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  Subjects -> TRANSPORTATION (Total: 164 journals)
    - AIR TRANSPORT (7 journals)
    - AUTOMOBILES (21 journals)
    - RAILROADS (5 journals)
    - ROADS AND TRAFFIC (6 journals)
    - SHIPS AND SHIPPING (31 journals)
    - TRANSPORTATION (94 journals)

TRANSPORTATION (94 journals)

Showing 1 - 53 of 53 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 77)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies on Transport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Economics of Transportation     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
EURO Journal of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Transport Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IATSS Research     Open Access  
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
IET Intelligent Transport Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IFAC-PapersOnLine     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Logistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of e-Navigation and Maritime Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Micro-Nano Scale Transport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Mobile Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Ocean Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Services Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Modern Transportation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Sustainable Mobility     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Transport & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Transport Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Transport History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Transportation Safety & Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Transportation Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Transportation Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Waterway Port Coastal and Ocean Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Les Dossiers du Grihl     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Logistics & Sustainable Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Logistique & Management     Full-text available via subscription  
Modern Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Packaging, Transport, Storage & Security of Radioactive Material     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pervasive and Mobile Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Public Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Recherche Transports Sécurité     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Revista Transporte y Territorio     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Romanian Journal of Transport Infrastructure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SourceOCDE Transports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Streetnotes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Synthesis Lectures on Mobile and Pervasive Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tire Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Transactions on Transport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Transport and Telecommunication Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transport in Porous Media     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transport Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transport Reviews: A Transnational Transdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Transportation Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Transportation Letters : The International Journal of Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Transportation Research Part B: Methodological     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Transportation Research Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transportation Research Record : Journal of the Transportation Research Board     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Transportation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
TRANSPORTES     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transportmetrica B : Transport Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Travel Behaviour and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Urban, Planning and Transport Research     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Vehicular Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Транспортні системи та технології перевезень     Open Access  
Journal Cover Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
  [SJR: 3.905]   [H-I: 87]   [29 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0191-2615
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3041 journals]
  • On the stability of stationary states in general road networks
    • Authors: Wen-Long Jin
      Pages: 42 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Wen-Long Jin
      In [Jin, W.-L., 2015. On the existence of stationary states in general road networks. Transportation Research Part B 81, 917–929.], with a discrete map in critical demand levels, it was proved that there exist stationary states for the kinematic wave model of general road networks with constant origin demands, route choice proportions, and destination supplies. In this study we further examine the stability property of stationary states with the same map, and the results will help us to understand the long-term trend of a network traffic system. We first review a network kinematic wave model and properties of stationary states on a link, define the criticality of junctions in stationary states, and discuss information propagation in stationary states on links and junctions. We then present the map and examine information propagation in the map. We apply the map to analytically study the stability of stationary states on ring roads and diverge-merge networks with circular information propagation and compare them with results obtained from the Poincaré map [Jin, W.-L., 2013. Stability and bifurcation in network traffic flow: A Poincaré map approach. Transportation Research Part B 57, 191–208]. We further study the stability property of general stationary states in a grid network. We find that the stability of fixed points of the map is the same as that of stationary states in a network, and the new approach is more general than the Poincaré map approach. We conclude the study with future directions and implications.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T07:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.010
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • A branch-and-price method for integrated yard crane deployment and
           container allocation in transshipment yards
    • Authors: Xin Jia Jiang; Jian Gang Jin
      Pages: 62 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Xin Jia Jiang, Jian Gang Jin
      With the trend towards mega-vessels and shipping alliance, the importance of transshipment activities keeps increasing. In transshipment yards, a “yard template” is often used to stack containers in dedicated areas (sub-blocks) pre-reserved for their own destination vessels. At short-term planning level, the yard template is given, but the containers going to a specific vessel still have high flexibility to be allocated among many pre-reserved sub-blocks. The amount of containers allocated to each sub-block, i.e. “container allocation”, not only affects the traffic congestion, but more importantly determines the number of yard cranes (YCs) required in each block. The limited YCs have to switch blocks to fit the needs of container allocation in different periods, i.e. “YC deployment”. This study integrated these two closely related problems and formulated a MIP model. Since the model has a nice block-diagonal structure, column generation under Dentzig Wolfe decomposition was proposed to get lower bounds. A novel branch-and-price (B&P) method was proposed to find near-optimal solutions. To reduce the searching tree size, our B&P method branched on YC paths during the planning horizon, instead of branching on decision variables directly. Numerical experiments under both small and large scale problems showed that our B&P method could efficiently solve the integrated planning problem. The results also showed that YC movements could be reduced effectively without sacrificing operational efficiency or using more yard cranes.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T07:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.014
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • The political economy of pricing car access to downtown commercial
           districts
    • Authors: Bruno De Borger; Antonio Russo
      Pages: 76 - 93
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Bruno De Borger, Antonio Russo
      We study the political economy of pricing access to downtown commercial districts, using curbside parking fees as the main example. A spatial equilibrium model is embedded in a political economy framework in which special interest groups (urban and suburban retailers, local residents) lobby the city government. We have the following results. If downtown and suburban stores sell a homogeneous good, the local government underprices downtown parking if suburban stores operate with low enough markups. If goods are heterogeneous and some consumers engage in multiple-stop shopping (i.e., shop both downtown and in the suburbs), suburban stores will not lobby at all; lobbying by downtown retailers leads to parking fees below the social optimum. Furthermore, local residents do not necessarily lobby for high parking fees on downtown shoppers. If a decline in urban stores leads to negative externalities (urban blight) they may join forces with downtown retailers and lobby against high parking fees on shoppers.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T07:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.012
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • Multi-objective integration of timetables, vehicle schedules and user
           routings in a transit network
    • Authors: Gilbert Laporte; Francisco A. Ortega; Miguel A. Pozo; Justo Puerto
      Pages: 94 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Gilbert Laporte, Francisco A. Ortega, Miguel A. Pozo, Justo Puerto
      The Transit Network Timetabling and Scheduling Problem (TNTSP) aims at determining an optimal timetable for each line of a transit network by establishing departure and arrival times at each station and allocating a vehicle to each timetable. The current models for the planning of timetables and vehicle schedules use the a priori knowledge of users’ routings. However, the actual route choice of a user depends on the timetable. This paper solves the TNTSP in a public transit network by integrating users’ routings in the model. The proposed formulation guarantees that each user is allocated to the best possible timetable, while satisfying capacity constraints. In addition, we perform a trade-off analysis by means of a multi-objective formulation which jointly optimizes the operator’s and the users’ criteria.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T07:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.018
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • Variable speed limit control at fixed freeway bottlenecks using connected
           vehicles
    • Authors: Youngjun Han; Danjue Chen; Soyoung Ahn
      Pages: 113 - 134
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Youngjun Han, Danjue Chen, Soyoung Ahn
      The connected vehicle (CV) technology is applied to develop VSL strategies to improve bottleneck discharge rates and reduce system delays. Three VSL control strategies are developed with different levels of complexity and capabilities to enhance traffic stability using: (i) only one CV (per lane) (Strategy 1), (ii) one CV (per lane) coupled with variable message signs (Strategy 2), and (iii) multiple CVs (Strategy 3). We further develop adaptive schemes for the three strategies to remedy potential control failures in real time. These strategies are designed to accommodate different queue detection schemes (by CVs or different sensors) and CV penetration rates. Finally, probability of control failure is formulated for each strategy based on the stochastic features of traffic instability to develop a general framework to (i) estimate expected delay savings, (ii) assess the stability of different VSL control strategies, and (iii) determine optimal control speeds under uncertainty. Compared to VMS-only strategies, the CV-based strategies can effectively impose dynamic control over continuous time and space, enabling (i) faster queue clearance around a bottleneck, (ii) less restrictive control with higher control speed (thus smoother transition), and (iii) simpler control via only one or a small number of CVs.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T07:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.013
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • Optimization of vehicle and pedestrian signals at isolated intersections
    • Authors: Chunhui Yu; Wanjing Ma; Ke Han; Xiaoguang Yang
      Pages: 135 - 153
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Chunhui Yu, Wanjing Ma, Ke Han, Xiaoguang Yang
      In most traffic signal optimization problems, pedestrian traffic at an intersection receives minor consideration compared to vehicular traffic, and usually in the form of simplistic and exogenous constraints (e.g., minimum green time). This could render the resulting signal timings sub-optimal especially in dense urban areas with significant pedestrian traffic, or when two-stage pedestrian crosswalks are present. This paper proposes a convex (quadratic) programming approach to optimize traffic signal timings for an isolated intersection with one- and two-stage crosswalks, assuming undersaturated vehicular traffic condition. Both vehicle and pedestrian traffic are integrated into a unified framework, where the total weighted delay of pedestrians and vehicles at different types of crosswalks (i.e. one- or two-stage) is adopted as the objective function, and temporal and spatial constraints (e.g. signal phasing plan and spatial capacity of the refuge island) are explicitly formulated. A case study demonstrates the impacts of incorporating pedestrian delay as well as geometric and spatial constraints (e.g., available space on the refuge island) in the signal optimization. A further analysis shows that a two-stage crosswalk may outperform a one-stage crosswalk in terms of both vehicle and pedestrian delays in some circumstances.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T07:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.015
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • Extending the Link Transmission Model with non-triangular fundamental
           diagrams and capacity drops
    • Authors: Jeroen P.T. van der Gun; Adam J. Pel; Bart van Arem
      Pages: 154 - 178
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Jeroen P.T. van der Gun, Adam J. Pel, Bart van Arem
      The original Link Transmission Model as formulated by Yperman et al. (2006) simulates traffic according to Lighthill–Whitham–Richards theory with a very small numerical error, yet only supports triangular fundamental diagrams. This paper relaxes that restriction in two steps. Firstly, we extend the model to handle any continuous concave fundamental diagram, and prove that this extension is still consistent with Lighthill–Whitham–Richards theory. Secondly, we extend the theory and model to handle a capacity drop, explicitly looking into the handling of both the onset and release of congestion. The final model is still first-order and suitable for general networks. Numerical examples show that it qualitatively improves on the original model due to uniquely featuring complex traffic patterns including stop-and-go waves, with crisp shockwaves between traffic states, as well as acceleration fans.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T07:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.011
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • A dynamic programming approach for quickly estimating large network-based
           MEV models
    • Authors: Tien Mai; Emma Frejinger; Mogens Fosgerau; Fabian Bastin
      Pages: 179 - 197
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Tien Mai, Emma Frejinger, Mogens Fosgerau, Fabian Bastin
      We propose a way to estimate a family of static Multivariate Extreme Value (MEV) models with large choice sets in short computational time. The resulting model is also straightforward and fast to use for prediction. Following Daly and Bierlaire (2006), the correlation structure is defined by a rooted, directed graph where each node without successor is an alternative. We formulate a family of MEV models as dynamic discrete choice models on graphs of correlation structures and show that the dynamic models are consistent with MEV theory and generalize the network MEV model (Daly and Bierlaire, 2006). Moreover, we show that these models can be estimated quickly using the concept of network flows and the nested fixed point algorithm (Rust, 1987). The main reason for the short computational time is that the new formulation allows to benefit from existing efficient solution algorithms for sparse linear systems of equations. We present numerical results based on simulated data with varying number of alternatives and nesting structures. We estimate large models, for example, a cross-nested model with 200 nests and 500,000 alternatives and 210 parameters that needs between 100–200 iterations to converge (4.3 h on an Intel(R) 3.2 GHz machine using a non-parallelized code). We also show that our approach allows to estimate a cross-nested logit model of 111 nests with a real data set of more than 100,000 observations in 14 h.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T07:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.017
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • Group-based approach to predictive delay model based on incremental queue
           accumulations for adaptive traffic control systems
    • Authors: Seunghyeon Lee; S.C. Wong
      Pages: 1 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Seunghyeon Lee, S.C. Wong
      In this study, we develop a mathematical framework to estimate lane-based incremental queue accumulations with group-based variables and a predictive model of lane-based control delay. Our objective is to establish the rolling horizon approach to lane-based control delay for group-based optimization of signal timings in adaptive traffic control systems. The challenges involved in this task include identification of the most appropriate incremental queue accumulations based on group-based variables for individual lanes to the queueing formation patterns and establishment of the rolling horizon procedure for predicting the future components of lane-based incremental queue accumulations in the time windows. For lane-based estimation of incremental queue accumulations, temporal and spatial information were collected on the basis of estimated lane-based queue lengths from our previous research to estimate lane-based incremental queue accumulations. We interpret the given signal plan as group-based variables, including the start and duration of the effective green time and the cycle time. Adjustment factors are defined to identify the characteristics of the control delay in a specific cycle and to clarify the relationship between group-based variables and the temporal information of queue lengths in the proposed estimation method. We construct the rolling horizon procedure based on Kalman filters with appropriate time windows. Lane-based queue lengths at an inflection point and adjustment factors in the previous cycle are used to estimate the adjustment factors, arrival rates, and discharge rates in the next cycle, in which the predictive computation is performed in the current cycle. In the simulations sets and the case study, the proposed model is robust and accurate for estimation of lane-based control delay under a wide range of traffic conditions. Adjustment factors play a significant role in increasing the accuracy of the proposed model and in classifying queueing patterns in a specific cycle. The Kalman filters enhance the accuracy of the predictions by minimizing the error terms caused by the fluctuation in traffic flow.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T05:34:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.008
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2016)
       
