Abstract: In a recent paper by Bourdin and Trélat, a version of the Pontryagin maximum principle (in short, PMP) has been stated for general nonlinear finite-dimensional optimal sampled-data control problems. Unfortunately, their result is only concerned with fixed sampling times, and thus, it does not take into account the possibility of free sampling times. The present paper aims to fill this gap in the literature. Precisely, we establish a new version of the PMP that can handle free sampling times. As in the aforementioned work by Bourdin and Trélat, we obtain a first-order necessary optimality condition written as a nonpositive averaged Hamiltonian gradient condition. Furthermore, from the freedom of choosing sampling times, we get a new and additional necessary optimality condition which happens to coincide with the continuity of the Hamiltonian function. In an autonomous context, even the constancy of the Hamiltonian function can be derived. Our proof is based on the Ekeland variational principle. Finally, a linear–quadratic example is numerically solved using shooting methods, illustrating the possible discontinuity of the Hamiltonian function in the case of fixed sampling times and highlighting its continuity in the instance of optimal sampling times. PubDate: 2019-09-17

Abstract: We provided a detailed study of the Schur–Cohn stability algorithm for Schur stable polynomials of one complex variable. Firstly, a real analytic principal \(\mathbb {C}\times \mathbb {S}^1\) -bundle structure in the family of Schur stable polynomials of degree n is constructed. Secondly, we consider holomorphic \(\mathbb {C}\) -actions \(\mathscr {A}\) on the space of polynomials of degree n. For each orbit \(\{ s \cdot P(z) \ \vert \ s \in \mathbb {C}\}\) of \(\mathscr {A}\) , we study the dynamical problem of the existence of a complex rational vector field \(\mathbb {X}(z)\) on \(\mathbb {C}\) such that its holomorphic s-time describes the geometric change of the n-root configurations of the orbit \(\{ s \cdot P(z) = 0 \}\) . Regarding the above \(\mathbb {C}\) -action coming from the \(\mathbb {C}\times \mathbb {S}^1\) -bundle structure, we prove the existence of a complex rational vector field \(\mathbb {X}(z)\) on \(\mathbb {C}\) , which describes the geometric change of the n-root configuration in the unitary disk \(\mathbb {D}\) of a \(\mathbb {C}\) -orbit of Schur stable polynomials. We obtain parallel results in the framework of anti-Schur polynomials, which have all their roots in \(\mathbb {C}\backslash \overline{\mathbb {D}}\) , by constructing a principal \(\mathbb {C}^* \times \mathbb {S}^1\) -bundle structure in this family of polynomials. As an application for a cohort population model, a study of the Schur stability and a criterion of the loss of Schur stability are described. PubDate: 2019-09-05

Abstract: This paper deals with the analysis of the internal control of a parabolic PDE with nonlinear diffusion, nonlocal in space. In our main result, we prove the local exact controllability to the trajectories with distributed controls, locally supported in space. The main ingredients of the proof are a compactness–uniqueness argument and Kakutani’s fixed-point theorem in a suitable functional setting. Some possible extensions and open problems concerning other nonlocal systems are presented. PubDate: 2019-08-26

Abstract: In this paper, we investigate connectedness and convexity properties of the subspace \(\mathbf {L}_{n,m}^c(\mathbb {R})\) of controllable input pairs \((A,B)\in \mathbf {L}_{n,m}(\mathbb {R}):= \mathbb {R}^{n\times n}\times \mathbb {R}^{n\times m}\) . We introduce three restricted convexity properties (“dense”, “almost sure” and “generic” convexity). In order to prove that the space \(\mathbf {L}_{n,m}^c(\mathbb {R})\) possesses these properties, we study the intersection of straight lines in \(\mathbf {L}_{n,m}(\mathbb {R})\) with the algebraic variety of uncontrollable input pairs in \(\mathbf {L}_{n,m}(\mathbb {R})\) . While in the single-input case ( \(m=1\) ), the space \(\mathbf {L}_{n,1}^c(\mathbb {R})\) consists of two connected components, we prove that the space \(\mathbf {L}_{n,m}^c(\mathbb {R})\) is generically convex in the multi-input case. This is our main result. It directly implies Brockett’s theorem that \(\mathbf {L}_{n,m}^c(\mathbb {R})\) is pathwise connected if \(m\ge 2\) . As another application, we derive the theorem of Hazewinkel and Kalman about the non-existence of continuous canonical forms for multi-input systems. PubDate: 2019-08-16

