Discrete Mathematics & Theoretical Computer Science [SJR: 0.346] [H-I: 16] [0 followers] Follow Open Access journal ISSN (Online) 1365-8050 Published by DMTCS [1 journal] |
- A sufficient condition for a balanced bipartite digraph to be
hamiltonian
Abstract: We describe a new type of sufficient condition for a balanced bipartitedigraph to be hamiltonian. Let $D$ be a balanced bipartite digraph and $x,y$ bedistinct vertices in $D$. $\{x, y\}$ dominates a vertex $z$ if $x\rightarrow z$and $y\rightarrow z$; in this case, we call the pair $\{x, y\}$ dominating. Inthis paper, we prove that a strong balanced bipartite digraph $D$ on $2a$vertices contains a hamiltonian cycle if, for every dominating pair of vertices$\{x, y\}$, either $d(x)\ge 2a-1$ and $d(y)\ge a+1$ or $d(x)\ge a+1$ and$d(y)\ge 2a-1$. The lower bound in the result is sharp.
PubDate: Fri, 10 Nov 2017 13:31:54 +010
- Circular Separation Dimension of a Subclass of Planar Graphs
Abstract: A pair of non-adjacent edges is said to be separated in a circular orderingof vertices, if the endpoints of the two edges do not alternate in theordering. The circular separation dimension of a graph $G$, denoted by$\pi^\circ(G)$, is the minimum number of circular orderings of the vertices of$G$ such that every pair of non-adjacent edges is separated in at least one ofthe circular orderings. This notion is introduced by Loeb and West in theirrecent paper. In this article, we consider two subclasses of planar graphs,namely $2$-outerplanar graphs and series-parallel graphs. A $2$-outerplanargraph has a planar embedding such that the subgraph obtained by removal of thevertices of the exterior face is outerplanar. We prove that if $G$ is$2$-outerplanar then $\pi^\circ(G) = 2$. We also prove that if $G$ is aseries-parallel graph then $\pi^\circ(G) \leq 2$.
PubDate: Fri, 03 Nov 2017 13:57:46 +010
- Depth, Highness and DNR degrees
Abstract: We study Bennett deep sequences in the context of recursion theory; inparticular we investigate the notions of O(1)-deepK, O(1)-deepC , order-deep Kand order-deep C sequences. Our main results are that Martin-Loef random setsare not order-deepC , that every many-one degree contains a set which is notO(1)-deepC , that O(1)-deepC sets and order-deepK sets have high or DNR Turingdegree and that no K-trival set is O(1)-deepK.
PubDate: Thu, 26 Oct 2017 10:22:26 +020
- On path-cycle decompositions of triangle-free graphs
Abstract: In this work, we study conditions for the existence of length-constrainedpath-cycle decompositions, that is, partitions of the edge set of a graph intopaths and cycles of a given minimum length. Our main contribution is thecharacterization of the class of all triangle-free graphs with odd distance atleast $3$ that admit a path-cycle decomposition with elements of length atleast $4$. As a consequence, it follows that Gallai's conjecture on pathdecomposition holds in a broad class of sparse graphs.
PubDate: Thu, 26 Oct 2017 10:17:39 +020
- Tight upper bound on the maximum anti-forcing numbers of graphs
Abstract: Let $G$ be a simple graph with a perfect matching. Deng and Zhang showed thatthe maximum anti-forcing number of $G$ is no more than the cyclomatic number.In this paper, we get a novel upper bound on the maximum anti-forcing number of$G$ and investigate the extremal graphs. If $G$ has a perfect matching $M$whose anti-forcing number attains this upper bound, then we say $G$ is anextremal graph and $M$ is a nice perfect matching. We obtain an equivalentcondition for the nice perfect matchings of $G$ and establish a one-to-onecorrespondence between the nice perfect matchings and the edge-involutions of$G$, which are the automorphisms $\alpha$ of order two such that $v$ and$\alpha(v)$ are adjacent for every vertex $v$. We demonstrate that all extremalgraphs can be constructed from $K_2$ by implementing two expansion operations,and $G$ is extremal if and only if one factor in a Cartesian decomposition of$G$ is extremal. As examples, we have that all perfect matchings of thecomplete graph $K_{2n}$ and the complete bipartite graph $K_{n, n}$ are nice.Also we show that the hypercube $Q_n$, the folded hypercube $FQ_n$ ($n\geq4$)and the enhanced hypercube $Q_{n, k}$ ($0\leq k\leq n-4$) have exactly $n$,$n+1$ and $n+1$ nice perfect matchings respectively.
PubDate: Tue, 17 Oct 2017 11:07:09 +020
- Longest Gapped Repeats and Palindromes
Abstract: A gapped repeat (respectively, palindrome) occurring in a word $w$ is afactor $uvu$ (respectively, $u^Rvu$) of $w$. In such a repeat (palindrome) $u$is called the arm of the repeat (respectively, palindrome), while $v$ is calledthe gap. We show how to compute efficiently, for every position $i$ of the word$w$, the longest gapped repeat and palindrome occurring at that position,provided that the length of the gap is subject to various types ofrestrictions. That is, that for each position $i$ we compute the longest prefix$u$ of $w[i..n]$ such that $uv$ (respectively, $u^Rv$) is a suffix of$w[1..i-1]$ (defining thus a gapped repeat $uvu$ -- respectively, palindrome$u^Rvu$), and the length of $v$ is subject to the aforementioned restrictions.
PubDate: Fri, 13 Oct 2017 14:32:21 +020
- On rank-width of even-hole-free graphs
Abstract: We present a class of (diamond, even hole)-free graphs with no clique cutsetthat has unbounded rank-width. In general, even-hole-free graphs have unboundedrank-width, because chordal graphs are even-hole-free. A.A. da Silva, A. Silvaand C. Linhares-Sales (2010) showed that planar even-hole-free graphs havebounded rank-width, and N.K. Le (2016) showed that even-hole-free graphs withno star cutset have bounded rank-width. A natural question is to ask, whethereven-hole-free graphs with no clique cutsets have bounded rank-width. Ourresult gives a negative answer. Hence we cannot apply Courcelle and Makowsky'smeta-theorem which would provide efficient algorithms for a large number ofproblems, including the maximum independent set problem, whose complexityremains open for (diamond, even hole)-free graphs.
PubDate: Thu, 05 Oct 2017 13:39:06 +020
- Binary Codes and Period-2 Orbits of Sequential Dynamical Systems
Abstract: Let $[K_n,f,\pi]$ be the (global) SDS map of a sequential dynamical system(SDS) defined over the complete graph $K_n$ using the update order $\pi\in S_n$in which all vertex functions are equal to the same function $f\colon\mathbbF_2^n\to\mathbb F_2^n$. Let $\eta_n$ denote the maximum number of periodicorbits of period $2$ that an SDS map of the form $[K_n,f,\pi]$ can have. Weshow that $\eta_n$ is equal to the maximum number of codewords in a binary codeof length $n-1$ with minimum distance at least $3$. This result is significantbecause it represents the first interpretation of this fascinatingcoding-theoretic sequence other than its original definition.
PubDate: Tue, 03 Oct 2017 11:40:34 +020
- Lattice paths with catastrophes
Abstract: In queuing theory, it is usual to have some models with a "reset" of thequeue. In terms of lattice paths, it is like having the possibility of jumpingfrom any altitude to zero. These objects have the interesting feature that theydo not have the same intuitive probabilistic behaviour as classical Dyck paths(the typical properties of which are strongly related to Brownian motiontheory), and this article quantifies some relations between these two types ofpaths. We give a bijection with some other lattice paths and a link with acontinued fraction expansion. Furthermore, we prove several formulae forrelated combinatorial structures conjectured in the On-Line Encyclopedia ofInteger Sequences. Thanks to the kernel method and via analytic combinatorics,we provide the enumeration and limit laws of these "lattice paths withcatastrophes" for any finite set of jumps. We end with an algorithm to generatesuch lattice paths uniformly at random.
PubDate: Fri, 29 Sep 2017 16:58:21 +020
- Irreversible 2-conversion set in graphs of bounded degree
Abstract: An irreversible $k$-threshold process (also a $k$-neighbor bootstrappercolation) is a dynamic process on a graph where vertices change color fromwhite to black if they have at least $k$ black neighbors. An irreversible$k$-conversion set of a graph $G$ is a subset $S$ of vertices of $G$ such thatthe irreversible $k$-threshold process starting with $S$ black eventuallychanges all vertices of $G$ to black. We show that deciding the existence of anirreversible 2-conversion set of a given size is NP-complete, even for graphsof maximum degree 4, which answers a question of Dreyer and Roberts.Conversely, we show that for graphs of maximum degree 3, the minimum size of anirreversible 2-conversion set can be computed in polynomial time. Moreover, wefind an optimal irreversible 3-conversion set for the toroidal grid,simplifying constructions of Pike and Zou.
PubDate: Tue, 26 Sep 2017 13:54:32 +020
- Inkdots as advice for finite automata
Abstract: We examine inkdots placed on the input string as a way of providing advice tofinite automata, and establish the relations between this model and thepreviously studied models of advised finite automata. The existence of aninfinite hierarchy of classes of languages that can be recognized with the helpof increasing numbers of inkdots as advice is shown. The effects of differentforms of advice on the succinctness of the advised machines are examined. Wealso study randomly placed inkdots as advice to probabilistic finite automata,and demonstrate the superiority of this model over its deterministic version.Even very slowly growing amounts of space can become a resource of meaningfuluse if the underlying advised model is extended with access to secondarymemory, while it is famously known that such small amounts of space are notuseful for unadvised one-way Turing machines.
PubDate: Tue, 26 Sep 2017 13:50:45 +020
- Refined Enumeration of Corners in Tree-like Tableaux
Abstract: Tree-like tableaux are certain fillings of Ferrers diagrams originallyintroduced by Aval et al., which are in simple bijections with permutationtableaux coming from Postnikov's study of totally nonnegative Grassmanian andalternative tableaux introduced by Viennot. In this paper, we confirm twoconjectures of Gao et al. on the refined enumeration of non-occupied corners intree-like tableaux and symmetric tree-like tableaux via intermediate structuresof alternative tableaux, linked partitions, type $B$ alternative tableaux andtype $B$ linked partitions.
PubDate: Tue, 26 Sep 2017 13:47:44 +020
- Tight Euler tours in uniform hypergraphs - computational aspects
Abstract: By a tight tour in a $k$-uniform hypergraph $H$ we mean any sequence of itsvertices $(w_0,w_1,\ldots,w_{s-1})$ such that for all $i=0,\ldots,s-1$ the set$e_i=\{w_i,w_{i+1}\ldots,w_{i+k-1}\}$ is an edge of $H$ (where operations onindices are computed modulo $s$) and the sets $e_i$ for $i=0,\ldots,s-1$ arepairwise different. A tight tour in $H$ is a tight Euler tour if it containsall edges of $H$. We prove that the problem of deciding if a given $3$-uniformhypergraph has a tight Euler tour is NP-complete, and that it cannot be solvedin time $2^{o(m)}$ (where $m$ is the number of edges in the input hypergraph),unless the ETH fails. We also present an exact exponential algorithm for theproblem, whose time complexity matches this lower bound, and the spacecomplexity is polynomial. In fact, this algorithm solves a more general problemof computing the number of tight Euler tours in a given uniform hypergraph.
PubDate: Tue, 26 Sep 2017 13:43:07 +020
- Stammering tableaux
Abstract: The PASEP (Partially Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process) is a probabilisticmodel of moving particles, which is of great interest in combinatorics, sinceit appeared that its partition function counts some tableaux. These tableauxhave several variants such as permutations tableaux, alternative tableaux,tree- like tableaux, Dyck tableaux, etc. We introduce in this context certainexcursions in Young's lattice, that we call stammering tableaux (by analogywith oscillating tableaux, vacillating tableaux, hesitating tableaux). Somenatural bijections make a link with rook placements in a double staircase,chains of Dyck paths obtained by successive addition of ribbons, Laguerrehistories, Dyck tableaux, etc.
PubDate: Fri, 15 Sep 2017 13:36:00 +020
- Post-surjectivity and balancedness of cellular automata over groups
Abstract: We discuss cellular automata over arbitrary finitely generated groups. Wecall a cellular automaton post-surjective if for any pair of asymptoticconfigurations, every pre-image of one is asymptotic to a pre-image of theother. The well known dual concept is pre-injectivity: a cellular automaton ispre-injective if distinct asymptotic configurations have distinct images. Weprove that pre-injective, post-surjective cellular automata are reversible.Moreover, on sofic groups, post-surjectivity alone implies reversibility. Wealso prove that reversible cellular automata over arbitrary groups arebalanced, that is, they preserve the uniform measure on the configurationspace.