  • A Riemann solver for a system of hyperbolic conservation laws at a general
           road junction
    • Authors: Wen-Long Jin
      Pages: 21 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Wen-Long Jin
      The kinematic wave model of traffic flow on a road network is a system of hyperbolic conservation laws, for which the Riemann solver is of physical, analytical, and numerical importance. In this paper, we present a new Riemann solver at a general network junction in the demand-supply space. In the Riemann solutions, traffic states on a link include the initial, stationary, and interior states, and a discrete Cell Transmission Model flux function in interior states is used as an entropy condition, which is consistent with fair merging and first-in-first-out diverging rules. After deriving the feasibility conditions for both stationary and interior states, we obtain a set of algebraic equations, and prove that the Riemann solver is well-defined, in the sense that the stationary states, the out-fluxes of upstream links, the in-fluxes of downstream links, and kinematic waves on all links can be uniquely solved. In addition, we show that the resulting global flux function in initial states is the same as the local one in interior states. Hence we presents a new definition of invariant junction models, in which the global and local flux functions are the same. We also present a simplified framework for solving the Riemann problem with invariant junction flux functions.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T05:34:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2016)
       
  • Traffic predictive control from low-rank structure
    • Authors: Samuel Coogan; Christopher Flores; Pravin Varaiya
      Pages: 1 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 97
      Author(s): Samuel Coogan, Christopher Flores, Pravin Varaiya
      The operation of most signalized intersections is governed by predefined timing plans that are applied during specified times of the day. These plans are designed to accommodate average conditions and are unable to respond to large deviations in traffic flow. We propose a control approach that adjusts time-of-day signaling plans based on a prediction of future traffic flow. The prediction algorithm identifies correlated, low rank structure in historical measurement data and predicts future traffic flow from real-time measurements by determining which structural trends are prominent in the measurements. From this prediction, the controller then determines the optimal time of day to apply new timing plans. We demonstrate the potential benefits of this approach using eight months of high resolution data collected at an intersection in Beaufort, South Carolina.

      PubDate: 2016-12-12T05:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.11.013
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2016)
       
  • Morning commute in a single-entry traffic corridor with early and late
           arrivals
    • Authors: Chuan-Yao Li; Hai-Jun Huang
      Pages: 23 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 97
      Author(s): Chuan-Yao Li, Hai-Jun Huang
      The purpose of this paper is to extend the work of DePalma and Arnott (2012) by investigating the solutions for social optimum (SO) and user equilibrium (UE) assignment in a single-entry traffic corridor with consideration of both early and late arrivals. The LWR model and the Greenshields’ relation are used to describe the dynamic properties of traffic flow. The closed-form SO solution and quasi-analytic UE solution are developed and well illustrated by numerical examples. It is shown that the SO assignment is associated with a smooth cumulative outflow curve, while the UE assignment will result in recursively generated cumulative inflow and outflow curves. In UE, however, the system finally becomes a free flow state.

