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  Subjects -> TRANSPORTATION (Total: 166 journals)
    - AIR TRANSPORT (7 journals)
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    - TRANSPORTATION (100 journals)

TRANSPORTATION (100 journals)

Showing 1 - 53 of 53 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 56)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies on Transport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Economics of Transportation     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
EURO Journal of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
European Transport Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
IATSS Research     Open Access  
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IET Intelligent Transport Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IFAC-PapersOnLine     Open Access  
International Innovation - Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Applied Logistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of e-Navigation and Maritime Economy     Open Access  
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Micro-Nano Scale Transport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Mobile Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Ocean Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Services Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Modern Transportation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sustainable Mobility     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Transport & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Transport Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Transport History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Transport Literature     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Transportation Safety & Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Transportation Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Transportation Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Waterway Port Coastal and Ocean Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Les Dossiers du Grihl     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Logistics & Sustainable Transport     Open Access  
Logistique & Management     Full-text available via subscription  
Mobility in History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Modern Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Packaging, Transport, Storage & Security of Radioactive Material     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pervasive and Mobile Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
PS: Political Science & Politics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Public Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Recherche Transports Sécurité     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Revista Transporte y Territorio     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Romanian Journal of Transport Infrastructure     Open Access  
SourceOCDE Transports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Streetnotes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Synthesis Lectures on Mobile and Pervasive Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tire Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Transactions on Transport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Transport and Telecommunication Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Transport in Porous Media     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transport Reviews: A Transnational Transdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Transportation Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Transportation Letters : The International Journal of Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Transportation Research Part B: Methodological     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Transportation Research Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transportation Research Record : Journal of the Transportation Research Board     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Transportation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
TRANSPORTES     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Transportmetrica B : Transport Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Travel Behaviour and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Urban, Planning and Transport Research     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Vehicular Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Транспортні системи та технології перевезень     Open Access  
Journal Cover Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit
  [SJR: 0.457]   [H-I: 24]   [11 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0954-4097 - ISSN (Online) 2041-3017
   Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [839 journals]
  • A plane-frame model for the analysis of cross beams in open-deck railway
    • Authors: Karlikowski, J; Siekierski, W.
      Pages: 1017 - 1024
      Abstract: This paper shows how to establish a plane-frame computational model for the analysis of a cross beam in an open-deck railway bridge. The model consists of the analysed cross beam, parts of the main girders, as well as transverse and wind-bracing struts. The model is used to examine the behaviour of cross beams in two different types of open-deck spans: a plate girder span and a truss girder span. The modelling technique is particularly useful when an immediate assessment of the service load that can be borne by particular structural component is necessary. For instance, in emergency situations or when the technical condition of one structural component is much worse than any other component. The latter situation may occur in the case of open-deck bridges where the condition of the deck’s components is usually very poor. The stress levels in test-loaded cross beams are computed using the proposed plane-frame modelling approach. The computational results are compared to stress values based on strains recorded during actual test loading of bridges. It is shown that the plane-frame modelling of a cross beam with adjacent structural components overestimates normal stresses in the top flange of the cross beams by between 15 and 30%, whereas a simply supported beam model gives an overestimation of over 100%. Rotational restraint of the cross beams at their connection to the main girders is also investigated. The plane-frame modelling approach underestimates the restraint by between 13 and 23%. This is acceptable as long as the bending moment at the mid-span position governs the load-carrying capacity. This is usually true for open decks.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715573416
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • An investigation into the mechanism of metro rail corrugation using
           experimental and theoretical methods
    • Authors: Li, W; Wang, H, Wen, Z, Du, X, Wu, L, Li, X, Jin, X.
