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  Subjects -> TRANSPORTATION (Total: 165 journals)
    - AIR TRANSPORT (8 journals)
    - AUTOMOBILES (21 journals)
    - RAILROADS (5 journals)
    - ROADS AND TRAFFIC (6 journals)
    - SHIPS AND SHIPPING (31 journals)
    - TRANSPORTATION (94 journals)

TRANSPORTATION (94 journals)

Showing 1 - 53 of 53 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 79)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies on Transport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Economics of Transportation     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
EURO Journal of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
European Transport Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IATSS Research     Open Access  
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
IET Intelligent Transport Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IFAC-PapersOnLine     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Logistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of e-Navigation and Maritime Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Mobile Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Ocean Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Services Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Modern Transportation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sustainable Mobility     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Transport & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Transport Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Transport History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Transportation Safety & Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Transportation Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Transportation Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Waterway Port Coastal and Ocean Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Les Dossiers du Grihl     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Logistics & Sustainable Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Logistique & Management     Full-text available via subscription  
Mobility in History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Modern Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Packaging, Transport, Storage & Security of Radioactive Material     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pervasive and Mobile Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Public Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Recherche Transports Sécurité     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Revista Transporte y Territorio     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Romanian Journal of Transport Infrastructure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SourceOCDE Transports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Streetnotes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Synthesis Lectures on Mobile and Pervasive Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tire Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Transactions on Transport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Transport and Telecommunication Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transport in Porous Media     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transport Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transport Reviews: A Transnational Transdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Transportation Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Transportation Letters : The International Journal of Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Transportation Research Part B: Methodological     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Transportation Research Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transportation Research Record : Journal of the Transportation Research Board     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Transportation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
TRANSPORTES     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Transportmetrica B : Transport Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Travel Behaviour and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Urban, Planning and Transport Research     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Vehicular Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Транспортні системи та технології перевезень     Open Access  
Journal Cover Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
  [SJR: 3.905]   [H-I: 87]   [29 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0191-2615
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • A decomposition algorithm to solve the multi-hop Peer-to-Peer
           ride-matching problem
    • Authors: Neda Masoud; R. Jayakrishnan
      Pages: 1 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 99
      Author(s): Neda Masoud, R. Jayakrishnan
      In this paper, we mathematically model the multi-hop Peer-to-Peer (P2P) ride-matching problem as a binary program. We formulate this problem as a many-to-many problem in which a rider can travel my transferring between multiple drivers, and a driver can carry multiple riders. We propose a pre-processing procedure to reduce the size of the problem, and devise a decomposition algorithm to solve the original ride-matching problem to optimality by means of solving multiple smaller problems. We conduct extensive numerical experiments to demonstrate the computational efficiency of the proposed algorithm and show its practical applicability to reasonably-sized dynamic ride-matching contexts. Finally, in the interest of even lower solution times, we propose heuristic solution methods, and investigate the trade-offs between solution time and accuracy.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T09:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Pedestrian flows through a narrow doorway: Effect of individual behaviours
           on the global flow and microscopic dynamics
    • Authors: Alexandre Nicolas; Sebastián Bouzat; Marcelo N. Kuperman
      Pages: 30 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 99
      Author(s): Alexandre Nicolas, Sebastián Bouzat, Marcelo N. Kuperman
      We study the dynamics of pedestrian flows through a narrow doorway by means of controlled experiments. The influence of the pedestrians’ behaviours is investigated by prescribing a selfish attitude to a fraction cs of the participants, while the others behave politely. Thanks to an original setup enabling the re-injection of egressed participants into the room, the analysis is conducted in a (macroscopically) quasi-stationary regime. We find that, as cs is increased, the flow rate J rises, interpolating between published values for egresses in normal conditions and measurements for competitive evacuations. The dependence of several flow properties on the pedestrian density ρ at the door, independently of cs , suggests that macroscopically the behavioural aspects could be subsumed under the density, at least in our specific settings with limited crowd pressure. In particular, under these conditions, J grows monotonically with ρ up to “close-packing” ( ρ ≈ 9 m − 2 ). The flow is then characterised microscopically. Among other quantities, the time lapses between successive escapes, the pedestrians’ waiting times in front of the door, and their angles of incidence are analysed statistically. In a nutshell, our main results show that the flow is orderly for polite crowds, with narrowly distributed time lapses between egresses, while for larger cs the flow gets disorderly and vanishing time lapses emerge. For all cs , we find an alternation between short and long time lapses, which we ascribe to a generalised zipper effect. The average waiting time in the exit zone increases with its occupancy. The disorder in the flow and the pressure felt by participants are also assessed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T09:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Optimal design of autonomous vehicle zones in transportation networks
    • Authors: Zhibin Chen; Fang He; Yafeng Yin; Yuchuan Du
      Pages: 44 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 99
      Author(s): Zhibin Chen, Fang He, Yafeng Yin, Yuchuan Du
      This paper advocates the need for infrastructure planning to adapt to and further promote the deployment of autonomous vehicle (AV) technology. It is envisioned that in the future government agencies will dedicate certain areas of road networks to AVs only to facilitate the formulation of vehicle platoons to improve throughput and hopefully improve the performance of the whole network. This paper aims to present a mathematical framework for the optimal design of AV zones in a general network. With the presence of AV zones, AVs may apply different routing principles outside of and within the AV zones. A novel network equilibrium model (we refer to it as the “mixed routing equilibrium model”) is thus firstly proposed to capture such mixed-routing behaviors. We then proceed to formulate a mixed-integer bi-level programming model to optimize the deployment plan of AV zones. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed models.

      PubDate: 2017-01-30T09:09:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.021
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Design and modeling of a crowdsource-enabled system for urban parcel relay
           and delivery
    • Authors: Nabin Kafle; Bo Zou; Jane Lin
      Pages: 62 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 99
      Author(s): Nabin Kafle, Bo Zou, Jane Lin
      This paper proposes a crowdsource-enabled system for urban parcel relay and delivery. We consider cyclists and pedestrians as crowdsources who are close to customers and interested in relaying parcels with a truck carrier and undertaking jobs for the last-leg parcel delivery and the first-leg parcel pickup. The crowdsources express their interests in doing so by submitting bids to the truck carrier. The truck carrier then selects bids and coordinates crowdsources’ last-leg delivery (first-leg pickup) with its truck operations. The truck carrier's problem is formulated as a mixed integer non-linear program which simultaneously i) selects crowdsources to complete the last-leg delivery (first-leg pickup) between customers and selected points for crowdsource-truck relay; and ii) determines the relay points and truck routes and schedule. To solve the truck carrier problem, we first decompose the problem into a winner determination problem and a simultaneous pickup and delivery problem with soft time windows, and propose a Tabu Search based algorithm to iteratively solve the two subproblems. Numerical results show that this solution approach is able to yield close-to-optimum solutions with much less time than using off-the-shelf solvers. By adopting this new system, truck vehicle miles traveled (VMT) and total cost can be reduced compared to pure-truck delivery. The advantage of the system over pure-truck delivery is sensitive to factors such as penalty for servicing outside customers’ desired time windows, truck unit operating cost, time value of crowdsources, and the crowdsource mode.

      PubDate: 2017-01-30T09:09:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.022
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Dynamic resource allocation for intermodal freight transportation with
           network effects: Approximations and algorithms
    • Authors: Hua Wang; Xinchang Wang; Xiaoning Zhang
      Pages: 83 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 99
      Author(s): Hua Wang, Xinchang Wang, Xiaoning Zhang
      This paper investigates a dynamic resource allocation problem, in which an intermodal operator attempts to determine the policy that characterizes the optimal quantities of each service product allowed to be sold during each time interval within a finite selling horizon. The problem is formulated as a Markov decision process (MDP) model and a variety of mathematical programming models are developed to approximate the MDP model. A series of policies are obtained from the optimal solutions to the approximation models and theoretical results are provided to characterize the comparisons between the MDP model and the approximation models. Various policies are further evaluated through theoretical analysis and simulation tests. We finally gain insights into the importance of the dynamic decisions, stochastic demands, model re-solving, and integer variables in formulating approximation models.

