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  Subjects -> TRANSPORTATION (Total: 166 journals)
    - AIR TRANSPORT (8 journals)
    - AUTOMOBILES (21 journals)
    - RAILROADS (5 journals)
    - ROADS AND TRAFFIC (6 journals)
    - SHIPS AND SHIPPING (31 journals)
    - TRANSPORTATION (95 journals)

TRANSPORTATION (95 journals)

Showing 1 - 53 of 53 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 77)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies on Transport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Economics of Transportation     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
EURO Journal of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
European Transport Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IATSS Research     Open Access  
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
IET Intelligent Transport Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IFAC-PapersOnLine     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Logistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of e-Navigation and Maritime Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Micro-Nano Scale Transport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Mobile Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Ocean Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Services Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Modern Transportation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sustainable Mobility     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Transport & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Transport Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Transport History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Transportation Safety & Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Transportation Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Transportation Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Waterway Port Coastal and Ocean Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Les Dossiers du Grihl     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Logistics & Sustainable Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Logistique & Management     Full-text available via subscription  
Mobility in History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Modern Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Packaging, Transport, Storage & Security of Radioactive Material     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pervasive and Mobile Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Public Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Recherche Transports Sécurité     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Revista Transporte y Territorio     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Romanian Journal of Transport Infrastructure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SourceOCDE Transports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Streetnotes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Synthesis Lectures on Mobile and Pervasive Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tire Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Transactions on Transport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Transport and Telecommunication Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transport in Porous Media     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transport Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transport Reviews: A Transnational Transdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Transportation Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Transportation Letters : The International Journal of Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Transportation Research Part B: Methodological     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Transportation Research Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transportation Research Record : Journal of the Transportation Research Board     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Transportation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
TRANSPORTES     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Transportmetrica B : Transport Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Travel Behaviour and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Urban, Planning and Transport Research     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Vehicular Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Транспортні системи та технології перевезень     Open Access  
Journal Cover Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
  [SJR: 3.905]   [H-I: 87]   [29 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0191-2615
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3039 journals]
  • A decomposition algorithm to solve the multi-hop Peer-to-Peer
           ride-matching problem
    • Authors: Neda Masoud; R. Jayakrishnan
      Pages: 1 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 99
      Author(s): Neda Masoud, R. Jayakrishnan
      In this paper, we mathematically model the multi-hop Peer-to-Peer (P2P) ride-matching problem as a binary program. We formulate this problem as a many-to-many problem in which a rider can travel my transferring between multiple drivers, and a driver can carry multiple riders. We propose a pre-processing procedure to reduce the size of the problem, and devise a decomposition algorithm to solve the original ride-matching problem to optimality by means of solving multiple smaller problems. We conduct extensive numerical experiments to demonstrate the computational efficiency of the proposed algorithm and show its practical applicability to reasonably-sized dynamic ride-matching contexts. Finally, in the interest of even lower solution times, we propose heuristic solution methods, and investigate the trade-offs between solution time and accuracy.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T09:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Pedestrian flows through a narrow doorway: Effect of individual behaviours
           on the global flow and microscopic dynamics
    • Authors: Alexandre Nicolas; Sebastián Bouzat; Marcelo N. Kuperman
      Pages: 30 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 99
      Author(s): Alexandre Nicolas, Sebastián Bouzat, Marcelo N. Kuperman
      We study the dynamics of pedestrian flows through a narrow doorway by means of controlled experiments. The influence of the pedestrians’ behaviours is investigated by prescribing a selfish attitude to a fraction cs of the participants, while the others behave politely. Thanks to an original setup enabling the re-injection of egressed participants into the room, the analysis is conducted in a (macroscopically) quasi-stationary regime. We find that, as cs is increased, the flow rate J rises, interpolating between published values for egresses in normal conditions and measurements for competitive evacuations. The dependence of several flow properties on the pedestrian density ρ at the door, independently of cs , suggests that macroscopically the behavioural aspects could be subsumed under the density, at least in our specific settings with limited crowd pressure. In particular, under these conditions, J grows monotonically with ρ up to “close-packing” ( ρ ≈ 9 m − 2 ). The flow is then characterised microscopically. Among other quantities, the time lapses between successive escapes, the pedestrians’ waiting times in front of the door, and their angles of incidence are analysed statistically. In a nutshell, our main results show that the flow is orderly for polite crowds, with narrowly distributed time lapses between egresses, while for larger cs the flow gets disorderly and vanishing time lapses emerge. For all cs , we find an alternation between short and long time lapses, which we ascribe to a generalised zipper effect. The average waiting time in the exit zone increases with its occupancy. The disorder in the flow and the pressure felt by participants are also assessed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T09:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Optimal design of autonomous vehicle zones in transportation networks
    • Authors: Zhibin Chen; Fang He; Yafeng Yin; Yuchuan Du
      Pages: 44 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 99
      Author(s): Zhibin Chen, Fang He, Yafeng Yin, Yuchuan Du
      This paper advocates the need for infrastructure planning to adapt to and further promote the deployment of autonomous vehicle (AV) technology. It is envisioned that in the future government agencies will dedicate certain areas of road networks to AVs only to facilitate the formulation of vehicle platoons to improve throughput and hopefully improve the performance of the whole network. This paper aims to present a mathematical framework for the optimal design of AV zones in a general network. With the presence of AV zones, AVs may apply different routing principles outside of and within the AV zones. A novel network equilibrium model (we refer to it as the “mixed routing equilibrium model”) is thus firstly proposed to capture such mixed-routing behaviors. We then proceed to formulate a mixed-integer bi-level programming model to optimize the deployment plan of AV zones. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed models.

      PubDate: 2017-01-30T09:09:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.021
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Design and modeling of a crowdsource-enabled system for urban parcel relay
           and delivery
    • Authors: Nabin Kafle; Bo Zou; Jane Lin
      Pages: 62 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 99
      Author(s): Nabin Kafle, Bo Zou, Jane Lin
      This paper proposes a crowdsource-enabled system for urban parcel relay and delivery. We consider cyclists and pedestrians as crowdsources who are close to customers and interested in relaying parcels with a truck carrier and undertaking jobs for the last-leg parcel delivery and the first-leg parcel pickup. The crowdsources express their interests in doing so by submitting bids to the truck carrier. The truck carrier then selects bids and coordinates crowdsources’ last-leg delivery (first-leg pickup) with its truck operations. The truck carrier's problem is formulated as a mixed integer non-linear program which simultaneously i) selects crowdsources to complete the last-leg delivery (first-leg pickup) between customers and selected points for crowdsource-truck relay; and ii) determines the relay points and truck routes and schedule. To solve the truck carrier problem, we first decompose the problem into a winner determination problem and a simultaneous pickup and delivery problem with soft time windows, and propose a Tabu Search based algorithm to iteratively solve the two subproblems. Numerical results show that this solution approach is able to yield close-to-optimum solutions with much less time than using off-the-shelf solvers. By adopting this new system, truck vehicle miles traveled (VMT) and total cost can be reduced compared to pure-truck delivery. The advantage of the system over pure-truck delivery is sensitive to factors such as penalty for servicing outside customers’ desired time windows, truck unit operating cost, time value of crowdsources, and the crowdsource mode.

      PubDate: 2017-01-30T09:09:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.022
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Dynamic resource allocation for intermodal freight transportation with
           network effects: Approximations and algorithms
    • Authors: Hua Wang; Xinchang Wang; Xiaoning Zhang
      Pages: 83 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 99
      Author(s): Hua Wang, Xinchang Wang, Xiaoning Zhang
      This paper investigates a dynamic resource allocation problem, in which an intermodal operator attempts to determine the policy that characterizes the optimal quantities of each service product allowed to be sold during each time interval within a finite selling horizon. The problem is formulated as a Markov decision process (MDP) model and a variety of mathematical programming models are developed to approximate the MDP model. A series of policies are obtained from the optimal solutions to the approximation models and theoretical results are provided to characterize the comparisons between the MDP model and the approximation models. Various policies are further evaluated through theoretical analysis and simulation tests. We finally gain insights into the importance of the dynamic decisions, stochastic demands, model re-solving, and integer variables in formulating approximation models.