      Pages: 1025 - 1039
      Abstract: Severe short-pitch rail corrugation was found to have occurred on four types of track on the same metro line. Field investigations found that, even with the same operation conditions, the corrugations had different wavelengths for the different types of track. Impact hammer tap tests were conducted to investigate the dynamic behaviour of the tracks. The test results showed that, in the investigated metro, short-pitch corrugations are associated with the resonance behaviour of the tracks. The test results also showed that the corrugations on the investigated tracks are not caused by torsional vibration due to the wheelsets. Numerical simulations were conducted to identify the resonance behaviour that is could not be observed in the impact hammer tests due to the limitations in the test method. Three-dimensional finite element models for the four types of track were established and they were used to study the dynamic characteristics of the different tracks. The resonance frequencies and modes that are related to the generation of the corrugation were clearly identified in the numerical modelling studies; this further verifies the relationship between the formation of corrugation and the resonance behaviour of the tracks. The effect of a low value of the fastener stiffness on the dissipation of wheel/rail vibration energy was investigated with the help of numerical simulations. Both experimental and numerical results showed that the resonance behaviour of track structures is of great importance in determining the initiation, characteristics and development of the short-pitch corrugation on the investigated tracks.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715596182
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • The stiffness of unsaturated railway formations
    • Pages: 1040 - 1052
      Abstract: The rational design of a substructure to support a rail track requires an estimation of the stiffness value of the formation on which it is to be built. Stiffness values derived from back-analyses of deformations of the ground beneath the track have been found by the authors to be much higher than those predicted from laboratory element testing on saturated specimens. This may be because of differences in compaction between field and laboratory, or because suctions created by lack of saturation play a key role in controlling stiffness, and therefore the performance of the track when in use. To test the latter hypothesis a laboratory study has been carried out on material representative of that found in South African railway formations. This was tested at constant dry density and various water contents, with matric suctions determined using different established techniques, and very-small-strain stiffness levels obtained from resonant column testing. A suction stress characteristic curve was developed to identify the contribution of suction to the overall effective stress for this material. The results show that suction can indeed be an important contributing factor to the magnitude of stiffness. For material tested at constant dry density, the stiffness initially increases with reducing compaction water content, and therefore with increasing suction. It subsequently reduces back towards the saturated value as the compaction water content approaches zero, even though the matric suction continues to increase. The relative increase in very-small-strain stiffness due to suction depends, to a large extent, on the net normal stress during the stiffness measurement. The effect of matric suction is proportionately greatest at the low net normal stress levels that apply for shallow infrastructures such as rail formations. Also, the operational stiffness depends not only on the current water content (and therefore suction), but also on the water content at which the material has been compacted.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715587732
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • A study on the dynamic behavior of the Korean next-generation high-speed
    • Authors: Jeon, C.-S; Kim, Y.-G, Park, J.-H, Kim, S.-W, Park, T.-W.
      Pages: 1053 - 1065
      Abstract: This study describes the dynamic behavior of the HEMU-430X, the Korean next-generation high-speed train. The HEMU-430X was initially analyzed using VAMPIRE, a computer program that is used to examine the dynamics of railway vehicles, based on which it was expected to sway strongly at its tail end. This hunting motion was expected to disappear when the position of the yaw damper was changed. The dynamic behavior of the HEMU-430X was assessed in an on-track test performed using the protocols in the EN14363 standard and measuring the carbody, bogie and axle accelerations; the HEMU-430X was found to satisfy the safety criterion. The hunting motion appeared at speeds of 150, 350 and 387 km/h, and countermeasures such as changing the position of the yaw damper, installing carbody dampers, and increasing the damping coefficient of the yaw damper installed on the motor car containing the driver’s cab were taken in order to reduce the vibrations. Ultimately, the highest test speed achieved was 421.4 km/h. Subsequently, it was found that the critical speed tended to decrease with mileage. This was attributed to excessive lateral damping and a revised design was proposed to solve this problem.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715576355
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • Twin-disc tests of iron oxides in dry and wet wheel-rail contacts
    • Authors: Zhu, Y; Yang, H, Wang, W.
      Pages: 1066 - 1076
      Abstract: The wheel–rail contact system is open to the environment; as a result there are various kinds of contaminants present between railway wheels and rails. In addition to water, oil and sand, which are applied intentionally or unintentionally, iron oxides are constantly present on surfaces. A twin-disc rolling-sliding tribometer has been used to study the influence of iron oxides on the adhesion coefficient and wear rates of wheel and rail materials. Iron oxides were created in a climate chamber and tests were performed under both dry and wet conditions. The adhesion coefficient, wear rates and surface roughness were investigated. Results indicate that an increase in slip ratio increases the adhesion coefficient, and the wear rate also increases in the dry condition. In wet conditions, the effect of iron oxides lasts for a long time and greatly influences adhesion and wear. The adhesion curve peaks at a much larger creep with the presence of thin oxides than for thick oxides.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715575093
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • Creep modelling and unloading evaluation of the rubber suspensions of rail
    • Authors: Luo R. K.
      Pages: 1077 - 1087
      Abstract: An engineering approach to the evaluation of the creep response and unloading behaviour of the rubber suspension systems used on rail vehicles is presented. A damage function is introduced that links the creep in the rubber to a structural change that leads to a degradation of the material over time. Hence, a hyper-elastic model is not only related to the loading condition, but also it is a function of the elapsed time; thus, a creep evaluation can be performed at the design stage using existing models that are widely used in the rail industry. A typical rubber suspension component, a Metacone spring mount, was selected to validate the proposed approach. It has been shown that the predictions offered by the proposed model are consistent with the creep history found in experiments. In addition, mechanical unloading modelling using a rebound energy approach is also presented and the results, when compared with experimental data, indicate that the main characteristics of the unloading are captured. It is suggested that the proposed methods may be used in the design of rubber suspensions.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715576260
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • A comprehensive prediction model for vehicle/track/soil dynamic response
           due to wheel flats
    • Authors: Alexandrou, G; Kouroussis, G, Verlinden, O.