PubDate: Fri, 15 Sep 2017 13:30:58 +020
- Characterizations of minimal dominating sets and the well-dominated
property in lexicographic product graphs
Abstract: A graph is said to be well-dominated if all its minimal dominating sets areof the same size. The class of well-dominated graphs forms a subclass of thewell studied class of well-covered graphs. While the recognition problem forthe class of well-covered graphs is known to be co-NP-complete, the recognitioncomplexity of well-dominated graphs is open. In this paper we introduce the notion of an irreducible dominating set, avariant of dominating set generalizing both minimal dominating sets and minimaltotal dominating sets. Based on this notion, we characterize the family ofminimal dominating sets in a lexicographic product of two graphs and derive acharacterization of the well-dominated lexicographic product graphs. As a sideresult motivated by this study, we give a polynomially testablecharacterization of well-dominated graphs with domination number two, and show,more generally, that well-dominated graphs can be recognized in polynomial timein any class of graphs with bounded domination number. Our results include acharacterization of dominating sets in lexicographic product graphs, whichgeneralizes the expression for the domination number of such graphs followingfrom works of Zhang et al. (2011) and of \v{S}umenjak et al. (2012).
PubDate: Wed, 30 Aug 2017 15:49:35 +020
- On a combination of the 1-2-3 Conjecture and the Antimagic Labelling
Conjecture
Abstract: This paper is dedicated to studying the following question: Is it always possible to injectively assign the weights 1, ..., E(G) to the edges of any given graph G (with no component isomorphic to K2) so that every two adjacent vertices of G get distinguished by their sums of incident weights' One may see this question as a combination of the well-known 1-2-3 Conjecture and the Antimagic Labelling Conjecture. Throughout this paper, we exhibit evidence that this question might be true. Benefiting from the investigations on the Antimagic Labelling Conjecture, we first point out that several classes of graphs, such as regular graphs, indeed admit such assignments. We then show that trees also do, answering a recent conjecture of Arumugam, Premalatha, Bača and Semaničová-Feňovčíková. Towards a general answer to the question above, we then prove that claimed assignments can be constructed for any graph, provided we are allowed to use some number of additional edge weights. For some classes of sparse graphs, namely 2-degenerate graphs and graphs with maximum average degree 3, we show that only a small (constant) number of such additional weights suffices.
PubDate: Tue, 08 Aug 2017 12:14:00 +020
- Asymptotics of the occupancy scheme in a random environment and its
applications to tries
Abstract: Consider $ m $ copies of an irreducible, aperiodic Markov chain $ Y $ takingvalues in a finite state space. The asymptotics as $ m $ tends to infinity, ofthe first time from which on the trajectories of the $ m $ copies differ, havebeen studied by Szpankowski (1991) in the setting of tries. We use a differentapproach and model the $ m $ trajectories by a variant of the occupancy scheme,where we consider a nested sequence of boxes. This approach will enable us toextend the result to the case when the transition probabilities are random. Wemoreover use the same techniques to study the asymptotics as $ m $ tends toinfinity of the time up to which we have observed all the possible trajectoriesof $ Y $ in random and nonrandom scenery.
PubDate: Fri, 04 Aug 2017 20:31:07 +020
- Rises in forests of binary shrubs
Abstract: The study of patterns in permutations associated with forests of binaryshrubs was initiated by D. Bevan et al.. In this paper, we study five differenttypes of rise statistics that can be associated with such permutations and findthe generating functions for the distribution of such rise statistics.
PubDate: Wed, 19 Jul 2017 11:55:50 +020
- A Bijection on Classes Enumerated by the Schr\"oder Numbers
Abstract: We consider a sorting machine consisting of two stacks in series where thefirst stack has the added restriction that entries in the stack must be indecreasing order from top to bottom. The class of permutations sortable by thismachine are known to be enumerated by the Schr\"oder numbers. In this paper, wegive a bijection between these sortable permutations of length $n$ andSchr\"oder paths -- the lattice paths from $(0,0)$ to $(n-1,n-1)$ composed ofEast steps $(1,0)$, North steps $(0,1)$, and Diagonal steps $(1,1)$ that travelweakly below the line $y=x$.
PubDate: Wed, 19 Jul 2017 11:46:44 +020
- Evaluations of series of the $q$-Watson, $q$-Dixon, and $q$-Whipple type
Abstract: Using $q$-series identities and series rearrangement, we establish severalextensions of $q$-Watson formulas with two extra integer parameters. Then theyand Sears' transformation formula are utilized to derive some generalizationsof $q$-Dixon formulas and $q$-Whipple formulas with two extra integerparameters. As special cases of these results, many interesting evaluations ofseries of $q$-Watson,$q$-Dixon, and $q$-Whipple type are displayed.
PubDate: Tue, 27 Jun 2017 10:30:43 +020
- Nonrepetitive edge-colorings of trees
Abstract: A repetition is a sequence of symbols in which the first half is the same asthe second half. An edge-coloring of a graph is repetition-free ornonrepetitive if there is no path with a color pattern that is a repetition.The minimum number of colors so that a graph has a nonrepetitive edge-coloringis called its Thue edge-chromatic number. We improve on the best known general upper bound of $4\Delta-4$ for the Thueedge-chromatic number of trees of maximum degree $\Delta$ due to Alon,Grytczuk, Ha{\l}uszczak and Riordan (2002) by providing a simple nonrepetitiveedge-coloring with $3\Delta-2$ colors.
PubDate: Tue, 27 Jun 2017 10:27:45 +020
- Equivalence of the filament and overlap graphs of subtrees of limited
trees
Abstract: The overlap graphs of subtrees of a tree are equivalent to subtree filamentgraphs, the overlap graphs of subtrees of a star are cocomparability graphs,and the overlap graphs of subtrees of a caterpillar are interval filamentgraphs. In this paper, we show the equivalence of many more classes of subtreeoverlap and subtree filament graphs, and equate them to classes of complementsof cochordal-mixed graphs. Our results generalize the previously known resultsmentioned above.
PubDate: Tue, 20 Jun 2017 11:37:51 +020
- Composing short 3-compressing words on a 2-letter alphabet
Abstract: A finite deterministic (semi)automaton A = (Q, Σ, δ) is k-compressible if there is some word w ∈ Σ + such that theimage of its state set Q under the natural action of w is reduced by at least k states. Such word w, if it exists, is calleda k-compressing word for A and A is said to be k-compressed by w. A word is k-collapsing if it is k-compressing foreach k-compressible automaton, and it is k-synchronizing if it is k-compressing for all k-compressible automata withk+1 states. We compute a set W of short words such that each 3-compressible automaton on a two-letter alphabetis 3-compressed at least by a word in W. Then we construct a shortest common superstring of the words in W and,with a further refinement, we obtain a 3-collapsing word of length 53. Moreover, as previously announced, we showthat the shortest 3-synchronizing word is not 3-collapsing, illustrating the new bounds 34 ≤ c(2, 3) ≤ 53 for the length c(2, 3) of the shortest 3-collapsing word on a two-letter alphabet.
PubDate: Tue, 20 Jun 2017 11:34:52 +020
- Graphs of Edge-Intersecting and Non-Splitting One Bend Paths in a Grid
Abstract: The families EPT (resp. EPG) Edge Intersection Graphs of Paths in a tree(resp. in a grid) are well studied graph classes. Recently we introduced thegraph classes Edge-Intersecting and Non-Splitting Paths in a Tree ENPT, and ina Grid (ENPG). It was shown that ENPG contains an infinite hierarchy ofsubclasses that are obtained by restricting the number of bends in the paths.Motivated by this result, in this work we focus on one bend {ENPG} graphs. Weshow that one bend ENPG graphs are properly included in two bend ENPG graphs.We also show that trees and cycles are one bend ENPG graphs, and characterizethe split graphs and co-bipartite graphs that are one bend ENPG. We prove thatthe recognition problem of one bend ENPG split graphs is NP-complete even in avery restricted subfamily of split graphs. Last we provide a linear timerecognition algorithm for one bend ENPG co-bipartite graphs.
PubDate: Mon, 12 Jun 2017 13:18:19 +020
- Improved kernels for Signed Max Cut parameterized above lower bound on
(r,l)-graphs
Abstract: A graph $G$ is signed if each edge is assigned $+$ or $-$. A signed graph isbalanced if there is a bipartition of its vertex set such that an edge has sign$-$ if and only if its endpoints are in different parts. The Edwards-Erd\"osbound states that every graph with $n$ vertices and $m$ edges has a balancedsubgraph with at least $\frac{m}{2}+\frac{n-1}{4}$ edges. In the Signed Max CutAbove Tight Lower Bound (Signed Max Cut ATLB) problem, given a signed graph $G$and a parameter $k$, the question is whether $G$ has a balanced subgraph withat least $\frac{m}{2}+\frac{n-1}{4}+\frac{k}{4}$ edges. This problemgeneralizes Max Cut Above Tight Lower Bound, for which a kernel with $O(k^5)$vertices was given by Crowston et al. [ICALP 2012, Algorithmica 2015]. Crowstonet al. [TCS 2013] improved this result by providing a kernel with $O(k^3)$vertices for the more general Signed Max Cut ATLB problem. In this article weare interested in improving the size of the kernels for Signed Max Cut ATLB onrestricted graph classes for which the problem remains hard. For two integers$r,\ell \geq 0$, a graph $G$ is an $(r,\ell)$-graph if $V(G)$ can bepartitioned into $r$ independent sets and $\ell$ cliques. Building on thetechniques of Crowston et al. [TCS 2013], we provide a kernel with $O(k^2)$vertices on $(r,\ell)$-graphs for any fixed $r,\ell \geq 0$, and a simplelinear kernel on subclasses of split graphs for which we prove that the problemis still NP-hard.
PubDate: Wed, 07 Jun 2017 11:25:02 +020
- On universal partial words
Abstract: A universal word for a finite alphabet $A$ and some integer $n\geq 1$ is aword over $A$ such that every word in $A^n$ appears exactly once as a subword(cyclically or linearly). It is well-known and easy to prove that universalwords exist for any $A$ and $n$. In this work we initiate the systematic studyof universal partial words. These are words that in addition to the lettersfrom $A$ may contain an arbitrary number of occurrences of a special `joker'symbol $\Diamond\notin A$, which can be substituted by any symbol from $A$. Forexample, $u=0\Diamond 011100$ is a linear partial word for the binary alphabet$A=\{0,1\}$ and for $n=3$ (e.g., the first three letters of $u$ yield thesubwords $000$ and $010$). We present results on the existence andnon-existence of linear and cyclic universal partial words in differentsituations (depending on the number of $\Diamond$s and their positions),including various explicit constructions. We also provide numerous examples ofuniversal partial words that we found with the help of a computer.
PubDate: Wed, 31 May 2017 11:00:18 +020
- The quotients between the (revised) Szeged index and Wiener index of
graphs
Abstract: Let $Sz(G),Sz^*(G)$ and $W(G)$ be the Szeged index, revised Szeged index andWiener index of a graph $G.$ In this paper, the graphs with the fourth, fifth,sixth and seventh largest Wiener indices among all unicyclic graphs of order$n\geqslant 10$ are characterized; as well the graphs with the first, second,third, and fourth largest Wiener indices among all bicyclic graphs areidentified. Based on these results, further relation on the quotients betweenthe (revised) Szeged index and the Wiener index are studied. Sharp lower boundon $Sz(G)/W(G)$ is determined for all connected graphs each of which containsat least one non-complete block. As well the connected graph with the secondsmallest value on $Sz^*(G)/W(G)$ is identified for $G$ containing at least onecycle.
PubDate: Tue, 09 May 2017 10:48:50 +020
- Decidability of multiset, set and numerically decipherable directed figure
codes
Abstract: Codes with various kinds of decipherability, weaker than the usual uniquedecipherability, have been studied since multiset decipherability wasintroduced in mid-1980s. We consider decipherability of directed figure codes,where directed figures are defined as labelled polyominoes with designatedstart and end points, equipped with catenation operation that may use a mergingfunction to resolve possible conflicts. This is one of possible extensionsgeneralizing words and variable-length codes to planar structures. Here,verification whether a given set is a code is no longer decidable in general.We study the decidability status of figure codes depending on catenation type(with or without a merging function), decipherability kind (unique, multiset,set or numeric) and code geometry (several classes determined by relativepositions of start and end points of figures). We give decidability orundecidability proofs in all but two cases that remain open.
PubDate: Wed, 03 May 2017 10:17:40 +020
- Pairwise Stability in Two Sided Market with Strictly Increasing Valuation
Functions
Abstract: This paper deals with two-sided matching market with two disjoint sets, i.e.the set of buyers and the set of sellers. Each seller can trade with at mostwith one buyer and vice versa. Money is transferred from sellers to buyers foran indivisible goods that buyers own. Valuation functions, for participants ofboth sides, are represented by strictly increasing functions with moneyconsidered as discrete variable. An algorithm is devised to prove the existenceof stability for this model.
PubDate: Wed, 12 Apr 2017 14:50:47 +020
- The permutation class Av(4213,2143)
Abstract: We determine the structure of permutations avoiding the patterns 4213 and2143. Each such permutation consists of the skew sum of a sequence of planetrees, together with an increasing sequence of points above and an increasingsequence of points to its left. We use this characterisation to establish thegenerating function enumerating these permutations. We also investigate theproperties of a typical large permutation in the class and prove that if alarge permutation that avoids 4213 and 2143 is chosen uniformly at random, thenit is more likely than not to avoid 2413 as well.