      PubDate: 2017-01-30T09:09:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Joint optimal train regulation and passenger flow control strategy for
           high-frequency metro lines
    • Authors: Shukai Li; Maged M. Dessouky; Lixing Yang; Ziyou Gao
      Pages: 113 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 99
      Author(s): Shukai Li, Maged M. Dessouky, Lixing Yang, Ziyou Gao
      To improve the headway regularity and commercial speed of high-frequency metro lines with overloaded passenger flow, this paper systematically investigates a joint optimal dynamic train regulation and passenger flow control design for metro lines. A coupled state-space model for the evolution of the departure time and the passenger load of each train at each station is explicitly developed. The dwell time of the train is affected by the number of entering and exiting passengers. Combining dynamic train regulation and passenger flow control, a dynamic optimisation problem that minimises the timetable and the headway deviations for metro lines is developed. By applying a model predictive control (MPC) method, we formulate the problem of finding the optimal joint train regulation and passenger flow control strategy as the problem of solving a set of quadratic programming (QP) problems, under which an optimal control law can be numerically calculated efficiently using a quadratic programming algorithm. Moreover, based on the Lyapunov stability theory, the stability (convergence) of the metro line system under the proposed optimal control algorithm is verified. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

      PubDate: 2017-01-30T09:09:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Network user equilibrium problems for the mixed battery electric vehicles
           and gasoline vehicles subject to battery swapping stations and road grade
           constraints
    • Authors: Min Xu; Qiang Meng; Kai Liu
      Pages: 138 - 166
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 99
      Author(s): Min Xu, Qiang Meng, Kai Liu
      There has been growing attention on battery electric vehicles (BEVs) due to their energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. This paper deals with the user equilibrium (UE) problems for the mixed BEVs and traditional gasoline vehicles (GVs) in transportation networks with battery swapping stations and road grade constraints. Under the assumption that electricity consumption rate is not affected by traveling speed or traffic flow, a nonlinear minimization model in terms of path flows is first formulated by incorporating effects of road grade on the electricity consumption rate. The battery swapping action based paths are defined for BEVs in the represented network to facilitate the model building with flow-dependent dwell time at the battery swapping stations. The Frank-Wolfe (F-W) algorithm, where descent direction is found by the multi-label method in a pseudo-polynomial time, is adopted to solve the model. Moreover, the aforementioned assumption about the flow-independent electricity consumption rate is then relaxed and a system of inequalities has been proposed to formulate the UE conditions. For the nonlinear minimization model, two numerical examples are presented to assess the propose model and algorithm, as well as to analyze the impact of usable battery capacity, BEVs’ market share and some attributes of battery swapping stations on the equilibrium link flows and/or swapping flows. The system of inequalities is exactly solved for a small network by path enumeration to demonstrate the non-uniqueness of UE link flow solutions.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T15:21:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • A dynamic programming approach for optimizing train speed profiles with
           speed restrictions and passage points
    • Authors: Jørgen Thorlund Haahr; David Pisinger; Mohammad Sabbaghian
      Pages: 167 - 182
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 99
      Author(s): Jørgen Thorlund Haahr, David Pisinger, Mohammad Sabbaghian
      This paper considers a novel solution method for generating improved train speed profiles with reduced energy consumption. The solution method makes use of a time-space graph formulation which can be solved through Dynamic Programming. Instead of using uniform discretization of time and space as seen previously in the literature, we rely on an event-based decomposition that drastically reduces the search space. This approach is very flexible, making it easy to handle, e.g., speed limits, changes in altitude, and passage points that need to be crossed within a given time window. Based on solving an extensive number of real-life problem instances, our benchmarks show that the proposed solution method is able to satisfy all secondary constraints and still be able to decrease energy consumption by 3.3% on average compared to a commercial solver provided by our industrial collaborator, Cubris. The computational times are generally very low, making it possible to recompute the train speed profile in case of unexpected changes in speed restrictions or timings. This is a great advantage over static offline lookup tables. Also, the framework is very flexible, making it possible to handle a number of additional constraints on robustness, passenger comfort etc. Selected details of the method and benchmark are only described at a high level for confidentiality reasons.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T15:21:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.016
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Modeling heterogeneous traffic flow: A pragmatic approach
    • Authors: Zhen (Sean) Qian; Jia Li; Xiaopeng Li; Michael Zhang; Haizhong Wang
      Pages: 183 - 204
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 99
      Author(s): Zhen (Sean) Qian, Jia Li, Xiaopeng Li, Michael Zhang, Haizhong Wang
      Modeling dynamics of heterogeneous traffic flow is central to the control and operations of today’s increasingly complex transportation systems. We develop a macroscopic heterogeneous traffic flow model. This model considers interplay of multiple vehicle classes, each of which is assumed to possess homogeneous car-following behavior and vehicle attributes. We propose the concepts of road capacity split and perceived equivalent density for each class to model both lateral and longitudinal cross-class interactions across neighboring cells. Rather than leveraging hydrodynamic analogies, it establishes pragmatic cross-class interaction rules aspired by capacity allocation and approximate inter-cell fluxes. This model generalizes the classical Cell Transmission Model (CTM) to three types of traffic regimes in general, i.e. free flow, semi-congestion, and full congestion regimes. This model replicates prominent empirical characteristics exhibited by mixed vehicular flow, including formation and spatio-temporal propagation of shockwaves, vehicle overtaking, as well as oscillatory waves. Those features are validated against numerical experiments and the NGSIM I-80 data. Realistic class-specific travel times can be computed from this model efficiently, which demonstrates the feasibility of applying this multi-class model to large-scale real-world networks.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T15:21:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • On the use of reservation-based autonomous vehicles for demand management
    • Authors: Raphaël Lamotte; André de Palma; Nikolas Geroliminis
      Pages: 205 - 227
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 99
      Author(s): Raphaël Lamotte, André de Palma, Nikolas Geroliminis
      Automated mobility on demand is foreseen as the future of urban passenger mobility. While mixed-traffic for autonomous and conventional vehicles could be considered, separation amplifies the benefits of automation. Combined with mobility as a service, separation also opens new possibilities in terms of demand management. We consider in this paper a single bottleneck dynamic framework, in which the capacity of a freeway is dedicated either to conventional or to autonomous vehicles. Users of conventional vehicles freely choose their departure time from home and compete for the best departure times from the bottleneck. Users of autonomous vehicles need to book their trip in advance. As the number of time slots available for booking does not exceed the capacity, booking users are guaranteed no delay at the bottleneck. An individual-specific cooperation cost is introduced in the modeling framework. We then investigate how a central planner should allocate the capacity to these two vehicle types depending on the regime (laissez-faire, welfare- or profit-maximizing). Two major findings are that the equilibrium demand split Pareto-dominates the case with only conventional cars and that the social cost difference between equilibrium and socially optimal demand splits is small compared to their benefits. Although the Pareto-improvement result may not hold for every single user in the case of richer heterogeneity, it remains a key advantage of our booking scheme. Profit-maximizing strategies however turn out to be hardly compatible with welfare maximization.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T15:21:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • On the stability of stationary states in general road networks
    • Authors: Wen-Long Jin
      Pages: 42 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Wen-Long Jin
      In [Jin, W.-L., 2015. On the existence of stationary states in general road networks. Transportation Research Part B 81, 917–929.], with a discrete map in critical demand levels, it was proved that there exist stationary states for the kinematic wave model of general road networks with constant origin demands, route choice proportions, and destination supplies. In this study we further examine the stability property of stationary states with the same map, and the results will help us to understand the long-term trend of a network traffic system. We first review a network kinematic wave model and properties of stationary states on a link, define the criticality of junctions in stationary states, and discuss information propagation in stationary states on links and junctions. We then present the map and examine information propagation in the map. We apply the map to analytically study the stability of stationary states on ring roads and diverge-merge networks with circular information propagation and compare them with results obtained from the Poincaré map [Jin, W.-L., 2013. Stability and bifurcation in network traffic flow: A Poincaré map approach. Transportation Research Part B 57, 191–208]. We further study the stability property of general stationary states in a grid network. We find that the stability of fixed points of the map is the same as that of stationary states in a network, and the new approach is more general than the Poincaré map approach. We conclude the study with future directions and implications.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T07:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.010
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • A branch-and-price method for integrated yard crane deployment and
           container allocation in transshipment yards
    • Authors: Xin Jia Jiang; Jian Gang Jin
      Pages: 62 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Xin Jia Jiang, Jian Gang Jin
      With the trend towards mega-vessels and shipping alliance, the importance of transshipment activities keeps increasing. In transshipment yards, a “yard template” is often used to stack containers in dedicated areas (sub-blocks) pre-reserved for their own destination vessels. At short-term planning level, the yard template is given, but the containers going to a specific vessel still have high flexibility to be allocated among many pre-reserved sub-blocks. The amount of containers allocated to each sub-block, i.e. “container allocation”, not only affects the traffic congestion, but more importantly determines the number of yard cranes (YCs) required in each block. The limited YCs have to switch blocks to fit the needs of container allocation in different periods, i.e. “YC deployment”. This study integrated these two closely related problems and formulated a MIP model. Since the model has a nice block-diagonal structure, column generation under Dentzig Wolfe decomposition was proposed to get lower bounds. A novel branch-and-price (B&P) method was proposed to find near-optimal solutions. To reduce the searching tree size, our B&P method branched on YC paths during the planning horizon, instead of branching on decision variables directly. Numerical experiments under both small and large scale problems showed that our B&P method could efficiently solve the integrated planning problem. The results also showed that YC movements could be reduced effectively without sacrificing operational efficiency or using more yard cranes.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T07:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.014
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • The political economy of pricing car access to downtown commercial
           districts
    • Authors: Bruno De Borger; Antonio Russo
      Pages: 76 - 93
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Bruno De Borger, Antonio Russo
      We study the political economy of pricing access to downtown commercial districts, using curbside parking fees as the main example. A spatial equilibrium model is embedded in a political economy framework in which special interest groups (urban and suburban retailers, local residents) lobby the city government. We have the following results. If downtown and suburban stores sell a homogeneous good, the local government underprices downtown parking if suburban stores operate with low enough markups. If goods are heterogeneous and some consumers engage in multiple-stop shopping (i.e., shop both downtown and in the suburbs), suburban stores will not lobby at all; lobbying by downtown retailers leads to parking fees below the social optimum. Furthermore, local residents do not necessarily lobby for high parking fees on downtown shoppers. If a decline in urban stores leads to negative externalities (urban blight) they may join forces with downtown retailers and lobby against high parking fees on shoppers.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T07:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.012