      Pages: 1088 - 1104
      Abstract: With the development of new lines and the increase of traffic on existing lines, the problem caused by railway-induced ground vibrations is becoming bigger and bigger. The present paper focuses on wheel flat modelling in prediction schemes which determine railway-induced ground vibrations and which have applications to urban tramways. A comprehensive flat spot model is developed and included in an existing vehicle/track model taking into account Hertz's contact law. The associated non-linear stiffness is calculated in a pre-processing step by solving the three-dimensional wheel/rail contact problem. A two-step approach for predicting ground vibrations, developed by the authors, is then applied, including the track/soil interaction through a foundation model and the ground wave propagation by means of a fully three-dimensional finite element model. Predicted results are presented, based on the T2006 tram and on the railway site of Haren (Belgium). A specific analysis is proposed for studying the vehicle dynamics on flexible tracks, and for calculating the effect provided by the wheel flat impact on the rail heads. Results related to the contact force between the wheel with a flat spot and the rail are presented. A series of periodic impacts are generated when the flat spot comes into contact with the rail head with magnitude depending on the track flexibility at the contact point. The key conclusions are discussed, based on the sensitivity analysis of the flat spot size and the train speed. Both parameters affect the critical speed of the vehicle/track system, defined as the speed where loss of contact occurs. The ground vibration levels were found to increase with speed and decrease with distance.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715576015
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • An artificial neural network model as a preliminary track design tool
    • Authors: Domingo, L. M; Fernandez-Villa, J. A. V, Sendra, C. M, Herraiz, J. I. R.
      Pages: 1105 - 1117
      Abstract: The formula derived from Zimmermann’s theory is commonly used in railway track design. However, this formula depends on variables such as the ballast coefficient, which are difficult to determine. In recent years, numerical models have been widely used as they allow the track to be studied as a complete system in which the input variables are known. However, the computation time of numerical models is often very large. This paper presents a pre-design tool that is based on an artificial neural network (ANN). This tool permits the efficient determination of the independent variables of the model, which depend on the track characteristics, the height of the embankment and the quality of the material used to form the embankment. The main advantage of the ANN model is the optimization of the design process, providing a pre-design scenario in which the independent variables are calculated on the basis of the vertical displacement of the rail top, which is the output of the ANN. This leads to significant savings in the computational time required to solve the finite element model.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715576366
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • Augmented utilisation of possession time: Analysis for track geometry
    • Authors: Famurewa, S. M; Juntti, U, Nissen, A, Kumar, U.
      Pages: 1118 - 1130
      Abstract: The demand for increased capacity on existing railway networks is a challenge for many Europe-based infrastructure managers; addressing this challenge requires augmented utilisation of track possession time. It is considered that large-scale maintenance tasks such as geometry maintenance can be improved; thus, reducing the on-track maintenance time and allowing more traffic. In this study, an analysis of track geometry maintenance was performed with the objective of reducing the required possession time. The procedure and models for planning and optimizing track geometry maintenance are presented. A statistical model that uses a simulation approach was used to determine the condition of the track geometry, and a schedule optimization problem was formulated to support intervention decisions and optimize the track possession time. The results of the case study show that optimizing the maintenance shift length and cycle length are opportunities to reduce the extent of track possession required for the maintenance of the track geometry. In addition, continuous improvement of the tamping process through lean analysis promises about a 45% reduction in the required possession time for a tamping cycle.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715583890
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • Experimental study of the frequency-domain characteristics of ground
           vibrations caused by a high-speed train running on non-ballasted track
    • Authors: Wang, P; Wei, K, Wang, L, Xiao, J.
      Pages: 1131 - 1144
      Abstract: An in-situ test to obtain vertical, transversal and longitudinal ground velocities and accelerations caused by high-speed trains was performed alongside the Chinese high-speed railway line between Beijing and Shanghai. The test results indicate that due to excellent track quaity and consolidated infrastructure, whether if the train speed is below or above the Rayleigh wave speed, the dominant frequencies of both the vertical ground velocity and acceleration are both integral multiples of the trainload frequency generated by the centre distance of two neigbouring cars. The frequency-domain distribution of the ground velocity is more sensitive to soil stiffness than is the ground acceleration; this is especially the case for the first dominant frequency. Whether the frequency amplitudes of the vertical ground vibration are higher than the horizontal vibrations depends on the soil stiffness. The greater the soil stiffness, the higher is the frequency-range of the vertical ground vibration compared with that for the horizontal vibration, and the smaller is the difference between the three-dimensional frequency-weighted ground vibration level and the vertical vibration. Thus, effects of horizontal ground vibrations cannot be ignored when the foundation soil is soft.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715577849
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • The effect of temperature on the performance of glass-fiber-reinforced
           high-density polyethylene composite railroad crossties
    • Authors: Lotfy, I; Farhat, M, Issa, M. A.