PubDate: Tue, 04 Apr 2017 16:33:15 +020
- S-Restricted Compositions Revisited
Abstract: An S-restricted composition of a positive integer n is an ordered partitionof n where each summand is drawn from a given subset S of positive integers.There are various problems regarding such compositions which have receivedattention in recent years. This paper is an attempt at finding a closed- formformula for the number of S-restricted compositions of n. To do so, we reducethe problem to finding solutions to corresponding so-called interpreters whichare linear homogeneous recurrence relations with constant coefficients. Then,we reduce interpreters to Diophantine equations. Such equations are not ingeneral solvable. Thus, we restrict our attention to those S-restrictedcomposition problems whose interpreters have a small number of coefficients,thereby leading to solvable Diophantine equations. The formalism developed isthen used to study the integer sequences related to some well-known cases ofthe S-restricted composition problem.
PubDate: Tue, 28 Mar 2017 10:24:04 +020
- On the shelling antimatroids of split graphs
Abstract: Chordal graph shelling antimatroids have received little attention withregard to their combinatorial properties and related optimization problems, ascompared to the case of poset shelling antimatroids. Here we consider a specialcase of these antimatroids, namely the split graph shelling antimatroids. Weshow that the feasible sets of such an antimatroid relate to some posetshelling antimatroids constructed from the graph. We discuss a fewapplications, obtaining in particular a simple polynomial-time algorithm tofind a maximum weight feasible set. We also provide a simple description of thecircuits and the free sets.
PubDate: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 17:07:54 +010
- Wilf classification of triples of 4-letter patterns II
Abstract: This is the second of two papers in which we determine all 242 Wilf classes of triples of 4-letter patterns by showing that there are 32 non-singleton Wilf classes. There are 317 symmetry classes of triples of 4-letter patterns and after computer calculation of initial terms, the problem reduces to showing that counting sequences that appear to be the same (agree in the first 16 terms) are in fact identical. This amounts to counting avoiders for 107 representative triples. The insertion encoding algorithm (INSENC) applies to many of them and some others have been previously counted. There remain 36 triples and the first paper dealt with the first 18. In this paper, we find the generating function for the last 18 triples which turns out to be algebraic in each case. Our methods are both combinatorial and analytic, including decomposi-tions by left-right maxima and by initial letters. Sometimes this leads to an algebraic equation for the generating function, sometimes to a functional equation or a multi-index recurrence that succumbs to the kernel method. A particularly nice so-called cell decomposition is used in one of the cases (Case 238).
PubDate: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 16:40:12 +010
- Wilf classification of triples of 4-letter patterns I
Abstract: This is the first of two papers in which we determine all 242 Wilf classes of triples of 4-letter patterns by showing that there are 32 non-singleton Wilf classes. There are 317 symmetry classes of triples of 4-letter patterns and after computer calculation of initial terms, the problem reduces to showing that counting sequences that appear to be the same (agree in the first 16 terms) are in fact identical. This amounts to counting avoiders for 107 representative triples. The insertion encoding algorithm (INSENC) applies to many of them and some others have been previously counted. Thus there remain 36 triples. In this paper, we find the generating function for the first 18 of these triples and in a second paper, we treat the other 18. The generating function turns out to be algebraic in each case. Our methods are both combinatorial and analytic, including decompositions by left-right maxima and by initial letters. Sometimes this leads to an algebraic equation for the generating function, sometimes to a functional equation or a multi-index recurrence that succumbs to the kernel method. A bijection is used in one of the cases (Case 50).
PubDate: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 16:37:57 +010
- A class of symmetric difference-closed sets related to commuting
involutions
Abstract: Recent research on the combinatorics of finite sets has explored the structure of symmetric difference-closed sets, and recent research in combinatorial group theory has concerned the enumeration of commuting involutions in $S_{n}$ and $A_{n}$. In this article, we consider an interesting combination of these two subjects, by introducing classes of symmetric difference-closed sets of elements which correspond in a natural way to commuting involutions in $S_{n}$ and $A_{n}$. We consider the natural combinatorial problem of enumerating symmetric difference-closed sets consisting of subsets of sets consisting of pairwise disjoint $2$-subsets of $[n]$, and the problem of enumerating symmetric difference-closed sets consisting of elements which correspond to commuting involutions in $A_{n}$. We prove explicit combinatorial formulas for symmetric difference-closed sets of these forms, and we prove a number of conjectured properties related to such sets which had previously been discovered experimentally using the On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences.
PubDate: Thu, 23 Mar 2017 11:33:33 +010
- Permutation Pattern matching in (213, 231)-avoiding permutations
Abstract: Given permutations σ of size k and π of size n with k < n, the permutation pattern matching problem is to decide whether σ occurs in π as an order-isomorphic subsequence. We give a linear-time algorithm in case both π and σ avoid the two size-3 permutations 213 and 231. For the special case where only σ avoids 213 and 231, we present a O(max(kn 2 , n 2 log log n)-time algorithm. We extend our research to bivincular patterns that avoid 213 and 231 and present a O(kn 4)-time algorithm. Finally we look at the related problem of the longest subsequence which avoids 213 and 231.
PubDate: Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:10:58 +010
- The Existence of Planar Hypotraceable Oriented Graphs
Abstract: A digraph is \emph{traceable} if it has a path that visits every vertex. A digraph $D$ is \emph{hypotraceable} if $D$ is not traceable but $D-v$ is traceable for every vertex $v\in V(D)$. It is known that there exists a planar hypotraceable digraph of order $n$ for every $n\geq 7$, but no examples of planar hypotraceable oriented graphs (digraphs without 2-cycles) have yet appeared in the literature. We show that there exists a planar hypotraceable oriented graph of order $n$ for every even $n \geq 10$, with the possible exception of $n = 14$.
PubDate: Thu, 16 Mar 2017 14:27:09 +010
- A characterization of trees with equal 2-domination and 2-independence
numbers
Abstract: A set $S$ of vertices in a graph $G$ is a $2$-dominating set if every vertexof $G$ not in $S$ is adjacent to at least two vertices in $S$, and $S$ is a$2$-independent set if every vertex in $S$ is adjacent to at most one vertex of$S$. The $2$-domination number $\gamma_2(G)$ is the minimum cardinality of a$2$-dominating set in $G$, and the $2$-independence number $\alpha_2(G)$ is themaximum cardinality of a $2$-independent set in $G$. Chellali and Meddah [{\itTrees with equal $2$-domination and $2$-independence numbers,} DiscussionesMathematicae Graph Theory 32 (2012), 263--270] provided a constructivecharacterization of trees with equal $2$-domination and $2$-independencenumbers. Their characterization is in terms of global properties of a tree, andinvolves properties of minimum $2$-dominating and maximum $2$-independent setsin the tree at each stage of the construction. We provide a constructivecharacterization that relies only on local properties of the tree at each stageof the construction.
PubDate: Thu, 09 Mar 2017 08:53:33 +010
- A New Game Invariant of Graphs: the Game Distinguishing Number
Abstract: The distinguishing number of a graph $G$ is a symmetry related graphinvariant whose study started two decades ago. The distinguishing number $D(G)$is the least integer $d$ such that $G$ has a $d$-distinguishing coloring. Adistinguishing $d$-coloring is a coloring $c:V(G)\rightarrow\{1,...,d\}$invariant only under the trivial automorphism. In this paper, we introduce agame variant of the distinguishing number. The distinguishing game is a gamewith two players, the Gentle and the Rascal, with antagonist goals. This gameis played on a graph $G$ with a set of $d\in\mathbb N^*$ colors. Alternately,the two players choose a vertex of $G$ and color it with one of the $d$ colors.The game ends when all the vertices have been colored. Then the Gentle wins ifthe coloring is distinguishing and the Rascal wins otherwise. This game leadsto define two new invariants for a graph $G$, which are the minimum numbers ofcolors needed to ensure that the Gentle has a winning strategy, depending onwho starts. These invariants could be infinite, thus we start by givingsufficient conditions to have infinite game distinguishing numbers. We alsoshow that for graphs with cyclic automorphisms group of prime odd order, bothgame invariants are finite. After that, we define a class of graphs, theinvolutive graphs, for which the game distinguishing number can bequadratically bounded above by the classical distinguishing number. Thedefinition of this class is closely related to imprimitive actions whose blockshave size $2$. Then, we apply results on involutive graphs to compute the exactvalue of these invariants for hypercubes and even cycles. Finally, we study oddcycles, for which we are able to compute the exact value when their order isnot prime. In the prime order case, we give an upper bound of $3$.
PubDate: Thu, 02 Mar 2017 15:48:34 +010
- Descent c-Wilf Equivalence
Abstract: Let $S_n$ denote the symmetric group. For any $\sigma \in S_n$, we let$\mathrm{des}(\sigma)$ denote the number of descents of $\sigma$,$\mathrm{inv}(\sigma)$ denote the number of inversions of $\sigma$, and$\mathrm{LRmin}(\sigma)$ denote the number of left-to-right minima of $\sigma$.For any sequence of statistics $\mathrm{stat}_1, \ldots \mathrm{stat}_k$ onpermutations, we say two permutations $\alpha$ and $\beta$ in $S_j$ are$(\mathrm{stat}_1, \ldots \mathrm{stat}_k)$-c-Wilf equivalent if the generatingfunction of $\prod_{i=1}^k x_i^{\mathrm{stat}_i}$ over all permutations whichhave no consecutive occurrences of $\alpha$ equals the generating function of$\prod_{i=1}^k x_i^{\mathrm{stat}_i}$ over all permutations which have noconsecutive occurrences of $\beta$. We give many examples of pairs ofpermutations $\alpha$ and $\beta$ in $S_j$ which are $\mathrm{des}$-c-Wilfequivalent, $(\mathrm{des},\mathrm{inv})$-c-Wilf equivalent, and$(\mathrm{des},\mathrm{inv},\mathrm{LRmin})$-c-Wilf equivalent. For example, wewill show that if $\alpha$ and $\beta$ are minimally overlapping permutationsin $S_j$ which start with 1 and end with the same element and$\mathrm{des}(\alpha) = \mathrm{des}(\beta)$ and $\mathrm{inv}(\alpha) =\mathrm{inv}(\beta)$, then $\alpha$ and $\beta$ are$(\mathrm{des},\mathrm{inv})$-c-Wilf equivalent.
PubDate: Thu, 02 Mar 2017 15:13:07 +010
- Right-jumps and pattern avoiding permutations
Abstract: We study the iteration of the process "a particle jumps to the right" inpermutations. We prove that the set of permutations obtained in this modelafter a given number of iterations from the identity is a class of patternavoiding permutations. We characterize the elements of the basis of this classand we enumerate these "forbidden minimal patterns" by giving their bivariateexponential generating function: we achieve this via a catalytic variable, thenumber of left-to-right maxima. We show that this generating function is aD-finite function satisfying a nice differential equation of order~2. We givesome congruence properties for the coefficients of this generating function,and we show that their asymptotics involves a rather unusual algebraic exponent(the golden ratio $(1+\sqrt 5)/2$) and some unusual closed-form constants. Weend by proving a limit law: a forbidden pattern of length $n$ has typically$(\ln n) /\sqrt{5}$ left-to-right maxima, with Gaussian fluctuations.
PubDate: Fri, 10 Feb 2017 09:11:59 +010
- Postorder Preimages
Abstract: Given a set $Y$ of decreasing plane trees and a permutation $\pi$, how manytrees in $Y$ have $\pi$ as their postorder' Using combinatorial and geometricconstructions, we provide a method for answering this question for certain sets$Y$ and all permutations $\pi$. We then provide applications of our results tothe study of the deterministic stack-sorting algorithm.
PubDate: Mon, 06 Feb 2017 17:17:25 +010
- Mixing Times of Markov Chains on Degree Constrained Orientations of Planar
Graphs
Abstract: We study Markov chains for $\alpha$-orientations of plane graphs, these areorientations where the outdegree of each vertex is prescribed by the value of agiven function $\alpha$. The set of $\alpha$-orientations of a plane graph hasa natural distributive lattice structure. The moves of the up-down Markov chainon this distributive lattice corresponds to reversals of directed facial cyclesin the $\alpha$-orientation. We have a positive and several negative resultsregarding the mixing time of such Markov chains. A 2-orientation of a plane quadrangulation is an orientation where everyinner vertex has outdegree 2. We show that there is a class of planequadrangulations such that the up-down Markov chain on the 2-orientations ofthese quadrangulations is slowly mixing. On the other hand the chain is rapidlymixing on 2-orientations of quadrangulations with maximum degree at most 4. Regarding examples for slow mixing we also revisit the case of 3-orientationsof triangulations which has been studied before by Miracle et al.. Our examplesfor slow mixing are simpler and have a smaller maximum degree, Finally wepresent the first example of a function $\alpha$ and a class of planetriangulations of constant maximum degree such that the up-down Markov chain onthe $\alpha$-orientations of these graphs is slowly mixing.