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • Multi-objective integration of timetables, vehicle schedules and user
           routings in a transit network
    • Authors: Gilbert Laporte; Francisco A. Ortega; Miguel A. Pozo; Justo Puerto
      Pages: 94 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Gilbert Laporte, Francisco A. Ortega, Miguel A. Pozo, Justo Puerto
      The Transit Network Timetabling and Scheduling Problem (TNTSP) aims at determining an optimal timetable for each line of a transit network by establishing departure and arrival times at each station and allocating a vehicle to each timetable. The current models for the planning of timetables and vehicle schedules use the a priori knowledge of users’ routings. However, the actual route choice of a user depends on the timetable. This paper solves the TNTSP in a public transit network by integrating users’ routings in the model. The proposed formulation guarantees that each user is allocated to the best possible timetable, while satisfying capacity constraints. In addition, we perform a trade-off analysis by means of a multi-objective formulation which jointly optimizes the operator’s and the users’ criteria.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T07:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.018
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • Variable speed limit control at fixed freeway bottlenecks using connected
           vehicles
    • Authors: Youngjun Han; Danjue Chen; Soyoung Ahn
      Pages: 113 - 134
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Youngjun Han, Danjue Chen, Soyoung Ahn
      The connected vehicle (CV) technology is applied to develop VSL strategies to improve bottleneck discharge rates and reduce system delays. Three VSL control strategies are developed with different levels of complexity and capabilities to enhance traffic stability using: (i) only one CV (per lane) (Strategy 1), (ii) one CV (per lane) coupled with variable message signs (Strategy 2), and (iii) multiple CVs (Strategy 3). We further develop adaptive schemes for the three strategies to remedy potential control failures in real time. These strategies are designed to accommodate different queue detection schemes (by CVs or different sensors) and CV penetration rates. Finally, probability of control failure is formulated for each strategy based on the stochastic features of traffic instability to develop a general framework to (i) estimate expected delay savings, (ii) assess the stability of different VSL control strategies, and (iii) determine optimal control speeds under uncertainty. Compared to VMS-only strategies, the CV-based strategies can effectively impose dynamic control over continuous time and space, enabling (i) faster queue clearance around a bottleneck, (ii) less restrictive control with higher control speed (thus smoother transition), and (iii) simpler control via only one or a small number of CVs.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T07:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.013
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • Optimization of vehicle and pedestrian signals at isolated intersections
    • Authors: Chunhui Yu; Wanjing Ma; Ke Han; Xiaoguang Yang
      Pages: 135 - 153
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Chunhui Yu, Wanjing Ma, Ke Han, Xiaoguang Yang
      In most traffic signal optimization problems, pedestrian traffic at an intersection receives minor consideration compared to vehicular traffic, and usually in the form of simplistic and exogenous constraints (e.g., minimum green time). This could render the resulting signal timings sub-optimal especially in dense urban areas with significant pedestrian traffic, or when two-stage pedestrian crosswalks are present. This paper proposes a convex (quadratic) programming approach to optimize traffic signal timings for an isolated intersection with one- and two-stage crosswalks, assuming undersaturated vehicular traffic condition. Both vehicle and pedestrian traffic are integrated into a unified framework, where the total weighted delay of pedestrians and vehicles at different types of crosswalks (i.e. one- or two-stage) is adopted as the objective function, and temporal and spatial constraints (e.g. signal phasing plan and spatial capacity of the refuge island) are explicitly formulated. A case study demonstrates the impacts of incorporating pedestrian delay as well as geometric and spatial constraints (e.g., available space on the refuge island) in the signal optimization. A further analysis shows that a two-stage crosswalk may outperform a one-stage crosswalk in terms of both vehicle and pedestrian delays in some circumstances.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T07:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.015
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • Extending the Link Transmission Model with non-triangular fundamental
           diagrams and capacity drops
    • Authors: Jeroen P.T. van der Gun; Adam J. Pel; Bart van Arem
      Pages: 154 - 178
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Jeroen P.T. van der Gun, Adam J. Pel, Bart van Arem
      The original Link Transmission Model as formulated by Yperman et al. (2006) simulates traffic according to Lighthill–Whitham–Richards theory with a very small numerical error, yet only supports triangular fundamental diagrams. This paper relaxes that restriction in two steps. Firstly, we extend the model to handle any continuous concave fundamental diagram, and prove that this extension is still consistent with Lighthill–Whitham–Richards theory. Secondly, we extend the theory and model to handle a capacity drop, explicitly looking into the handling of both the onset and release of congestion. The final model is still first-order and suitable for general networks. Numerical examples show that it qualitatively improves on the original model due to uniquely featuring complex traffic patterns including stop-and-go waves, with crisp shockwaves between traffic states, as well as acceleration fans.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T07:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.011
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • A dynamic programming approach for quickly estimating large network-based
           MEV models
    • Authors: Tien Mai; Emma Frejinger; Mogens Fosgerau; Fabian Bastin
      Pages: 179 - 197
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Tien Mai, Emma Frejinger, Mogens Fosgerau, Fabian Bastin
      We propose a way to estimate a family of static Multivariate Extreme Value (MEV) models with large choice sets in short computational time. The resulting model is also straightforward and fast to use for prediction. Following Daly and Bierlaire (2006), the correlation structure is defined by a rooted, directed graph where each node without successor is an alternative. We formulate a family of MEV models as dynamic discrete choice models on graphs of correlation structures and show that the dynamic models are consistent with MEV theory and generalize the network MEV model (Daly and Bierlaire, 2006). Moreover, we show that these models can be estimated quickly using the concept of network flows and the nested fixed point algorithm (Rust, 1987). The main reason for the short computational time is that the new formulation allows to benefit from existing efficient solution algorithms for sparse linear systems of equations. We present numerical results based on simulated data with varying number of alternatives and nesting structures. We estimate large models, for example, a cross-nested model with 200 nests and 500,000 alternatives and 210 parameters that needs between 100–200 iterations to converge (4.3 h on an Intel(R) 3.2 GHz machine using a non-parallelized code). We also show that our approach allows to estimate a cross-nested logit model of 111 nests with a real data set of more than 100,000 observations in 14 h.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T07:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.017
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • A cycle time optimization model for generating stable periodic railway
           timetables
    • Authors: Daniel Sparing; Rob M.P. Goverde
      Pages: 198 - 223
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Daniel Sparing, Rob M.P. Goverde
      As train passengers expect a high degree of reliability from a railway network with minimal delays, during the timetabling process planners need to balance the goals of maximizing the offered capacity and delay resistance. This is often done in a two-step process where first a feasible timetable is found for a given line structure, and consecutively the stability of this timetable is evaluated and local modifications are performed to the timetable. This paper describes an optimization method to find a feasible periodic timetable that also ensures maximum stability for heterogeneous railway networks. The model is capable to handle flexible train orders, running and dwell times, and overtaking locations. We use the minimum cycle time of the periodic timetable as an indicator for stability, and define an optimization problem with this minimum cycle time as the objective function to be minimized. We also present dimension reduction methods and an iterative optimization approach to improve the mathematical optimization process. We show the applicability of the approach with case studies on the central part of the Dutch railway network.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T09:26:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.020
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • Designing alternative railway timetables under infrastructure maintenance
           possessions
    • Authors: Sander Van Aken; Nikola Bešinović; Rob M.P. Goverde
      Pages: 224 - 238
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Sander Van Aken, Nikola Bešinović, Rob M.P. Goverde
      Increasing supply in railway networks comes at the cost of an increased need for infrastructure maintenance. This also means adjusting the timetable due to long maintenance or constructions’ possessions. In this article, we introduce the Train Timetable Adjustment Problem (TTAP), which for given station and open-track possessions, finds an alternative timetable that minimizes the deviation from the original timetable. We propose a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model for solving TTAP, and apply retiming, reordering, short-turning and cancellation to generate alternative timetables. The model represents an extended periodic event scheduling problem (PESP) formulation and introduces new constraints for cancelling and retiming train lines, while short-turning is being applied in a preprocessing step. In order to solve larger and more complex instances, we use a row generation approach to add station capacity constraints. The model solves real-life instances with multiple possessions for a large area of the Dutch railway network in reasonable time, and could be up-scaled to the complete Dutch network. Additionally, it may be applicable for disruption management after some modifications. Operators and infrastructure managers could use it to automatically generate optimal alternative timetables on the macroscopic level in case of maintenance or construction works and thus, coordinate traffic for the complete network.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T09:26:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.019
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • Joint optimization of high-speed train timetables and speed profiles: A
           unified modeling approach using space-time-speed grid networks
    • Authors: Leishan Zhou; Lu (Carol) Tong; Junhua Chen; Jinjin Tang; Xuesong Zhou
      Pages: 157 - 181
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 97
      Author(s): Leishan Zhou, Lu (Carol) Tong, Junhua Chen, Jinjin Tang, Xuesong Zhou
      This paper considers a high-speed rail corridor that requires high fidelity scheduling of train speed for a large number of trains with both tight power supply and temporal capacity constraints. This research aims to systematically integrate problems of macroscopic train timetabling and microscopic train trajectory calculations. We develop a unified modeling framework using three-dimensional space-time-speed grid networks to characterize both second-by-second train trajectory and segment-based timetables at different space and time resolutions. The discretized time lattices can approximately track the train position, speed, and acceleration solution through properly defined spacing and modeling time intervals. Within a Lagrangian relaxation-based solution framework, we propose a dynamic programming solution algorithm to find the speed/acceleration profile solutions with dualized train headway and power supply constraints. The proposed numerically tractable approach can better handle the non-linearity in solving the differential equations of motion, and systematically describe the complex connections between two problems that have been traditionally handled in a sequential way. We further use a real-world case study in the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail corridor to demonstrate the effectiveness and computational efficiency of our proposed methods and algorithms.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T09:26:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2017)
       