      Pages: 1145 - 1157
      Abstract: The effect of temperature on structural materials is a major concern in engineering applications. Thermoplastic composites are highly sensitive to temperature changes and recycled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) is no different in that respect. Temperature variations may alter the mechanical properties for even the best designed HDPE compositions. Thermoplastic materials usually experience a lower modulus of elasticity and higher ductility at elevated temperatures and a higher modulus of elasticity and lower ductility at low temperatures. Therefore, it is of vital importance to study and fully understand the nature and extent of this effect. This knowledge will enable the safe implementation of these materials in structural applications where low or elevated temperature exposure is expected. In this paper, an experimental testing program that aims to assess the effect of temperature variation on the performance of HDPE composite railroad crosstie is presented. It employs an AREMA-recommended flexural testing method for crossties; center bending, to investigate a practical operating temperature range; from 10 °F (–12.22 ℃) to 125 °F (51.67 ℃). The effect of the temperature variation has been studied for several vital performance criteria: initial modulus; modulus of elasticity; secant modulus; ultimate strain; and modulus of rupture. Finally, the development and calibration of temperature-scaling models capable of predicting these vital parameters at an arbitrary exposure temperature within the investigated range is also presented. The HDPE composite crossties exhibited favorable qualities and predictable performance variation due to temperature changes. Moreover, optimization strategies are recommended to limit and control the effect of temperature on the HDPE crossties.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715583384
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • Analysis of derailment criteria
    • Authors: Kuo, C.-M; Lin, C.-C.
      Pages: 1158 - 1163
      Abstract: Rail transportation systems include high-speed rail, rapid mass transit systems, rail freight, and light-rail transit systems are generally wheel-on-rail systems. Thus, the evaluation of the risk of a derailment is a critically important issue; consequently, researchers have endeavored to identify and evaluate an effective derailment criterion. Nadal’s quotient has been widely adopted in the assessment of the risk of a derailment. Although recent studies have sometimes criticized that criterion, it still serves as the basis of new criteria and regulations. This article seeks to investigate the problems associated with various derailment criteria, to point out their features and deficiencies, and then to theoretically illustrate their differences. It has been found that the Weinstock criterion does not correctly consider the tread contact wheel, with the revised Weinstock criteria being proposed to correct that problem. Furthermore, a new criterion has been developed that solely considers the horizontal component of the tangential force at the contact point. The new criterion was compared with the wheel load reduction criterion and other criteria to justify the derailment assessments.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715583692
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • Railway track degradation: The contribution of rolling stock
    • Authors: Steenbergen, M; de Jong, E.
      Pages: 1164 - 1171
      Abstract: During train operation, geometrical irregularities develop in soil-supported ballasted railway tracks as a function of the carried tonnage. This form of degradation is combatted by periodic tamping using specially equipped trains, in order to guarantee predefined levels of structural performance. The growth of irregular settlements depends on both track properties (such as sleeper spacing, bending stiffness of the rail, and geotechnical properties of the subsoil) and the intensity of variations in the longitudinal stiffness (variations in soil profile, switches and crossings, transitions, etc.). These variations affect both the static and dynamic, frequency-dependent stiffness of the track under the moving wheels. In addition, the nature of the loading exerted by the rolling stock has an important influence. Trains running at a constant speed exert quasi-static loads on the infrastructure due to the constant axle loading. Also, a dynamic loading component may occur as a result of non-perfect wheels, with frequencies that are a function of both the speed and the wheel tread geometry. In general, the design of a railway track can be optimized with respect to its structural performance over the whole lifecycle. However, for existing lines this is difficult, and the only way to limit degradation and associated costs is to influence the condition of the rolling stock. The present study discusses the theoretical background of track degradation in the form of differential settlements. It then shows the results of an analysis of the loading conditions on Dutch railway lines, at network and local levels, based on actual measurements. Conclusions are drawn regarding deterioration and the effects of different loading types. The obtained results show that huge improvements are possible on mixed lines, and in particular, on freight lines, with reductions in geometrical degradation up to 52% of actual values. The main driver of excessive degradation appears to be the low-frequency component of the dynamic axle loading.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715585371
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • Research on the vertical stiffness of a rolling lobe air spring
    • Authors: Li, X; He, Y, Liu, W, Wei, Y.
      Pages: 1172 - 1183
      Abstract: A new analytical formula to describe the vertical stiffness of a rolling lobe spring has been established; the equation incorporates the rate of change of the effective area of the spring. Two rolling lobe air springs were studied by performing analytical calculations, and the results were verified by comparisons to finite element simulations and experimental data. The analytical formula can be used to qualitatively predict the vertical stiffness of a rolling lobe air spring. Precise prediction of the value of the vertical stiffness can be obtained using the formula in cases where the reservoir volume is not very large. The influence of geometric parameters on the vertical stiffness of a rolling lobe air spring has been studied using the proposed formula and a guideline for its design has been obtained by plotting a cause–effect chart.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715585370
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • Observations of train control performance on a camshaft-operated DC
           electrical multiple unit
    • Authors: Ellis, R; Weston, P, Stewart, E, Hillmansen, S, Tricoli, P, Roberts, C, Jones, I.