Abstract: We study a sequence of many-agent exit time stochastic control problems, parameterized by the number of agents, with risk-sensitive cost structure. We identify a fully characterizing assumption, under which each such control problem corresponds to a risk-neutral stochastic control problem with additive cost, and sequentially to a risk-neutral stochastic control problem on the simplex that retains only the distribution of states of agents, while discarding further specific information about the state of each agent. Under some additional assumptions, we also prove that the sequence of value functions of these stochastic control problems converges to the value function of a deterministic control problem, which can be used for the design of nearly optimal controls for the original problem, when the number of agents is sufficiently large. PubDate: 2019-08-01

Abstract: In this paper, the problem of robust stability for linear time-varying implicit dynamic equations is generally studied. We consider the effect of uncertain structured perturbations on all coefficient matrices of equations. A formula of stability radius with respect to dynamic structured perturbations acting on the right-hand side coefficients is obtained. In case where structured perturbations affect on both derivative and the right-hand side, the lower bounds for the stability radius are derived. The results are novel and extend many previous results about robust stability for time-varying ordinary differential/difference equations, time-varying differential algebraic equations and time-varying implicit difference equations. PubDate: 2019-07-26

Abstract: The Grassmann manifold \(Gr_m({\mathbb {R}}^n)\) of all m-dimensional subspaces of the n-dimensional space \({\mathbb {R}}^n\) \((m<n)\) is widely used in image analysis, statistics and optimization. Motivated by interpolation in the manifold \(Gr_2({\mathbb {R}}^4)\), we first formulate the differential equation for desired interpolation curves called Riemannian cubics in symmetric spaces by the Pontryagin maximum principle (PMP) and then narrow down to it in \(Gr_2({\mathbb {R}}^4)\). Although computation on this low-dimensional manifold may not occur heavy burden for modern machines, theoretical analysis for Riemannian cubics is very limited in references due to its highly nonlinearity. This paper focuses on presenting analytical and geometrical structures for the so-called Lie quadratics associated with Riemannian cubics. By analysing asymptotics of Lie quadratics, we find asymptotics of Riemannian cubics in \(Gr_2({\mathbb {R}}^4)\). Finally, we illustrate our results by numerical simulations. PubDate: 2019-07-26

Abstract: This paper deals with some reachability issues for piecewise linear switched systems with time-dependent coefficients and multiplicative noise. Namely, it aims at characterizing data that are almost reachable at some fixed time \(T>0\) (belong to the closure of the reachable set in a suitable \({\mathbb {L}}^2\)-sense). From a mathematical point of view, this provides the missing link between approximate controllability toward 0 and approximate controllability toward given targets. The methods rely on linear–quadratic control and Riccati equations. The main novelty is that we consider an LQ problem with controlled backward stochastic dynamics and, since the coefficients are not deterministic (unlike some of the cited references), neither is the backward stochastic Riccati equation. Existence and uniqueness of the solution of such equations rely on structure arguments [inspired by Confortola (Ann Appl Probab 26(3):1743–1773, 2016)]. Besides solvability, Riccati representation of the resulting control problem is provided as is the synthesis of optimal (non-Markovian) control. Several examples are discussed. PubDate: 2019-07-26

Abstract: Adaptive control deals with systems that have unknown and/or time-varying parameters. Most techniques are proven for the case in which any time variation is slow, with results for systems with fast time variations limited to those for which the time variation is of a known form or for which the plant has stable zero dynamics. In this paper, a new adaptive controller design methodology is proposed in which the time variation can be rapid and the plant may have unstable zero dynamics. Under the structural assumptions that the plant is relative degree one and that the plant uncertainty is a single scalar variable, as well as some mild regularity assumptions, it is proven that the closed-loop system is exponentially stable under fast parameter variations with persistent jumps. The proposed controller is nonlinear and periodic, and in each period the parameter is estimated and an appropriate stabilizing control signal is applied. PubDate: 2019-06-19

