Authors:Basanta Raj Lamichhane Abstract: It is our great pleasure to come up with our fourth issues of Mathematics Education Forum Chitwan (MEFC) as a peer-reviewed journal. PubDate: 2019-11-15 DOI: 10.3126/mefc.v4i4.26354 Issue No:Vol. 4, No. 4 (2019)

Authors:Shashidhar Belbase Pages: 1 - 20 Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to compare four domains of mathematics education-curricular materials, pedagogical process, teacher education, and assessment of students’ learning in the United States of America (USA) and Nepal. I applied categorical thinking for document analysis from the literature to find some key concepts related to the four categories of comparison. The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) is a major curriculum standard implemented in many states in the USA, whereas, the National Curriculum Framework (NCF) is the major policy document that guides school mathematics curricula in Nepal. Mostly, classroom practices are student-centred with problem-solving, reasoning and critical thinking in the USA, but it is mostly drill-and-practice in Nepal. Preservice mathematics teacher education in the USA and Nepal are conducted by universities, but there is a vast difference in the courses offered in these countries. Assessment of students’ learning in mathematics is continuously done in classroom activities and exams including some standardized exams in selected grades in the USA, whereas, assessment in Nepal is done with periodic and final exams including standardized district and national tests in selected grades. I discussed some implications of the study. PubDate: 2019-11-15 DOI: 10.3126/mefc.v4i4.26355 Issue No:Vol. 4, No. 4 (2019)

Authors:Dustin L. Jones, Deepak Basyal Pages: 21 - 34 Abstract: To determine the nature and extent of the statistics content that Nepali students may learn in school, we examined mathematics textbooks for grades 4-10 from five different publishers. All of the tasks in each statistics chapter were examined, for a total of 1755 tasks across 35 textbooks. Each task was classified according to the phases of the statistical problem-solving process (formulate questions, collect data, analyse data, interpret results) that were addressed. Nearly every task required students to analyse data; the other phases were rarely addressed. Additionally, tasks addressing the analysis phase were coded according to analysis activities; the majority of these tasks required students to read a display and perform a mathematical calculation. For each series, at least two-thirds of the statistics tasks followed a similar worked example. Based on these findings, we offer recommendations for teachers, text book writers, and the Curriculum Development Centre. PubDate: 2019-11-15 DOI: 10.3126/mefc.v4i4.26356 Issue No:Vol. 4, No. 4 (2019)

Authors:Niroj Dahal, Bal Chandra Luitel, Binod Prasad Pant Pages: 35 - 53 Abstract: This article portrays lived experiences, and is an exploration of pedagogical practices as learners, as teachers, as teacher educators and educational researcher focusing on the relationship between teachers and students shifting from traditional to transformative approach in teaching and learning. Based on lived experiences as students of mathematics from school level to university, and as teachers of mathematics in different institutions in different time, the aim of this article is to examine and explore deep settled behavioural practices and seek to change towards transformative/constructive approach of learning and teaching in terms of teacher-student relationship to maintain quality of instruction for future generation in Nepal. Subscribing interpretive, critical, and postmodern research paradigms to embrace multi-paradigmatic research design (Taylor, Taylor & Luitel, 2012), we used auto-ethnography as a fusion research methodology in this study. Further, the auto-ethnographic inquiry also helped us to examine the pedagogical, cultural and contextual learning from different perspectives as students, teachers, teacher educators and educational researchers thereby offering space for interpretation, transformation and envisionary. We landed with the ideas that students’ active participation in learning, social and cultural enactment and transformative pedagogy promote our practice to be more meaningful, and learner centered which, in turn, develops a cordial relationship. Our vision to develop the cordial relationship between teacher-students is focused a bit differently in this article. PubDate: 2019-11-15 DOI: 10.3126/mefc.v4i4.26357 Issue No:Vol. 4, No. 4 (2019)

Authors:Shiva Datta Dawadi Pages: 54 - 63 Abstract: The objectives of this study are to determine students’ understanding about different methods of proof in mathematics and compare their understanding with respect to their previous degree in education and other majors within the framework of a post-positivist research paradigm. Forty-two purposively selected students in the sample were selected. Their understanding of different methods of proof was determined with the help of a test paper consisting of 30 mathematical statements with proof. The study concluded that students are familiar with the methods of proofs used in verifying a mathematical statement. In addition, it is found that students with a previous degree in education and other majors differ in the level of understanding of different methods of proof in mathematics. PubDate: 2019-11-15 DOI: 10.3126/mefc.v4i4.26358 Issue No:Vol. 4, No. 4 (2019)

Authors:Krishna Kanta Parajuli Pages: 64 - 71 Abstract: This paper specially concentrates on finding the square roots of perfect as well as imperfect square numbers by the Vedic sutra Vilokanam. Generally, extracting the square root of a number is considered a tedious job. There are two methods taught in our present-day classroom by conventional approach to find square roots, which are lengthy and time consuming. But, the Vedic Sutra Vilokanam helps us to find square root of such numbers with a little practice. The technique mentioned for extracting square root for imperfect square numbers does not belong solely to Vedic Mathematics written by Swami Bharati Krishna Tirthaji Maharaja. Mathematicians have been using it as a part of their general practice. However, the technique for calculating square roots and described in Vedic Mathematics is difficult. The methods discussed and organization of the content of the paper here are intended to show the Vedic Mathematics as an extremely refined and efficient mathematical system than conventional system. PubDate: 2019-11-15 DOI: 10.3126/mefc.v4i4.26359 Issue No:Vol. 4, No. 4 (2019)

Authors:Bhuwan Prasad Ojha, Prakash Muni Bajrayacharya Pages: 72 - 78 Abstract: In an arbitrary normed space, though the norm not necessarily coming from the inner product space, the notion of orthogonality may be introduced in various ways as suggested by the mathematicians like R.C. James, B.D. Roberts, G. Birkhoff and S.O. Carlsson. We aim to explore the application of orthogonality in normed linear spaces in the best approximation. Hence it has already been proved that Birkhoff orthogonality implies best approximation and best approximation implies Birkhoff orthogonality. Additionally, it has been proved that in the case of ε -orthogonality, ε -best approximation implies ε -orthogonality and vice-versa. In this article we established relation between Pythagorean orthogonality and best approximation as well as isosceles orthogonality and ε -best approximation in normed space. PubDate: 2019-11-15 DOI: 10.3126/mefc.v4i4.26360 Issue No:Vol. 4, No. 4 (2019)

Authors:Laxman Bahadur Kunwar Pages: 79 - 87 Abstract: In this article, we consider a system involving two-species living in the same environment and describe the model for their population growth presented by Lotka and Volterra. The model is the foundation for the development of many other models. The model is known as Predator-Prey Model or Lotka-Volterra system. In more modern theories, there will be multiple species each with their own interactions but we will limit ourselves to this simpler but highly instructive classical system. We shall cover various standard tools for analysing such systems. We shall discuss dynamic solutions, equilibrium solutions and phase curves that best illustrate the phenomena. PubDate: 2019-11-15 DOI: 10.3126/mefc.v4i4.26361 Issue No:Vol. 4, No. 4 (2019)