      Pages: 1184 - 1201
      Abstract: In order to reduce energy consumption on DC railways where regenerative braking is not available, train control strategy or ‘driver style’ is a practical alternative. In 2011, instrumentation to monitor energy consumption on the Merseyrail network was fitted to a British Rail Class 508 DC camshaft-operated electrical multiple unit. In this paper, seven services from Hunts Cross to Southport are highlighted to demonstrate a number of driver styles and their correlation with energy consumption. The differences in energy consumption were observed to be related to driver aggression in both the acceleration and deceleration phases.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715589618
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • Influences of track and rolling stock parameters on the railway load
           amplification factor
    • Authors: Sadeghi, J; Shoja, S.
      Pages: 1202 - 1212
      Abstract: In conventional design methods for railway tracks, the axle load is multiplied by a term called the load amplification factor (LAF). This operation is performed to compensate for the error introduced into the design process by the assumption of static loads. This approach simplifies the design methods and provides a sufficient level of accuracy. However, the available mathematical expressions proposed for this factor have two significant limitations: they account for a limited number of influencing parameters; and they were developed based solely on the design criteria of the rail. This research aims at improving the current LAF formulation by addressing these two limitations. Mathematical expressions were developed for the correlations between the LAF and influencing parameters due to the track and rolling stock. These expressions cover the design criteria of the track's substructure components (the rail, sleeper and ballast) and include most of the track and rolling stock parameters omitted in the previously developed LAF formulations. The results obtained in this research pave the way towards a more profound understanding of the dynamic response of tracks and provide practical guidance on how to improve the current methods used in railway track analysis and design.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715587731
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • Online inspection system for the automatic detection of bolt defects on a
           freight train
    • Authors: Li, C; Wei, Z, Xing, J.
      Pages: 1213 - 1226
      Abstract: Inspecting the condition of the key components of freight trains is an important task in the rail industry. Bolts on the wheel bearings are key components of a bogie, and bolt defects, such as missing or broken bolts, can lead to serious accidents. To improve the traditional manual inspection procedure, which is both laborious and inflexible, a novel method of automatic image recognition for bolt defects is proposed in this paper. The main procedures are as follows. When a freight train drives through the inspection station, images of the train’s wheels are captured by cameras installed alongside the track. Based on the local binary pattern descriptor, a support vector machine classifier is trained to distinguish between bolt and non-bolt images. The classifier is then combined with a rotate-and-slide window method to localize the three bolt regions in the wheel image. Specifically, a self-updating method is proposed in the training phase to automatically capture the various different situations experienced by bolts in real-life scenarios. After localization, we distinguish defective bolts from normal bolts based on whether there is a hexagonal shape in the bolt region. As demonstrated by real-life experiments, our proposed method can guarantee to find bolt defects and further work will be devoted to reducing the false alarm rate.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715588119
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • An arc-light-based method for estimation of contact strip wear
    • Authors: Hayasaka, T; Shimizu, M, Akagi, H.
      Pages: 1227 - 1233
      Abstract: A measured contact-loss ratio is used to estimate current-collection performance. There are two types of methods used to estimate the contact-loss ratio. One is to measure all the contact losses, including small ones; the other is to measure only contact losses that are greater than 5 ms in duration. The extent of wear of a contact strip caused by arc discharges varies as a function of the amount of electric charge. This fact makes it possible to manage the wear on a contact strip. This paper shows a calculation method for the amount of electric charge based on the output of a contact-loss measurement as well as the expected lifetime of the contact strip and the creation of a maintenance threshold level for of the contact strip.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715589619
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • Effect of vertical step height on boarding and alighting time of train
    • Authors: Holloway, C; Thoreau, R, Roan, T.-R, Boampong, D, Clarke, T, Watts, D, Tyler, N.
      Pages: 1234 - 1241
      Abstract: New train stock or train services are continually being added to the network in the UK. Their design, in conjunction with European Regulations on train floor and rail height, means there is often a gap between train and platform necessitating at least one physical step. This paper presents the results from a series of experiments testing the time required to board or alight a train across three different gap heights. The experiments were designed to test for the effect of age and luggage type on the time to board or alight. As expected, more steps result in a longer time required to board or alight. More interesting is the effect of age and luggage on time to board and alight with younger people being relatively unaffected by the presence of steps and luggage, whereas both these factors hinder elderly people. The quantification of these effects has implications for accessibility of train services and for train dwell times and can be used by others in the design and planning stages of rail projects.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715590480
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • A hybrid model for the prediction of low-frequency noise emanating from a
           concrete box-girder railway bridge
    • Authors: Zhang, X; Li, X, Zhang, J, Song, L, Li, Y.