      PubDate: 2016-12-12T05:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2016)
       
  • Fosgerau's travel time reliability ratio and the Burr distribution
    • Authors: Michael A.P. Taylor
      Pages: 50 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 97
      Author(s): Michael A.P. Taylor
      Recent international research has seen the development of methods for the inclusion of travel time reliability as a separate factor in economic analysis of transportation projects, including the valuation of travel time variability. Fosgerau's valuation method includes the consideration of travel time reliability in cost-benefit analysis by adding travel time variability to the set of generalised travel costs. This requires: (1) a defined unit of measurement for travel time variability, (2) estimates of the quantity of travel time variability, and (3) identification of the cost to travellers per unit of travel time variability. The chosen unit of measurement is the standard deviation of the travel time distribution, and the value of this unit of measurement can be defined relative to the average value of travel time by a reliability ratio that depends on user preference parameters (related to risk aversion) and the shape of the upper tail of the cumulative distribution function (cdf) of the travel time distribution. This shape is represented by a definite integral of the inverse of the cdf. Determining the shape of the cdf and its inverse function is facilitated if the distribution can be defined by an explicit algebraic function. The Burr (type XII) distribution is one distribution with this feature, and has been used to successfully represent observed travel time data. This paper describes the Burr distribution, demonstrates that it can provide a good representation of observed travel time data, and explains how it can be used to develop an exact expression for the reliability ratio and thus can aid the use of the method for the valuation of travel time reliability.

      PubDate: 2016-12-12T05:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2016)
       
  • A cooperative game approach to cost allocation in a rapid-transit network
    • Authors: Edward C. Rosenthal
      Pages: 64 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 97
      Author(s): Edward C. Rosenthal
      We consider the problem of allocating costs of a regional transit system to its users, who employ shortest path routes between all pairs of nodes in the system network. We provide an axiomatic set of conditions that a solution should satisfy and use cooperative game theory to model the cost allocation problem. We provide an allocation, called the equal cost share solution, which is efficient to compute and is the unique solution that satisfies the conditions. In addition, we show not only that the cost allocation game has a nonempty core, but further, that the game is concave, meaning that the Shapley value allocation, which coincides with the equal cost share solution, always lies in the core of the game. We provide an application of the equal cost share solution to the Washington, D.C. Metro transit network and compare it to the existing fare pricing structure. As compared to equal cost share pricing, the Metro overcharges for short downtown trips and undercharges for very long commutes. The equal cost share solution is easy to update in real time as the cost data and user distribution change, or when the transit network expands.

      PubDate: 2016-12-12T05:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.11.014
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2016)
       
  • Who canvasses for cargos? Incentive analysis and channel structure in
           a shipping supply chain
    • Authors: Fan Wang; Xiaopo Zhuo; Baozhuang Niu; Jiayi He
      Pages: 78 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 97
      Author(s): Fan Wang, Xiaopo Zhuo, Baozhuang Niu, Jiayi He
      Ocean shipping (OS) and inland shipping (IS) are vertically complementary services in the shipping supply chain. In practice, we have observed that both OS and IS companies canvass for cargos. In addition, we have observed that more and more IS companies are forming alliances to obtain a better price from the OS companies by hiring a negotiation agent. We solve the strategy matrix based on the following questions: “Who canvasses for cargos?” “Should a negotiation agent be hired?” We find that when an OS company canvasses for cargos, a negotiation agent can raise the IS service price; however, when IS companies canvass for cargos, a negotiation agent can weaken an OS company's monopolistic advantage. We show that there exists a win–win situation when an OS company canvasses for cargos without a negotiation agent and that this win–win situation is Pareto-optimal for all shipping supply chain parties. Interestingly, by comparing the equilibriums under optimal strategies and equilibrium strategies, we identify a lose–lose situation. That is, a classic Prisoner's Dilemma occurs when IS companies canvass for cargos and a negotiation agent is hired. We find that the shipping supply chain's overall profit and social welfare are maximized when an OS company canvasses for cargos and IS companies do not hire a negotiation agent.

      PubDate: 2016-12-20T05:26:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2016)
       
  • Solving the battery swap station location-routing problem with capacitated
           electric vehicles using an AVNS algorithm for vehicle-routing problems
           with intermediate stops
    • Authors: Julian Hof; Michael Schneider; Dominik Goeke
      Pages: 102 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 97
      Author(s): Julian Hof, Michael Schneider, Dominik Goeke
      In this paper, we show how to extend solution methods for vehicle-routing problems with intermediate stops (using the example of an Adaptive Variable Neighborhood Search (AVNS) algorithm) to solve the recently introduced battery swap station location-routing problem with capacitated electric vehicles. The problem calls for the simultaneous determination of (i) the battery swap stations (BSSs) to be constructed out of a set of candidate locations, and (ii) the electric vehicle routes to serve a set of customers with the goal of minimizing the sum of construction and routing cost. On the benchmark instances from the literature, the extended AVNS is able to significantly improve the previously known best solutions for the large majority of instances while using only a small fraction of the run-times reported for the comparison methods of Yang and Sun (2015). Moreover, the AVNS proves robust with regard to its average solution quality and is able to strongly reduce the number of constructed BSSs in the solutions compared to the results from the literature. Therefore, we generate additional benchmark instances which prove to be more meaningful with respect to the necessity of using BSSs and that are suitable to analyze the impact of varying construction cost on the location decision.

      PubDate: 2016-12-20T05:26:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.11.009
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2016)
       
  • The valuation of travel time reliability: does congestion matter?
    • Authors: Yu Xiao; Nicolas Coulombel; André de Palma
      Pages: 113 - 141
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 97
      Author(s): Yu Xiao, Nicolas Coulombel, André de Palma
      This paper addresses the valuation of travel time reliability in the presence of endogenous congestion and the role of scheduling preferences. The bottleneck model of road congestion is amended by considering stochastic travel times. We thereby take into account the influence of travel time variability on the congestion profile. The cost of travel time variability is the same with exogenous or endogenous congestion for two classes of preferences: linear marginal utility of time (MUT) at work and constant-exponential MUT. Therefore, cost-benefit analyses of travel time reliability improvements yield consistent results even if departure time adjustments are not accounted for. For α − β − γ preferences, departure time adjustments decrease congestion, which strongly mitigates the cost of travel time variability. Cost-benefit analyses need in this case to explicitly consider the departure time choice, to avoid being biased for the rush hour period (when congestion is strong). A method is proposed to correct this bias when necessary.

      PubDate: 2016-12-20T05:26:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2016)
       
  • Balance of efficiency and robustness in passenger railway timetables
    • Authors: Yusin Lee; Li-Sin Lu; Mei-Ling Wu; Dung-Ying Lin
      Pages: 142 - 156
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 97
      Author(s): Yusin Lee, Li-Sin Lu, Mei-Ling Wu, Dung-Ying Lin
      For a passenger railway system with a published timetable, train timetable adherence and punctuality are critical performance indicators. Compared with other resource allocation methods, timetable adjustment is a relatively cost-effective approach for improving timetable adherence. The insertion of appropriate time supplement and buffer time into a timetable to reduce delays as well as their propagation can improve punctuality. However, to appropriately distribute available supplement/buffer time is a challenging task, especially for real-world cases. Moreover, a very robust timetable may not necessarily be a good choice, since ideal punctuality might come at the cost of large time slacks. In this study, we propose a simulation-based approach that embeds a linear programming model to effectively adjust the time supplement and buffer time in a given passenger railway timetable to reduce the average delay. The proposed solution approach is empirically applied to instances of various sizes. It is shown that the heuristic can quantify the relationship between timetable efficiency and robustness, which helps railway operators select their ideal balance between these two important yet conflicting issues. Further, numerical studies with a real timetable demonstrate that the timetable can achieve better punctuality with an even lower time supplement after adjustment, and the insights observed in this work have not only academic value but also value for practitioners in their preparation of timetables.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T05:34:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2016)
       
  • Optimal perimeter control synthesis for two urban regions with aggregate
           boundary queue dynamics
    • Authors: Jack Haddad
      Pages: 1 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 96
      Author(s): Jack Haddad
      Perimeter control policies for urban regions with Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram (MFD) modeling have been presented in previous works. The control policies might meter the number of transferring vehicles from one region to another, resulting in queueing vehicles at regional boundaries. Concentrated vehicles at boundaries might affect the existence of well-defined MFDs. Most previous works neglect the effect of the boundary concentrated vehicles on the traffic flow dynamics, and do not explicitly consider their effect on the perimeter control policy. This paper introduces a new MFD-based model for two-region networks with aggregate boundary queue dynamics. The dynamic flow characteristics for the two urban regions are modeled by the MFD functions, while aggregate boundary queue dynamics for both regions are modeled by input-output balance differential equations. Maximum lengths are imposed on the aggregate boundary queues, that aim at maintaining the existence of well-defined MFDs and their dynamics. Based on the developed model, the optimal control policy to maximize the total network throughput is found. Analytical solutions for the optimal perimeter control problem, with constrained perimeter control inputs and constrained lengths of aggregate boundary queues, are derived. The optimal synthesis for principal cases are found and verified by numerical tests. The numerical results demonstrate the effect of aggregate boundary queues on the optimal perimeter control policy.