      PubDate: 2017-01-30T09:09:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Joint optimal train regulation and passenger flow control strategy for
           high-frequency metro lines
    • Authors: Shukai Li; Maged M. Dessouky; Lixing Yang; Ziyou Gao
      Pages: 113 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 99
      Author(s): Shukai Li, Maged M. Dessouky, Lixing Yang, Ziyou Gao
      To improve the headway regularity and commercial speed of high-frequency metro lines with overloaded passenger flow, this paper systematically investigates a joint optimal dynamic train regulation and passenger flow control design for metro lines. A coupled state-space model for the evolution of the departure time and the passenger load of each train at each station is explicitly developed. The dwell time of the train is affected by the number of entering and exiting passengers. Combining dynamic train regulation and passenger flow control, a dynamic optimisation problem that minimises the timetable and the headway deviations for metro lines is developed. By applying a model predictive control (MPC) method, we formulate the problem of finding the optimal joint train regulation and passenger flow control strategy as the problem of solving a set of quadratic programming (QP) problems, under which an optimal control law can be numerically calculated efficiently using a quadratic programming algorithm. Moreover, based on the Lyapunov stability theory, the stability (convergence) of the metro line system under the proposed optimal control algorithm is verified. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

      PubDate: 2017-01-30T09:09:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Network user equilibrium problems for the mixed battery electric vehicles
           and gasoline vehicles subject to battery swapping stations and road grade
           constraints
    • Authors: Min Xu; Qiang Meng; Kai Liu
      Pages: 138 - 166
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 99
      Author(s): Min Xu, Qiang Meng, Kai Liu
      There has been growing attention on battery electric vehicles (BEVs) due to their energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. This paper deals with the user equilibrium (UE) problems for the mixed BEVs and traditional gasoline vehicles (GVs) in transportation networks with battery swapping stations and road grade constraints. Under the assumption that electricity consumption rate is not affected by traveling speed or traffic flow, a nonlinear minimization model in terms of path flows is first formulated by incorporating effects of road grade on the electricity consumption rate. The battery swapping action based paths are defined for BEVs in the represented network to facilitate the model building with flow-dependent dwell time at the battery swapping stations. The Frank-Wolfe (F-W) algorithm, where descent direction is found by the multi-label method in a pseudo-polynomial time, is adopted to solve the model. Moreover, the aforementioned assumption about the flow-independent electricity consumption rate is then relaxed and a system of inequalities has been proposed to formulate the UE conditions. For the nonlinear minimization model, two numerical examples are presented to assess the propose model and algorithm, as well as to analyze the impact of usable battery capacity, BEVs’ market share and some attributes of battery swapping stations on the equilibrium link flows and/or swapping flows. The system of inequalities is exactly solved for a small network by path enumeration to demonstrate the non-uniqueness of UE link flow solutions.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T15:21:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • A dynamic programming approach for optimizing train speed profiles with
           speed restrictions and passage points
    • Authors: Jørgen Thorlund Haahr; David Pisinger; Mohammad Sabbaghian
      Pages: 167 - 182
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 99
      Author(s): Jørgen Thorlund Haahr, David Pisinger, Mohammad Sabbaghian
      This paper considers a novel solution method for generating improved train speed profiles with reduced energy consumption. The solution method makes use of a time-space graph formulation which can be solved through Dynamic Programming. Instead of using uniform discretization of time and space as seen previously in the literature, we rely on an event-based decomposition that drastically reduces the search space. This approach is very flexible, making it easy to handle, e.g., speed limits, changes in altitude, and passage points that need to be crossed within a given time window. Based on solving an extensive number of real-life problem instances, our benchmarks show that the proposed solution method is able to satisfy all secondary constraints and still be able to decrease energy consumption by 3.3% on average compared to a commercial solver provided by our industrial collaborator, Cubris. The computational times are generally very low, making it possible to recompute the train speed profile in case of unexpected changes in speed restrictions or timings. This is a great advantage over static offline lookup tables. Also, the framework is very flexible, making it possible to handle a number of additional constraints on robustness, passenger comfort etc. Selected details of the method and benchmark are only described at a high level for confidentiality reasons.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T15:21:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.016
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Modeling heterogeneous traffic flow: A pragmatic approach
    • Authors: Zhen (Sean) Qian; Jia Li; Xiaopeng Li; Michael Zhang; Haizhong Wang
      Pages: 183 - 204
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 99
      Author(s): Zhen (Sean) Qian, Jia Li, Xiaopeng Li, Michael Zhang, Haizhong Wang
      Modeling dynamics of heterogeneous traffic flow is central to the control and operations of today’s increasingly complex transportation systems. We develop a macroscopic heterogeneous traffic flow model. This model considers interplay of multiple vehicle classes, each of which is assumed to possess homogeneous car-following behavior and vehicle attributes. We propose the concepts of road capacity split and perceived equivalent density for each class to model both lateral and longitudinal cross-class interactions across neighboring cells. Rather than leveraging hydrodynamic analogies, it establishes pragmatic cross-class interaction rules aspired by capacity allocation and approximate inter-cell fluxes. This model generalizes the classical Cell Transmission Model (CTM) to three types of traffic regimes in general, i.e. free flow, semi-congestion, and full congestion regimes. This model replicates prominent empirical characteristics exhibited by mixed vehicular flow, including formation and spatio-temporal propagation of shockwaves, vehicle overtaking, as well as oscillatory waves. Those features are validated against numerical experiments and the NGSIM I-80 data. Realistic class-specific travel times can be computed from this model efficiently, which demonstrates the feasibility of applying this multi-class model to large-scale real-world networks.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T15:21:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • On the use of reservation-based autonomous vehicles for demand management
    • Authors: Raphaël Lamotte; André de Palma; Nikolas Geroliminis
      Pages: 205 - 227
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 99
      Author(s): Raphaël Lamotte, André de Palma, Nikolas Geroliminis
      Automated mobility on demand is foreseen as the future of urban passenger mobility. While mixed-traffic for autonomous and conventional vehicles could be considered, separation amplifies the benefits of automation. Combined with mobility as a service, separation also opens new possibilities in terms of demand management. We consider in this paper a single bottleneck dynamic framework, in which the capacity of a freeway is dedicated either to conventional or to autonomous vehicles. Users of conventional vehicles freely choose their departure time from home and compete for the best departure times from the bottleneck. Users of autonomous vehicles need to book their trip in advance. As the number of time slots available for booking does not exceed the capacity, booking users are guaranteed no delay at the bottleneck. An individual-specific cooperation cost is introduced in the modeling framework. We then investigate how a central planner should allocate the capacity to these two vehicle types depending on the regime (laissez-faire, welfare- or profit-maximizing). Two major findings are that the equilibrium demand split Pareto-dominates the case with only conventional cars and that the social cost difference between equilibrium and socially optimal demand splits is small compared to their benefits. Although the Pareto-improvement result may not hold for every single user in the case of richer heterogeneity, it remains a key advantage of our booking scheme. Profit-maximizing strategies however turn out to be hardly compatible with welfare maximization.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T15:21:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • A Branch-and-Price algorithm for railway rolling stock rescheduling
    • Authors: Richard M. Lusby; Jørgen Thorlund Haahr; Jesper Larsen; David Pisinger
      Pages: 228 - 250
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 99
      Author(s): Richard M. Lusby, Jørgen Thorlund Haahr, Jesper Larsen, David Pisinger
      How to best reschedule their fleet of rolling stock units during a disruption is an optimization problem regularly faced by railway operators. Despite the problem’s high complexity, it is still usually solved manually. In this paper we propose a path based mathematical formulation and solve it using a Branch-and-Price algorithm. We demonstrate that, unlike flow based approaches, our formulation is more easily extended to handle certain families of constraints, such as train unit maintenance restrictions. The proposed algorithm is benchmarked on several real-life instances provided by the suburban railway operator in Copenhagen, DSB S-tog. When used in combination with a lower bound method taken from the literature we show that near-optimal solutions to this rescheduling problem can be found within a few seconds. Furthermore, we show that the proposed methodology can be used, with minor modification, on a tactical planning level, where it produces near-optimal rolling stock schedules in minutes of CPU time.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T12:02:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Investigating transport network vulnerability by capacity weighted
           spectral analysis
    • Authors: Michael G.H. Bell; Fumitaka Kurauchi; Supun Perera; Walter Wong
      Pages: 251 - 266
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 99
      Author(s): Michael G.H. Bell, Fumitaka Kurauchi, Supun Perera, Walter Wong
      Transport networks operating at or near capacity are vulnerable to disruptions, so flow bottlenecks are potent sources of vulnerability. This paper presents an efficient method for finding transport network cuts, which may constitute such bottlenecks. Methods for assessing network vulnerability found in the literature require origin-destination demands and path assignment. However, in transport network planning and design, demand information is often missing, out of date, partial or inaccurate. Capacity weighted spectral partitioning is proposed to identify potential flow bottlenecks in the network, without reference to demand information or path assignments. This method identifies the network cut with least capacity, taking into account the relative sizes of the sub-networks either side of the cut. Spectral analysis has the added advantage of tractability, even for large networks, as shown by numerical examples for a five-node illustrative example, the Sioux Falls road network and the Gifu Prefecture road network.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T12:02:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • On the stability of stationary states in general road networks
    • Authors: Wen-Long Jin
      Pages: 42 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Wen-Long Jin
      In [Jin, W.-L., 2015. On the existence of stationary states in general road networks. Transportation Research Part B 81, 917–929.], with a discrete map in critical demand levels, it was proved that there exist stationary states for the kinematic wave model of general road networks with constant origin demands, route choice proportions, and destination supplies. In this study we further examine the stability property of stationary states with the same map, and the results will help us to understand the long-term trend of a network traffic system. We first review a network kinematic wave model and properties of stationary states on a link, define the criticality of junctions in stationary states, and discuss information propagation in stationary states on links and junctions. We then present the map and examine information propagation in the map. We apply the map to analytically study the stability of stationary states on ring roads and diverge-merge networks with circular information propagation and compare them with results obtained from the Poincaré map [Jin, W.-L., 2013. Stability and bifurcation in network traffic flow: A Poincaré map approach. Transportation Research Part B 57, 191–208]. We further study the stability property of general stationary states in a grid network. We find that the stability of fixed points of the map is the same as that of stationary states in a network, and the new approach is more general than the Poincaré map approach. We conclude the study with future directions and implications.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T07:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.010
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • A branch-and-price method for integrated yard crane deployment and
           container allocation in transshipment yards
    • Authors: Xin Jia Jiang; Jian Gang Jin
      Pages: 62 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Xin Jia Jiang, Jian Gang Jin
      With the trend towards mega-vessels and shipping alliance, the importance of transshipment activities keeps increasing. In transshipment yards, a “yard template” is often used to stack containers in dedicated areas (sub-blocks) pre-reserved for their own destination vessels. At short-term planning level, the yard template is given, but the containers going to a specific vessel still have high flexibility to be allocated among many pre-reserved sub-blocks. The amount of containers allocated to each sub-block, i.e. “container allocation”, not only affects the traffic congestion, but more importantly determines the number of yard cranes (YCs) required in each block. The limited YCs have to switch blocks to fit the needs of container allocation in different periods, i.e. “YC deployment”. This study integrated these two closely related problems and formulated a MIP model. Since the model has a nice block-diagonal structure, column generation under Dentzig Wolfe decomposition was proposed to get lower bounds. A novel branch-and-price (B&P) method was proposed to find near-optimal solutions. To reduce the searching tree size, our B&P method branched on YC paths during the planning horizon, instead of branching on decision variables directly. Numerical experiments under both small and large scale problems showed that our B&P method could efficiently solve the integrated planning problem. The results also showed that YC movements could be reduced effectively without sacrificing operational efficiency or using more yard cranes.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T07:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.014