Abstract: Ensemble control deals with the problem of using a finite number of control inputs to simultaneously steer a large population (in the limit, a continuum) of control systems. Dual to the ensemble control problem, ensemble estimation deals with the problem of using a finite number of measurement outputs to estimate the initial state of every individual system in the ensemble. We introduce in the paper a novel class of ensemble systems, termed distinguished ensemble systems, and establish sufficient conditions for controllability and observability of such systems. Every distinguished ensemble system has two key components, namely a set of distinguished control vector fields and a set of codistinguished observation functions. Roughly speaking, a set of vector fields is distinguished if it is closed (up to scaling) under Lie bracket, and moreover, every vector field in the set can be obtained by a Lie bracket of two vector fields in the same set. Similarly, a set of functions is codistinguished to a set of vector fields if the Lie derivatives of the functions along the given vector fields yield (up to scaling) the same set of functions. We demonstrate in the paper that the structure of a distinguished ensemble system can significantly simplify the analysis of ensemble controllability and observability. Moreover, such a structure can be used as a guiding principle for ensemble system design. We further address in the paper the problem about existence of a distinguished ensemble system for a given manifold. We provide an affirmative answer for the case where the manifold is a connected semi-simple Lie group. Specifically, we show that every such Lie group admits a set of distinguished vector fields, together with a set of codistinguished functions. The proof is constructive, leveraging the structure theory of semi-simple real Lie algebras and representation theory. Examples will be provided along the presentation of the paper illustrating key definitions and main results. PubDate: 2019-06-18

Abstract: The paper is concerned with the finite-time stabilization of a hybrid PDE-ODE system which may serve as a model for the motion of an overhead crane with a flexible cable. The dynamics of the flexible cable is assumed to be described by the wave equation with constant coefficients. Using a nonlinear feedback law inspired by those given by Haimo (SIAM J Control Optim 24(4):760–770, 1986) for a second-order ODE, we prove that a finite-time stabilization occurs for the full system platform \(+\) cable. The global well-posedness of the system is also established by using the theory of nonlinear semigroups. PubDate: 2019-05-21

Abstract: Along the ideas of Curtain and Glover (in: Bart, Gohberg, Kaashoek (eds) Operator theory and systems, Birkhäuser, Boston, 1986), we extend the balanced truncation method for (infinite-dimensional) linear systems to arbitrary-dimensional bilinear and stochastic systems. In particular, we apply Hilbert space techniques used in many-body quantum mechanics to establish new fully explicit error bounds for the truncated system and prove convergence results. The functional analytic setting allows us to obtain mixed Hardy space error bounds for both finite-and infinite-dimensional systems, and it is then applied to the model reduction of stochastic evolution equations driven by Wiener noise. PubDate: 2019-05-06

Abstract: In this paper, a class of abstract dynamical systems is considered which encompasses a wide range of nonlinear finite- and infinite-dimensional systems. We show that the existence of a non-coercive Lyapunov function without any further requirements on the flow of the forward complete system ensures an integral version of uniform global asymptotic stability. We prove that also the converse statement holds without any further requirements on regularity of the system. Furthermore, we give a characterization of uniform global asymptotic stability in terms of the integral stability properties and analyze which stability properties can be ensured by the existence of a non-coercive Lyapunov function, provided either the flow has a kind of uniform continuity near the equilibrium or the system is robustly forward complete. PubDate: 2019-03-14

Abstract: Difference inclusions provide a discrete-time analogue of differential inclusions, which in turn play an important role in the theories of optimal control, implicit differential equations, and invariance and viability, to name a few. In this paper we: (i) introduce a framework suitable for the study of difference inclusions for which the state evolves on a manifold; (ii) use this framework to develop necessary conditions for optimality for a broad class of discrete-time problems of dynamic optimization in which the state evolves on a manifold M. The necessary conditions for optimality we derive include the case for which the state \(q_i\) is subject to constraints \(q_i \in S_i \subseteq M\) , for \(S_i\) a closed set. The resulting necessary conditions for optimality appear as discrete-time versions of the Euler–Lagrange inclusion studied by Ioffe (in Trans Am Math Soc 349(7):2871–2900, 1997), Ioffe and Rockafellar (in Calc Var Partial Differ Equ 4(1):59–87, 1996), Mordukhovich (in SIAM J Control Optim 33(3):882–915, 1995), Mordukhovich (in Variational analysis and generalized differentiation II: applications. Springer, Berlin, 2006), and Vinter and Zheng (in SIAM J Control Optim 35(1):56–77, 1997) generalized in a natural way to the case in which the state is evolving on a manifold. PubDate: 2019-03-06