  • Dynamic passenger demand oriented metro train scheduling with
           energy-efficiency and waiting time minimization: Mixed-integer linear
           programming approaches
    • Authors: Jiateng Yin; Lixing Yang; Tao Tang; Ziyou Gao; Bin Ran
      Pages: 182 - 213
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 97
      Author(s): Jiateng Yin, Lixing Yang, Tao Tang, Ziyou Gao, Bin Ran
      In the daily operation of metro systems, the train scheduling problem aims to find a set of space-time paths for multiple trains that determine their departure and arrival times at metro stations, while train operations are in charge of selecting the best operational speed to satisfy the punctuality and operation costs. Different from the most existing researches that treat these two problems separately, this paper proposes an integrated approach for the train scheduling problem on a bi-direction urban metro line in order to minimize the operational costs (i.e., energy consumption) and passenger waiting time. More specifically, we simultaneously consider (1) the train operational velocity choices that correspond to the energy consumption of trains on each travelling arc, and (2) the dynamic passenger demands at each station for the calculation of total passenger waiting time in the planning horizon. By employing a space-time network representation in the formulations, this complex train scheduling and control problem with dynamic passenger demands is rigorously formulated into two optimization models with linear forms. The first model is an integer programming model that jointly minimizes train traction energy consumption and passenger waiting time. The second model, which is formulated as a mixed-integer programming model, further considers the utilization of regenerative braking energy on the basis of the first model. Due to the computational complexity of these two models, especially for large-scale real-world instances, we develop a Lagrangian relaxation (LR)-based heuristic algorithm that decomposes the primal problem into two sets of subproblems and thus enables to find a good solution in short computational time. Finally, two sets of numerical experiments, involving a relatively small-scale case and a real-world instance based on the operation data of Beijing metro are implemented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T09:26:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2017)
       
  • Efficient calibration techniques for large-scale traffic simulators
    • Authors: Chao Zhang; Carolina Osorio; Gunnar Flötteröd
      Pages: 214 - 239
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 97
      Author(s): Chao Zhang, Carolina Osorio, Gunnar Flötteröd
      Road transportation simulators are increasingly used by transportation stakeholders around the world for the analysis of intricate transportation systems. Model calibration is a crucial prerequisite for transportation simulators to reliably reproduce and predict traffic conditions. This paper considers the calibration of transportation simulators. The methodology is suitable for a broad family of simulators. Its use is illustrated with stochastic and computationally costly simulators. The calibration problem is formulated as a simulation-based optimization (SO) problem. We propose a metamodel approach. The analytical metamodel combines information from the simulator with information from an analytical differentiable and tractable network model that relates the calibration parameters to the simulation-based objective function. The proposed algorithm is validated by considering synthetic experiments on a toy network. It is then used to address a calibration problem with real data for a large-scale network: the Berlin metropolitan network with over 24300 links and 11300 nodes. The performance of the proposed approach is compared to a traditional benchmark method. The proposed approach significantly improves the computational efficiency of the calibration algorithm with an average reduction in simulation runtime until convergence of more than 80%. The results illustrate the scalability of the approach and its suitability for the calibration of large-scale computationally inefficient network simulators.

