaluate the performance of the proposed formulations and of the heuristic algorithms.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T17:02:53Z
       
  • Modeling of yard congestion and optimization of yard template in container
           ports
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 90
      Author(s): Lu Zhen
      As a tactical-level plan, a yard template determines the assignment of spaces in a container port yard for arriving vessels. This paper investigates the concept of yard congestion quantitatively in the context of yard truck interruptions, and develops a combination of probabilistic and physics-based models for truck interruptions. The above work enables us to exactly evaluate the expected link travel time, which then acts as the basis for proposing a mixed-integer programming model that minimizes the total expected travel time of moving containers around the yard. A Squeaky Wheel Optimization based meta-heuristic is developed to solve the model. Experiments are also conducted to validate the effectiveness of the model and the solution method.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T17:02:53Z
       
  • Willingness to board: A novel concept for modeling queuing up passengers
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 90
      Author(s): Zhiyuan Liu, Shuaian Wang, Weijie Chen, Yuan Zheng
      This paper addresses an innovative concept, termed as queuing passengers’ willingness to board (WTB) the transit vehicles. In the peak hours, some queuing passengers cannot board a crowded bus/train, but when the same vehicle arrives at the next stop, some other passengers could still get on. This phenomenon reflects that passengers at different queuing locations have heterogeneous level of ambitions to board. A methodological framework is proposed for the quantitative investigation of WTB. First, a general model is proposed, together with a new least square method (LSM) for the calibration. Then, a parametric model is developed, which is also calibrated by the LSM. To refine the calibration method and deal with the biasness of survey data, a weighted least square method is further developed. Based on real survey data, the calibration results clearly support the existence of WTB, which can be used to estimate the capacity of transit vehicles. This paper also sheds some lights on the practical applications of the quantitative WTB.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T17:02:53Z
       
  • Traffic flow on signalized streets
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 90
      Author(s): Carlos F. Daganzo, Lewis J. Lehe
      This paper considers a signalized street of uniform width and blocks of various lengths. Its signals are pretimed in an arbitrary pattern, and traffic on it behaves as per the kinematic-wave/variational theory with a triangular fundamental diagram. It is shown that the long run average flow on the street when the number of cars on the street (i.e. the street’s density) is held constant is given by the solution of a linear program (LP) with a finite number of variables and constraints. This defines a point on the street’s macroscopic fundamental diagram. For the homogeneous special case where the block lengths and signal timings are identical, all the LP constraints but one are redundant and the result has a closed form. In this case, the LP recipe matches and simplifies the so-called “method of cuts”. This establishes that the method of cuts is exact for homogeneous problems. However, in the more realistic inhomogeneous case the difference between the two methods can be arbitrarily large. The paper uses the LP method to obtain the macroscopic fundamental diagrams arising under four different traffic coordination schemes for streets with four different block length configurations. It is found that the best scheme depends on the prevailing density. Curiously, the popular scheme in which all the traffic green phases are started synchronously wins only in rare circumstances. Its performance is particularly underwhelming when the street’s blocks are long. The paper also presents density-aware numerical methods to optimize the signal offsets for 1-way and 2-way streets. For 1-way streets operated with a common cycle the method reduces to a simple graphical construction . In this case the resulting flow matches the flow that would arise if all of the street’s intersections except one with the shortest green phase had been eliminated.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T17:02:53Z
       
  • Strategic maritime container service design in oligopolistic markets
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 90
      Author(s): Panagiotis Angeloudis, Luciano Greco, Michael G.H. Bell
      This paper considers the maritime container assignment problem in a market setting with two competing firms. Given a series of known, exogenous demands for service between pairs of ports, each company is free to design liner services connecting a subset of the ports and demand, subject to the size of their fleets and the potential for profit. The model is designed as a three-stage complete information game: in the first stage, the firms simultaneously invest in their fleet; in the second stage, they individually design their services and solve the route assignment problem with respect to the transport demand they expect to serve, given the fleet determined in the first stage; in the final stage, the firms compete in terms of freight rates on each origin–destination movement. The game is solved by backward induction. Numerical solutions are provided to characterize the equilibria of the game.


      PubDate: 2016-05-02T16:57:38Z
       
  • Hidden Markov Model-based population synthesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 90
      Author(s): Ismaïl Saadi, Ahmed Mustafa, Jacques Teller, Bilal Farooq, Mario Cools
      Micro-simulation travel demand and land use models require a synthetic population, which consists of a set of agents characterized by demographic and socio-economic attributes. Two main families of population synthesis techniques can be distinguished: (a) fitting methods (iterative proportional fitting, updating) and (b) combinatorial optimization methods. During the last few years, a third outperforming family of population synthesis procedures has emerged, i.e., Markov process-based methods such as Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) simulations. In this paper, an extended Hidden Markov Model (HMM)-based approach is presented, which can serve as a better alternative than the existing methods. The approach is characterized by a great flexibility and efficiency in terms of data preparation and model training. The HMM is able to reproduce the structural configuration of a given population from an unlimited number of micro-samples and a marginal distribution. Only one marginal distribution of the considered population can be used as a boundary condition to “guide” the synthesis of the whole population. Model training and testing are performed using the Survey on the Workforce of 2013 and the Belgian National Household Travel Survey of 2010. Results indicate that the HMM method captures the complete heterogeneity of the micro-data contrary to standard fitting approaches. The method provides accurate results as it is able to reproduce the marginal distributions and their corresponding multivariate joint distributions with an acceptable error rate (i.e., SRSME=0.54 for 6 synthesized attributes). Furthermore, the HMM outperforms IPF for small sample sizes, even though the amount of input data is less than that for IPF. Finally, simulations show that the HMM can merge information provided by multiple data sources to allow good population estimates.