      Pages: 1242 - 1256
      Abstract: Concrete box-girder bridges are widely used on high-speed railway and urban rail transit lines; however, the low-frequency noise generated by these systems has not been intensively studied. The prediction of bridge-radiated noise is a complicated procedure and can require prohibitively long computational times. This paper presents a hybrid finite element and statistical energy analysis (hybrid FE–SEA) procedure for the prediction of bridge-radiated noise, with the aim of reducing computational time while still guaranteeing accuracy. A simplified train–bridge coupling model is first introduced and solved in the frequency range 20–200 Hz; the wheel–rail interaction force is calculated and taken as the vibration excitation. The hybrid FE–SEA model is then constructed, in which the rail and ballastless track are modeled as the SEA subsystems and the bridge girder components as the FE subsystems. The bridge-radiated noise is finally estimated by considering each vibrating component of the bridge as a flat plate. The procedure is applied to predict the vibration and noise emanating from a simply supported concrete box-girder bridge with a standard span of 32 m, and the computed results are compared with those obtained from in-situ measurements. The numerical results are in good agreement with measured data, and comparisons between computed and measured results reveal that the noise radiation from adjacent spans needs to be considered at a perpendicular distance of 25 m from the track’s centerline. Furthermore, the vibration transmission mechanism and the acoustic contribution performance are investigated, based on the validated numerical model. The results show that the vibrational energy of the top slab has the highest value; however, the vibration of the flange cannot be ignored. Therefore, the top slab and the flange, which may respectively account for 50% and 25% of the overall noise contribution at far-field points, should be given priority when formulating noise-mitigation measures.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715605127
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • Root cause of differential movement at bridge transition zones
    • Authors: Stark, T. D; Wilk, S. T.
      Pages: 1257 - 1269
      Abstract: The results of a Federal Railroad Administration research project into the factors that contribute to differential displacements at railroad track transitions are presented in this paper. Data from instrumented high-speed passenger (Amtrak) sites suggest that poorly supported ties increase the loads applied on the underlying ballast and can accelerate differential displacements. Poorly supported ties amplify the tie–ballast interaction, which eventually results in large permanent vertical displacements at those locations. This paper presents the location and depth at which permanent vertical displacements are occurring, the "root cause" of these permanent differential vertical displacements, and design and remedial measures that focus on reducing poorly supported ties in transition zones.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715589620
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • Windbreaks for railway lines: Wind tunnel experimental tests
    • Authors: Tomasini, G; Giappino, S, Cheli, F, Schito, P.
      Pages: 1270 - 1282
      Abstract: A number of tests were carried out in the Politecnico di Milano wind tunnel to study the properties of different windbreak barriers for high-speed railway lines. A possible problem with the wind tunnel testing of these devices is the need to create wide scenarios (long barriers) and achieve high Reynolds number values in order to avoid scaling problems. In this study, two experimental campaigns were performed. In the first stage, the Reynolds number sensitivity was checked through specific tests in a high-speed test section (Remax = 7 x 105): it was found that, in the presence of barriers, the rolling moment coefficient is independent of the Reynolds number. A second experimental campaign was then carried out in a low-speed test section (Remax = 1.3 x 105) where a very long scenario was reproduced (150 m at real scale): barriers of different types, heights and porosities were tested. To compare them, forces and pressures on the vehicle model as well as forces on the barrier were measured.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715596191
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • Structural-optimization-based design process for the body of a railway
           vehicle made from extruded aluminum panels
    • Authors: Lee, H.-A; Jung, S.-B, Jang, H.-H, Shin, D.-H, Lee, J. U, Kim, K. W, Park, G.-J.
      Pages: 1283 - 1296
      Abstract: The railway vehicle manufacturing industry faces increasing pressure to enhance performance and safety while minimizing weight, manufacturing cost and fuel consumption. Structural optimization is a very effective way to design the structure of the body of a railway vehicle so that it meets design requirements. There is a trend to manufacture the body of a vehicle using extruded aluminum. The design of a vehicle body to be built from extruded aluminum panels is considered in this paper. Each aluminum panel is made of sandwich panels that are welded together. The weight and stiffness of the structure are determined by changing the shape and thickness of the webs and ribs. A design process based on structural optimization is proposed to design the shape of the rib and the thickness distribution of the aluminum-based body. The design process is divided into three steps. First, topology optimization is performed to obtain the conceptual design of the ribs under given loading conditions while maximizing the stiffness of the structure. The results of the topology optimization are incorporated into the decision about the shape of the ribs that is performed in the next step. Second, the optimization technique for the shape of the ribs is developed using a design-of-experiments approach. An orthogonal array is used to obtain the optimum combination of the rib shapes. The shapes of the ribs are defined into four types. The characteristic function to find the optimum combination is defined by the maximum stress and the maximum displacement. Finally, size optimization is performed to reduce the weight of the structure while still meeting the design requirements. The thickness values of the webs and ribs are used as design variables. Design constraints are defined so that the maximum stress of the entire structure and the maximum displacement of the side sill are less than the allowable values. A systematic design process of an aluminum body for a railway vehicle is established that reduces its weight while maintaining sufficient strength, and new rib shapes are obtained.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715593971
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • Propagation characteristics of tunnel compression waves with multiple
           peaks in the waveform of the pressure gradient: Part 1: Field measurements
           and mathematical model
    • Authors: Miyachi, T; Saito, S, Fukuda, T, Sakuma, Y, Ozawa, S, Arai, T, Sakaue, S, Nakamura, S.