PubDate: Fri, 03 Feb 2017 11:43:52 +010
- An inequality of Kostka numbers and Galois groups of Schubert problems
Abstract: We show that the Galois group of any Schubert problem involving lines in projective space contains the alternating group. Using a criterion of Vakil and a special position argument due to Schubert, this follows from a particular inequality among Kostka numbers of two-rowed tableaux. In most cases, an easy combinatorial injection proves the inequality. For the remaining cases, we use that these Kostka numbers appear in tensor product decompositions of $\mathfrak{sl}_2\mathbb{C}$ -modules. Interpreting the tensor product as the action of certain commuting Toeplitz matrices and using a spectral analysis and Fourier series rewrites the inequality as the positivity of an integral. We establish the inequality by estimating this integral.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:55 +010
- An inequality of Kostka numbers and Galois groups of Schubert problems
Abstract: We show that the Galois group of any Schubert problem involving lines in projective space contains the alternating group. Using a criterion of Vakil and a special position argument due to Schubert, this follows from a particular inequality among Kostka numbers of two-rowed tableaux. In most cases, an easy combinatorial injection proves the inequality. For the remaining cases, we use that these Kostka numbers appear in tensor product decompositions of $\mathfrak{sl}_2\mathbb{C}$ -modules. Interpreting the tensor product as the action of certain commuting Toeplitz matrices and using a spectral analysis and Fourier series rewrites the inequality as the positivity of an integral. We establish the inequality by estimating this integral.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:55 +010
- Extending from bijections between marked occurrences of patterns to all
occurrences of patterns
Abstract: We consider two recent open problems stating that certain statistics on various sets of combinatorial objects are equidistributed. The first, posed by Anders Claesson and Svante Linusson, relates nestings in matchings on $\{1,2,\ldots,2n\}$ to occurrences of a certain pattern in permutations in $S_n$. The second, posed by Miles Jones and Jeffrey Remmel, relates occurrences of a large class of consecutive permutation patterns to occurrences of the same pattern in the cycles of permutations. We develop a general method that solves both of these problems and many more. We further employ the Garsia-Milne involution principle to obtain purely bijective proofs of these results.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:54 +010
- Extending from bijections between marked occurrences of patterns to all
occurrences of patterns
Abstract: We consider two recent open problems stating that certain statistics on various sets of combinatorial objects are equidistributed. The first, posed by Anders Claesson and Svante Linusson, relates nestings in matchings on $\{1,2,\ldots,2n\}$ to occurrences of a certain pattern in permutations in $S_n$. The second, posed by Miles Jones and Jeffrey Remmel, relates occurrences of a large class of consecutive permutation patterns to occurrences of the same pattern in the cycles of permutations. We develop a general method that solves both of these problems and many more. We further employ the Garsia-Milne involution principle to obtain purely bijective proofs of these results.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:54 +010
- Perturbation of transportation polytopes
Abstract: We describe a perturbation method that can be used to compute the multivariate generating function (MGF) of a non-simple polyhedron, and then construct a perturbation that works for any transportation polytope. Applying this perturbation to the family of central transportation polytopes of order $kn \times n$, we obtain formulas for the MGF of the polytope. The formulas we obtain are enumerated by combinatorial objects. A special case of the formulas recovers the results on Birkhoff polytopes given by the author and De Loera and Yoshida. We also recover the formula for the number of maximum vertices of transportation polytopes of order $kn \times n$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:53 +010
- Perturbation of transportation polytopes
Abstract: We describe a perturbation method that can be used to compute the multivariate generating function (MGF) of a non-simple polyhedron, and then construct a perturbation that works for any transportation polytope. Applying this perturbation to the family of central transportation polytopes of order $kn \times n$, we obtain formulas for the MGF of the polytope. The formulas we obtain are enumerated by combinatorial objects. A special case of the formulas recovers the results on Birkhoff polytopes given by the author and De Loera and Yoshida. We also recover the formula for the number of maximum vertices of transportation polytopes of order $kn \times n$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:53 +010
- Flow polytopes and the Kostant partition function
Abstract: We establish the relationship between volumes of flow polytopes associated to signed graphs and the Kostant partition function. A special case of this relationship, namely, when the graphs are signless, has been studied in detail by Baldoni and Vergne using techniques of residues. In contrast with their approach, we provide combinatorial proofs inspired by the work of Postnikov and Stanley on flow polytopes. As an application of our results we study a distinguished family of flow polytopes: the Chan-Robbins-Yuen polytopes. Inspired by their beautiful volume formula $\prod_{k=0}^{n-2} Cat(k)$ for the type $A_n$ case, where $Cat(k)$ is the $k^{th}$ Catalan number, we introduce type $C_{n+1}$ and $D_{n+1}$ Chan-Robbins-Yuen polytopes along with intriguing conjectures about their volumes.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:52 +010
- Flow polytopes and the Kostant partition function
Abstract: We establish the relationship between volumes of flow polytopes associated to signed graphs and the Kostant partition function. A special case of this relationship, namely, when the graphs are signless, has been studied in detail by Baldoni and Vergne using techniques of residues. In contrast with their approach, we provide combinatorial proofs inspired by the work of Postnikov and Stanley on flow polytopes. As an application of our results we study a distinguished family of flow polytopes: the Chan-Robbins-Yuen polytopes. Inspired by their beautiful volume formula $\prod_{k=0}^{n-2} Cat(k)$ for the type $A_n$ case, where $Cat(k)$ is the $k^{th}$ Catalan number, we introduce type $C_{n+1}$ and $D_{n+1}$ Chan-Robbins-Yuen polytopes along with intriguing conjectures about their volumes.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:52 +010
- The ABC's of affine Grassmannians and Hall-Littlewood polynomials
Abstract: We give a new description of the Pieri rule for $k$-Schur functions using the Bruhat order on the affine type-$A$ Weyl group. In doing so, we prove a new combinatorial formula for representatives of the Schubert classes for the cohomology of affine Grassmannians. We show how new combinatorics involved in our formulas gives the Kostka-Foulkes polynomials and discuss how this can be applied to study the transition matrices between Hall-Littlewood and $k$-Schur functions.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:51 +010
- The ABC's of affine Grassmannians and Hall-Littlewood polynomials
Abstract: We give a new description of the Pieri rule for $k$-Schur functions using the Bruhat order on the affine type-$A$ Weyl group. In doing so, we prove a new combinatorial formula for representatives of the Schubert classes for the cohomology of affine Grassmannians. We show how new combinatorics involved in our formulas gives the Kostka-Foulkes polynomials and discuss how this can be applied to study the transition matrices between Hall-Littlewood and $k$-Schur functions.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:51 +010
- Lifted generalized permutahedra and composition polynomials
Abstract: We introduce a "lifting'' construction for generalized permutohedra, which turns an $n$-dimensional generalized permutahedron into an $(n+1)$-dimensional one. We prove that this construction gives rise to Stasheff's multiplihedron from homotopy theory, and to the more general "nestomultiplihedra,'' answering two questions of Devadoss and Forcey. We construct a subdivision of any lifted generalized permutahedron whose pieces are indexed by compositions. The volume of each piece is given by a polynomial whose combinatorial properties we investigate. We show how this "composition polynomial'' arises naturally in the polynomial interpolation of an exponential function. We prove that its coefficients are positive integers, and conjecture that they are unimodal.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:50 +010
- Lifted generalized permutahedra and composition polynomials
Abstract: We introduce a "lifting'' construction for generalized permutohedra, which turns an $n$-dimensional generalized permutahedron into an $(n+1)$-dimensional one. We prove that this construction gives rise to Stasheff's multiplihedron from homotopy theory, and to the more general "nestomultiplihedra,'' answering two questions of Devadoss and Forcey. We construct a subdivision of any lifted generalized permutahedron whose pieces are indexed by compositions. The volume of each piece is given by a polynomial whose combinatorial properties we investigate. We show how this "composition polynomial'' arises naturally in the polynomial interpolation of an exponential function. We prove that its coefficients are positive integers, and conjecture that they are unimodal.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:50 +010
- $q$-Floor Diagrams computing Refined Severi Degrees for Plane Curves
Abstract: The Severi degree is the degree of the Severi variety parametrizing plane curves of degree $d$ with $\delta$ nodes. Recently, Göttsche and Shende gave two refinements of Severi degrees, polynomials in a variable $q$, which are conjecturally equal, for large $d$. At $q=1$, one of the refinements, the relative Severi degree, specializes to the (non-relative) Severi degree. We give a combinatorial description of the refined Severi degrees, in terms of a $q$-analog count of Brugallé and Mikhalkin's floor diagrams. Our description implies that, for fixed $\delta$, the refined Severi degrees are polynomials in $d$ and $q$, for large $d$. As a consequence, we show that, for $\delta \leq 4$ and all $d$, both refinements of Göttsche and Shende agree and equal our $q$-count of floor diagrams.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:49 +010
- $q$-Floor Diagrams computing Refined Severi Degrees for Plane Curves
Abstract: The Severi degree is the degree of the Severi variety parametrizing plane curves of degree $d$ with $\delta$ nodes. Recently, Göttsche and Shende gave two refinements of Severi degrees, polynomials in a variable $q$, which are conjecturally equal, for large $d$. At $q=1$, one of the refinements, the relative Severi degree, specializes to the (non-relative) Severi degree. We give a combinatorial description of the refined Severi degrees, in terms of a $q$-analog count of Brugallé and Mikhalkin's floor diagrams. Our description implies that, for fixed $\delta$, the refined Severi degrees are polynomials in $d$ and $q$, for large $d$. As a consequence, we show that, for $\delta \leq 4$ and all $d$, both refinements of Göttsche and Shende agree and equal our $q$-count of floor diagrams.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:49 +010
- Maximal Newton polygons via the quantum Bruhat graph
Abstract: This paper discusses a surprising relationship between the quantum cohomology of the variety of complete flags and the partially ordered set of Newton polygons associated to an element in the affine Weyl group. One primary key to establishing this connection is the fact that paths in the quantum Bruhat graph, which is a weighted directed graph with vertices indexed by elements in the finite Weyl group, encode saturated chains in the strong Bruhat order on the affine Weyl group. This correspondence is also fundamental in the work of Lam and Shimozono establishing Peterson's isomorphism between the quantum cohomology of the finite flag variety and the homology of the affine Grassmannian. In addition, using some geometry associated to the poset of Newton polygons, one obtains independent proofs for several combinatorial statements about paths in the quantum Bruhat graph and its symmetries, which were originally proved by Postnikov using the tilted Bruhat order. An important geometric application of this work is an inequality which provides a necessary condition for non-emptiness of certain affine Deligne-Lusztig varieties in the affine flag variety.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:48 +010
- Maximal Newton polygons via the quantum Bruhat graph
Abstract: This paper discusses a surprising relationship between the quantum cohomology of the variety of complete flags and the partially ordered set of Newton polygons associated to an element in the affine Weyl group. One primary key to establishing this connection is the fact that paths in the quantum Bruhat graph, which is a weighted directed graph with vertices indexed by elements in the finite Weyl group, encode saturated chains in the strong Bruhat order on the affine Weyl group. This correspondence is also fundamental in the work of Lam and Shimozono establishing Peterson's isomorphism between the quantum cohomology of the finite flag variety and the homology of the affine Grassmannian. In addition, using some geometry associated to the poset of Newton polygons, one obtains independent proofs for several combinatorial statements about paths in the quantum Bruhat graph and its symmetries, which were originally proved by Postnikov using the tilted Bruhat order. An important geometric application of this work is an inequality which provides a necessary condition for non-emptiness of certain affine Deligne-Lusztig varieties in the affine flag variety.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:48 +010
- Cartan invariant matrices for finite monoids
Abstract: Let $M$ be a finite monoid. In this paper we describe how the Cartan invariant matrix of the monoid algebra of $M$ over a field $\mathbb{K}$ of characteristic zero can be expressed using characters and some simple combinatorial statistic. In particular, it can be computed efficiently from the composition factors of the left and right class modules of $M$. When $M$ is aperiodic, this approach works in any characteristic, and generalizes to $\mathbb{K}$ a principal ideal domain like $\mathbb{Z}$. When $M$ is $\mathcal{R}$-trivial, we retrieve the formerly known purely combinatorial description of the Cartan matrix.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:47 +010
- Cartan invariant matrices for finite monoids
Abstract: Let $M$ be a finite monoid. In this paper we describe how the Cartan invariant matrix of the monoid algebra of $M$ over a field $\mathbb{K}$ of characteristic zero can be expressed using characters and some simple combinatorial statistic. In particular, it can be computed efficiently from the composition factors of the left and right class modules of $M$. When $M$ is aperiodic, this approach works in any characteristic, and generalizes to $\mathbb{K}$ a principal ideal domain like $\mathbb{Z}$. When $M$ is $\mathcal{R}$-trivial, we retrieve the formerly known purely combinatorial description of the Cartan matrix.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:47 +010
- A generalization of the alcove model and its applications
Abstract: The alcove model of the first author and Postnikov describes highest weight crystals of semisimple Lie algebras. We present a generalization, called the quantum alcove model, and conjecture that it uniformly describes tensor products of column shape Kirillov-Reshetikhin crystals, for all untwisted affine types. We prove the conjecture in types $A$ and $C$. We also present evidence for the fact that a related statistic computes the energy function.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:46 +010