      PubDate: 2016-05-02T16:57:38Z
       
  • Can you ever be certain? Reducing hypothetical bias in stated choice
           experiments via respondent reported choice certainty
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 89
      Author(s): Matthew J. Beck, Simon Fifer, John M. Rose
      Stated choice experiments are a preeminent method for researchers and practitioners who seek to examine the behavior of consumers. However, the extent to which these experiments can replicate real markets continues to be debated in the literature, with particular reference to the potential for biased estimates as a result of the hypothetical nature of such experiments. In this paper, a first in the transportation literature, we compare stated choice responses to revealed preference behavior and examine three methods proposed in the literature for calibrating choice experiments via reported choice certainty. In doing so we provide evidence that the incorrect calibration of responses can produce stated choice results that are more biased than doing nothing at all, however we show that by jointly estimating choice and choice certainty there is a significant reduction in hypothetical bias such that stated choice responses more directly replicate real behavior.


      PubDate: 2016-04-27T16:55:08Z
       
  • A coordinated location-inventory problem in closed-loop supply chain
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 89
      Author(s): Zhi-Hai Zhang, Avinash Unnikrishnan
      This paper considers a coordinated location-inventory model under uncertain demands for a closed loop supply chain comprising of one plant, forward and reverse distribution centers, and retailers. The inventory of new and returned products is managed at forward and reverse distribution centers respectively through a periodic review policy. The proposed model determines the location of forward and reverse distribution centers and the associated capacities, the review intervals of the inventory policy at distribution centers, and the assignments of retailers to the distribution centers. We model six different coordination strategies. All the models are formulated as nonlinear integer programs with chance constraints and transformed to conic quadratic mixed-integer programs that can be efficiently solved by CPLEX. An outer approximation based solution algorithm is developed to solve the conic quadratic mixed-integer program. The benefit of different types of coordination strategies is shown through extensive computational testing.


      PubDate: 2016-04-27T16:55:08Z
       
  • Symmetries in the kinematic wave model and a parameter-free representation
           of traffic flow
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 89
      Author(s): Jorge A. Laval, Bhargava R. Chilukuri
      This paper identifies a family of linear transformations where conservation laws are invariant. In the case of a triangular fundamental diagram, it is shown that for a subset of these transformations, flow, total distance traveled and total delay are invariant. This means that for capacity or delay computations one may choose the transformation—i.e., the shape of the triangular diagram—that simplifies the problem the most, which does not require knowing the actual fundamental diagram. This is appealing also for delay-optimizing control problems since they may be solved using an isosceles fundamental diagram, which provides the most efficient numerical methods. Examples are given.


      PubDate: 2016-04-27T16:55:08Z
       
  • Passenger centric train timetabling problem
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 89
      Author(s): Tomáš Robenek, Yousef Maknoon, Shadi Sharif Azadeh, Jianghang Chen, Michel Bierlaire
      The aim of this paper is to analyze and to improve the current planning process of the passenger railway service in light of the recent railway market changes. In order to do so, we introduce the Passenger Centric Train Timetabling Problem. The originality of our approach is that we account for the passenger satisfaction in the design of the timetable. We consider both types of timetable(s): cyclic and non-cyclic. The problem is modeled as a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problem with an objective of maximizing the train operating company’s profit while maintaining ε level of passenger satisfaction. The model does not take into account conflicts between trains and does not adjust dwell times at stopping stations among the lines. By solving the model for various values of ε, the approximated Pareto frontier is constructed. The analysis, based on an experiment using realistic data, shows that an improvement of passenger satisfaction while maintaining a low profit loss for the railway company can be achieved. A sensitivity analysis on passenger congestion illustrates a quantitative evidence that the non-cyclic timetables can account better for high density demand in comparison to cyclic timetables.


      PubDate: 2016-04-27T16:55:08Z
       
  • Probabilistic speed–density relationship for pedestrian traffic
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 89
      Author(s): Marija Nikolić, Michel Bierlaire, Bilal Farooq, Matthieu de Lapparent
      We propose a probabilistic modeling approach to represent the speed–density relationship of pedestrian traffic. The approach is data-driven, and it is motivated by the presence of high scatter in the raw data that we have analyzed. We show the validity of the proposed approach, and its superiority compared to deterministic approaches from the literature using a dataset collected from a real scene and another from a controlled experiment.