      PubDate: 2016-11-21T08:54:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.10.016
      Issue No: Vol. 96 (2016)
       
  • Enhancing model-based feedback perimeter control with data-driven online
           adaptive optimization
    • Authors: Anastasios Kouvelas; Mohammadreza Saeedmanesh; Nikolas Geroliminis
      Pages: 26 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 96
      Author(s): Anastasios Kouvelas, Mohammadreza Saeedmanesh, Nikolas Geroliminis
      Most feedback perimeter control approaches that are based on the Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram (MFD) and are tested in detailed network structures restrict inflow from the external boundary of the network. Although such a measure is beneficial for the network performance, it creates virtual queues that do not interact with the rest of the traffic and assumes small unrestricted flow (i.e. almost zero disturbance). In reality, these queues can have a negative impact to traffic conditions upstream of the protected network that is not modelled. In this work an adaptive optimization scheme for perimeter control of heterogeneous transportation networks is developed and the aforementioned boundary control limitation is dropped. A nonlinear model is introduced that describes the evolution of the multi-region system over time, assuming the existence of well-defined MFDs. Multiple linear approximations of the model (for different set-points) are used for designing optimal multivariable integral feedback regulators. Since the resulting regulators are derived from approximations of the nonlinear dynamics, they are further enhanced in real-time with online learning/adaptive optimization, according to performance measurements. An iterative data-driven technique is integrated with the model-based design and its objective is to optimize the gain matrices and set-points of the multivariable perimeter controller based on real-time observations. The efficiency of the derived multi-boundary control scheme is tested in microsimulation for a large urban network with more than 1500 roads that is partitioned in multiple regions. The proposed control scheme is demonstrated to achieve a better distribution of congestion (by creating “artificial” inter-regional queues), thus preventing the network degradation and improving total delay and outflow.

      PubDate: 2016-11-21T08:54:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.10.011
      Issue No: Vol. 96 (2016)
       
  • Multiperiod-based timetable optimization for metro transit networks
    • Authors: Xin Guo; Huijun Sun; Jianjun Wu; Jiangang Jin; Jin Zhou; Ziyou Gao
      Pages: 46 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 96
      Author(s): Xin Guo, Huijun Sun, Jianjun Wu, Jiangang Jin, Jin Zhou, Ziyou Gao
      This paper tackles the train timetable optimization problem for metro transit networks (MTN) in order to enhance the performance of transfer synchronization between different rail lines. Train timetables of connecting lines are adjusted in such a way that train arrivals at transfer stations can be well synchronized. This study particularly focuses on the timetable optimization problem in the transitional period (from peak to off-peak hours or vice versa) during which train headway changes and passenger travel demand varies significantly. A mixed integer nonlinear programming model is proposed to generate an optimal train timetable and maximize the transfer synchronization events. Secondly, an efficient hybrid optimization algorithm based on the Particle Swarm Optimization and Simulated Annealing (PSO-SA) is designed to obtain near-optimal solutions in an efficient way. Meanwhile, in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, the results of numerical example solved by PSO-SA are compared with a branch-and-bound method and other heuristicalgorithms. Finally, a real-world case study based on the Beijing metro network and travel demand is conducted to validate the proposed timetabling model. Computational results demonstrate the effectiveness of adjusting train timetables and the applicability of the developed approach to real-world metro networks.

      PubDate: 2016-11-21T08:54:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 96 (2016)
       
  • Optimizing on-time arrival probability and percentile travel time for
           elementary path finding in time-dependent transportation networks: Linear
           mixed integer programming reformulations
    • Authors: Lixing Yang; Xuesong Zhou
      Pages: 68 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 96
      Author(s): Lixing Yang, Xuesong Zhou
      Aiming to provide a generic modeling framework for finding reliable paths in dynamic and stochastic transportation networks, this paper addresses a class of two-stage routing models through reformulation of two commonly used travel time reliability measures, namely on-time arrival probability and percentile travel time, which are much more complex to model in comparison to expected utility criteria. A sample-based representation is adopted to allow time-dependent link travel time data to be spatially and temporally correlated. A number of novel reformulation methods are introduced to establish equivalent linear integer programming models that can be easily solved. A Lagrangian decomposition approach is further developed to dualize the non-anticipatory coupling constraints across different samples and then decompose the relaxed model into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent least cost path sub-problems. Numerical experiments are implemented to demonstrate the solution quality and computational performance of the proposed approaches.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T07:58:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.11.012
      Issue No: Vol. 96 (2016)
       
  • Analyzing the performance of distributed conflict resolution among
           autonomous vehicles
    • Authors: Ítalo Romani de Oliveira
      Pages: 92 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 96
      Author(s): Ítalo Romani de Oliveira
      This paper presents a study on how cooperation versus non-cooperation, and centralization versus distribution impact the performance of a traffic game of autonomous vehicles. A model using a particle-based, Lagrange representation, is developed, instead of an Eulerian, flow-based one, usual in routing problems of the game-theoretical approach. This choice allows representation of phenomena such as fuel exhaustion, vehicle collision, and wave propagation. The elements necessary to represent interactions in a multi-agent transportation system are defined, including a distributed, priority-based resource allocation protocol, where resources are nodes and links in a spatial network and individual routing strategies are performed. A fuel consumption dynamics is developed in order to account for energy cost and vehicles having limited range. The analysis shows that only the scenarios with cooperative resource allocation can achieve optimal values of either collective cost or equity coefficient, corresponding respectively to the centralized and to the distributed cases.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T07:58:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.11.011
      Issue No: Vol. 96 (2016)
       
  • Modeling technical and service efficiency
    • Authors: Efthymios Tsionas; A. George Assaf; David Gillen; Anna S. Mattila
      Pages: 113 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 96
      Author(s): Efthymios Tsionas, A. George Assaf, David Gillen, Anna S. Mattila
      Previous research on service failures, often measured by customer complaints, has not examined how organizations can measure or monitor their service efficiency. In this article, we introduce a new model that is suitable for measuring both service efficiency and technical efficiency when both bad outputs (i.e. service complaints) and good outputs (i.e. passenger trips and flights) are present. We develop our model with an output distance function, using Bayesian methods of inference organized around Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). We illustrate our model with an application in the U.S. airline industry, an industry sector beset with service failures affecting both revenues and costs. We present the service inefficiency results of various US airlines and discuss the determinants of bad outputs in this industry. We also test whether our results are in line with market expectations by comparing the service efficiency estimates against the “American Customer Satisfaction Index” data.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T07:58:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 96 (2016)
       
  • A framework for capturing heterogeneity, heteroskedasticity,
           non-linearity, reference dependence and design artefacts in value of time
           research
    • Authors: Stephane Hess; Andrew Daly; Thijs Dekker; Manuel Ojeda Cabral; Richard Batley
      Pages: 126 - 149
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 96
      Author(s): Stephane Hess, Andrew Daly, Thijs Dekker, Manuel Ojeda Cabral, Richard Batley
      In early 2014, the UK Department for Transport (DfT) commissioned the first national value of travel time (VTT) study since the mid-1990s. This paper presents the methodological work undertaken for this study, with important innovations along a number of dimensions, both in terms of survey design and modelling methodology. Our findings show a rich pattern of heterogeneity across the travelling public, in terms of an impact on the VTT by both person and trip characteristics, as well as a major role for a number of characteristics that relate to the specific choices faced in a hypothetical stated choice setting, including reference dependence and non-linearities in sensitivities. We also discuss how these behavioural values were translated into values for use in appraisal, and the challenges faced when doing this on the basis of results obtained with advanced models.