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • The political economy of pricing car access to downtown commercial
           districts
    • Authors: Bruno De Borger; Antonio Russo
      Pages: 76 - 93
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Bruno De Borger, Antonio Russo
      We study the political economy of pricing access to downtown commercial districts, using curbside parking fees as the main example. A spatial equilibrium model is embedded in a political economy framework in which special interest groups (urban and suburban retailers, local residents) lobby the city government. We have the following results. If downtown and suburban stores sell a homogeneous good, the local government underprices downtown parking if suburban stores operate with low enough markups. If goods are heterogeneous and some consumers engage in multiple-stop shopping (i.e., shop both downtown and in the suburbs), suburban stores will not lobby at all; lobbying by downtown retailers leads to parking fees below the social optimum. Furthermore, local residents do not necessarily lobby for high parking fees on downtown shoppers. If a decline in urban stores leads to negative externalities (urban blight) they may join forces with downtown retailers and lobby against high parking fees on shoppers.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T07:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.012
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • Multi-objective integration of timetables, vehicle schedules and user
           routings in a transit network
    • Authors: Gilbert Laporte; Francisco A. Ortega; Miguel A. Pozo; Justo Puerto
      Pages: 94 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Gilbert Laporte, Francisco A. Ortega, Miguel A. Pozo, Justo Puerto
      The Transit Network Timetabling and Scheduling Problem (TNTSP) aims at determining an optimal timetable for each line of a transit network by establishing departure and arrival times at each station and allocating a vehicle to each timetable. The current models for the planning of timetables and vehicle schedules use the a priori knowledge of users’ routings. However, the actual route choice of a user depends on the timetable. This paper solves the TNTSP in a public transit network by integrating users’ routings in the model. The proposed formulation guarantees that each user is allocated to the best possible timetable, while satisfying capacity constraints. In addition, we perform a trade-off analysis by means of a multi-objective formulation which jointly optimizes the operator’s and the users’ criteria.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T07:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.018
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • Variable speed limit control at fixed freeway bottlenecks using connected
           vehicles
    • Authors: Youngjun Han; Danjue Chen; Soyoung Ahn
      Pages: 113 - 134
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Youngjun Han, Danjue Chen, Soyoung Ahn
      The connected vehicle (CV) technology is applied to develop VSL strategies to improve bottleneck discharge rates and reduce system delays. Three VSL control strategies are developed with different levels of complexity and capabilities to enhance traffic stability using: (i) only one CV (per lane) (Strategy 1), (ii) one CV (per lane) coupled with variable message signs (Strategy 2), and (iii) multiple CVs (Strategy 3). We further develop adaptive schemes for the three strategies to remedy potential control failures in real time. These strategies are designed to accommodate different queue detection schemes (by CVs or different sensors) and CV penetration rates. Finally, probability of control failure is formulated for each strategy based on the stochastic features of traffic instability to develop a general framework to (i) estimate expected delay savings, (ii) assess the stability of different VSL control strategies, and (iii) determine optimal control speeds under uncertainty. Compared to VMS-only strategies, the CV-based strategies can effectively impose dynamic control over continuous time and space, enabling (i) faster queue clearance around a bottleneck, (ii) less restrictive control with higher control speed (thus smoother transition), and (iii) simpler control via only one or a small number of CVs.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T07:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.013
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • Optimization of vehicle and pedestrian signals at isolated intersections
    • Authors: Chunhui Yu; Wanjing Ma; Ke Han; Xiaoguang Yang
      Pages: 135 - 153
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Chunhui Yu, Wanjing Ma, Ke Han, Xiaoguang Yang
      In most traffic signal optimization problems, pedestrian traffic at an intersection receives minor consideration compared to vehicular traffic, and usually in the form of simplistic and exogenous constraints (e.g., minimum green time). This could render the resulting signal timings sub-optimal especially in dense urban areas with significant pedestrian traffic, or when two-stage pedestrian crosswalks are present. This paper proposes a convex (quadratic) programming approach to optimize traffic signal timings for an isolated intersection with one- and two-stage crosswalks, assuming undersaturated vehicular traffic condition. Both vehicle and pedestrian traffic are integrated into a unified framework, where the total weighted delay of pedestrians and vehicles at different types of crosswalks (i.e. one- or two-stage) is adopted as the objective function, and temporal and spatial constraints (e.g. signal phasing plan and spatial capacity of the refuge island) are explicitly formulated. A case study demonstrates the impacts of incorporating pedestrian delay as well as geometric and spatial constraints (e.g., available space on the refuge island) in the signal optimization. A further analysis shows that a two-stage crosswalk may outperform a one-stage crosswalk in terms of both vehicle and pedestrian delays in some circumstances.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T07:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.015
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • Extending the Link Transmission Model with non-triangular fundamental
           diagrams and capacity drops
    • Authors: Jeroen P.T. van der Gun; Adam J. Pel; Bart van Arem
      Pages: 154 - 178
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Jeroen P.T. van der Gun, Adam J. Pel, Bart van Arem
      The original Link Transmission Model as formulated by Yperman et al. (2006) simulates traffic according to Lighthill–Whitham–Richards theory with a very small numerical error, yet only supports triangular fundamental diagrams. This paper relaxes that restriction in two steps. Firstly, we extend the model to handle any continuous concave fundamental diagram, and prove that this extension is still consistent with Lighthill–Whitham–Richards theory. Secondly, we extend the theory and model to handle a capacity drop, explicitly looking into the handling of both the onset and release of congestion. The final model is still first-order and suitable for general networks. Numerical examples show that it qualitatively improves on the original model due to uniquely featuring complex traffic patterns including stop-and-go waves, with crisp shockwaves between traffic states, as well as acceleration fans.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T07:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.011
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • A dynamic programming approach for quickly estimating large network-based
           MEV models
    • Authors: Tien Mai; Emma Frejinger; Mogens Fosgerau; Fabian Bastin
      Pages: 179 - 197
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Tien Mai, Emma Frejinger, Mogens Fosgerau, Fabian Bastin
      We propose a way to estimate a family of static Multivariate Extreme Value (MEV) models with large choice sets in short computational time. The resulting model is also straightforward and fast to use for prediction. Following Daly and Bierlaire (2006), the correlation structure is defined by a rooted, directed graph where each node without successor is an alternative. We formulate a family of MEV models as dynamic discrete choice models on graphs of correlation structures and show that the dynamic models are consistent with MEV theory and generalize the network MEV model (Daly and Bierlaire, 2006). Moreover, we show that these models can be estimated quickly using the concept of network flows and the nested fixed point algorithm (Rust, 1987). The main reason for the short computational time is that the new formulation allows to benefit from existing efficient solution algorithms for sparse linear systems of equations. We present numerical results based on simulated data with varying number of alternatives and nesting structures. We estimate large models, for example, a cross-nested model with 200 nests and 500,000 alternatives and 210 parameters that needs between 100–200 iterations to converge (4.3 h on an Intel(R) 3.2 GHz machine using a non-parallelized code). We also show that our approach allows to estimate a cross-nested logit model of 111 nests with a real data set of more than 100,000 observations in 14 h.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T07:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.017
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • A cycle time optimization model for generating stable periodic railway
           timetables
    • Authors: Daniel Sparing; Rob M.P. Goverde
      Pages: 198 - 223
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Daniel Sparing, Rob M.P. Goverde
      As train passengers expect a high degree of reliability from a railway network with minimal delays, during the timetabling process planners need to balance the goals of maximizing the offered capacity and delay resistance. This is often done in a two-step process where first a feasible timetable is found for a given line structure, and consecutively the stability of this timetable is evaluated and local modifications are performed to the timetable. This paper describes an optimization method to find a feasible periodic timetable that also ensures maximum stability for heterogeneous railway networks. The model is capable to handle flexible train orders, running and dwell times, and overtaking locations. We use the minimum cycle time of the periodic timetable as an indicator for stability, and define an optimization problem with this minimum cycle time as the objective function to be minimized. We also present dimension reduction methods and an iterative optimization approach to improve the mathematical optimization process. We show the applicability of the approach with case studies on the central part of the Dutch railway network.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T09:26:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.020
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • Designing alternative railway timetables under infrastructure maintenance
           possessions
    • Authors: Sander Van Aken; Nikola Bešinović; Rob M.P. Goverde
      Pages: 224 - 238
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Sander Van Aken, Nikola Bešinović, Rob M.P. Goverde
      Increasing supply in railway networks comes at the cost of an increased need for infrastructure maintenance. This also means adjusting the timetable due to long maintenance or constructions’ possessions. In this article, we introduce the Train Timetable Adjustment Problem (TTAP), which for given station and open-track possessions, finds an alternative timetable that minimizes the deviation from the original timetable. We propose a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model for solving TTAP, and apply retiming, reordering, short-turning and cancellation to generate alternative timetables. The model represents an extended periodic event scheduling problem (PESP) formulation and introduces new constraints for cancelling and retiming train lines, while short-turning is being applied in a preprocessing step. In order to solve larger and more complex instances, we use a row generation approach to add station capacity constraints. The model solves real-life instances with multiple possessions for a large area of the Dutch railway network in reasonable time, and could be up-scaled to the complete Dutch network. Additionally, it may be applicable for disruption management after some modifications. Operators and infrastructure managers could use it to automatically generate optimal alternative timetables on the macroscopic level in case of maintenance or construction works and thus, coordinate traffic for the complete network.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T09:26:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.019
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • Scalable space-time trajectory cube for path-finding: A study using big
           taxi trajectory data
    • Authors: Lin Yang; Mei-Po Kwan; Xiaofang Pan; Bo Wan; Shunping Zhou
      Pages: 1 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 101
      Author(s): Lin Yang, Mei-Po Kwan, Xiaofang Pan, Bo Wan, Shunping Zhou
      Route planning is an important daily activity and has been intensively studied owing to their broad applications. Extracting the driving experience of taxi drivers to learn about the best routes and to support dynamic route planning can greatly help both end users and governments to ease traffic problems. Travel frequency representing the popularity of different road segments plays an important role in experience-based path-finding models and route computation. However, global frequency used in previous studies does not take into account the dynamic space-time characteristics of origins and destinations and the detailed travel frequency in different directions on the same road segment. This paper presents the space-time trajectory cube as a framework for dividing and organizing the trajectory space in terms of three dimensions (origin, destination, and time). After that, space-time trajectory cube computation and origin-destination constrained experience extraction methods are proposed to extract the fine-grained experience of taxi drivers based on a dataset of real taxi trajectories. Finally, space-time constrained graph was generated by merging drivers’ experience with the road network to compute optimal routes. The framework and methods were implemented using a taxi trajectory dataset from Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed methods effectively extracted the driving experience of the taxi drivers and the entailed trade-off between route length and travel time for routes with high trajectory coverage. They also indicate that road segment global frequency is not appropriate for representing driving experience in route planning models. These results are important for future research on route planning or path finding methods and their applications in navigation systems.