- A generalization of the alcove model and its applications
Abstract: The alcove model of the first author and Postnikov describes highest weight crystals of semisimple Lie algebras. We present a generalization, called the quantum alcove model, and conjecture that it uniformly describes tensor products of column shape Kirillov-Reshetikhin crystals, for all untwisted affine types. We prove the conjecture in types $A$ and $C$. We also present evidence for the fact that a related statistic computes the energy function.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:46 +010
- Universal Polynomials for Severi Degrees of Toric Surfaces
Abstract: The Severi variety parametrizes plane curves of degree $d$ with $\delta$ nodes. Its degree is called the Severi degree. For large enough $d$, the Severi degrees coincide with the Gromov-Witten invariants of $\mathbb{CP}^2$. Fomin and Mikhalkin (2009) proved the 1995 conjecture that for fixed $\delta$, Severi degrees are eventually polynomial in $d$. In this paper, we study the Severi varieties corresponding to a large family of toric surfaces. We prove the analogous result that the Severi degrees are eventually polynomial as a function of the multidegree. More surprisingly, we show that the Severi degrees are also eventually polynomial "as a function of the surface". Our strategy is to use tropical geometry to express Severi degrees in terms of Brugallé and Mikhalkin's floor diagrams, and study those combinatorial objects in detail. An important ingredient in the proof is the polynomiality of the discrete volume of a variable facet-unimodular polytope.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:45 +010
- Universal Polynomials for Severi Degrees of Toric Surfaces
Abstract: The Severi variety parametrizes plane curves of degree $d$ with $\delta$ nodes. Its degree is called the Severi degree. For large enough $d$, the Severi degrees coincide with the Gromov-Witten invariants of $\mathbb{CP}^2$. Fomin and Mikhalkin (2009) proved the 1995 conjecture that for fixed $\delta$, Severi degrees are eventually polynomial in $d$. In this paper, we study the Severi varieties corresponding to a large family of toric surfaces. We prove the analogous result that the Severi degrees are eventually polynomial as a function of the multidegree. More surprisingly, we show that the Severi degrees are also eventually polynomial "as a function of the surface". Our strategy is to use tropical geometry to express Severi degrees in terms of Brugallé and Mikhalkin's floor diagrams, and study those combinatorial objects in detail. An important ingredient in the proof is the polynomiality of the discrete volume of a variable facet-unimodular polytope.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:45 +010
- Asymptotical behaviour of roots of infinite Coxeter groups I
Abstract: Let $W$ be an infinite Coxeter group, and $\Phi$ be the root system constructed from its geometric representation. We study the set $E$ of limit points of "normalized'' roots (representing the directions of the roots). We show that $E$ is contained in the isotropic cone $Q$ of the bilinear form associated to $W$, and illustrate this property with numerous examples and pictures in rank $3$ and $4$. We also define a natural geometric action of $W$ on $E$, for which $E$ is stable. Then we exhibit a countable subset $E_2$ of $E$, formed by limit points for the dihedral reflection subgroups of $W$; we explain how $E_2$ can be built from the intersection with $Q$ of the lines passing through two roots, and we establish that $E_2$ is dense in $E$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:44 +010
- Asymptotical behaviour of roots of infinite Coxeter groups I
Abstract: Let $W$ be an infinite Coxeter group, and $\Phi$ be the root system constructed from its geometric representation. We study the set $E$ of limit points of "normalized'' roots (representing the directions of the roots). We show that $E$ is contained in the isotropic cone $Q$ of the bilinear form associated to $W$, and illustrate this property with numerous examples and pictures in rank $3$ and $4$. We also define a natural geometric action of $W$ on $E$, for which $E$ is stable. Then we exhibit a countable subset $E_2$ of $E$, formed by limit points for the dihedral reflection subgroups of $W$; we explain how $E_2$ can be built from the intersection with $Q$ of the lines passing through two roots, and we establish that $E_2$ is dense in $E$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:44 +010
- Computing Tutte Polynomials
Abstract: We present a new edge selection heuristic and vertex ordering heuristic that together enable one to compute the Tutte polynomial of much larger sparse graphs than was previously doable. As a specific example, we are able to compute the Tutte polynomial of the truncated icosahedron graph using our Maple implementation in under 4 minutes on a single CPU. This compares with a recent result of Haggard, Pearce and Royle whose special purpose C++ software took one week on 150 computers.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:43 +010
- Computing Tutte Polynomials
Abstract: We present a new edge selection heuristic and vertex ordering heuristic that together enable one to compute the Tutte polynomial of much larger sparse graphs than was previously doable. As a specific example, we are able to compute the Tutte polynomial of the truncated icosahedron graph using our Maple implementation in under 4 minutes on a single CPU. This compares with a recent result of Haggard, Pearce and Royle whose special purpose C++ software took one week on 150 computers.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:43 +010
- Bijections for lattice paths between two boundaries
Abstract: We prove that on the set of lattice paths with steps $N=(0,1)$ and $E=(1,0)$ that lie between two boundaries $B$ and $T$, the two statistics `number of $E$ steps shared with $B$' and `number of $E$ steps shared with $T$' have a symmetric joint distribution. We give an involution that switches these statistics, preserves additional parameters, and generalizes to paths that contain steps $S=(0,-1)$ at prescribed $x$-coordinates. We also show that a similar equidistribution result for other path statistics follows from the fact that the Tutte polynomial of a matroid is independent of the order of its ground set. Finally, we extend the two theorems to $k$-tuples of paths between two boundaries, and we give some applications to Dyck paths, generalizing a result of Deutsch, and to pattern-avoiding permutations.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:42 +010
- Bijections for lattice paths between two boundaries
Abstract: We prove that on the set of lattice paths with steps $N=(0,1)$ and $E=(1,0)$ that lie between two boundaries $B$ and $T$, the two statistics `number of $E$ steps shared with $B$' and `number of $E$ steps shared with $T$' have a symmetric joint distribution. We give an involution that switches these statistics, preserves additional parameters, and generalizes to paths that contain steps $S=(0,-1)$ at prescribed $x$-coordinates. We also show that a similar equidistribution result for other path statistics follows from the fact that the Tutte polynomial of a matroid is independent of the order of its ground set. Finally, we extend the two theorems to $k$-tuples of paths between two boundaries, and we give some applications to Dyck paths, generalizing a result of Deutsch, and to pattern-avoiding permutations.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:42 +010
- Constellations and multicontinued fractions: application to Eulerian
triangulations
Abstract: We consider the problem of enumerating planar constellations with two points at a prescribed distance. Our approach relies on a combinatorial correspondence between this family of constellations and the simpler family of rooted constellations, which we may formulate algebraically in terms of multicontinued fractions and generalized Hankel determinants. As an application, we provide a combinatorial derivation of the generating function of Eulerian triangulations with two points at a prescribed distance.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:41 +010
- Constellations and multicontinued fractions: application to Eulerian
triangulations
Abstract: We consider the problem of enumerating planar constellations with two points at a prescribed distance. Our approach relies on a combinatorial correspondence between this family of constellations and the simpler family of rooted constellations, which we may formulate algebraically in terms of multicontinued fractions and generalized Hankel determinants. As an application, we provide a combinatorial derivation of the generating function of Eulerian triangulations with two points at a prescribed distance.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:41 +010
- Flows on Simplicial Complexes
Abstract: Given a graph $G$, the number of nowhere-zero $\mathbb{Z}_q$-flows $\phi _G(q)$ is known to be a polynomial in $q$. We extend the definition of nowhere-zero $\mathbb{Z} _q$-flows to simplicial complexes $\Delta$ of dimension greater than one, and prove the polynomiality of the corresponding function $\phi_{\Delta}(q)$ for certain $q$ and certain subclasses of simplicial complexes.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:41 +010
- Flows on Simplicial Complexes
Abstract: Given a graph $G$, the number of nowhere-zero $\mathbb{Z}_q$-flows $\phi _G(q)$ is known to be a polynomial in $q$. We extend the definition of nowhere-zero $\mathbb{Z} _q$-flows to simplicial complexes $\Delta$ of dimension greater than one, and prove the polynomiality of the corresponding function $\phi_{\Delta}(q)$ for certain $q$ and certain subclasses of simplicial complexes.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:41 +010
- Enumeration of Cylindric Plane Partitions
Abstract: Cylindric plane partitions may be thought of as a natural generalization of reverse plane partitions. A generating series for the enumeration of cylindric plane partitions was recently given by Borodin. As in the reverse plane partition case, the right hand side of this identity admits a simple factorization form in terms of the "hook lengths'' of the individual boxes in the underlying shape. The first result of this paper is a new bijective proof of Borodin's identity which makes use of Fomin's growth diagram framework for generalized RSK correspondences. The second result of this paper is a $(q,t)$-analog of Borodin's identity which extends previous work by Okada in the reverse plane partition case. The third result of this paper is an explicit combinatorial interpretation of the Macdonald weight occurring in the $(q,t)$-analog in terms of the non-intersecting lattice path model for cylindric plane partitions.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:40 +010
- Enumeration of Cylindric Plane Partitions
Abstract: Cylindric plane partitions may be thought of as a natural generalization of reverse plane partitions. A generating series for the enumeration of cylindric plane partitions was recently given by Borodin. As in the reverse plane partition case, the right hand side of this identity admits a simple factorization form in terms of the "hook lengths'' of the individual boxes in the underlying shape. The first result of this paper is a new bijective proof of Borodin's identity which makes use of Fomin's growth diagram framework for generalized RSK correspondences. The second result of this paper is a $(q,t)$-analog of Borodin's identity which extends previous work by Okada in the reverse plane partition case. The third result of this paper is an explicit combinatorial interpretation of the Macdonald weight occurring in the $(q,t)$-analog in terms of the non-intersecting lattice path model for cylindric plane partitions.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:40 +010
- Combinatorial specification of permutation classes
Abstract: This article presents a methodology that automatically derives a combinatorial specification for the permutation class $\mathcal{C} = Av(B)$, given its basis $B$ of excluded patterns and the set of simple permutations in $\mathcal{C}$, when these sets are both finite. This is achieved considering both pattern avoidance and pattern containment constraints in permutations.The obtained specification yields a system of equations satisfied by the generating function of $\mathcal{C}$, this system being always positive and algebraic. It also yields a uniform random sampler of permutations in $\mathcal{C}$. The method presented is fully algorithmic.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:39 +010
- Combinatorial specification of permutation classes
Abstract: This article presents a methodology that automatically derives a combinatorial specification for the permutation class $\mathcal{C} = Av(B)$, given its basis $B$ of excluded patterns and the set of simple permutations in $\mathcal{C}$, when these sets are both finite. This is achieved considering both pattern avoidance and pattern containment constraints in permutations.The obtained specification yields a system of equations satisfied by the generating function of $\mathcal{C}$, this system being always positive and algebraic. It also yields a uniform random sampler of permutations in $\mathcal{C}$. The method presented is fully algorithmic.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:39 +010
- Dyck tilings, linear extensions, descents, and inversions
Abstract: Dyck tilings were introduced by Kenyon and Wilson in their study of double-dimer pairings. They are certain kinds of tilings of skew Young diagrams with ribbon tiles shaped like Dyck paths. We give two bijections between "cover-inclusive'' Dyck tilings and linear extensions of tree posets. The first bijection maps the statistic (area + tiles)/2 to inversions of the linear extension, and the second bijection maps the "discrepancy'' between the upper and lower boundary of the tiling to descents of the linear extension.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:38 +010
- Dyck tilings, linear extensions, descents, and inversions
Abstract: Dyck tilings were introduced by Kenyon and Wilson in their study of double-dimer pairings. They are certain kinds of tilings of skew Young diagrams with ribbon tiles shaped like Dyck paths. We give two bijections between "cover-inclusive'' Dyck tilings and linear extensions of tree posets. The first bijection maps the statistic (area + tiles)/2 to inversions of the linear extension, and the second bijection maps the "discrepancy'' between the upper and lower boundary of the tiling to descents of the linear extension.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:38 +010
- Enumeration of permutations sorted with two passes through a stack and D_8
symmetries
Abstract: We examine the sets of permutations that are sorted by two passes through a stack with a $D_8$ operation performed in between. From a characterization of these in terms of generalized excluded patterns, we prove two conjectures on their enumeration, that can be refined with the distribution of some statistics. The results are obtained by generating trees.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:37 +010
- Enumeration of permutations sorted with two passes through a stack and D_8
symmetries
Abstract: We examine the sets of permutations that are sorted by two passes through a stack with a $D_8$ operation performed in between. From a characterization of these in terms of generalized excluded patterns, we prove two conjectures on their enumeration, that can be refined with the distribution of some statistics. The results are obtained by generating trees.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:37 +010
- Which Schubert varieties are local complete intersections?