      PubDate: 2016-12-12T05:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 96 (2016)
       
  • Cruise service planning considering berth availability and decreasing
           marginal profit
    • Authors: Kai Wang; Shuaian Wang; Lu Zhen; Xiaobo Qu
      Pages: 1 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 95
      Author(s): Kai Wang, Shuaian Wang, Lu Zhen, Xiaobo Qu
      This paper addresses a decision problem on planning cruise services for a cruise ship so as to maximize the total profit during a planning horizon. The service is a sequence of ports (harbor cities) that the cruise ship visits. In this decision problem, the constraint about the availability of berths at each port is taken into account. In reality, if a cruise service is executed by the ship repeatedly for several times, the profit earned by the cruise service in each time decreases gradually. This effect of decreasing marginal profit is also considered in this study. We propose a nonlinear integer programming model to cater to the concavity of the function for the profit of operating a cruise service repeatedly. To solve the nonlinear model, two linearization methods are developed, one of which takes advantage of the concavity for a tailored linearization. Some properties of the problem are also investigated and proved by using the dynamic programming (DP) and two commonly used heuristics. In particular, we prove that if there is only one candidate cruise service, a greedy algorithm can derive the optimal solution. Numerical experiments are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed models and the efficiency of the proposed linearization methods. In case some parameters needed by the model are estimated inexactly, the proposed decision model demonstrates its robustness and can still obtain a near-optimal plan, which is verified by experiments based on extensive real cases.

      PubDate: 2016-11-14T06:47:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.10.020
      Issue No: Vol. 95 (2016)
       
  • Strategic fleet planning for city logistics
    • Authors: Anna Franceschetti; Dorothée Honhon; Gilbert Laporte; Tom Van Woensel; Jan C. Fransoo
      Pages: 19 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 95
      Author(s): Anna Franceschetti, Dorothée Honhon, Gilbert Laporte, Tom Van Woensel, Jan C. Fransoo
      We study the strategic problem of a logistics service provider managing a (possibly heterogeneous) fleet of vehicles to serve a city in the presence of access restrictions. We model the problem as an area partitioning problem in which a rectangular service area has to be divided into sectors, each served by a single vehicle. The length of the routes, which depends on the dimension of the sectors and on customer density in the area, is calculated using a continuous approximation. The aim is to partition the area and to determine the type of vehicles to use in order to minimize the sum of ownership or leasing, transportation and labor costs. We formulate the problem as a mixed integer linear problem and as a dynamic program. We develop efficient algorithms to obtain an optimal solution and present some structural properties regarding the optimal partition of the service area and the set of vehicle types to use. We also derive some interesting insights, namely we show that in some cases traffic restrictions may actually increase the number of vehicles on the streets, and we study the benefits of operating a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles.

      PubDate: 2016-11-14T06:47:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.10.005
      Issue No: Vol. 95 (2016)
       
  • A method to directly derive taste heterogeneity of travellers’ route
           choice in public transport from observed routes
    • Authors: Sung-Pil Hong; Kyung min Kim; Geunyeong Byeon; Yun-Hong Min
      Pages: 41 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 95
      Author(s): Sung-Pil Hong, Kyung min Kim, Geunyeong Byeon, Yun-Hong Min
      The heterogeneity of passengers’ route choice has been explained by randomizing the parameters, also known as taste parameters, that determine the way the attributes are relatively weighed in the disutility he/she perceives from a route. Growing availability of massive route choice data from, e.g. GPS or Smart Card system has made expected a model that derives the distribution of taste parameters from RP-data rather than relies on a prescribed distribution. This study availed itself of the intensive set of route choice data from Smart Card system as well as inverse optimization to calibrate the joint pdf of taste parameters to best signify the user-optimality of observed routes. Tested on 5 daily sets of real route choice, which amounts to 50,000 trips from the metro of Seoul metropolitan area, the proposed model notably enhanced the predictability compared to the previous models adopting a mixed-logit-based SUE or a non-parametric estimation method.

      PubDate: 2016-11-14T06:47:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.10.012
      Issue No: Vol. 95 (2016)
       
  • A link-based mean-excess traffic equilibrium model under uncertainty
    • Authors: Xiangdong Xu; Anthony Chen; Lin Cheng; Chao Yang
      Pages: 53 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 95
      Author(s): Xiangdong Xu, Anthony Chen, Lin Cheng, Chao Yang
      Traffic equilibrium models under uncertainty characterize travelers’ route choice behaviors under travel time variability. In this paper, we develop a link-based mean-excess traffic equilibrium (L-METE) model by integrating the sub-additivity property and complete travel time variability characterization of mean-excess travel time (METT), and the computationally tractable additive route cost structure of the conventional user equilibrium (UE) problem. Compared to the majority of relevant models formulated in the route domain, the link-based modeling has two desirable features on modeling flexibility and algorithmic development. First, it avoids the normal route travel time distribution assumption (uniformly imposed for all routes) that inherits from the Central Limit Theorem in most route-based models, permitting the use of any suitable link travel time distributions from empirical studies. Second, the additive route cost structure makes the L-METE model solvable by readily adapting existing UE algorithms without the need of storing/enumerating routes while avoiding the computationally demanding nonadditive shortest path problem and route flow allocations in route-based models, which is a significant benefit for large-scale network applications under uncertainty.

      PubDate: 2016-11-14T06:47:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.10.018
      Issue No: Vol. 95 (2016)
       
  • Discrete intermodal freight transportation network design with route
           choice behavior of intermodal operators
    • Authors: Xinchang Wang; Qiang Meng
      Pages: 76 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 95
      Author(s): Xinchang Wang, Qiang Meng
      We consider a discrete intermodal network design problem for freight transportation, in which the network planner needs to determine whether or not to build up or expand a link to minimize the total operating cost of carriers and hub operators under a general route choice model of intermodal operators. We formulate the problem as a mixed-integer nonlinear and non-convex program that involves congestion effects, piecewise linear cost functions, and a fixed-point constraint. We develop a series of relaxed and equivalent models to reduce the hardness of the problem and provide theoretical results to show the equivalences. We present two solution methods to solve the problem with one returning heuristic solutions and the other generating a globally optimal solution. We offer two numerical experiments to test the two solution algorithms and also shed light on their performance comparisons.

      PubDate: 2016-11-14T06:47:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 95 (2016)
       
  • Crowding cost estimation with large scale smart card and vehicle location
           data
    • Authors: Daniel Hörcher; Daniel J. Graham; Richard J. Anderson
      Pages: 105 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 95
      Author(s): Daniel Hörcher, Daniel J. Graham, Richard J. Anderson
      Crowding discomfort is an external cost of public transport trips imposed on fellow passengers that has to be measured in order to derive optimal supply-side decisions. This paper presents a comprehensive method to estimate the user cost of crowding in terms of the equivalent travel time loss, in a revealed preference route choice framework. Using automated demand and train location data we control for fluctuations in crowding conditions on the entire length of a metro journey, including variations in the density of standing passengers and the probability of finding a seat. The estimated standing penalty is 26.5% of the uncrowded value of in-vehicle travel time. An additional passenger per square metre on average adds 11.9% to the travel time multiplier. These results are in line with earlier revealed preference values, and suggest that stated choice methods may overestimate the user cost of crowding. As a side-product, and an important input of the route choice analysis, we derive a novel passenger-to-train assignment method to recover the daily crowding and standing probability pattern in the metro network.

      PubDate: 2016-11-14T06:47:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.10.015
      Issue No: Vol. 95 (2016)
       
  • A spatial generalized ordered-response model with skew normal kernel error
           terms with an application to bicycling frequency
    • Authors: Chandra R. Bhat; Sebastian Astroza; Amin S. Hamdi
      Pages: 126 - 148
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 95
      Author(s): Chandra R. Bhat, Sebastian Astroza, Amin S. Hamdi
      This paper proposes a new spatial generalized ordered response model with skew-normal kernel error terms and an associated estimation method. It contributes to the spatial analysis field by allowing a flexible and parametric skew-normal distribution for the kernel error term in traditional specifications of the spatial model. The resulting model is estimated using Bhat's (2011) maximum approximate composite marginal likelihood (MACML) inference approach. The model is applied to an analysis of bicycling frequency, using data from the 2014 Puget Sound household travel survey undertaken in the Puget Sound region in the State of Washington in the United States. Our results underscore the important effects of demographic variables, as well as the miles of bicycle lanes in an individual's immediate residential neighborhood, on bicycling propensity. An interesting finding is that women and young individuals (18–34 years of age) in particular “warm up” to bicycling as more investment is made in bicycling infrastructure, thus leading not only to a larger pool of bicyclists due to bicycling infrastructure enhancements, but also a more diverse and inclusive one. The results highlight the importance of introducing social dependence effects and non-normal kernel error terms from a policy standpoint. Specifically, our results suggest that ignoring these effects, as has been done by all earlier bicycling studies, can underestimate the impacts of bicycling infrastructure improvements and public campaigns on bicycle use frequency, potentially leading to under-investments in bicycling infrastructure projects.