Abstract: We consider an infinite dimensional nonlinear controlled system describing age-structured population dynamics, where the birth and the mortality rates are nonlinear functions of the population size. The control being active on some age range, we give sharp conditions subject to the age range and the control time horizon to get the null controllability of the nonlinear controlled population dynamics. The main novelty is that we use here as a main ingredient the comparison principle for age-structured population dynamics, and in case of null controllability we provide a feedback control with a very simple structure, while preserving the nonnegativity of the state trajectory. Finally, we establish the lack of the null controllability for the linear Lotka-McKendrick equation with spatial diffusion when the control acts in a subset of the habitat and we want to preserve the positivity of the state trajectory. PubDate: 2019-02-28

Authors:Fulvia Confortola Abstract: We obtain existence and uniqueness in \(L^p\) , \(p>1\) of the solutions of a backward stochastic differential equation (BSDE for short) driven by a marked point process, on a bounded interval. We show that the solution of the BSDE can be approximated by a finite system of deterministic differential equations. As application, we address an optimal control problem for point processes of general non-Markovian type and show that BSDEs can be used to prove existence of an optimal control and to represent the value function. PubDate: 2018-12-12 DOI: 10.1007/s00498-018-0230-4 Issue No:Vol. 31, No. 1 (2018)

Authors:Cyrus Mostajeran; Rodolphe Sepulchre Abstract: This paper presents a formulation of the notion of monotonicity on homogeneous spaces. We review the general theory of invariant cone fields on homogeneous spaces and provide a list of examples involving spaces that arise in applications in information engineering and applied mathematics. Invariant cone fields associate a cone with the tangent space at each point in a way that is invariant with respect to the group actions that define the homogeneous space. We argue that invariance of conal structures induces orders that are tractable for use in analysis and propose invariant differential positivity as a natural generalization of monotonicity on such spaces. PubDate: 2018-11-29 DOI: 10.1007/s00498-018-0229-x Issue No:Vol. 30, No. 4 (2018)

Authors:Jun Zheng; Hugo Lhachemi; Guchuan Zhu; David Saussié Abstract: This paper addresses the robust stability of a boundary controlled system coupling two partial differential equations (PDEs), namely beam and string equations, in the presence of boundary and in-domain disturbances under the framework of input-to-state stability (ISS) theory. Well-posedness assessment is first carried out to determine the regularity of the disturbances required for guaranteeing the unique existence of the solution to the considered problem. Then, the method of Lyapunov functionals is applied in stability analysis, which results in the establishment of some ISS properties with respect to disturbances. As the analysis is based on the a priori estimates of the solution to the PDEs, it allows avoiding the invocation of unbounded operators while obtaining the ISS gains in their original expression without involving the derivatives of boundary disturbances. PubDate: 2018-11-28 DOI: 10.1007/s00498-018-0228-y Issue No:Vol. 30, No. 4 (2018)

Authors:Marcelo M. Cavalcanti; Wellington J. Corrêa; Ryuichi Fukuoka; Zayd Hajjej Abstract: We study a nonlocal evolution equation modeling the deformation of a bridge, either a footbridge or a suspension bridge. Contrarily to the previous literature, we prove the exponential asymptotic stability of the considered model with a small amount of damping (namely, on a small collar around the whole boundary) which represents less cost of material. PubDate: 2018-11-21 DOI: 10.1007/s00498-018-0226-0 Issue No:Vol. 30, No. 4 (2018)

Authors:Daniel E. Miller; Mohamad T. Shahab Abstract: While the original classical parameter adaptive controllers do not handle noise or unmodelled dynamics well, redesigned versions have been proven to have some tolerance; however, exponential stabilization and a bounded gain on the noise are rarely proven. Here we consider a classical pole placement adaptive controller using the original projection algorithm rather than the commonly modified version; we impose the assumption that the plant parameters lie in a convex, compact set, although some progress has been made at weakening the convexity requirement. We demonstrate that the closed-loop system exhibits a very desirable property: there are linear-like convolution bounds on the closed-loop behaviour, which confers exponential stability and a bounded noise gain, and which can be leveraged to prove tolerance to unmodelled dynamics and plant parameter variation. We emphasize that there is no persistent excitation requirement of any sort; the improved performance arises from the vigilant nature of the parameter estimator. PubDate: 2018-11-07 DOI: 10.1007/s00498-018-0225-1 Issue No:Vol. 30, No. 4 (2018)