      PubDate: 2017-01-30T09:09:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2017)
       
  • Deficit function related to public transport: 50 year retrospective, new
           developments, and prospects
    • Authors: Tao Liu; Avishai (Avi) Ceder
      Pages: 1 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 100
      Author(s): Tao Liu, Avishai (Avi) Ceder
      The Deficit Function (DF), with its graphical concept and modelling, was introduced 50 years ago by Linis and Maksim (1967) under the title of “On the problem of constructing routes.” Since then, there have been many developments in the understanding of the theoretical, methodological and application aspects of the DF concept. This work, for the first time, makes a comprehensive and thorough retrospective examination of the major developments of DF modelling and applications in public transport (PT) planning and operations over the past 50 years, introduces some new developments, and offers future research directions. It is shown and proven that the graphical DF concept helps in creating efficient PT vehicle schedules, timetables, crew duties, networks of routes, bus rapid transit systems, and operational parking spaces. For instance, in one large bus company the total number of vehicles and crew duties were reduced by 6% to 12% and 8% to 15%, respectively. This work intends to stimulate further use of the DF concept as a bridge between the world of researchers and the world of practitioners.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T15:21:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.015
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Network signal setting design with stage sequence optimisation
    • Authors: Silvio Memoli; Giulio E. Cantarella; Stefano de Luca; Roberta Di Pace
      Pages: 20 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 100
      Author(s): Silvio Memoli, Giulio E. Cantarella, Stefano de Luca, Roberta Di Pace
      One of the most straightforward short term policies to mitigate urban traffic congestion is control through traffic lights at a single junction or network level. Existing approaches for single junction Signal Setting Design (SSD) can be grouped into two classes: Stage-based or Phase-based methods. Both these approaches take the lane marking layouts as exogenous inputs, but lane-based optimisation method may be found in literature, even though for isolated signal-controlled junctions only. The Network Signal Setting Design (NSSD) requires that offsets are introduced; a traffic flow model is also needed to compute total delay. All existing methods for NSSD follow a stage-based approach; these methods do not allow for stage matrix optimisation: it is shown that explicit enumeration of stage sequences is only practicable for very small networks. This paper focuses on Network Signal Setting Design introducing the so-called scheduled synchronisation that includes green scheduling, green timing and coordination into one optimisation problem. The paper proposes a stage-based method to solve such a problem, as an extension of the synchronisation method and the traffic flow model proposed in Cantarella et al. (2015): first a set of candidate stages is defined for each junction, then the stage sequences, the stage lengths and the offsets are optimised all together. To the authors’ knowledge, no other one-step optimisation method is available in literature for scheduled synchronisation. Results of the proposed method to a small network were compared with those from explicit enumeration of all stage sequences; results for a larger network are also discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T04:53:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Taxi market equilibrium with third-party hailing service
    • Authors: Xinwu Qian; Satish V. Ukkusuri
      Pages: 43 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 100
      Author(s): Xinwu Qian, Satish V. Ukkusuri
      With the development and deployment of new technologies, the oligopolistic taxi industry is transforming into a shared market with coexistence of both traditional taxi service (TTS) and app-based third-party taxi service (ATTS). The ATTS is different from TTS in both entry policy and fare setting, and brings competition into the market. To account for the revolution of the taxi industry, in this study, we analyze the characteristics of the TTS and ATTS, model the taxi market as a multiple-leader-follower game at the network level, and investigate the equilibrium of taxi market with competition (TMC Equilibrium). In particular, passengers are modeled as the leaders who seek to minimize their travel cost associated with taxi rides. Followers involve TTS and ATTS drivers, who compete for passengers to maximize their revenue. The network model captures selfish behavior of passengers and drivers in the taxi market, and we prove the existence of TMC Equilibrium for the proposed model using variational inequality formulations. An iterative algorithm is further developed to find the TMC Equilibrium, which corresponds to the strongly stationary point of the multi-leader-follower game. Based on numerical results, it is observed that fleet size and pricing policy are closely associated with the level of competition in the market and may have significant impact on total passengers cost, average waiting time, and fleet utilization.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T04:53:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Urban intermodal terminals: The entropy maximising facility location
           problem
    • Authors: Collins Teye; Michael G H Bell; Michiel C J Bliemer
      Pages: 64 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 100
      Author(s): Collins Teye, Michael G H Bell, Michiel C J Bliemer
      An important problem confronting port cities is where and how to accommodate port growth. Larger ships combined with increased container throughput require more yard space and generate more traffic, straining the urban fabric in the vicinity of the port. A promising solution to this problem is the development of urban intermodal container terminals (IMTs) that interface with both road and rail (or possibly inland waterway) networks. This raises two linked choices; where to locate the intermodal terminals and what will be their likely usage by multiple shippers, each having a choice of whether or not to use the IMT as part of an intermodal transport chain. The use of an IMT by a shipper indicates the shipper's choice of intermodal transport, which comprises a combined use of a high capacity mode (rail or barge between the port and the IMT) and trucks (between the IMT and the cargo origin or destination). The overall problem therefore comprises a mode choice problem embedded within a facility location problem. This paper employs the method of entropy maximisation to combine a logit mode choice model with a facility location model, leading to a non-linear mixed integer programming model. The principal features of the entropy maximising facility location model are illustrated by small and large numerical examples.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T04:53:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.014
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Offset optimization in signalized traffic networks via semidefinite
           relaxation
    • Authors: Samuel Coogan; Eric Kim; Gabriel Gomes; Murat Arcak; Pravin Varaiya
      Pages: 82 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 100
      Author(s): Samuel Coogan, Eric Kim, Gabriel Gomes, Murat Arcak, Pravin Varaiya
      We study the problem of selecting offsets of the traffic signals in a network of signalized intersections to reduce queues of vehicles at all intersections. The signals in the network have a common cycle time and a fixed timing plan. It is assumed that the exogenous demands are constant or periodic with the same period as the cycle time and the intersections are under-saturated. The resulting queuing processes are periodic. These periodic processes are approximated by sinusoids. The sinusoidal approximation leads to an analytical expression of the queue lengths at every intersection as a function of the demands and the vector of offsets. The optimum offset vector is the solution of a quadratically constrained quadratic program (QCQP), which is solved via its convex semidefinite relaxation. Unlike existing techniques, our approach accommodates networks with arbitrary topology and scales well with network size. We illustrate the result in two case studies. The first is an academic example previously proposed in the literature, and the second case study consists of an arterial corridor network in Arcadia, California.

      PubDate: 2017-02-19T05:43:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Modeling airport capacity choice with real options
    • Authors: Yi-bin Xiao; Xiaowen Fu; Tae H. Oum; Jia Yan
      Pages: 93 - 114
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 100
      Author(s): Yi-bin Xiao, Xiaowen Fu, Tae H. Oum, Jia Yan
      This study models airport capacity choice when a real option for expansion can be purchased. Facing demand uncertainty, an airport first determines the capacity for immediate investment (the prior capacity) and the size of the land or other resources to be reserved for possible future expansion (the reserve). Once demand is observed, the airport can use a portion of the reserve to build extra capacity and set airport charge. Our analytical results show that if demand uncertainty is low and capacity and reserve costs are relatively high, an airport will not acquire a real option for expansion. Otherwise, it can use an expansion option to improve its expected profit or social welfare. Both the magnitude of profit or welfare gain and the optimal size of the reserve increase with demand uncertainty. A higher reserve cost leads to a larger prior capacity and a smaller reserve, whereas a higher capital cost leads to lower prior capacity. A profit-maximizing airport would choose a smaller prior capacity and reserve than would a welfare-maximizing airport. Competition within the airline market promotes airport capacity investment and the adoption of real options by profit-maximizing airports, whereas airport commercial services increase prior capacity but not the reserve.

      PubDate: 2017-02-19T05:43:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • A branch-and-price algorithm for the vehicle routing problem with roaming
           delivery locations
    • Authors: Gizem Ozbaygin; Oya Ekin Karasan; Martin Savelsbergh; Hande Yaman
      Pages: 115 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 100
      Author(s): Gizem Ozbaygin, Oya Ekin Karasan, Martin Savelsbergh, Hande Yaman
      We study the vehicle routing problem with roaming delivery locations in which the goal is to find a least-cost set of delivery routes for a fleet of capacitated vehicles and in which a customer order has to be delivered to the trunk of the customer’s car during the time that the car is parked at one of the locations in the (known) customer’s travel itinerary. We formulate the problem as a set-covering problem and develop a branch-and-price algorithm for its solution. The algorithm can also be used for solving a more general variant in which a hybrid delivery strategy is considered that allows a delivery to either a customer’s home or to the trunk of the customer’s car. We evaluate the effectiveness of the many algorithmic features incorporated in the algorithm in an extensive computational study and analyze the benefits of these innovative delivery strategies. The computational results show that employing the hybrid delivery strategy results in average cost savings of nearly 20% for the instances in our test set.