      PubDate: 2017-04-01T17:32:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2017)
       
  • Bounded rationality can make parking search more efficient: The power of
           lexicographic heuristics
    • Authors: Merkouris Karaliopoulos; Konstantinos Katsikopoulos; Lambros Lambrinos
      Pages: 28 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 101
      Author(s): Merkouris Karaliopoulos, Konstantinos Katsikopoulos, Lambros Lambrinos
      The search for parking space in busy urban districts is one of those routine human activities that are expected to benefit from the widespread adoption of pervasive sensing and radio communication technologies. Proposed parking assistance solutions combine sensors, either as part of fixed infrastructure or onboard vehicles, wireless networking technologies and mobile social applications running on smartphones to collect, share and present to drivers real-time information about parking demand and availability. One question that arises is how does (and should) the driver actually use such information to take parking decisions, e.g., whether to search for on-street parking space or drive to a parking lot and, in the latter case, which one. The paper is, hence, a performance analysis study that seeks to capture the highly behavioral and heuristic dimension of drivers’ decisions and its impact on the efficiency of the parking search process. To this end, and in sharp contrast with the existing literature, we model drivers as agents of bounded rationality and assume that their choices are directed by lexicographic heuristics, an instance of the fast and frugal heuristics developed in behavioral sciences such as psychology and biology. We analyze the performance of the search process under these heuristics and compare it against the predictions of normative game-theoretic models that assume fully rational strategically acting agents. We derive conditions under which the game-theoretic norms turn out to be more pessimistic than the simpler heuristic choice rules and show that these are fulfilled for a broad range of scenarios concerning the fees charged for the parking resources and their distance from the destinations of the drivers’ trips. The practical implications of these results for parking assistance solutions are identified and thoroughly discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-01T17:32:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2017)
       