Abstract: We characterize by pattern avoidance the Schubert varieties for $\mathrm{GL}_n$ which are local complete intersections (lci). For those Schubert varieties which are local complete intersections, we give an explicit minimal set of equations cutting out their neighbourhoods at the identity. Although the statement of our characterization only requires ordinary pattern avoidance, showing that the Schubert varieties not satisfying our conditions are not lci appears to require working with more general notions of pattern avoidance. The Schubert varieties defined by inclusions, originally introduced by Gasharov and Reiner, turn out to be an important subclass, and we further develop some of their combinatorics. One application is a new formula for certain specializations of Schubert polynomials.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:36 +010
- Which Schubert varieties are local complete intersections?
Abstract: We characterize by pattern avoidance the Schubert varieties for $\mathrm{GL}_n$ which are local complete intersections (lci). For those Schubert varieties which are local complete intersections, we give an explicit minimal set of equations cutting out their neighbourhoods at the identity. Although the statement of our characterization only requires ordinary pattern avoidance, showing that the Schubert varieties not satisfying our conditions are not lci appears to require working with more general notions of pattern avoidance. The Schubert varieties defined by inclusions, originally introduced by Gasharov and Reiner, turn out to be an important subclass, and we further develop some of their combinatorics. One application is a new formula for certain specializations of Schubert polynomials.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:36 +010
- Fusion coefficients
Abstract: Using the expansion of the inverse of the Kostka matrix in terms of tabloids as presented by Eğecioğlu and Remmel, we show that the fusion coefficients can be expressed as an alternating sum over cylindric tableaux. Cylindric tableaux are skew tableaux with a certain cyclic symmetry. When the skew shape of the tableau has a cutting point, meaning that the cylindric skew shape is not connected, or if its weight has at most two parts, we give a positive combinatorial formula for the fusion coefficients. The proof uses a slight modification of a sign-reversing involution introduced by Remmel and Shimozono. We discuss how this approach may work in general.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:35 +010
- Fusion coefficients
Abstract: Using the expansion of the inverse of the Kostka matrix in terms of tabloids as presented by Eğecioğlu and Remmel, we show that the fusion coefficients can be expressed as an alternating sum over cylindric tableaux. Cylindric tableaux are skew tableaux with a certain cyclic symmetry. When the skew shape of the tableau has a cutting point, meaning that the cylindric skew shape is not connected, or if its weight has at most two parts, we give a positive combinatorial formula for the fusion coefficients. The proof uses a slight modification of a sign-reversing involution introduced by Remmel and Shimozono. We discuss how this approach may work in general.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:35 +010
- Involutions on Baxter Objects
Abstract: Baxter numbers are known to count several families of combinatorial objects, all of which come equipped with natural involutions. In this paper, we add a combinatorial family to the list, and show that the known bijections between these objects respect these involutions. We also give a formula for the number of objects fixed under this involution, showing that it is an instance of Stembridge's "$q=-1$ phenomenon''.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:34 +010
- Involutions on Baxter Objects
Abstract: Baxter numbers are known to count several families of combinatorial objects, all of which come equipped with natural involutions. In this paper, we add a combinatorial family to the list, and show that the known bijections between these objects respect these involutions. We also give a formula for the number of objects fixed under this involution, showing that it is an instance of Stembridge's "$q=-1$ phenomenon''.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:34 +010
- $Star^1$-convex functions on tropical linear spaces of complete graphs
Abstract: Given a fan $\Delta$ and a cone $\sigma \in \Delta$ let $star^1(\sigma )$ be the set of cones that contain $\sigma$ and are one dimension bigger than $\sigma$ . In this paper we study two cones of piecewise linear functions defined on $\delta$ : the cone of functions which are convex on $star^1(σ\sigma)$ for all cones, and the cone of functions which are convex on $star^1(σ\sigma)$ for all cones of codimension 1. We give nice combinatorial descriptions for these two cones given two different fan structures on the tropical linear space of complete graphs. For the complete graph $K_5$, we prove that with the finer fan subdivision the two cones are not equal, but with the coarser subdivision they are the same. This gives a negative answer to a question of Gibney-Maclagan that for the finer subdivision the two cones are the same.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:33 +010
- $Star^1$-convex functions on tropical linear spaces of complete graphs
Abstract: Given a fan $\Delta$ and a cone $\sigma \in \Delta$ let $star^1(\sigma )$ be the set of cones that contain $\sigma$ and are one dimension bigger than $\sigma$ . In this paper we study two cones of piecewise linear functions defined on $\delta$ : the cone of functions which are convex on $star^1(σ\sigma)$ for all cones, and the cone of functions which are convex on $star^1(σ\sigma)$ for all cones of codimension 1. We give nice combinatorial descriptions for these two cones given two different fan structures on the tropical linear space of complete graphs. For the complete graph $K_5$, we prove that with the finer fan subdivision the two cones are not equal, but with the coarser subdivision they are the same. This gives a negative answer to a question of Gibney-Maclagan that for the finer subdivision the two cones are the same.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:33 +010
- Standard fillings to parking functions
Abstract: The Hilbert series of the Garsia-Haiman module can be written as a generating function of standard fillings of Ferrers diagrams. It is conjectured by Haglund and Loehr that the Hilbert series of the diagonal harmonics can be written as a generating function of parking functions. In this paper we present a weight-preserving injection from standard fillings to parking functions for certain cases.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:32 +010
- Standard fillings to parking functions
Abstract: The Hilbert series of the Garsia-Haiman module can be written as a generating function of standard fillings of Ferrers diagrams. It is conjectured by Haglund and Loehr that the Hilbert series of the diagonal harmonics can be written as a generating function of parking functions. In this paper we present a weight-preserving injection from standard fillings to parking functions for certain cases.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:32 +010
- Cumulants of the q-semicircular law, Tutte polynomials, and heaps
Abstract: The q-semicircular law as introduced by Bożejko and Speicher interpolates between the Gaussian law and the semicircular law, and its moments have a combinatorial interpretation in terms of matchings and crossings. We prove that the cumulants of this law are, up to some factor, polynomials in q with nonnegative coefficients. This is done by showing that they are obtained by an enumeration of connected matchings, weighted by the evaluation at (1,q) of a Tutte polynomial. The two particular cases q=0 and q=2 have also alternative proofs, related with the fact that these particular evaluation of the Tutte polynomials count some orientations on graphs. Our methods also give a combinatorial model for the cumulants of the free Poisson law.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:31 +010
- Cumulants of the q-semicircular law, Tutte polynomials, and heaps
Abstract: The q-semicircular law as introduced by Bożejko and Speicher interpolates between the Gaussian law and the semicircular law, and its moments have a combinatorial interpretation in terms of matchings and crossings. We prove that the cumulants of this law are, up to some factor, polynomials in q with nonnegative coefficients. This is done by showing that they are obtained by an enumeration of connected matchings, weighted by the evaluation at (1,q) of a Tutte polynomial. The two particular cases q=0 and q=2 have also alternative proofs, related with the fact that these particular evaluation of the Tutte polynomials count some orientations on graphs. Our methods also give a combinatorial model for the cumulants of the free Poisson law.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:31 +010
- Minimal transitive factorizations of a permutation of type (p,q)
Abstract: We give a combinatorial proof of Goulden and Jackson's formula for the number of minimal transitive factorizations of a permutation when the permutation has two cycles. We use the recent result of Goulden, Nica, and Oancea on the number of maximal chains of annular noncrossing partitions of type B.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:30 +010
- Minimal transitive factorizations of a permutation of type (p,q)
Abstract: We give a combinatorial proof of Goulden and Jackson's formula for the number of minimal transitive factorizations of a permutation when the permutation has two cycles. We use the recent result of Goulden, Nica, and Oancea on the number of maximal chains of annular noncrossing partitions of type B.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:30 +010
- The multivariate arithmetic Tutte polynomial
Abstract: We introduce an arithmetic version of the multivariate Tutte polynomial recently studied by Sokal, and a quasi-polynomial that interpolates between the two. We provide a generalized Fortuin-Kasteleyn representation for representable arithmetic matroids, with applications to arithmetic colorings and flows. We give a new proof of the positivity of the coefficients of the arithmetic Tutte polynomial in the more general framework of pseudo-arithmetic matroids. In the case of a representable arithmetic matroid, we provide a geometric interpretation of the coefficients of the arithmetic Tutte polynomial.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:29 +010
- The multivariate arithmetic Tutte polynomial
Abstract: We introduce an arithmetic version of the multivariate Tutte polynomial recently studied by Sokal, and a quasi-polynomial that interpolates between the two. We provide a generalized Fortuin-Kasteleyn representation for representable arithmetic matroids, with applications to arithmetic colorings and flows. We give a new proof of the positivity of the coefficients of the arithmetic Tutte polynomial in the more general framework of pseudo-arithmetic matroids. In the case of a representable arithmetic matroid, we provide a geometric interpretation of the coefficients of the arithmetic Tutte polynomial.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:29 +010
- An algorithm which generates linear extensions for a non-simply-laced
d-complete poset with uniform probability
Abstract: \textbf . The purpose of this paper is to present an algorithm which generates linear extensions for a non-simply-laced d-complete poset with uniform probability. ≠wline
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:28 +010
- An algorithm which generates linear extensions for a non-simply-laced
d-complete poset with uniform probability
Abstract: \textbf . The purpose of this paper is to present an algorithm which generates linear extensions for a non-simply-laced d-complete poset with uniform probability. ≠wline
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:28 +010
- Correlations for the Novak process
Abstract: We study random lozenge tilings of a certain shape in the plane called the Novak half-hexagon, and compute the correlation functions for this process. This model was introduced by Nordenstam and Young (2011) and has many intriguing similarities with a more well-studied model, domino tilings of the Aztec diamond. The most difficult step in the present paper is to compute the inverse of the matrix whose (i,j)-entry is the binomial coefficient $C(A, B_j-i)$ for indeterminate variables $A$ and $B_1, \dots , B_n.$
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:27 +010
- Correlations for the Novak process
Abstract: We study random lozenge tilings of a certain shape in the plane called the Novak half-hexagon, and compute the correlation functions for this process. This model was introduced by Nordenstam and Young (2011) and has many intriguing similarities with a more well-studied model, domino tilings of the Aztec diamond. The most difficult step in the present paper is to compute the inverse of the matrix whose (i,j)-entry is the binomial coefficient $C(A, B_j-i)$ for indeterminate variables $A$ and $B_1, \dots , B_n.$
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:27 +010
- Extremal Statistics on Non-Crossing Configurations
Abstract: We obtain several properties of extremal statistics in non-crossing configurations with n vertices. We prove that the maximum degree and the largest component are of logarithmic order, and the diameter is of order $\sqrt{n}$. The proofs are based on singularity analysis, an application of the first and second moment method and on the analysis of iterated functions.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:25 +010
- Extremal Statistics on Non-Crossing Configurations
Abstract: We obtain several properties of extremal statistics in non-crossing configurations with n vertices. We prove that the maximum degree and the largest component are of logarithmic order, and the diameter is of order $\sqrt{n}$. The proofs are based on singularity analysis, an application of the first and second moment method and on the analysis of iterated functions.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:25 +010
- Triangulations of cyclic polytopes
Abstract: We give a new description of the combinatorics of triangulations of even-dimensional cyclic polytopes, and of their bistellar flips. We show that the tropical exchange relation governing the number of intersections between diagonals of a polygon and a lamination (which generalizes to arbitrary surfaces) can also be generalized in a different way, to the setting of higher dimensional cyclic polytopes.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:24 +010
- Triangulations of cyclic polytopes
Abstract: We give a new description of the combinatorics of triangulations of even-dimensional cyclic polytopes, and of their bistellar flips. We show that the tropical exchange relation governing the number of intersections between diagonals of a polygon and a lamination (which generalizes to arbitrary surfaces) can also be generalized in a different way, to the setting of higher dimensional cyclic polytopes.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:24 +010
- A simple formula for bipartite and quasi-bipartite maps with boundaries
Abstract: We obtain a very simple formula for the generating function of bipartite (resp. quasi-bipartite) planar maps with boundaries (holes) of prescribed lengths, which generalizes certain expressions obtained by Eynard in a book to appear. The formula is derived from a bijection due to Bouttier, Di Francesco and Guitter combined with a process (reminiscent of a construction of Pitman) of aggregating connected components of a forest into a single tree.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:23 +010
- A simple formula for bipartite and quasi-bipartite maps with boundaries