      PubDate: 2017-02-19T05:43:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Locating multiple types of charging facilities for battery electric
           vehicles
    • Authors: Haoxiang Liu; David Z.W. Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological
      Author(s): Haoxiang Liu, David Z.W. Wang
      To reduce greenhouse gas emissions in transportation sector, battery electric vehicle (BEV) is a better choice towards the ultimate goal of zero-emission. However, the shortened range, extended recharging time and insufficient charging facilities hinder the wide adoption of BEV. Recently, a wireless power transfer technology, which can provide dynamic recharging when vehicles are moving on roadway, has the potential to solve these problems. The dynamic recharging facilities, if widely applied on road network, can allow travelers to drive in unlimited range without stopping to recharge. This paper aims to study the complex charging facilities location problem, assuming the wireless charging is technologically mature and a new type of wireless recharging BEV is available to be selected by consumers in the future other than the traditional BEV requiring fixed and static charging stations. The objective is to assist the government planners on optimally locating multiple types of BEV recharging facilities to satisfy the need of different BEV types within a given budget to minimize the public social cost. Road users’ ownership choice among multiple types BEV and BEV drivers’ routing choice behavior are both explicitly considered. A tri-level programming is then developed to model the presented problem. The formulated model is first treated as a black-box optimization, and then solved by an efficient surface response approximation model based solution algorithm.

      PubDate: 2017-01-30T09:09:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2017.01.005
       
  • A search acceleration method for optimization problems with transport
           simulation constraints
    • Authors: Gunnar
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Gunnar Flötteröd
      This work contributes to the rapid approximation of solutions to optimization problems that are constrained by iteratively solved transport simulations. Given an objective function, a set of candidate decision variables and a black-box transport simulation that is solved by iteratively attaining a (deterministic or stochastic) equilibrium, the proposed method approximates the best decision variable out of the candidate set without having to run the transport simulation to convergence for every single candidate decision variable. This method can be inserted into a broad class of optimization algorithms or search heuristics that implement the following logic: (i) Create variations of a given, currently best decision variable, (ii) identify one out of these variations as the new currently best decision variable, and (iii) iterate steps (i) and (ii) until no further improvement can be attained. A probabilistic and an asymptotic performance bound are established and exploited in the formulation of an efficient heuristic that is tailored towards tight computational budgets. The efficiency of the method is substantiated through a comprehensive simulation study with a non-trivial road pricing problem. The method is compatible with a broad range of simulators and requires minimal parametrization.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T09:00:09Z
       
  • Group-based approach to predictive delay model based on incremental queue
           accumulations for adaptive traffic control systems
    • Authors: Seunghyeon Lee; S.C. Wong
      Pages: 1 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Seunghyeon Lee, S.C. Wong
      In this study, we develop a mathematical framework to estimate lane-based incremental queue accumulations with group-based variables and a predictive model of lane-based control delay. Our objective is to establish the rolling horizon approach to lane-based control delay for group-based optimization of signal timings in adaptive traffic control systems. The challenges involved in this task include identification of the most appropriate incremental queue accumulations based on group-based variables for individual lanes to the queueing formation patterns and establishment of the rolling horizon procedure for predicting the future components of lane-based incremental queue accumulations in the time windows. For lane-based estimation of incremental queue accumulations, temporal and spatial information were collected on the basis of estimated lane-based queue lengths from our previous research to estimate lane-based incremental queue accumulations. We interpret the given signal plan as group-based variables, including the start and duration of the effective green time and the cycle time. Adjustment factors are defined to identify the characteristics of the control delay in a specific cycle and to clarify the relationship between group-based variables and the temporal information of queue lengths in the proposed estimation method. We construct the rolling horizon procedure based on Kalman filters with appropriate time windows. Lane-based queue lengths at an inflection point and adjustment factors in the previous cycle are used to estimate the adjustment factors, arrival rates, and discharge rates in the next cycle, in which the predictive computation is performed in the current cycle. In the simulations sets and the case study, the proposed model is robust and accurate for estimation of lane-based control delay under a wide range of traffic conditions. Adjustment factors play a significant role in increasing the accuracy of the proposed model and in classifying queueing patterns in a specific cycle. The Kalman filters enhance the accuracy of the predictions by minimizing the error terms caused by the fluctuation in traffic flow.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T05:34:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.008
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2016)
       
  • A Riemann solver for a system of hyperbolic conservation laws at a general
           road junction
    • Authors: Wen-Long Jin
      Pages: 21 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 98
      Author(s): Wen-Long Jin
      The kinematic wave model of traffic flow on a road network is a system of hyperbolic conservation laws, for which the Riemann solver is of physical, analytical, and numerical importance. In this paper, we present a new Riemann solver at a general network junction in the demand-supply space. In the Riemann solutions, traffic states on a link include the initial, stationary, and interior states, and a discrete Cell Transmission Model flux function in interior states is used as an entropy condition, which is consistent with fair merging and first-in-first-out diverging rules. After deriving the feasibility conditions for both stationary and interior states, we obtain a set of algebraic equations, and prove that the Riemann solver is well-defined, in the sense that the stationary states, the out-fluxes of upstream links, the in-fluxes of downstream links, and kinematic waves on all links can be uniquely solved. In addition, we show that the resulting global flux function in initial states is the same as the local one in interior states. Hence we presents a new definition of invariant junction models, in which the global and local flux functions are the same. We also present a simplified framework for solving the Riemann problem with invariant junction flux functions.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T05:34:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2016)
       
  • Traffic predictive control from low-rank structure
    • Authors: Samuel Coogan; Christopher Flores; Pravin Varaiya
      Pages: 1 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 97
      Author(s): Samuel Coogan, Christopher Flores, Pravin Varaiya
      The operation of most signalized intersections is governed by predefined timing plans that are applied during specified times of the day. These plans are designed to accommodate average conditions and are unable to respond to large deviations in traffic flow. We propose a control approach that adjusts time-of-day signaling plans based on a prediction of future traffic flow. The prediction algorithm identifies correlated, low rank structure in historical measurement data and predicts future traffic flow from real-time measurements by determining which structural trends are prominent in the measurements. From this prediction, the controller then determines the optimal time of day to apply new timing plans. We demonstrate the potential benefits of this approach using eight months of high resolution data collected at an intersection in Beaufort, South Carolina.

      PubDate: 2016-12-12T05:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.11.013
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2016)
       
  • Morning commute in a single-entry traffic corridor with early and late
           arrivals
    • Authors: Chuan-Yao Li; Hai-Jun Huang
      Pages: 23 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 97
      Author(s): Chuan-Yao Li, Hai-Jun Huang
      The purpose of this paper is to extend the work of DePalma and Arnott (2012) by investigating the solutions for social optimum (SO) and user equilibrium (UE) assignment in a single-entry traffic corridor with consideration of both early and late arrivals. The LWR model and the Greenshields’ relation are used to describe the dynamic properties of traffic flow. The closed-form SO solution and quasi-analytic UE solution are developed and well illustrated by numerical examples. It is shown that the SO assignment is associated with a smooth cumulative outflow curve, while the UE assignment will result in recursively generated cumulative inflow and outflow curves. In UE, however, the system finally becomes a free flow state.