  • Traffic state estimation based on Eulerian and Lagrangian observations in
           a mesoscopic modeling framework
    • Authors: Aurélien Duret; Yufei Yuan
      Pages: 51 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 101
      Author(s): Aurélien Duret, Yufei Yuan
      The paper proposes a model-based framework for estimating traffic states from Eulerian (loop) and/or Lagrangian (probe) data. Lagrangian-Space formulation of the LWR model adopted as the underlying traffic model provides suitable properties for receiving both Eulerian and Lagrangian external information. Three independent methods are proposed to address Eulerian data, Lagrangian data and the combination of both, respectively. These methods are defined in a consistent framework so as to be implemented simultaneously. The proposed framework has been verified on the synthetic data derived from the same underlying traffic flow model. Strength and weakness of both data sources are discussed. Next, the proposed framework has been applied to a freeway corridor. The validity has been tested using the data from a microscopic simulator, and the performance is satisfactory even for low rate of probe vehicles around 5%.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-09T06:20:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2017)
       
  • Goal-based models for discrete choice analysis
    • Authors: A.A.J. Marley; J. Swait
      Pages: 72 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 101
      Author(s): A.A.J. Marley, J. Swait
      Goals direct decision making, from the most abstract levels of motivation to the multitudinous details of evaluation of options available for choice. However, the pervasive influence of goals in decision processes is generally not explicitly recognized at the level of demand model formulation and specification. In applied economics generally, and transportation specifically, demand models relate product/service attributes directly to behavior, using utility (or value) as a shorthand representation for the impact of goals. In this paper we argue that this is a limiting view that restricts our thinking about decision making and, hence, our representation and inference-making about that behavior. We support this argument by reinterpreting and/or extending various applications of hybrid models in transportation to a goal-based framework and formulating goal-based choice models which recognize that goals (1) are drivers of choice, (2) explain the choice of strategy, (3) are part of the constraint set and (4) contribute to explaining impacts of the decision context on the allocation of cognitive resources by the decision maker.

      PubDate: 2017-04-09T06:20:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2017)
       
  • Hub-airport congestion pricing and capacity investment
    • Authors: Ming Hsin Lin; Yimin Zhang
      Pages: 89 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 101
      Author(s): Ming Hsin Lin, Yimin Zhang
      This study examines hub-airport congestion pricing and capacity investment using a simple hub-spoke network model, in which hub-carrier scheduling causes both schedule delays and congestion delays. The “fixed-proportion assumption” is removed. We find the following. (i) A public hub airport requires both per-flight charges, which must be movement-related but cannot be weight-related, and discriminatory per-local and per-connecting passenger charges to reach the first-best outcome. (ii) Either weight-related per-flight charges or the marginal-operating-cost (MOC) pricing on local and/or connecting passengers cannot reach the first-best. (iii) First-best charges can lead capacity investment to be socially efficient. However, weight-related per-flights charges result in under-investment, whereas the MOC pricing results in over-investment in runway capacity. (iv) Private hubs that charge positive movement-related per-flight charges subsidize passengers through per-passenger charges. Finally, (v) movement-related per-flight charges lead private hubs to overinvest, whereas weight-related per-flight charges lead to either over- or under-investment.

      PubDate: 2017-04-09T06:20:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2017)
       
  • Downtown parking supply, work-trip mode choice and urban spatial
           structure✰,✰✰
    • Authors: Sofia F. Franco
      Pages: 107 - 122
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 101
      Author(s): Sofia F. Franco
      This paper examines the effects of changes in downtown parking supply on urban welfare, modal choice decisions and urban spatial structure using a spatial general equilibrium model of a closed monocentric city with two transport modes, endogenous residential parking and a form of bottleneck congestion at the CBD. Our analysis shows that parking reforms at the CBD that increase delay congestion costs in the short-run such as parking supply limits can be welfare improving if other commuting externalities such as air pollution can be reduced. In addition, because parking limits can also change location decisions such as where to live and invest they may complement anti-sprawl policies efforts by leading to a more compact urban spatial structure in the long run. We also show that changes in downtown parking supply can have different spatial impacts on the market supply of residential parking by affecting urban residents’ location decisions. Finally, we investigate whether the self-financing theorem of transportation economics holds within the context of our spatial urban model.

      PubDate: 2017-04-09T06:20:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2017)
       