Abstract: We obtain a very simple formula for the generating function of bipartite (resp. quasi-bipartite) planar maps with boundaries (holes) of prescribed lengths, which generalizes certain expressions obtained by Eynard in a book to appear. The formula is derived from a bijection due to Bouttier, Di Francesco and Guitter combined with a process (reminiscent of a construction of Pitman) of aggregating connected components of a forest into a single tree.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:23 +010
- Sorting and preimages of pattern classes
Abstract: We introduce an algorithm to determine when a sorting operation, such as stack-sort or bubble-sort, outputs a given pattern. The algorithm provides a new proof of the description of West-2-stack-sortable permutations, that is permutations that are completely sorted when passed twice through a stack, in terms of patterns. We also solve the long-standing problem of describing West-3-stack-sortable permutations. This requires a new type of generalized permutation pattern we call a decorated pattern.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:22 +010
- Sorting and preimages of pattern classes
Abstract: We introduce an algorithm to determine when a sorting operation, such as stack-sort or bubble-sort, outputs a given pattern. The algorithm provides a new proof of the description of West-2-stack-sortable permutations, that is permutations that are completely sorted when passed twice through a stack, in terms of patterns. We also solve the long-standing problem of describing West-3-stack-sortable permutations. This requires a new type of generalized permutation pattern we call a decorated pattern.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:22 +010
- Classification of Ehrhart polynomials of integral simplices
Abstract: Let $δ (\mathcal{P} )=(δ _0,δ _1,\ldots,δ _d)$ be the $δ$ -vector of an integral convex polytope $\mathcal{P}$ of dimension $d$. First, by using two well-known inequalities on $δ$ -vectors, we classify the possible $δ$ -vectors with $\sum_{i=0}^d δ _i ≤3$. Moreover, by means of Hermite normal forms of square matrices, we also classify the possible $δ$ -vectors with $\sum_{i=0}^d δ _i = 4$. In addition, for $\sum_{i=0}^d δ _i ≥5$, we characterize the $δ$ -vectors of integral simplices when $\sum_{i=0}^d δ _i$ is prime.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:21 +010
- Classification of Ehrhart polynomials of integral simplices
Abstract: Let $δ (\mathcal{P} )=(δ _0,δ _1,\ldots,δ _d)$ be the $δ$ -vector of an integral convex polytope $\mathcal{P}$ of dimension $d$. First, by using two well-known inequalities on $δ$ -vectors, we classify the possible $δ$ -vectors with $\sum_{i=0}^d δ _i ≤3$. Moreover, by means of Hermite normal forms of square matrices, we also classify the possible $δ$ -vectors with $\sum_{i=0}^d δ _i = 4$. In addition, for $\sum_{i=0}^d δ _i ≥5$, we characterize the $δ$ -vectors of integral simplices when $\sum_{i=0}^d δ _i$ is prime.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:21 +010
- Product of Stanley symmetric functions
Abstract: We study the problem of expanding the product of two Stanley symmetric functions $F_w·F_u$ into Stanley symmetric functions in some natural way. Our approach is to consider a Stanley symmetric function as a stabilized Schubert polynomial $F_w=\lim _n→∞\mathfrak{S}_{1^n×w}$, and study the behavior of the expansion of $\mathfrak{S} _{1^n×w}·\mathfrak{S} _{1^n×u}$ into Schubert polynomials, as $n$ increases. We prove that this expansion stabilizes and thus we get a natural expansion for the product of two Stanley symmetric functions. In the case when one permutation is Grassmannian, we have a better understanding of this stability.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:20 +010
- Product of Stanley symmetric functions
Abstract: We study the problem of expanding the product of two Stanley symmetric functions $F_w·F_u$ into Stanley symmetric functions in some natural way. Our approach is to consider a Stanley symmetric function as a stabilized Schubert polynomial $F_w=\lim _n→∞\mathfrak{S}_{1^n×w}$, and study the behavior of the expansion of $\mathfrak{S} _{1^n×w}·\mathfrak{S} _{1^n×u}$ into Schubert polynomials, as $n$ increases. We prove that this expansion stabilizes and thus we get a natural expansion for the product of two Stanley symmetric functions. In the case when one permutation is Grassmannian, we have a better understanding of this stability.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:20 +010
- On a Subposet of the Tamari Lattice
Abstract: We discuss some properties of a subposet of the Tamari lattice introduced by Pallo (1986), which we call the comb poset. We show that three binary functions that are not well-behaved in the Tamari lattice are remarkably well-behaved within an interval of the comb poset: rotation distance, meets and joins, and the common parse words function for a pair of trees. We relate this poset to a partial order on the symmetric group studied by Edelman (1989).
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:18 +010
- On a Subposet of the Tamari Lattice
Abstract: We discuss some properties of a subposet of the Tamari lattice introduced by Pallo (1986), which we call the comb poset. We show that three binary functions that are not well-behaved in the Tamari lattice are remarkably well-behaved within an interval of the comb poset: rotation distance, meets and joins, and the common parse words function for a pair of trees. We relate this poset to a partial order on the symmetric group studied by Edelman (1989).
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:18 +010
- Hecke algebra and quantum chromatic symmetric functions
Abstract: We evaluate induced sign characters of $H_n(q)$ at certain elements of $H_n(q)$ and conjecture an interpretation for the resulting polynomials as generating functions for $P$-tableaux by a certain statistic. Our conjecture relates the quantum chromatic symmetric functions of Shareshian and Wachs to $H_n(q)$ characters.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:12 +010
- Hecke algebra and quantum chromatic symmetric functions
Abstract: We evaluate induced sign characters of $H_n(q)$ at certain elements of $H_n(q)$ and conjecture an interpretation for the resulting polynomials as generating functions for $P$-tableaux by a certain statistic. Our conjecture relates the quantum chromatic symmetric functions of Shareshian and Wachs to $H_n(q)$ characters.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:12 +010
- Chromatic roots as algebraic integers
Abstract: A chromatic root is a zero of the chromatic polynomial of a graph. At a Newton Institute workshop on Combinatorics and Statistical Mechanics in 2008, two conjectures were proposed on the subject of which algebraic integers can be chromatic roots, known as the ``$α +n$ conjecture'' and the ``$nα$ conjecture''. These say, respectively, that given any algebraic integer α there is a natural number $n$ such that $α +n$ is a chromatic root, and that any positive integer multiple of a chromatic root is also a chromatic root. By computing the chromatic polynomials of two large families of graphs, we prove the $α +n$ conjecture for quadratic and cubic integers, and show that the set of chromatic roots satisfying the nα conjecture is dense in the complex plane.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:10 +010
- Chromatic roots as algebraic integers
Abstract: A chromatic root is a zero of the chromatic polynomial of a graph. At a Newton Institute workshop on Combinatorics and Statistical Mechanics in 2008, two conjectures were proposed on the subject of which algebraic integers can be chromatic roots, known as the ``$α +n$ conjecture'' and the ``$nα$ conjecture''. These say, respectively, that given any algebraic integer α there is a natural number $n$ such that $α +n$ is a chromatic root, and that any positive integer multiple of a chromatic root is also a chromatic root. By computing the chromatic polynomials of two large families of graphs, we prove the $α +n$ conjecture for quadratic and cubic integers, and show that the set of chromatic roots satisfying the nα conjecture is dense in the complex plane.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:10 +010
- EL-Shellability of Generalized Noncrossing Partitions
Abstract: In this article we prove that the poset of m-divisible noncrossing partitions is EL-shellable for every well-generated complex reflection group. This was an open problem for type G(d,d,n) and for the exceptional types, for which a proof is given case-by-case.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:09 +010
- EL-Shellability of Generalized Noncrossing Partitions
Abstract: In this article we prove that the poset of m-divisible noncrossing partitions is EL-shellable for every well-generated complex reflection group. This was an open problem for type G(d,d,n) and for the exceptional types, for which a proof is given case-by-case.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:09 +010
- Noncommutative symmetric functions with matrix parameters
Abstract: We define new families of noncommutative symmetric functions and quasi-symmetric functions depending on two matrices of parameters, and more generally on parameters associated with paths in a binary tree. Appropriate specializations of both matrices then give back the two-vector families of Hivert, Lascoux, and Thibon and the noncommutative Macdonald functions of Bergeron and Zabrocki.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:08 +010
- Noncommutative symmetric functions with matrix parameters
Abstract: We define new families of noncommutative symmetric functions and quasi-symmetric functions depending on two matrices of parameters, and more generally on parameters associated with paths in a binary tree. Appropriate specializations of both matrices then give back the two-vector families of Hivert, Lascoux, and Thibon and the noncommutative Macdonald functions of Bergeron and Zabrocki.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:08 +010
- Phylogenetic trees and the tropical geometry of flag varieties
Abstract: We will discuss some recent theorems relating the space of weighted phylogenetic trees to the tropical varieties of each flag variety of type A. We will also discuss the tropicalizations of the functions corresponding to semi-standard tableaux, in particular we relate them to familiar functions from phylogenetics. We close with some remarks on the generalization of these results to the tropical geometry of arbitrary flag varieties. This involves the family of Bergman complexes derived from the hyperplane arrangements associated to simple Dynkin diagrams.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:07 +010
- Phylogenetic trees and the tropical geometry of flag varieties
Abstract: We will discuss some recent theorems relating the space of weighted phylogenetic trees to the tropical varieties of each flag variety of type A. We will also discuss the tropicalizations of the functions corresponding to semi-standard tableaux, in particular we relate them to familiar functions from phylogenetics. We close with some remarks on the generalization of these results to the tropical geometry of arbitrary flag varieties. This involves the family of Bergman complexes derived from the hyperplane arrangements associated to simple Dynkin diagrams.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:07 +010
- Moment graphs and KL-polynomials
Abstract: Motivated by a result of Fiebig (2007), we categorify some properties of Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomials via sheaves on Bruhat moment graphs. In order to do this, we develop new techniques and apply them to the combinatorial data encoded in these moment graphs.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:06 +010
- Moment graphs and KL-polynomials
Abstract: Motivated by a result of Fiebig (2007), we categorify some properties of Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomials via sheaves on Bruhat moment graphs. In order to do this, we develop new techniques and apply them to the combinatorial data encoded in these moment graphs.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:06 +010
- Coherent fans in the space of flows in framed graphs
Abstract: Let $G=(V,E)$ be a finite acyclic directed graph. Being motivated by a study of certain aspects of cluster algebras, we are interested in a class of triangulations of the cone of non-negative flows in $G, \mathcal F_+(G)$. To construct a triangulation, we fix a raming at each inner vertex $v$ of $G$, which consists of two linear orders: one on the set of incoming edges, and the other on the set of outgoing edges of $v$. A digraph $G$ endowed with a framing at each inner vertex is called $framed$. Given a framing on $G$, we define a reflexive and symmetric binary relation on the set of extreme rays of $\mathcal F_+ (G)$. We prove that that the complex of cliques formed by this binary relation is a pure simplicial complex, and that the cones spanned by cliques constitute a unimodular simplicial regular fan $Σ (G)$ covering the entire $\mathcal F_+(G)$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:05 +010
- Coherent fans in the space of flows in framed graphs
Abstract: Let $G=(V,E)$ be a finite acyclic directed graph. Being motivated by a study of certain aspects of cluster algebras, we are interested in a class of triangulations of the cone of non-negative flows in $G, \mathcal F_+(G)$. To construct a triangulation, we fix a raming at each inner vertex $v$ of $G$, which consists of two linear orders: one on the set of incoming edges, and the other on the set of outgoing edges of $v$. A digraph $G$ endowed with a framing at each inner vertex is called $framed$. Given a framing on $G$, we define a reflexive and symmetric binary relation on the set of extreme rays of $\mathcal F_+ (G)$. We prove that that the complex of cliques formed by this binary relation is a pure simplicial complex, and that the cones spanned by cliques constitute a unimodular simplicial regular fan $Σ (G)$ covering the entire $\mathcal F_+(G)$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:05 +010
- Cayley and Tutte polytopes
Abstract: Cayley polytopes were defined recently as convex hulls of Cayley compositions introduced by Cayley in 1857. In this paper we resolve Braun's conjecture, which expresses the volume of Cayley polytopes in terms of the number of connected graphs. We extend this result to a two-variable deformations, which we call Tutte polytopes. The volume of the latter is given via an evaluation of the Tutte polynomial of the complete graph. Our approach is based on an explicit triangulation of the Cayley and Tutte polytope. We prove that simplices in the triangulations correspond to labeled trees and forests. The heart of the proof is a direct bijection based on the neighbors-first search graph traversal algorithm.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:04 +010
- Cayley and Tutte polytopes
Abstract: Cayley polytopes were defined recently as convex hulls of Cayley compositions introduced by Cayley in 1857. In this paper we resolve Braun's conjecture, which expresses the volume of Cayley polytopes in terms of the number of connected graphs. We extend this result to a two-variable deformations, which we call Tutte polytopes. The volume of the latter is given via an evaluation of the Tutte polynomial of the complete graph. Our approach is based on an explicit triangulation of the Cayley and Tutte polytope. We prove that simplices in the triangulations correspond to labeled trees and forests. The heart of the proof is a direct bijection based on the neighbors-first search graph traversal algorithm.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:04 +010
- Skew Pieri Rules for Hall-Littlewood Functions
Abstract: We produce skew Pieri Rules for Hall–Littlewood functions in the spirit of Assaf and McNamara (FPSAC, 2010). The first two were conjectured by the first author (FPSAC, 2011). The key ingredients in the proofs are a q-binomial identity for skew partitions that are horizontal strips and a Hopf algebraic identity that expands products of skew elements in terms of the coproduct and antipode.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:03 +010