      PubDate: 2016-12-12T05:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2016)
       
  • Fosgerau's travel time reliability ratio and the Burr distribution
    • Authors: Michael A.P. Taylor
      Pages: 50 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 97
      Author(s): Michael A.P. Taylor
      Recent international research has seen the development of methods for the inclusion of travel time reliability as a separate factor in economic analysis of transportation projects, including the valuation of travel time variability. Fosgerau's valuation method includes the consideration of travel time reliability in cost-benefit analysis by adding travel time variability to the set of generalised travel costs. This requires: (1) a defined unit of measurement for travel time variability, (2) estimates of the quantity of travel time variability, and (3) identification of the cost to travellers per unit of travel time variability. The chosen unit of measurement is the standard deviation of the travel time distribution, and the value of this unit of measurement can be defined relative to the average value of travel time by a reliability ratio that depends on user preference parameters (related to risk aversion) and the shape of the upper tail of the cumulative distribution function (cdf) of the travel time distribution. This shape is represented by a definite integral of the inverse of the cdf. Determining the shape of the cdf and its inverse function is facilitated if the distribution can be defined by an explicit algebraic function. The Burr (type XII) distribution is one distribution with this feature, and has been used to successfully represent observed travel time data. This paper describes the Burr distribution, demonstrates that it can provide a good representation of observed travel time data, and explains how it can be used to develop an exact expression for the reliability ratio and thus can aid the use of the method for the valuation of travel time reliability.

      PubDate: 2016-12-12T05:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2016)
       
  • A cooperative game approach to cost allocation in a rapid-transit network
    • Authors: Edward C. Rosenthal
      Pages: 64 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 97
      Author(s): Edward C. Rosenthal
      We consider the problem of allocating costs of a regional transit system to its users, who employ shortest path routes between all pairs of nodes in the system network. We provide an axiomatic set of conditions that a solution should satisfy and use cooperative game theory to model the cost allocation problem. We provide an allocation, called the equal cost share solution, which is efficient to compute and is the unique solution that satisfies the conditions. In addition, we show not only that the cost allocation game has a nonempty core, but further, that the game is concave, meaning that the Shapley value allocation, which coincides with the equal cost share solution, always lies in the core of the game. We provide an application of the equal cost share solution to the Washington, D.C. Metro transit network and compare it to the existing fare pricing structure. As compared to equal cost share pricing, the Metro overcharges for short downtown trips and undercharges for very long commutes. The equal cost share solution is easy to update in real time as the cost data and user distribution change, or when the transit network expands.

      PubDate: 2016-12-12T05:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.11.014
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2016)
       
  • Who canvasses for cargos? Incentive analysis and channel structure in
           a shipping supply chain
    • Authors: Fan Wang; Xiaopo Zhuo; Baozhuang Niu; Jiayi He
      Pages: 78 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 97
      Author(s): Fan Wang, Xiaopo Zhuo, Baozhuang Niu, Jiayi He
      Ocean shipping (OS) and inland shipping (IS) are vertically complementary services in the shipping supply chain. In practice, we have observed that both OS and IS companies canvass for cargos. In addition, we have observed that more and more IS companies are forming alliances to obtain a better price from the OS companies by hiring a negotiation agent. We solve the strategy matrix based on the following questions: “Who canvasses for cargos?” “Should a negotiation agent be hired?” We find that when an OS company canvasses for cargos, a negotiation agent can raise the IS service price; however, when IS companies canvass for cargos, a negotiation agent can weaken an OS company's monopolistic advantage. We show that there exists a win–win situation when an OS company canvasses for cargos without a negotiation agent and that this win–win situation is Pareto-optimal for all shipping supply chain parties. Interestingly, by comparing the equilibriums under optimal strategies and equilibrium strategies, we identify a lose–lose situation. That is, a classic Prisoner's Dilemma occurs when IS companies canvass for cargos and a negotiation agent is hired. We find that the shipping supply chain's overall profit and social welfare are maximized when an OS company canvasses for cargos and IS companies do not hire a negotiation agent.

      PubDate: 2016-12-20T05:26:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2016)
       
  • Solving the battery swap station location-routing problem with capacitated
           electric vehicles using an AVNS algorithm for vehicle-routing problems
           with intermediate stops
    • Authors: Julian Hof; Michael Schneider; Dominik Goeke
      Pages: 102 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 97
      Author(s): Julian Hof, Michael Schneider, Dominik Goeke
      In this paper, we show how to extend solution methods for vehicle-routing problems with intermediate stops (using the example of an Adaptive Variable Neighborhood Search (AVNS) algorithm) to solve the recently introduced battery swap station location-routing problem with capacitated electric vehicles. The problem calls for the simultaneous determination of (i) the battery swap stations (BSSs) to be constructed out of a set of candidate locations, and (ii) the electric vehicle routes to serve a set of customers with the goal of minimizing the sum of construction and routing cost. On the benchmark instances from the literature, the extended AVNS is able to significantly improve the previously known best solutions for the large majority of instances while using only a small fraction of the run-times reported for the comparison methods of Yang and Sun (2015). Moreover, the AVNS proves robust with regard to its average solution quality and is able to strongly reduce the number of constructed BSSs in the solutions compared to the results from the literature. Therefore, we generate additional benchmark instances which prove to be more meaningful with respect to the necessity of using BSSs and that are suitable to analyze the impact of varying construction cost on the location decision.

      PubDate: 2016-12-20T05:26:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.11.009
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2016)
       
  • The valuation of travel time reliability: does congestion matter?
    • Authors: Yu Xiao; Nicolas Coulombel; André de Palma
      Pages: 113 - 141
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 97
      Author(s): Yu Xiao, Nicolas Coulombel, André de Palma
      This paper addresses the valuation of travel time reliability in the presence of endogenous congestion and the role of scheduling preferences. The bottleneck model of road congestion is amended by considering stochastic travel times. We thereby take into account the influence of travel time variability on the congestion profile. The cost of travel time variability is the same with exogenous or endogenous congestion for two classes of preferences: linear marginal utility of time (MUT) at work and constant-exponential MUT. Therefore, cost-benefit analyses of travel time reliability improvements yield consistent results even if departure time adjustments are not accounted for. For α − β − γ preferences, departure time adjustments decrease congestion, which strongly mitigates the cost of travel time variability. Cost-benefit analyses need in this case to explicitly consider the departure time choice, to avoid being biased for the rush hour period (when congestion is strong). A method is proposed to correct this bias when necessary.

      PubDate: 2016-12-20T05:26:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2016)
       
  • Balance of efficiency and robustness in passenger railway timetables
    • Authors: Yusin Lee; Li-Sin Lu; Mei-Ling Wu; Dung-Ying Lin
      Pages: 142 - 156
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 97
      Author(s): Yusin Lee, Li-Sin Lu, Mei-Ling Wu, Dung-Ying Lin
      For a passenger railway system with a published timetable, train timetable adherence and punctuality are critical performance indicators. Compared with other resource allocation methods, timetable adjustment is a relatively cost-effective approach for improving timetable adherence. The insertion of appropriate time supplement and buffer time into a timetable to reduce delays as well as their propagation can improve punctuality. However, to appropriately distribute available supplement/buffer time is a challenging task, especially for real-world cases. Moreover, a very robust timetable may not necessarily be a good choice, since ideal punctuality might come at the cost of large time slacks. In this study, we propose a simulation-based approach that embeds a linear programming model to effectively adjust the time supplement and buffer time in a given passenger railway timetable to reduce the average delay. The proposed solution approach is empirically applied to instances of various sizes. It is shown that the heuristic can quantify the relationship between timetable efficiency and robustness, which helps railway operators select their ideal balance between these two important yet conflicting issues. Further, numerical studies with a real timetable demonstrate that the timetable can achieve better punctuality with an even lower time supplement after adjustment, and the insights observed in this work have not only academic value but also value for practitioners in their preparation of timetables.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T05:34:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2016)
       
  • Optimal perimeter control synthesis for two urban regions with aggregate
           boundary queue dynamics
    • Authors: Jack Haddad
      Pages: 1 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 96
      Author(s): Jack Haddad
      Perimeter control policies for urban regions with Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram (MFD) modeling have been presented in previous works. The control policies might meter the number of transferring vehicles from one region to another, resulting in queueing vehicles at regional boundaries. Concentrated vehicles at boundaries might affect the existence of well-defined MFDs. Most previous works neglect the effect of the boundary concentrated vehicles on the traffic flow dynamics, and do not explicitly consider their effect on the perimeter control policy. This paper introduces a new MFD-based model for two-region networks with aggregate boundary queue dynamics. The dynamic flow characteristics for the two urban regions are modeled by the MFD functions, while aggregate boundary queue dynamics for both regions are modeled by input-output balance differential equations. Maximum lengths are imposed on the aggregate boundary queues, that aim at maintaining the existence of well-defined MFDs and their dynamics. Based on the developed model, the optimal control policy to maximize the total network throughput is found. Analytical solutions for the optimal perimeter control problem, with constrained perimeter control inputs and constrained lengths of aggregate boundary queues, are derived. The optimal synthesis for principal cases are found and verified by numerical tests. The numerical results demonstrate the effect of aggregate boundary queues on the optimal perimeter control policy.