      PubDate: 2016-11-14T06:47:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.10.014
      Issue No: Vol. 95 (2016)
       
  • A dynamic network loading model for anisotropic and congested pedestrian
           flows
    • Authors: Flurin S. Hänseler; William H.K. Lam; Michel Bierlaire; Gael Lederrey; Marija Nikolić
      Pages: 149 - 168
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 95
      Author(s): Flurin S. Hänseler, William H.K. Lam, Michel Bierlaire, Gael Lederrey, Marija Nikolić
      A macroscopic loading model for multi-directional, time-varying and congested pedestrian flows is proposed. Walkable space is represented by a network of streams that are each associated with an area in which they interact. To describe this interaction, a stream-based pedestrian fundamental diagram is used that relates density and walking speed in multi-directional flow. The proposed model is applied to two different case studies. The explicit modeling of anisotropy in walking speed is shown to significantly improve the ability of the model to reproduce empirically observed walking time distributions. Moreover, the obtained model parametrization is in excellent agreement with the literature.

      PubDate: 2016-11-14T06:47:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.10.017
      Issue No: Vol. 95 (2016)
       
  • Time-dependent vehicle routing problem with path flexibility
    • Authors: Yixiao Huang; Lei Zhao; Tom Van Woensel; Jean-Philippe Gross
      Pages: 169 - 195
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 95
      Author(s): Yixiao Huang, Lei Zhao, Tom Van Woensel, Jean-Philippe Gross
      Conventionally, vehicle routing problems are defined on a network in which the customer locations and arcs are given. Typically, these arcs somehow represent the distances or expected travel time derived from the underlying road network. When executed, the quality of the solutions obtained from the vehicle routing problem depends largely on the quality of the road network representation. This paper explicitly considers path selection in the road network as an integrated decision in the time-dependent vehicle routing problem, denoted as path flexibility (PF). This means that any arc between two customer nodes has multiple corresponding paths in the road network (geographical graph). Hence, the decisions to make are involving not only the routing decision but also the path selection decision depending upon the departure time at the customers and the congestion levels in the relevant road network. The corresponding routing problem is a time-dependent vehicle routing problem with path flexibility (TDVRP–PF). We formulate the TDVRP–PF models under deterministic and stochastic traffic conditions. We derive important insights, relationships, and solution structures. Based on a representative testbed of instances (inspired on the road network of Beijing), significant savings are obtained in terms of cost and fuel consumption, by explicitly considering path flexibility. Having both path flexibility and time-dependent travel time seems to be a good representation of a wide range of stochasticity and dynamics in the travel time, and path flexibility serves as a natural recourse under stochastic conditions. Exploiting this observation, we employ a Route-Path approximation method generating near-optimal solutions for the TDVRP–PF under stochastic traffic conditions.

      PubDate: 2016-11-14T06:47:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.10.013
      Issue No: Vol. 95 (2016)
       
  • A statistical method for estimating predictable differences between daily
           traffic flow profiles
    • Authors: F. Crawford; D.P. Watling; R.D. Connors
      Pages: 196 - 213
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 95
      Author(s): F. Crawford, D.P. Watling, R.D. Connors
      It is well known that traffic flows in road networks may vary not only within the day but also between days. Existing models including day-to-day variability usually represent all variability as unpredictable fluctuations. In reality, however, some of the differences in flows on a road may be predictable for transport planners with access to historical data. For example, flow profiles may be systematically different on Mondays compared to Fridays due to predictable differences in underlying activity patterns. By identifying days of the week or times of year where flows are predictably different, models can be developed or model inputs can be amended (in the case of day-to-day dynamical models) to test the robustness of proposed policies or to inform the development of policies which vary according to these predictably different day types. Such policies could include time-of-day varying congestion charges that themselves vary by day of the week or season, or targeting public transport provision so that timetables are more responsive to the day of the week and seasonal needs of travellers. A statistical approach is presented for identifying systematic variations in daily traffic flow profiles based on known explanatory factors such as the day of the week and the season. In order to examine day-to-day variability whilst also considering within-day dynamics, the distribution of flows throughout a day are analysed using Functional Linear Models. F-type tests for functional data are then used to compare alternative model specifications for the predictable variability. The output of the method is an average flow profile for each predictably different day type, which could include day of the week or time of year. An application to real-life traffic flow data for a two-year period is provided. The shape of the daily profile was found to be significantly different for each day of the week, including differences in the timing and width of peak flows and also the relationship between peak and inter-peak flows. Seasonal differences in flow profiles were also identified for each day of the week.

      PubDate: 2016-11-14T06:47:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 95 (2016)
       
  • An integrated optimization-simulation framework for vehicle and personnel
           relocations of electric carsharing systems with reservations
    • Authors: Burak Boyacı; Konstantinos G. Zografos; Nikolas Geroliminis
      Pages: 214 - 237
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 95
      Author(s): Burak Boyacı, Konstantinos G. Zografos, Nikolas Geroliminis
      One-way electric vehicle carsharing systems are receiving increasing attention due to their mobility, environmental, and societal benefits. One of the major issues faced by the operators of these systems is the optimization of the relocation operations of personnel and vehicles. These relocation operations are essential in order to ensure that vehicles are available for use at the right place at the right time. Vehicle availability is a key indicator expressing the level of service offered to customers. However, the relocation operations, that ensure this availability, constitute a major cost component for the provision of these services. Therefore, clearly there is a trade-off between the cost of vehicle and personnel relocation and the level of service offered. In this paper we are developing, solving, and applying, in a real world context, an integrated multi-objective mixed integer linear programming (MMILP) optimization and discrete event simulation framework to optimize operational decisions for vehicle and personnel relocation in a carsharing system with reservations. We are using a clustering procedure to cope with the dimensionality of the operational problem without compromising on the quality of the obtained results. The optimization framework involves three mathematical models: (i) station clustering, (ii) operations optimization and (iii) personnel flow. The output of the optimization is used by the simulation in order to test the feasibility of the optimization outcome in terms of vehicle recharging requirements. The optimization model is solved iteratively considering the new constraints restricting the vehicles that require further charging to stay in the station until the results of the simulation are feasible in terms of electric vehicles’ battery charging levels. The application of the proposed framework using data from a real world system operating in Nice, France sheds light to trade-offs existing between the level of service offered, resource utilization, and certainty of fulfilling a trip reservation.

      PubDate: 2016-11-14T06:47:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.10.007
      Issue No: Vol. 95 (2016)
       