  • Deficit function related to public transport: 50 year retrospective, new
           developments, and prospects
    • Authors: Tao Liu; Avishai (Avi) Ceder
      Pages: 1 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 100
      Author(s): Tao Liu, Avishai (Avi) Ceder
      The Deficit Function (DF), with its graphical concept and modelling, was introduced 50 years ago by Linis and Maksim (1967) under the title of “On the problem of constructing routes.” Since then, there have been many developments in the understanding of the theoretical, methodological and application aspects of the DF concept. This work, for the first time, makes a comprehensive and thorough retrospective examination of the major developments of DF modelling and applications in public transport (PT) planning and operations over the past 50 years, introduces some new developments, and offers future research directions. It is shown and proven that the graphical DF concept helps in creating efficient PT vehicle schedules, timetables, crew duties, networks of routes, bus rapid transit systems, and operational parking spaces. For instance, in one large bus company the total number of vehicles and crew duties were reduced by 6% to 12% and 8% to 15%, respectively. This work intends to stimulate further use of the DF concept as a bridge between the world of researchers and the world of practitioners.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T15:21:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.015
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Network signal setting design with stage sequence optimisation
    • Authors: Silvio Memoli; Giulio E. Cantarella; Stefano de Luca; Roberta Di Pace
      Pages: 20 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 100
      Author(s): Silvio Memoli, Giulio E. Cantarella, Stefano de Luca, Roberta Di Pace
      One of the most straightforward short term policies to mitigate urban traffic congestion is control through traffic lights at a single junction or network level. Existing approaches for single junction Signal Setting Design (SSD) can be grouped into two classes: Stage-based or Phase-based methods. Both these approaches take the lane marking layouts as exogenous inputs, but lane-based optimisation method may be found in literature, even though for isolated signal-controlled junctions only. The Network Signal Setting Design (NSSD) requires that offsets are introduced; a traffic flow model is also needed to compute total delay. All existing methods for NSSD follow a stage-based approach; these methods do not allow for stage matrix optimisation: it is shown that explicit enumeration of stage sequences is only practicable for very small networks. This paper focuses on Network Signal Setting Design introducing the so-called scheduled synchronisation that includes green scheduling, green timing and coordination into one optimisation problem. The paper proposes a stage-based method to solve such a problem, as an extension of the synchronisation method and the traffic flow model proposed in Cantarella et al. (2015): first a set of candidate stages is defined for each junction, then the stage sequences, the stage lengths and the offsets are optimised all together. To the authors’ knowledge, no other one-step optimisation method is available in literature for scheduled synchronisation. Results of the proposed method to a small network were compared with those from explicit enumeration of all stage sequences; results for a larger network are also discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T04:53:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Taxi market equilibrium with third-party hailing service
    • Authors: Xinwu Qian; Satish V. Ukkusuri
      Pages: 43 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 100
      Author(s): Xinwu Qian, Satish V. Ukkusuri
      With the development and deployment of new technologies, the oligopolistic taxi industry is transforming into a shared market with coexistence of both traditional taxi service (TTS) and app-based third-party taxi service (ATTS). The ATTS is different from TTS in both entry policy and fare setting, and brings competition into the market. To account for the revolution of the taxi industry, in this study, we analyze the characteristics of the TTS and ATTS, model the taxi market as a multiple-leader-follower game at the network level, and investigate the equilibrium of taxi market with competition (TMC Equilibrium). In particular, passengers are modeled as the leaders who seek to minimize their travel cost associated with taxi rides. Followers involve TTS and ATTS drivers, who compete for passengers to maximize their revenue. The network model captures selfish behavior of passengers and drivers in the taxi market, and we prove the existence of TMC Equilibrium for the proposed model using variational inequality formulations. An iterative algorithm is further developed to find the TMC Equilibrium, which corresponds to the strongly stationary point of the multi-leader-follower game. Based on numerical results, it is observed that fleet size and pricing policy are closely associated with the level of competition in the market and may have significant impact on total passengers cost, average waiting time, and fleet utilization.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T04:53:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Urban intermodal terminals: The entropy maximising facility location
           problem
    • Authors: Collins Teye; Michael G H Bell; Michiel C J Bliemer
      Pages: 64 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 100
      Author(s): Collins Teye, Michael G H Bell, Michiel C J Bliemer
      An important problem confronting port cities is where and how to accommodate port growth. Larger ships combined with increased container throughput require more yard space and generate more traffic, straining the urban fabric in the vicinity of the port. A promising solution to this problem is the development of urban intermodal container terminals (IMTs) that interface with both road and rail (or possibly inland waterway) networks. This raises two linked choices; where to locate the intermodal terminals and what will be their likely usage by multiple shippers, each having a choice of whether or not to use the IMT as part of an intermodal transport chain. The use of an IMT by a shipper indicates the shipper's choice of intermodal transport, which comprises a combined use of a high capacity mode (rail or barge between the port and the IMT) and trucks (between the IMT and the cargo origin or destination). The overall problem therefore comprises a mode choice problem embedded within a facility location problem. This paper employs the method of entropy maximisation to combine a logit mode choice model with a facility location model, leading to a non-linear mixed integer programming model. The principal features of the entropy maximising facility location model are illustrated by small and large numerical examples.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T04:53:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.014
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Offset optimization in signalized traffic networks via semidefinite
           relaxation
    • Authors: Samuel Coogan; Eric Kim; Gabriel Gomes; Murat Arcak; Pravin Varaiya
      Pages: 82 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 100
      Author(s): Samuel Coogan, Eric Kim, Gabriel Gomes, Murat Arcak, Pravin Varaiya
      We study the problem of selecting offsets of the traffic signals in a network of signalized intersections to reduce queues of vehicles at all intersections. The signals in the network have a common cycle time and a fixed timing plan. It is assumed that the exogenous demands are constant or periodic with the same period as the cycle time and the intersections are under-saturated. The resulting queuing processes are periodic. These periodic processes are approximated by sinusoids. The sinusoidal approximation leads to an analytical expression of the queue lengths at every intersection as a function of the demands and the vector of offsets. The optimum offset vector is the solution of a quadratically constrained quadratic program (QCQP), which is solved via its convex semidefinite relaxation. Unlike existing techniques, our approach accommodates networks with arbitrary topology and scales well with network size. We illustrate the result in two case studies. The first is an academic example previously proposed in the literature, and the second case study consists of an arterial corridor network in Arcadia, California.

      PubDate: 2017-02-19T05:43:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Modeling airport capacity choice with real options
    • Authors: Yi-bin Xiao; Xiaowen Fu; Tae H. Oum; Jia Yan
      Pages: 93 - 114
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 100
      Author(s): Yi-bin Xiao, Xiaowen Fu, Tae H. Oum, Jia Yan
      This study models airport capacity choice when a real option for expansion can be purchased. Facing demand uncertainty, an airport first determines the capacity for immediate investment (the prior capacity) and the size of the land or other resources to be reserved for possible future expansion (the reserve). Once demand is observed, the airport can use a portion of the reserve to build extra capacity and set airport charge. Our analytical results show that if demand uncertainty is low and capacity and reserve costs are relatively high, an airport will not acquire a real option for expansion. Otherwise, it can use an expansion option to improve its expected profit or social welfare. Both the magnitude of profit or welfare gain and the optimal size of the reserve increase with demand uncertainty. A higher reserve cost leads to a larger prior capacity and a smaller reserve, whereas a higher capital cost leads to lower prior capacity. A profit-maximizing airport would choose a smaller prior capacity and reserve than would a welfare-maximizing airport. Competition within the airline market promotes airport capacity investment and the adoption of real options by profit-maximizing airports, whereas airport commercial services increase prior capacity but not the reserve.

      PubDate: 2017-02-19T05:43:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • A branch-and-price algorithm for the vehicle routing problem with roaming
           delivery locations
    • Authors: Gizem Ozbaygin; Oya Ekin Karasan; Martin Savelsbergh; Hande Yaman
      Pages: 115 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 100
      Author(s): Gizem Ozbaygin, Oya Ekin Karasan, Martin Savelsbergh, Hande Yaman
      We study the vehicle routing problem with roaming delivery locations in which the goal is to find a least-cost set of delivery routes for a fleet of capacitated vehicles and in which a customer order has to be delivered to the trunk of the customer’s car during the time that the car is parked at one of the locations in the (known) customer’s travel itinerary. We formulate the problem as a set-covering problem and develop a branch-and-price algorithm for its solution. The algorithm can also be used for solving a more general variant in which a hybrid delivery strategy is considered that allows a delivery to either a customer’s home or to the trunk of the customer’s car. We evaluate the effectiveness of the many algorithmic features incorporated in the algorithm in an extensive computational study and analyze the benefits of these innovative delivery strategies. The computational results show that employing the hybrid delivery strategy results in average cost savings of nearly 20% for the instances in our test set.

      PubDate: 2017-02-19T05:43:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • A model of pedestrian delay at unsignalized intersections in urban
           networks
    • Authors: Yinan Zheng; Lily Elefteriadou
      Pages: 138 - 155
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 100
      Author(s): Yinan Zheng, Lily Elefteriadou
      Delay is an important performance measure for pedestrian crossings considering their interactions with other road users. This study provides an improved analytical model to mathematically estimate pedestrian delay using renewal theory, which considers driver yielding and vehicle platooning. A generalized model is first provided to accommodate different traffic flow and driver behavior assumptions. Then the proposed model is developed on the basis of a mixture of free traffic and platooned traffic with consideration of driver yielding behaviors to better replicate field conditions in an urban setting. A second application using the HCM 2010 assumptions is also derived to compare it to the HCM 2010 model. Lastly, field data were collected and used for validation from two locations: Gainesville, FL and Washington, D.C. A simulation via MATLAB is performed to evaluate the model results for a variety of cases. The comparisons to the field data as well as the simulation confirm the applicability and accuracy of the proposed model. It is also found that the current HCM 2010 model overestimates the pedestrian delay compared with field data.

      PubDate: 2017-02-26T02:02:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.018
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Optimal transportation and shoreline infrastructure investment planning
           under a stochastic climate future
    • Authors: Ali Asadabadi; Elise Miller-Hooks
      Pages: 156 - 174
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 100
      Author(s): Ali Asadabadi, Elise Miller-Hooks
      This paper studies the problem of optimal long-term transportation investment planning to protect from and mitigate impacts of climate change on roadway performance. The problem of choosing the extent, specific system components, and timing of these investments over a long time horizon (e.g., 40–60 years) is modeled as a multi-stage, stochastic, bi-level, mixed-integer program wherein cost-effective investment decisions are taken in the upper level. The effects of possible episodic precipitation events on experienced travel delays are estimated from solution of a lower-level, traffic equilibrium problem. The episodic events and longer-term sea level changes exist on different time scales, making their integration a crucial element in model development. The optimal investment strategy is obtained at a Stackelberg equilibrium that is reached upon solution to the bilevel program. A recursive noisy genetic algorithm (rNGA), designed to address large-scale applications, is proposed for this purpose. The rNGA seeks the optimal combination of investment decisions to take now given only probabilistic information on the predicted sea level rise trend for a long planning horizon and associated likely extreme climatic events (in terms of their frequencies and intensities) that might arise over that planning period. The proposed solution method enables the evaluation of decisions concerning where, when and to what level to make infrastructure investments. The proposed rNGA has broad applicability to more general multi-stage, stochastic, bilevel, nonconvex, mixed integer programs that arise in many applications. The proposed solution methodology is demonstrated on an example representing a portion of the Washington, D.C. Greater Metropolitan area adjacent to the Potomac River.