      PubDate: 2016-11-21T08:54:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.10.016
      Issue No: Vol. 96 (2016)
       
  • Enhancing model-based feedback perimeter control with data-driven online
           adaptive optimization
    • Authors: Anastasios Kouvelas; Mohammadreza Saeedmanesh; Nikolas Geroliminis
      Pages: 26 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 96
      Author(s): Anastasios Kouvelas, Mohammadreza Saeedmanesh, Nikolas Geroliminis
      Most feedback perimeter control approaches that are based on the Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram (MFD) and are tested in detailed network structures restrict inflow from the external boundary of the network. Although such a measure is beneficial for the network performance, it creates virtual queues that do not interact with the rest of the traffic and assumes small unrestricted flow (i.e. almost zero disturbance). In reality, these queues can have a negative impact to traffic conditions upstream of the protected network that is not modelled. In this work an adaptive optimization scheme for perimeter control of heterogeneous transportation networks is developed and the aforementioned boundary control limitation is dropped. A nonlinear model is introduced that describes the evolution of the multi-region system over time, assuming the existence of well-defined MFDs. Multiple linear approximations of the model (for different set-points) are used for designing optimal multivariable integral feedback regulators. Since the resulting regulators are derived from approximations of the nonlinear dynamics, they are further enhanced in real-time with online learning/adaptive optimization, according to performance measurements. An iterative data-driven technique is integrated with the model-based design and its objective is to optimize the gain matrices and set-points of the multivariable perimeter controller based on real-time observations. The efficiency of the derived multi-boundary control scheme is tested in microsimulation for a large urban network with more than 1500 roads that is partitioned in multiple regions. The proposed control scheme is demonstrated to achieve a better distribution of congestion (by creating “artificial” inter-regional queues), thus preventing the network degradation and improving total delay and outflow.

      PubDate: 2016-11-21T08:54:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.10.011
      Issue No: Vol. 96 (2016)
       
  • Multiperiod-based timetable optimization for metro transit networks
    • Authors: Xin Guo; Huijun Sun; Jianjun Wu; Jiangang Jin; Jin Zhou; Ziyou Gao
      Pages: 46 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 96
      Author(s): Xin Guo, Huijun Sun, Jianjun Wu, Jiangang Jin, Jin Zhou, Ziyou Gao
      This paper tackles the train timetable optimization problem for metro transit networks (MTN) in order to enhance the performance of transfer synchronization between different rail lines. Train timetables of connecting lines are adjusted in such a way that train arrivals at transfer stations can be well synchronized. This study particularly focuses on the timetable optimization problem in the transitional period (from peak to off-peak hours or vice versa) during which train headway changes and passenger travel demand varies significantly. A mixed integer nonlinear programming model is proposed to generate an optimal train timetable and maximize the transfer synchronization events. Secondly, an efficient hybrid optimization algorithm based on the Particle Swarm Optimization and Simulated Annealing (PSO-SA) is designed to obtain near-optimal solutions in an efficient way. Meanwhile, in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, the results of numerical example solved by PSO-SA are compared with a branch-and-bound method and other heuristicalgorithms. Finally, a real-world case study based on the Beijing metro network and travel demand is conducted to validate the proposed timetabling model. Computational results demonstrate the effectiveness of adjusting train timetables and the applicability of the developed approach to real-world metro networks.

      PubDate: 2016-11-21T08:54:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 96 (2016)
       
  • Optimizing on-time arrival probability and percentile travel time for
           elementary path finding in time-dependent transportation networks: Linear
           mixed integer programming reformulations
    • Authors: Lixing Yang; Xuesong Zhou
      Pages: 68 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 96
      Author(s): Lixing Yang, Xuesong Zhou
      Aiming to provide a generic modeling framework for finding reliable paths in dynamic and stochastic transportation networks, this paper addresses a class of two-stage routing models through reformulation of two commonly used travel time reliability measures, namely on-time arrival probability and percentile travel time, which are much more complex to model in comparison to expected utility criteria. A sample-based representation is adopted to allow time-dependent link travel time data to be spatially and temporally correlated. A number of novel reformulation methods are introduced to establish equivalent linear integer programming models that can be easily solved. A Lagrangian decomposition approach is further developed to dualize the non-anticipatory coupling constraints across different samples and then decompose the relaxed model into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent least cost path sub-problems. Numerical experiments are implemented to demonstrate the solution quality and computational performance of the proposed approaches.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T07:58:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.11.012
      Issue No: Vol. 96 (2016)
       
  • Analyzing the performance of distributed conflict resolution among
           autonomous vehicles
    • Authors: Ítalo Romani de Oliveira
      Pages: 92 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 96
      Author(s): Ítalo Romani de Oliveira
      This paper presents a study on how cooperation versus non-cooperation, and centralization versus distribution impact the performance of a traffic game of autonomous vehicles. A model using a particle-based, Lagrange representation, is developed, instead of an Eulerian, flow-based one, usual in routing problems of the game-theoretical approach. This choice allows representation of phenomena such as fuel exhaustion, vehicle collision, and wave propagation. The elements necessary to represent interactions in a multi-agent transportation system are defined, including a distributed, priority-based resource allocation protocol, where resources are nodes and links in a spatial network and individual routing strategies are performed. A fuel consumption dynamics is developed in order to account for energy cost and vehicles having limited range. The analysis shows that only the scenarios with cooperative resource allocation can achieve optimal values of either collective cost or equity coefficient, corresponding respectively to the centralized and to the distributed cases.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T07:58:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.11.011
      Issue No: Vol. 96 (2016)
       
  • Modeling technical and service efficiency
    • Authors: Efthymios Tsionas; A. George Assaf; David Gillen; Anna S. Mattila
      Pages: 113 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 96
      Author(s): Efthymios Tsionas, A. George Assaf, David Gillen, Anna S. Mattila
      Previous research on service failures, often measured by customer complaints, has not examined how organizations can measure or monitor their service efficiency. In this article, we introduce a new model that is suitable for measuring both service efficiency and technical efficiency when both bad outputs (i.e. service complaints) and good outputs (i.e. passenger trips and flights) are present. We develop our model with an output distance function, using Bayesian methods of inference organized around Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). We illustrate our model with an application in the U.S. airline industry, an industry sector beset with service failures affecting both revenues and costs. We present the service inefficiency results of various US airlines and discuss the determinants of bad outputs in this industry. We also test whether our results are in line with market expectations by comparing the service efficiency estimates against the “American Customer Satisfaction Index” data.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T07:58:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 96 (2016)
       
  • A framework for capturing heterogeneity, heteroskedasticity,
           non-linearity, reference dependence and design artefacts in value of time
           research
    • Authors: Stephane Hess; Andrew Daly; Thijs Dekker; Manuel Ojeda Cabral; Richard Batley
      Pages: 126 - 149
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 96
      Author(s): Stephane Hess, Andrew Daly, Thijs Dekker, Manuel Ojeda Cabral, Richard Batley
      In early 2014, the UK Department for Transport (DfT) commissioned the first national value of travel time (VTT) study since the mid-1990s. This paper presents the methodological work undertaken for this study, with important innovations along a number of dimensions, both in terms of survey design and modelling methodology. Our findings show a rich pattern of heterogeneity across the travelling public, in terms of an impact on the VTT by both person and trip characteristics, as well as a major role for a number of characteristics that relate to the specific choices faced in a hypothetical stated choice setting, including reference dependence and non-linearities in sensitivities. We also discuss how these behavioural values were translated into values for use in appraisal, and the challenges faced when doing this on the basis of results obtained with advanced models.

      PubDate: 2016-12-12T05:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 96 (2016)
       
 
 
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