  • Stated and revealed exit choices of pedestrian crowd evacuees
    • Authors: Milad Haghani; Majid Sarvi
      Pages: 238 - 259
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 95
      Author(s): Milad Haghani, Majid Sarvi
      Introduction Understanding fundamental behavioural features regulating the escape wayfinding decisions of pedestrian humans in built environments has major implications for the safety planning and the risk-analysis of crowded public facilities. In contrast to the vast interest invested in modelling the momentary responses of evacuees to their immediate surroundings (i.e. the collision-avoidance models), their global navigation behaviour is poorly understood albeit believed to be a major determinant of the accuracy of the crowd simulation models. The primary challenge arises from the scarcity of reliable data suitable for modelling purposes causing the experimental knowledge in the field lagging substantially behind the corresponding model developments. Observations derived from fully natural emergency contexts (in the form of modelling material) are rare and collecting data in realistic experimental settings poses its own major challenges. Only few experimental modelling attempts have been reported thus far in relation with this problem primarily using the stated-choice (SC) methods. Modelling based on revealed choices (RC), however, has remained absent in this context leaving the findings of the SC experiments mostly unverified. It is still unclear whether we can reliably learn from the wayfinding choices made in virtually visualised environments without the decision-makers interacting with real individuals and the physical elements of the environment as they do in the real-world settings. Furthermore, the extent to which the findings of these experiments are specific to the particular characteristics of the environment visualised in the experiments is also unclear. Methods To bridge this gap, here we report on discrete-choice estimates derived from observations of both types. Three datasets of stated exit choices (4958 observations) were collected through face-to-face interviews with pedestrians in three public places with the experiments referring to the particular geometry of the place in which the participants were interviewed. Also, 3015 disaggregate real (or more precisely, “realistic”) exit choices were extracted through individual-level video analysis of the footage of a series of novel evacuation trials that simulate pedestrians’ emergency escape. The participants competed and interacted with real individuals in an actual crowd and made actual wayfinding decisions to make the quickest possible escape. Our particular interest was investigating the sample-to-sample variations and the context-dependence of the inferred estimates. Results We observed fairly similar parameter estimate patterns emerged from all four datasets, and identified many behavioural aspects upon which all models consistently agreed regardless of their context of origin. Moreover, despite the significant differences between the parameter scales of the four models, the SC-generated models made predictions that were reasonably similar to those of the RC model as well as to those of the model derived from the combined data. Applications Our findings provide promising evidence as to the potential applicability of the SC methods in particular as well as other forms of virtual-reality decision experiments in general as a practical, flexible and ethical approach for the continuation of research and advancing the state of knowledge in this field.

      PubDate: 2016-11-14T06:47:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.10.019
      Issue No: Vol. 95 (2016)
       
  • Optimization for gate re-assignment
    • Authors: Dong Zhang; Diego Klabjan
      Pages: 260 - 284
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 95
      Author(s): Dong Zhang, Diego Klabjan
      Disruptions such as adverse weather, flight delays and flight cancellations are a frequent occurrence in airport operations. A sophisticated gate assignment plan can be easily disrupted and serious consequences might be caused. Therefore, an efficient gate re-assignment methodology is of great importance for the airline industry. In this paper, we propose an efficient gate re-assignment methodology to deal with the disruptions, in which the objective function is to minimize the weighted sum of the total flight delays, the number of gate re-assignment operations and the number of missed passenger connections. Two multi-commodity network flow models are built for the pure gate re-assignment problem and the gate re-assignment problem with connecting passengers. Recognizing the inherent NP hard nature of the gate re-assignment problem, two heuristic algorithms are proposed to solve the models efficiently. The proposed models and algorithms are tested based on real-world data of a large U.S. carrier and computational results reveal that the proposed methodologies can provide high quality solutions within a short computational time.

      PubDate: 2016-11-21T08:54:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.11.006
      Issue No: Vol. 95 (2016)
       
  • Optimization of the issuance of evacuation orders under evolving hurricane
           conditions
    • Authors: Wenqi Yi; Linda Nozick; Rachel Davidson; Brian Blanton; Brian Colle
      Pages: 285 - 304
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 95
      Author(s): Wenqi Yi, Linda Nozick, Rachel Davidson, Brian Blanton, Brian Colle
      This paper develops a bi-level programming model to optimize the issuance of evacuation orders with explicit consideration of (i) the highly uncertain evolution of the storm, and (ii) the complexity of the behavioral reaction to evolving storm conditions. A solution procedure based on progressive hedging is developed. A realistic case study for the eastern portion of the state of North Carolina is presented. Through the case study we demonstrate (1) the value of developing an evacuation order policy based on the evolution of the storm in contrast to a static policy; (2) the richness in the insights that can be provided by linking the behavioral models for evacuation decision-making with dynamic traffic assignment-based network flow models in a hurricane context; and (3) the computational promise of a progressive hedging-based solution procedure to solve large instances of the model.

      PubDate: 2016-11-21T08:54:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 95 (2016)
       
  • On the analytical approximation of joint aggregate queue-length
           distributions for traffic networks: A stationary finite capacity Markovian
           network approach
    • Authors: Carolina Osorio; Carter Wang
      Pages: 305 - 339
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 95
      Author(s): Carolina Osorio, Carter Wang
      This paper is motivated by recent results in the design of signal plans for Manhattan that highlight the importance of providing signal control algorithms with an analytical description of between-link dependencies. This is particularly important for congested networks prone to the occurrence of spillbacks. This paper formulates a probabilistic network model that proposes an aggregate description of the queue-length, and then approximates the joint aggregate queue-length distribution of subnetworks. The goal is to model between-queue dependencies beyond first-order moments, yet to do so in a tractable manner such that these techniques can be used for optimization purposes. This paper models an urban road network as a finite space capacity Markovian queueing network. Exact evaluation of the stationary joint queue-length distribution of such a network with arbitrary size and topology can be obtained numerically. Nonetheless, the main challenge to such an approach remains the dimensionality of the network state space, which is exponential in the number of queues. This paper proposes to address the dimensionality issue by: 1) describing the state of the network aggregately, and 2) decomposing the network into overlapping subnetworks. We propose an analytical approximation of the stationary aggregate joint queue-length distribution of a subnetwork. The model consists of a system of nonlinear equations with a dimension that is linear, instead of exponential, in the number of queues and that is independent of the space capacity of the individual queues. The method is derived for tandem Markovian finite capacity queueing networks. The proposed model is computationally tractable and scalable, it can be efficiently used for the higher-order distributional analysis of large-scale networks. The model is validated versus simulation estimates and versus other decomposition methods. We then use it to address an urban traffic control problem. We show the added value of accounting for higher-order spatial between-queue dependency information in the control of congested urban networks.

      PubDate: 2016-11-21T08:54:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.07.013
      Issue No: Vol. 95 (2016)
       
  • A hybrid large neighborhood search for the static multi-vehicle
           bike-repositioning problem
    • Authors: Sin C. Ho; W.Y. Szeto
      Pages: 340 - 363
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 95
      Author(s): Sin C. Ho, W.Y. Szeto
      This paper addresses the multi-vehicle bike-repositioning problem, a pick-up and delivery vehicle routing problem that arises in connection with bike-sharing systems. Bike-sharing is a green transportation mode that makes it possible for people to use shared bikes for travel. Bikes are retrieved and parked at any of the stations within the bike-sharing network. One major challenge is that the demand for and supply of bikes are not always matched. Hence, vehicles are used to pick up bikes from surplus stations and transport them to deficit stations to satisfy a particular service level. This operation is called a bike-repositioning problem. In this paper, we propose a hybrid large neighborhood search for solving the problem. Several removal and insertion operators are proposed to diversify and intensify the search. A simple tabu search is further applied to the most promising solutions. The heuristic is evaluated on three sets of instances with up to 518 stations and five vehicles. The results of computational experiments indicate that the heuristic outperforms both CPLEX and the math heuristic proposed by Forma et al. (2015) [Transportation Research Part B 71: 230–247]. The average improvement of our heuristic over the math heuristic is 1.06%, and it requires only a small fraction of the computation time.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T01:31:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 95 (2016)
       
  • Parsimonious shooting heuristic for trajectory design of connected
           automated traffic part I: Theoretical analysis with generalized time
           geography
    • Authors: Fang Zhou; Xiaopeng Li; Jiaqi Ma
      Pages: 394 - 420
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 95
      Author(s): Fang Zhou, Xiaopeng Li, Jiaqi Ma
      This paper studies a problem of designing trajectories of a platoon of vehicles on a highway segment with advanced connected and automated vehicle technologies. This problem is very complex because each vehicle trajectory is essentially an infinite-dimensional object and neighboring trajectories have complex interactions (e.g., car-following behavior). A parsimonious shooting heuristic algorithm is proposed to construct vehicle trajectories on a signalized highway segment that comply with boundary conditions for vehicle arrivals, vehicle mechanical limits, traffic lights and vehicle following safety. This algorithm breaks each vehicle trajectory into a few sections that are analytically solvable. This decomposes the originally hard trajectory design problem to a simple constructive heuristic. Then we slightly adapt this shooting heuristic algorithm to efficiently solve a leading vehicle problem on an uninterrupted freeway. To study theoretical properties of the proposed algorithms, the time geography theory is generalized by considering finite accelerations. With this generalized theory, it is found that under mild conditions, these algorithms can always obtain a feasible solution to the original complex trajectory design problem. Further, we discover that the shooting heuristic solution is a generalization of the solution to the classic kinematic wave theory by incorporating finite accelerations. We identify the theoretical bounds to the difference between the shooting heuristic solution and the kinematic wave solution. Numerical experiments are conducted to verify the theoretical results and to draw additional managerial insights into the potential of trajectory design in improving traffic performance. In summary, this paper provides a methodological and theoretical foundation for advanced traffic control by optimizing the trajectories of connected and automated vehicles. Building upon this foundation, an optimization framework will be presented in a following paper as Part II of this study.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T05:34:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.05.007
      Issue No: Vol. 95 (2016)
       