      PubDate: 2017-02-26T02:02:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.023
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • A time allocation model considering external providers
    • Authors: Jorge Rosales-Salas; Sergio R. Jara-Díaz
      Pages: 175 - 195
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 100
      Author(s): Jorge Rosales-Salas, Sergio R. Jara-Díaz
      Time use models have advanced significantly during the last decade: their theoretical approach has been refined, functional forms have improved and new constraints have been incorporated, among other aspects. However, there is an incipient development of an issue of great importance: the role and influence of external agents on individual time allocation and the recognition of unpaid/domestic work as a distinctive area of research. In this paper we introduce domestic production and the potential domestic work substitution by external providers in a time use model, improving its formulation and the interpretation of the values of time. We take into account the marginal utility of domestic activities, their cost - either if self-produced or hired - and the relation between the domestic output and domestic work hours considering the difference in skills between providers and household members. A stochastic system of equations is proposed and estimated using three Dutch time use and expenses data sets, from which the values of leisure and work are computed and analyzed. Comparative results show that a model with no consideration of hired domestic providers overestimates the values of leisure.

      PubDate: 2017-02-28T02:04:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.019
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Towards vehicle automation: Roadway capacity formulation for traffic mixed
           with regular and automated vehicles
    • Authors: Danjue Chen; Soyoung Ahn; Madhav Chitturi; David A. Noyce
      Pages: 196 - 221
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 100
      Author(s): Danjue Chen, Soyoung Ahn, Madhav Chitturi, David A. Noyce
      This paper provides formulations of traffic operational capacity in mixed traffic, consisting of automated vehicles (AVs) and regular vehicles, when traffic is in equilibrium. The capacity formulations take into account (1) AV penetration rate, (2) micro/mesoscopic characteristics of regular and automated vehicles (e.g., platoon size, spacing characteristics), and (3) different lane policies to accommodate AVs such as exclusive AV and/or RV lanes and mixed-use lanes. A general formulation is developed to determine the valid domains of different lane policies and more generally, AV distributions across lanes with respect to demand, as well as optimal solutions to accommodate AVs.

      PubDate: 2017-03-11T02:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.017
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Emission modeling and pricing on single-destination dynamic traffic
           networks
    • Authors: Rui Ma; Xuegang (Jeff) Ban; W.Y. Szeto
      Pages: 255 - 283
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 100
      Author(s): Rui Ma, Xuegang (Jeff) Ban, W.Y. Szeto
      This paper proposes an emission pricing model for single-destination dynamic traffic networks. The model contains two sub-models derived from the corresponding two sub-problems: a system optimum dynamic traffic assignment problem and a first-best dynamic emission pricing scheme. For the first problem, it proves that under certain conditions, an optimal solution, if exists, must be a free-flow solution to minimize the generalized system cost including the costs of total travel times and total emissions (or fuel consumption). The optimal first-best emission pricing can then be determined by solving an optimal control problem, using the free-flow dynamic system optimal solution as the input. Numerical results are provided to illustrate the proposed models and the solution methods.

      PubDate: 2017-03-11T02:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Representation requirements for perfect first-in-first-out verification in
           continuous flow dynamic models
    • Authors: Hillel Bar-Gera; Malachy Carey
      Pages: 284 - 301
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 100
      Author(s): Hillel Bar-Gera, Malachy Carey
      Dynamic models of traffic require answers for many issues. One of them is the way priorities of different traffic streams (commodities) are managed. This is particularly challenging when flows are treated as continuous. It is common to consider the First-In-First-Out (FIFO) rule as a baseline for setting priorities; but most practical continuous flow dynamic models do not satisfy FIFO perfectly. This paper examines the difficulties associated with full adherence to network-wide FIFO. We examine six different ways to represent dynamic flow solutions over a network, and for each representation we discuss whether it is sufficient for verifying FIFO, whether the verification process is finite, and whether proving FIFO can be directly implied. Throughout the evaluation eight alternative definitions of FIFO are considered, seven of them are shown to be essentially equivalent, while the last definition is not, and may therefore be considered as “weak” FIFO. The most promising representation appears to be the one denoted as “cohort bundles,” while somewhat more abstract than the other representations, supporting this representation directly shows perfect FIFO satisfaction. Further evaluation of this representation remains a subject for future research. In a nutshell, the key conclusion of this analysis is that in order to satisfy perfect network-wide FIFO the number of discretized elements of flow should probably be allowed to grow quickly and unboundedly with model duration, and it cannot be determined a-priori. These insights about the challenges of incorporating FIFO in continuous flow dynamic models, which may be relevant also for other behavior-based priority rules, can help modelers and practitioners set realistic expectations regarding the level of control over priority rules that can be achieved within finite-dimensional continuous flow dynamic models.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T06:46:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • The cumulative capacitated vehicle routing problem with min-sum and
           min-max objectives: An effective hybridisation of adaptive variable
           neighbourhood search and large neighbourhood search
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 101
      Author(s): Jeeu Fong Sze, Said Salhi, Niaz Wassan
      The cumulative capacitated vehicle routing problem (CCVRP) is a relatively new variant of the classical capacitated vehicle routing problem in which the objective is to minimise the sum of arrival times at customers (min-sum) instead of the total route distance. While the literature for the CCVRP is scarce, this problem has useful applications especially in the area of supplying humanitarian aid after a natural disaster. In this paper, a two-stage adaptive variable neighbourhood search (AVNS) algorithm that incorporates large neighbourhood search (LNS) as a diversification strategy is proposed. When tested on the benchmark data sets, the results show that the proposed AVNS is highly competitive in producing new best known solutions to more than half of the instances. An alternative but related objective that minimises the maximum arrival time (min-max) is also explored in this study demonstrating the flexibility and the effectiveness of the proposed metaheuristic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that exploits the min-max objective of the CCVRP in addition to providing extensive computational results for a large number of instances for the min-sum. As a by-product of this study, managerial insights for decision making are also presented.

      PubDate: 2017-04-23T06:18:14Z
       
  • A Nash equilibrium formulation of a tradable credits scheme for
           incentivizing transport choices: From next-generation public transport
           mode choice to HOT lanes
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 101
      Author(s): Salem Lahlou, Laura Wynter
      We consider a tradable credits scheme for binary transport games where one option is faster (or more comfortable) than the other, but its quality of service suffers when usage is high. Applications can be found in mode choice (public transit versus road transport), premium (i.e., express bus) versus ordinary public transit, and fast (e.g., high-occupancy toll, or HOT) versus regular lanes on expressways. We are motivated in particular by the choice between public transport and use of the road network as a privilege to be discouraged. In a future where GPS-based time-distance-place road charging exists, such next-generation transport management strategies become realizable as the choice to drive or not can be linked to a fixed fee toll, or indeed to a tradable credits scheme. When public transport payment uses the same smart card as the road usage fee (via tolls or tradable credits) usage of the two may be linked. In this setting, a public transport vs. road-use tradable credit scheme becomes feasible. In this case, individuals wishing to choose the faster option must obtain credits from other commuters via credit trading, rather than pay a direct toll or fee. Such a scheme creates a kind of equity, in the sense that lower-income commuters have an economic incentive to resort to the slower or less comfortable choice. We study the underlying market and its effects on individuals’ utilities; we use an atomic game framework so as to model explicitly the exchange process across users. The market we define determines the quantities of users choosing each option, as opposed to the prices themselves. Using the properties of potential games, we show that under mild assumptions, efficient Nash equilibria exist and can be reached using simple learning algorithms. We show that these equilibria can satisfy the transport authority’s requirements, and thus drive the transport system to a state where a desired proportion of individuals resort to each of the two options, when the scheme’s parameters are well tuned.