      PubDate: 2016-04-22T21:45:37Z
       
  • Vehicle identification sensor models for origin–destination
           estimation
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 89
      Author(s): Majid Hadavi, Yousef Shafahi
      The traditional approach to origin–destination (OD) estimation based on data surveys is highly expensive. Therefore, researchers have attempted to develop reasonable low-cost approaches to estimating the OD vector, such as OD estimation based on traffic sensor data. In this estimation approach, the location problem for the sensors is critical. One type of sensor that can be used for this purpose, on which this paper focuses, is vehicle identification sensors. The information collected by these sensors that can be employed for OD estimation is discussed in this paper. We use data gathered by vehicle identification sensors that include an ID for each vehicle and the time at which the sensor detected it. Based on these data, the subset of sensors that detected a given vehicle and the order in which they detected it are available. In this paper, four location models are proposed, all of which consider the order of the sensors. The first model always yields the minimum number of sensors to ensure the uniqueness of path flows. The second model yields the maximum number of uniquely observed paths given a budget constraint on the sensors. The third model always yields the minimum number of sensors to ensure the uniqueness of OD flows. Finally, the fourth model yields the maximum number of uniquely observed OD flows given a budget constraint on the sensors. For several numerical examples, these four models were solved using the GAMS software. These numerical examples include several medium-sized examples, including an example of a real-world large-scale transportation network in Mashhad.


      PubDate: 2016-04-22T21:45:37Z
       
  • A dynamic stochastic model for evaluating congestion and crowding effects
           in transit systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 89
      Author(s): Oded Cats, Jens West, Jonas Eliasson
      One of the most common motivations for public transport investments is to reduce congestion and increase capacity. Public transport congestion leads to crowding discomfort, denied boardings and lower service reliability. However, transit assignment models and appraisal methodologies usually do not account for the dynamics of public transport congestion and crowding and thus potentially underestimate the related benefits. This study develops a method to capture the benefits of increased capacity by using a dynamic and stochastic transit assignment model. Using an agent-based public transport simulation model, we dynamically model the evolution of network reliability and on-board crowding. The model is embedded in a comprehensive framework for project appraisal. A case study of a metro extension that partially replaces an overloaded bus network in Stockholm demonstrates that congestion effects may account for a substantial share of the expected benefits. A cost-benefit analysis based on a conventional static model will miss more than a third of the benefits. This suggests that failure to represent dynamic congestion effects may substantially underestimate the benefits of projects, especially if they are primarily intended to increase capacity rather than to reduce travel times.


      PubDate: 2016-04-22T21:45:37Z
       
  • Nonlinear pricing for stochastic container leasing system
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 89
      Author(s): Wen Jiao, Hong Yan, King-Wah Pang
      With the substantial upsurge of container traffic, the container leasing company thrives on the financial benefits and operational flexibility of leasing containers requested by shippers. In practice, container lease pricing problem is different from the consumer product pricing in consideration of the fair value of container, limited customer types and monopolistic supply market. In view of the durability of container and the diversified lease time and quantity, the pricing is a challenging task for the leasing company. This paper examines the monopolist’s nonlinear pricing problems in static and dynamic environments. In particular, the leasing company designs and commits a menu of price and hire quantity/time pairs to maximize the expected profit and in turn customers choose hire quantities/time to maximize their surpluses according to their hire preferences. In a static environment, closed-form solutions are obtained for different groups of customers with multiple types subject to capacity constraint. In a dynamic environment, we address two customer types and derive closed-form solutions for the problem of customers with hire time preference. Further, we show that the effect of the capacity constraint increases with time of the planning horizon when customers have the same hire time preference; while in the case with different hire time preferences, the capacity constraint has opposite effects on the low and high type customers. Last, the case of customers with hire quantity preference is discussed. We focus on the lease with alternative given sets of hire time and use dynamic programming to derive the numerical optimal hire time sequence.


      PubDate: 2016-04-17T21:43:11Z
       
  • Finding optimal solutions for vehicle routing problem with pickup and
           delivery services with time windows: A dynamic programming approach based
           on state–space–time network representations
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 89
      Author(s): Monirehalsadat Mahmoudi, Xuesong Zhou
      Optimization of on-demand transportation systems and ride-sharing services involves solving a class of complex vehicle routing problems with pickup and delivery with time windows (VRPPDTW). This paper first proposes a new time-discretized multi-commodity network flow model for the VRPPDTW based on the integration of vehicles’ carrying states within space–time transportation networks, so as to allow a joint optimization of passenger-to-vehicle assignment and turn-by-turn routing in congested transportation networks. Our three-dimensional state–space–time network construct is able to comprehensively enumerate possible transportation states at any given time along vehicle space–time paths, and further allows a forward dynamic programming solution algorithm to solve the single vehicle VRPPDTW problem. By utilizing a Lagrangian relaxation approach, the primal multi-vehicle routing problem is decomposed to a sequence of single vehicle routing sub-problems, with Lagrangian multipliers for individual passengers’ requests being updated by sub-gradient-based algorithms. We further discuss a number of search space reduction strategies and test our algorithms, implemented through a specialized program in C++, on medium-scale and large-scale transportation networks, namely the Chicago sketch and Phoenix regional networks.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-04-17T21:43:11Z
       
 
 
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