  • Parsimonious shooting heuristic for trajectory design of connected
           automated traffic part II: Computational issues and optimization
    • Authors: Jiaqi Ma; Xiaopeng Li; Fang Zhou; Jia Hu; B. Brian Park
      Pages: 421 - 441
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 95
      Author(s): Jiaqi Ma, Xiaopeng Li, Fang Zhou, Jia Hu, B. Brian Park
      Advanced connected and automated vehicle technologies enable us to modify driving behavior and control vehicle trajectories, which have been greatly constrained by human limits in existing manually-driven highway traffic. In order to maximize benefits from these technologies on highway traffic management, vehicle trajectories need to be not only controlled at the individual level but also coordinated collectively for a stream of traffic. As one of the pioneering attempts to highway traffic trajectory control, Part I of this study (Zhou et al., 2016) proposed a parsimonious shooting heuristic (SH) algorithm for constructing feasible trajectories for a stream of vehicles considering realistic constraints including vehicle kinematic limits, traffic arrival patterns, car-following safety, and signal operations. Based on the algorithmic and theoretical developments in the preceding paper, this paper proposes a holistic optimization framework for identifying a stream of vehicle trajectories that yield the optimum traffic performance measures on mobility, environment and safety. The computational complexity and mobility optimality of SH is theoretically analyzed, and verifies superior computational performance and high solution quality of SH. A numerical sub-gradient-based algorithm with SH as a subroutine (NG-SH) is proposed to simultaneously optimize travel time, a surrogate safety measure, and fuel consumption for a stream of vehicles on a signalized highway section. Numerical examples are conducted to illustrate computational and theoretical findings. They show that vehicle trajectories generated from NG-SH significantly outperform the benchmark case with all human drivers at all measures for all experimental scenarios. This study reveals a great potential of transformative trajectory optimization approaches in transportation engineering applications. It lays a solid foundation for developing holistic cooperative control strategies on a general transportation network with emerging technologies.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T05:34:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.06.010
      Issue No: Vol. 95 (2016)
       
  • Ocean container transport in global supply chains: Overview and research
           opportunities
    • Authors: Chung-Yee Lee; Dong-Ping Song
      Pages: 442 - 474
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 95
      Author(s): Chung-Yee Lee, Dong-Ping Song
      This paper surveys the extant research in the field of ocean container transport. A wide range of issues is discussed including strategic planning, tactical planning and operations management issues, which are categorized into six research areas. The relationships between these research areas are discussed and the relevant literature is reviewed. Representative models are selected or modified to provide a flavour of their functions and application context, and used to explain current shipping practices. Future research opportunities bearing in mind the emerging phenomena in the field are discussed. The main purpose is to raise awareness and encourage more research into and application of operations management techniques and tools in container transport chains.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T05:34:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 95 (2016)
       
  • Stochastic modeling for vehicle platoons (II): Statistical characteristics
    • Authors: Baibing
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 95
      Author(s): Baibing Li
      This two-part paper presents a new approach to stochastic dynamic modeling for vehicle platoons. Part I develops a vehicle platoon model to capture the dynamics of vehicles’ grouping behavior and proposes an online platoon recognition algorithm. On the basis of the developed platoon model, Part II investigates various important characteristics of vehicle platoons and derives their statistical distribution models, including platoon size, within-platoon headway, between-platoon headway and platoon speed. It is shown that the derived statistical distributions include some important existing models in the literature as their special cases. These statistical distribution models are crucial for us to understand the traffic platooning phenomenon. In practice, they can be used as the inputs for the design of traffic management and control algorithms for traffic with a platoon structure. Real traffic data is used to illustrate the obtained theoretical results.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T05:34:38Z
       
  • Stochastic modeling for vehicle platoons (I): Dynamic grouping behavior
           and online platoon recognition
    • Authors: Baibing
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 95
      Author(s): Baibing Li
      A vehicle platoon is a group of vehicles traveling together at approximately the same speed. Traffic platooning is an important phenomenon that can substantially increase the capacity of roads. This two-part paper presents a new approach to stochastic dynamic modeling for vehicle platoons. In part I, we develop a vehicle platoon model with two interconnected components: a Markov regime-switching stochastic process that is used to model the dynamic behavior of platoon-to-platoon transitions, and a state space model that is employed to describe individual vehicles’ dynamic movements within each vehicle platoon. On the basis of the developed stochastic dynamic model, we then develop an algorithm for online platoon recognition. The proposed stochastic dynamic model for vehicle platoons also provides a new approach to vehicle speed filtering for traffic with a platoon structure.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T05:34:38Z
       
  • A time-space network flow approach to dynamic repositioning in bicycle
           sharing systems
    • Authors: Dong Zhang; Chuhang Yu; Jitamitra Desai; H.Y.K. Lau; Sandeep Srivathsan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
      Author(s): Dong Zhang, Chuhang Yu, Jitamitra Desai, H.Y.K. Lau, Sandeep Srivathsan
      Faced with increasing population density, rising traffic congestion, and the resulting upsurge in carbon emissions, several urban metropolitan areas have instituted public bicycle sharing system as a viable alternative mode of transportation to complement existing long-distance bus- and metro- transit systems. A pressing issue that needs to be addressed in bike sharing systems is the accrued imbalance of bicycles between commuter demands and inventory levels at stations. To overcome this issue, a commonly employed strategy is to reposition bicycles during off-peak periods (typically at night) when no new user arrivals are expected. However, when such an imbalance occurs during day-time peak hours, such a passive strategy would result in lower resource utilization rates. To overcome this drawback, in this study, we propose a dynamic bicycle repositioning methodology that considers inventory level forecasting, user arrivals forecasting, bicycle repositioning, and vehicle routing in a unified manner. A multi-commodity time-space network flow model is presented, which results in an underlying complex nonlinear optimization problem. This problem is then reformulated into an equivalent mixed-integer problem using a model transformation approach and a novel heuristic algorithm is proposed to efficiently solve this model. Specifically, the first stage involves solving the linear relaxation of the MIP model, and a set covering problem is subsequently solved in the second stage to assign routes to the repositioning vehicles. The proposed methodology is evaluated using standard test-bed instances from the literature, and our numerical results reveal that the heuristic algorithm can achieve a significant reduction in rejected user requests when compared to existing methods, while yet expending only minimal computational effort.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T05:34:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.006
       
  • Modeling and managing morning commute with both household and individual
           travels
    • Authors: Wei Liu; Fangni Zhang; Hai Yang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2016
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
      Author(s): Wei Liu, Fangni Zhang, Hai Yang
      This study investigates the morning commute problem with both household and individual travels, where the household travel is a shared ride of household (family) members. In particular, it considers the situation when a proportion of commuters have to drive their children to school first and then go to work (household travel). For household travel, departure time choice is a joint decision based on all household members’ preferences. Unlike the standard bottleneck model, the rush-hour dynamic traffic pattern with mixed travelers (household travelers and individual travelers) varies with the numbers of individual travelers and households, as well as the schedule difference between school and work. Given the numbers of individual travelers and households, we show that by appropriately coordinating the schedules of work and school, the traffic congestion at the highway bottleneck can be relieved, and hence the total travel cost can be reduced. This is because, departure/arrival of individual and household travels can be separated by schedule coordination. System performance under schedule coordination is quantified in terms of the relative proportions of the two classes of travelers and is compared with the extreme case when the same desired arrival time applies to both schooling and working. Furthermore, the efficiency of work and school schedule coordination in reducing travel cost is bounded. This efficiency is also compared with that at the system optimum where queuing is fully eliminated and schedule delay cost is minimized (achieved by a joint scheme of first-best pricing and schedule coordination).

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T05:34:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.002
       
 
 
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