      PubDate: 2017-04-23T06:18:14Z
       
  • Stochastic user equilibrium traffic assignment with equilibrated parking
           search routes
    • Authors: Adam Pel; Emmanouil Chaniotakis
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 101
      Author(s): Adam J. Pel, Emmanouil Chaniotakis
      In this paper we define and formulate the concept of parking search routes (PSR) where a driver visits a sequence of parking locations until the first vacant parking spot is found and in doing so may account for (expected) parking probabilities. From there we define and formulate the stochastic user equilibrium (SUE) traffic assignment in which no driver, by unilaterally changing its PSR, can lower its perceived expected generalized costs. Recognizing the interdependency between PSR flows, travel times and parking probabilities, we propose a queuing model in order to compute endogenous parking probabilities accounting for these factors as well as maximum admissible search times. To solve the SUE assignment with equilibrated PSR we propose a solution algorithm, including a method for PSR choice set generation. The model is implemented and applied both to a number of experimental cases to verify its properties and to a real-life setting to illustrate its usefulness in parking-related studies.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T06:18:01Z
       
  • Rolling stock rescheduling in passenger railway transportation using
           dead-heading trips and adjusted passenger demand
    • Authors: Joris Wagenaar; Leo Kroon Ioannis Fragkos
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 101
      Author(s): Joris Wagenaar, Leo Kroon, Ioannis Fragkos
      In this paper we introduce dead-heading trips and adjusted passenger demand in the Rolling Stock Rescheduling Problem (RSRP). Unfortunately, disruptions disturb passenger railway transportation on a daily basis. Such a disruption causes infeasibilities in the timetable, rolling stock circulation, and crew schedule. We propose a Mixed-Integer Linear Programming model to tackle the RSRP. This formulation includes the possibility of using dead-heading trips (moving empty trains) during, and after, a disruption. Furthermore, passenger flows are included to handle the adjusted passenger demand after the occurrence of a disruption. Many rolling stock rescheduling models are unable to cope with changing passenger demand. In this paper we include passenger demand on a more accurate level in the RSRP. We have tested the model on different cases from Netherlands Railways. The results show that dead-heading trips are useful to reduce the number of cancelled trips and that adjusted passenger demand has a large influence on the rescheduled circulation.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T06:18:01Z
       
  • Transit-oriented development in an urban rail transportation corridor
    • Authors: Ya-Ting Peng; Zhi-Chun Li; Keechoo Choi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
      Author(s): Ya-Ting Peng, Zhi-Chun Li, Keechoo Choi
      Transit-oriented development (TOD) has been recognized as an important avenue for creating a green transportation system. This paper addresses TOD investment issue in terms of the location, number and size of the TOD zones along a rail line. An urban system equilibrium problem with TOD investment is first formulated. Two social welfare maximization models, which take into account different investment regimes for TOD projects (i.e., public and private), are then proposed for optimizing TOD investment schemes along a rail line and train service frequency on that line. In the public regime model, the government is responsible for the investment cost of TOD projects, which is borne by the private property developers in the private regime model. The proposed models explicitly consider the interactions among the government, property developers and households in the urban system, together with the effects of the TOD investment on households’ residential location choices and housing market. The population thresholds for investing in a TOD project under the public and private regimes are also identified. The findings show that the TOD investment can cause population agglomeration at the TOD zones and a compact city; households and the society can benefit from the TOD investment; and the private TOD investment regime outperforms the public regime in terms of total social welfare of urban system.

      PubDate: 2017-04-01T17:32:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.03.011
       
  • A search acceleration method for optimization problems with transport
           simulation constraints
    • Authors: Gunnar
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Gunnar Flötteröd
      This work contributes to the rapid approximation of solutions to optimization problems that are constrained by iteratively solved transport simulations. Given an objective function, a set of candidate decision variables and a black-box transport simulation that is solved by iteratively attaining a (deterministic or stochastic) equilibrium, the proposed method approximates the best decision variable out of the candidate set without having to run the transport simulation to convergence for every single candidate decision variable. This method can be inserted into a broad class of optimization algorithms or search heuristics that implement the following logic: (i) Create variations of a given, currently best decision variable, (ii) identify one out of these variations as the new currently best decision variable, and (iii) iterate steps (i) and (ii) until no further improvement can be attained. A probabilistic and an asymptotic performance bound are established and exploited in the formulation of an efficient heuristic that is tailored towards tight computational budgets. The efficiency of the method is substantiated through a comprehensive simulation study with a non-trivial road pricing problem. The method is compatible with a broad range of simulators and requires minimal parametrization.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T09:00:09Z
       
  • Group-based approach to predictive delay model based on incremental queue
           accumulations for adaptive traffic control systems
    • Authors: Seunghyeon Lee; S.C. Wong
      Pages: 1 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Seunghyeon Lee, S.C. Wong
      In this study, we develop a mathematical framework to estimate lane-based incremental queue accumulations with group-based variables and a predictive model of lane-based control delay. Our objective is to establish the rolling horizon approach to lane-based control delay for group-based optimization of signal timings in adaptive traffic control systems. The challenges involved in this task include identification of the most appropriate incremental queue accumulations based on group-based variables for individual lanes to the queueing formation patterns and establishment of the rolling horizon procedure for predicting the future components of lane-based incremental queue accumulations in the time windows. For lane-based estimation of incremental queue accumulations, temporal and spatial information were collected on the basis of estimated lane-based queue lengths from our previous research to estimate lane-based incremental queue accumulations. We interpret the given signal plan as group-based variables, including the start and duration of the effective green time and the cycle time. Adjustment factors are defined to identify the characteristics of the control delay in a specific cycle and to clarify the relationship between group-based variables and the temporal information of queue lengths in the proposed estimation method. We construct the rolling horizon procedure based on Kalman filters with appropriate time windows. Lane-based queue lengths at an inflection point and adjustment factors in the previous cycle are used to estimate the adjustment factors, arrival rates, and discharge rates in the next cycle, in which the predictive computation is performed in the current cycle. In the simulations sets and the case study, the proposed model is robust and accurate for estimation of lane-based control delay under a wide range of traffic conditions. Adjustment factors play a significant role in increasing the accuracy of the proposed model and in classifying queueing patterns in a specific cycle. The Kalman filters enhance the accuracy of the predictions by minimizing the error terms caused by the fluctuation in traffic flow.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T05:34:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.008
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2016)
       
  • A Riemann solver for a system of hyperbolic conservation laws at a general
           road junction
    • Authors: Wen-Long Jin
      Pages: 21 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Wen-Long Jin
      The kinematic wave model of traffic flow on a road network is a system of hyperbolic conservation laws, for which the Riemann solver is of physical, analytical, and numerical importance. In this paper, we present a new Riemann solver at a general network junction in the demand-supply space. In the Riemann solutions, traffic states on a link include the initial, stationary, and interior states, and a discrete Cell Transmission Model flux function in interior states is used as an entropy condition, which is consistent with fair merging and first-in-first-out diverging rules. After deriving the feasibility conditions for both stationary and interior states, we obtain a set of algebraic equations, and prove that the Riemann solver is well-defined, in the sense that the stationary states, the out-fluxes of upstream links, the in-fluxes of downstream links, and kinematic waves on all links can be uniquely solved. In addition, we show that the resulting global flux function in initial states is the same as the local one in interior states. Hence we presents a new definition of invariant junction models, in which the global and local flux functions are the same. We also present a simplified framework for solving the Riemann problem with invariant junction flux functions.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T05:34:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2016)
       
 
 
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