      Pages: 1297 - 1308
      Abstract: A high-speed train entering a tunnel generates a compression wave. When the compression wave reaches the exit portal of the tunnel, a micro-pressure wave radiates outward. The magnitude of the micro-pressure wave is approximately proportional to the pressure gradient of the compression wave arriving at the exit portal. As the micro-pressure wave can cause environmental problems, tunnel entrance hoods have been installed at many portals of long slab track tunnels on the Japanese high-speed railway, the Shinkansen to reduce the magnitude of the micro-pressure wave. In this study, field measurements were taken in a Shinkansen long slab track tunnel with a hood at its entrance. The compression wave distorts during its propagation through a long slab track tunnel. The dependence of the propagation characteristics on the initial compression waveform was clarified on the basis of field measurements on different trains and hood window configurations. It was shown that compression waves with a waveform of the pressure gradient that has shallow valleys tend to steepen more easily and that the optimum window pattern of the hood depends on the length of the tunnel. Furthermore, a mathematical model corresponding to the results of the field measurements was proposed to describe the distortion of the compression waves.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715593305
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • Propagation characteristics of tunnel compression waves with multiple
           peaks in the waveform of the pressure gradient: Part 2: Theoretical and
           numerical analyses
    • Authors: Miyachi, T; Ozawa, S, Iida, M, Fukuda, T, Arai, T.
      Pages: 1309 - 1317
      Abstract: This paper is the second part of a two-part study on the propagation characteristics of compression waves generated by a train entering a long slab track tunnel with a tunnel entrance hood, which generates a tunnel compression wave with multiple peaks in the waveform of its pressure gradient. In Part 1, we described field measurements on the propagation characteristics of the compression waves generated by Shinkansen trains in a 9.7-km-long tunnel, and we compared the results with those of simulations. It was shown that initial waveforms whose pressure gradient waveforms have shallower valleys tend to steepen more easily, and a mathematical model of the distortion based on the field measurements using a quasi-laminar friction model was proposed. This follow-up report describes the theoretical and numerical analyses conducted on the basis of the mathematical model. Initial waveforms of the pressure gradient that have no valleys and are higher on their right-hand side grow up easily during propagation; this is due to the unsteady friction being small in the region where the magnitude of the second time derivative of the pressure is small. This results in a dependence of the propagation characteristics on the initial waveform of the compression wave.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715602728
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • Multi-train trajectory optimisation to maximise rail network energy
           efficiency under travel-time constraints
    • Authors: Goodwin, J. C; Fletcher, D. I, Harrison, R. F.
      Pages: 1318 - 1335
      Abstract: Optimising the trajectories of multiple interacting trains to maximise energy efficiency is a difficult, but highly desirable, problem to solve. A bespoke genetic algorithm has been developed for the multi-train trajectory optimisation problem and used to seek a near-optimal set of control point distances for multiple trains, such that a weighted sum of the time and energy objectives is minimised. Genetic operators tailored to the problem are developed including a new mutation operation and the insertion and deletion pairs of control points during the reproduction process. Compared with published results, the new GA was shown to increase the quality of solutions found by an average of 27.6% and increase consistency by a factor of 28. This allows more precise control over the relative priority given to achieving time targets or increasing energy efficiency.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715593304
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • Evaluating tie support at railway bridge transitions
    • Authors: Wilk, S. T; Stark, T. D, Rose, J. G.
      Pages: 1336 - 1350
      Abstract: This paper compares the behavior of three different railway bridge transition zones to illustrate how poor tie support affects track performance. The three bridge transitions consist of a high-speed passenger line, a freight line, and a spur track. All bridge transitions were instrumented with accelerometers that allow tie support and track performance to be non-invasively evaluated by analyzing the measured acceleration magnitudes and vibration frequencies in the frequency domain. The results show tracks with good tie support display tie accelerations below 5 g and small vertical displacements during train loading whereas approaches with poor tie support display accelerations generally greater than 5 g. These results are used to evaluate other transition zones and identify problematic track locations that require repair procedures to retain acceptable track geometry.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715596192
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • Research on global and local stability of continuous welded rail based on
           finite element analysis and discrete short-time Fourier transform
    • Authors: Shu, D; Guo, L, Yin, L, Chen, J, Qi, X.
      Pages: 1351 - 1362
      Abstract: The evaluation of the stability of continuous welded rail (CWR) is a major area of research activity. In this paper, a method is proposed that uses finite element analysis and discrete short-time Fourier transform methods to evaluate the global and local stabilities of in-service CWR on the Baotou–Xi’an line in the People’s Republic of China. A local stability evaluation criterion for the rail and a global standard deviation for the thermal stress fluctuation in the CWR are proposed. The global stability of a CWR that consists of two rails is taken to be that of the rail with the largest thermal stress fluctuation, whereas for a single rail, the fluctuation state of the local zone with the largest thermal stress fluctuation is used as the criterion.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715596193
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • Experimental verification of differences in subjective annoyance responses
           using a jury test to compare the noise emissions of straight and curved
           sections of an urban railway
    • Authors: Ji, H. Y; Koo, D. H, Kim, J. C.
      Pages: 1363 - 1374
      Abstract: The urban railway, which has both ground-level and underground sections, is a major means of transportation in the city of Seoul. Environmental noise problems have been encountered in residential areas near the railway on ground-level sections. To assess the extent of this problem, many countries have adopted the method of A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level (LpAeq ). However, it may be not reasonable to apply the same evaluation method on all sections of a railway, since the acoustic characteristics of railway noise are highly variable, and its effect on human psychology is complex. Thus, since each person reacts differently to noise, psychological approaches have been utilized to analyze the effects of noise. The aim of this study is to determine an appropriate method for the assessment of railway-generated noise. First, the characteristics of railway-generated noise on straight and curved sections of track were compared by looking at aspects such as the waveforms of the sound pressure and the characteristics of frequency patterns. After that, the subjective annoyance response was analyzed by performing a jury test and a survey in order to understand how people react differently to similar sounds on the two test sections of track.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715593972
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • Experimental modelling of lipping in insulated rail joints and
           investigation of rail head material improvements
    • Authors: Beaty, P; Temple, B, Marshall, M. B, Lewis, R.
      Pages: 1375 - 1387
      Abstract: An insulated rail joint is a component used to join two abutting rails while keeping them electrically separated from one another. This allows for the construction of track circuits and train detection within signalling systems. Electrical failure of the joints can be caused by plastic flow of the rail steel over the insulating gap, known as lipping. In this paper, this failure mode has been experimentally modelled using twin-disc testing and indicative conclusions have been formed. It has been found in this testing that the thickness of the endpost does not have an effect on the rate of lipping, however, the endpost and rail material do have an effect. An endpost with a higher compressive strength will perform better and tougher/harder rail steel will also improve performance. The application of a laser clad layer of tougher material on the running surface, however, gave the greatest resistance to lipping.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715600740
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • The use of dynamic response to evaluate and improve the optimization of
           existing soft railway catenary systems for higher speeds
    • Authors: Navik, P; Ronnquist, A, Stichel, S.
      Pages: 1388 - 1396
      Abstract: An increasing demand for reduced travel times requires the exploitation of the full capacity of existing overhead railway catenary systems. This need has become an issue in Norway, as the majority of existing catenary systems are designed for a maximum speed of 130 km/h. In many regions, plans to reconstruct the railway line do not exist. Therefore, existing catenary sections must be optimized to increase a train’s velocity and reduce the total travel time. In this paper, the dynamic response is evaluated in an optimization investigation of an existing soft catenary system. A dynamic investigation that considers finite element models of existing soft railway catenary sections with original tension forces, current tension forces and suggested new tension forces for velocities at and above the design speed is conducted. The dynamic response is quantified by the interpretation of spectral densities and variations in their peak values. Due to more movement at mid-span than at the pole support, the effects from altering the tension forces and increasing the speed can be more accurately described and estimated by considering the dynamic content of the response at mid-span instead of the peak uplift at the pole support. A 23% increase in speed is possible for the system with the best tested new tension force setting, in which only the dynamic response and uplift at the pole support are considered.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715605140
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
  • Modeling of a railway vehicle travelling through a turnout
    • Authors: dos Santos, G. F; Barbosa, R. S.
      Pages: 1397 - 1404
      Abstract: Speed and safety are two key objectives in the operation of a railway. On double-line railways, such as the Estrada de Ferro Vitoria Minas (EFVM), a critical situation occurs when a train changes between lines, this should occur at the maximum allowed speed. However, the iron ore trains consisting of GDE-type wagons that operate on the EFVM perform this operation at 60 km/h, which is 5 km/h less than the maximum speed allowed under normal operating conditions. Thus, the brakes need to be applied over a long distance before the turnout in order to reduce the speed. A number of field tests were conducted in order to determine the actual maximum safe speed for traffic on a crossover (or turnout). This paper presents the results of computer simulations using NUCARS®. The GDE wagons and the characteristics of the track geometry were modeled. Several cases were simulated, with variations of parameters of the wagons, such as side bearing clearance and wheel profile. The results of the computer simulations were compared to the results from the field tests. Good correlation was found between them, indicating that the maximum speed of the GDE wagons running on the turnout might be open to review.
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:44:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0954409715595256
      Issue No: Vol. 230, No. 4 (2016)
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