- Skew Pieri Rules for Hall-Littlewood Functions
Abstract: We produce skew Pieri Rules for Hall–Littlewood functions in the spirit of Assaf and McNamara (FPSAC, 2010). The first two were conjectured by the first author (FPSAC, 2011). The key ingredients in the proofs are a q-binomial identity for skew partitions that are horizontal strips and a Hopf algebraic identity that expands products of skew elements in terms of the coproduct and antipode.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:03 +010
- Riffle shuffles with biased cuts
Abstract: The well-known Gilbert-Shannon-Reeds model for riffle shuffles assumes that the cards are initially cut `about in half' and then riffled together. We analyze a natural variant where the initial cut is biased. Extending results of Fulman (1998), we show a sharp cutoff in separation and L-infinity distances. This analysis is possible due to the close connection between shuffling and quasisymmetric functions along with some complex analysis of a generating function.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:02 +010
- Riffle shuffles with biased cuts
Abstract: The well-known Gilbert-Shannon-Reeds model for riffle shuffles assumes that the cards are initially cut `about in half' and then riffled together. We analyze a natural variant where the initial cut is biased. Extending results of Fulman (1998), we show a sharp cutoff in separation and L-infinity distances. This analysis is possible due to the close connection between shuffling and quasisymmetric functions along with some complex analysis of a generating function.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:02 +010
- The down operator and expansions of near rectangular k-Schur functions
Abstract: We prove that the Lam-Shimozono ``down operator'' on the affine Weyl group induces a derivation of the affine Fomin-Stanley subalgebra of the affine nilCoxeter algebra. We use this to verify a conjecture of Berg, Bergeron, Pon and Zabrocki describing the expansion of k-Schur functions of ``near rectangles'' in the affine nilCoxeter algebra. Consequently, we obtain a combinatorial interpretation of the corresponding k-Littlewood–Richardson coefficients.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:01 +010
- The down operator and expansions of near rectangular k-Schur functions
Abstract: We prove that the Lam-Shimozono ``down operator'' on the affine Weyl group induces a derivation of the affine Fomin-Stanley subalgebra of the affine nilCoxeter algebra. We use this to verify a conjecture of Berg, Bergeron, Pon and Zabrocki describing the expansion of k-Schur functions of ``near rectangles'' in the affine nilCoxeter algebra. Consequently, we obtain a combinatorial interpretation of the corresponding k-Littlewood–Richardson coefficients.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:01 +010
- Permutation Polytopes of Cyclic Groups
Abstract: We investigate the combinatorics and geometry of permutation polytopes associated to cyclic permutation groups, i.e., the convex hulls of cyclic groups of permutation matrices. In the situation that the generator of the group consists of at most two orbits, we can give a complete combinatorial description of the associated permutation polytope. In the case of three orbits the facet structure is already quite complex. For a large class of examples we show that there exist exponentially many facets.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:00 +010
- Permutation Polytopes of Cyclic Groups
Abstract: We investigate the combinatorics and geometry of permutation polytopes associated to cyclic permutation groups, i.e., the convex hulls of cyclic groups of permutation matrices. In the situation that the generator of the group consists of at most two orbits, we can give a complete combinatorial description of the associated permutation polytope. In the case of three orbits the facet structure is already quite complex. For a large class of examples we show that there exist exponentially many facets.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:23:00 +010
- Generating trees for partitions and permutations with no k-nestings
Abstract: We describe a generating tree approach to the enumeration and exhaustive generation of k-nonnesting set partitions and permutations. Unlike previous work in the literature using the connections of these objects to Young tableaux and restricted lattice walks, our approach deals directly with partition and permutation diagrams. We provide explicit functional equations for the generating functions, with k as a parameter.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:59 +010
- Generating trees for partitions and permutations with no k-nestings
Abstract: We describe a generating tree approach to the enumeration and exhaustive generation of k-nonnesting set partitions and permutations. Unlike previous work in the literature using the connections of these objects to Young tableaux and restricted lattice walks, our approach deals directly with partition and permutation diagrams. We provide explicit functional equations for the generating functions, with k as a parameter.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:59 +010
- On singularity confinement for the pentagram map
Abstract: The pentagram map, introduced by R. Schwartz, is a birational map on the configuration space of polygons in the projective plane. We study the singularities of the iterates of the pentagram map. We show that a ``typical'' singularity disappears after a finite number of iterations, a confinement phenomenon first discovered by Schwartz. We provide a method to bypass such a singular patch by directly constructing the first subsequent iterate that is well-defined on the singular locus under consideration. The key ingredient of this construction is the notion of a decorated (twisted) polygon, and the extension of the pentagram map to the corresponding decorated configuration space.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:58 +010
- On singularity confinement for the pentagram map
Abstract: The pentagram map, introduced by R. Schwartz, is a birational map on the configuration space of polygons in the projective plane. We study the singularities of the iterates of the pentagram map. We show that a ``typical'' singularity disappears after a finite number of iterations, a confinement phenomenon first discovered by Schwartz. We provide a method to bypass such a singular patch by directly constructing the first subsequent iterate that is well-defined on the singular locus under consideration. The key ingredient of this construction is the notion of a decorated (twisted) polygon, and the extension of the pentagram map to the corresponding decorated configuration space.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:58 +010
- Fluctuations of central measures on partitions
Abstract: We study the fluctuations of models of random partitions $(\mathbb{P}_n,ω )_n ∈\mathbb{N}$ stemming from the representation theory of the infinite symmetric group. Using the theory of polynomial functions on Young diagrams, we establish a central limit theorem for the values of the irreducible characters $χ ^λ$ of the symmetric groups, with $λ$ taken randomly according to the laws $\mathbb{P}_n,ω$ . This implies a central limit theorem for the rows and columns of the random partitions, and these ``geometric'' fluctuations of our models can be recovered by relating central measures on partitions, generalized riffle shuffles, and Brownian motions conditioned to stay in a Weyl chamber.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:57 +010
- Fluctuations of central measures on partitions
Abstract: We study the fluctuations of models of random partitions $(\mathbb{P}_n,ω )_n ∈\mathbb{N}$ stemming from the representation theory of the infinite symmetric group. Using the theory of polynomial functions on Young diagrams, we establish a central limit theorem for the values of the irreducible characters $χ ^λ$ of the symmetric groups, with $λ$ taken randomly according to the laws $\mathbb{P}_n,ω$ . This implies a central limit theorem for the rows and columns of the random partitions, and these ``geometric'' fluctuations of our models can be recovered by relating central measures on partitions, generalized riffle shuffles, and Brownian motions conditioned to stay in a Weyl chamber.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:57 +010
- Bases for modules of differential operators
Abstract: It is well-known that the derivation modules of Coxeter arrangements are free. Holm began to study the freeness of modules of differential operators on hyperplane arrangements. In this paper, we study the cases of the Coxter arrangements of type A, B and D. In this case, we prove that the modules of differential operators of order 2 are free. We give examples of all the 3-dimensional classical Coxeter arrangements. Two keys for the proof are ``Cauchy–Sylvester's theorem on compound determinants'' and ``Saito–Holm's criterion''.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:55 +010
- Bases for modules of differential operators
Abstract: It is well-known that the derivation modules of Coxeter arrangements are free. Holm began to study the freeness of modules of differential operators on hyperplane arrangements. In this paper, we study the cases of the Coxter arrangements of type A, B and D. In this case, we prove that the modules of differential operators of order 2 are free. We give examples of all the 3-dimensional classical Coxeter arrangements. Two keys for the proof are ``Cauchy–Sylvester's theorem on compound determinants'' and ``Saito–Holm's criterion''.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:55 +010
- Proofs of two conjectures of Kenyon and Wilson on Dyck tilings
Abstract: Recently, Kenyon and Wilson introduced a certain matrix M in order to compute pairing probabilities of what they call the double-dimer model. They showed that the absolute value of each entry of the inverse matrix $M^-1$ is equal to the number of certain Dyck tilings of a skew shape. They conjectured two formulas on the sum of the absolute values of the entries in a row or a column of $M^-1$. In this paper we prove the two conjectures. As a consequence we obtain that the sum of the absolute values of all entries of $M^-1$ is equal to the number of complete matchings. We also find a bijection between Dyck tilings and complete matchings.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:53 +010
- Proofs of two conjectures of Kenyon and Wilson on Dyck tilings
Abstract: Recently, Kenyon and Wilson introduced a certain matrix M in order to compute pairing probabilities of what they call the double-dimer model. They showed that the absolute value of each entry of the inverse matrix $M^-1$ is equal to the number of certain Dyck tilings of a skew shape. They conjectured two formulas on the sum of the absolute values of the entries in a row or a column of $M^-1$. In this paper we prove the two conjectures. As a consequence we obtain that the sum of the absolute values of all entries of $M^-1$ is equal to the number of complete matchings. We also find a bijection between Dyck tilings and complete matchings.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:53 +010
- The representation of the symmetric group on $m$-Tamari intervals
(conference version)
Abstract: An $m$-ballot path of size $n$ is a path on the square grid consisting of north and east unit steps, starting at (0,0), ending at $(mn,n)$, and never going below the line $\{x=my\}$. The set of these paths can be equipped with a lattice structure, called the $m$-Tamari lattice and denoted by $\mathcal{T}{_n}^{(m)}$, which generalizes the usual Tamari lattice $\mathcal{T}n$ obtained when $m=1$. This lattice was introduced by F. Bergeron in connection with the study of diagonally coinvariant spaces in three sets of $n$ variables. The representation of the symmetric group $\mathfrak{S}_n$ on these spaces is conjectured to be closely related to the natural representation of $\mathfrak{S}_n$ on (labelled) intervals of the $m$-Tamari lattice studied in this paper. An interval $[P,Q$] of $\mathcal{T}{_n}^{(m)}$ is labelled if the north steps of $Q$ are labelled from 1 to $n$ in such a way the labels increase along any sequence of consecutive north steps. The symmetric group $\mathfrak{S}_n$ acts on labelled intervals of $\mathcal{T}{_n}^{(m)}$by permutation of the labels. We prove an explicit formula, conjectured by F. Bergeron and the third author, for the character of the associated representation of $\mathfrak{S}_n$. In particular, the dimension of the representation, that is, the number of labelled $m$-Tamari intervals of size $n$, is found to be $(m+1)^n(mn+1)^{n-2}$. These results are new, even when $m=1$. The form of these numbers suggests a connection with parking functions, but our proof is not bijective. The starting point is a recursive description of $m$-Tamari intervals. It yields an equation for an associated generating function, which is a refined version of the Frobenius series of the representation. The form of this equation is highly non-standard: it involves two additional variables $x$ and $y$, a derivative with respect to $y$ and iterated divided differences with respect to $x$. The hardest part of the proof consists in solving it, and we develop original techniques to do so.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:52 +010
- The representation of the symmetric group on $m$-Tamari intervals
(conference version)
Abstract: An $m$-ballot path of size $n$ is a path on the square grid consisting of north and east unit steps, starting at (0,0), ending at $(mn,n)$, and never going below the line $\{x=my\}$. The set of these paths can be equipped with a lattice structure, called the $m$-Tamari lattice and denoted by $\mathcal{T}{_n}^{(m)}$, which generalizes the usual Tamari lattice $\mathcal{T}n$ obtained when $m=1$. This lattice was introduced by F. Bergeron in connection with the study of diagonally coinvariant spaces in three sets of $n$ variables. The representation of the symmetric group $\mathfrak{S}_n$ on these spaces is conjectured to be closely related to the natural representation of $\mathfrak{S}_n$ on (labelled) intervals of the $m$-Tamari lattice studied in this paper. An interval $[P,Q$] of $\mathcal{T}{_n}^{(m)}$ is labelled if the north steps of $Q$ are labelled from 1 to $n$ in such a way the labels increase along any sequence of consecutive north steps. The symmetric group $\mathfrak{S}_n$ acts on labelled intervals of $\mathcal{T}{_n}^{(m)}$by permutation of the labels. We prove an explicit formula, conjectured by F. Bergeron and the third author, for the character of the associated representation of $\mathfrak{S}_n$. In particular, the dimension of the representation, that is, the number of labelled $m$-Tamari intervals of size $n$, is found to be $(m+1)^n(mn+1)^{n-2}$. These results are new, even when $m=1$. The form of these numbers suggests a connection with parking functions, but our proof is not bijective. The starting point is a recursive description of $m$-Tamari intervals. It yields an equation for an associated generating function, which is a refined version of the Frobenius series of the representation. The form of this equation is highly non-standard: it involves two additional variables $x$ and $y$, a derivative with respect to $y$ and iterated divided differences with respect to $x$. The hardest part of the proof consists in solving it, and we develop original techniques to do so.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:52 +010
- The sandpile model, polyominoes, and a $q,t$-Narayana polynomial
Abstract: We give a polyomino characterisation of recurrent configurations of the sandpile model on the complete bipartite graph $K_{m,n}$ in which one designated vertex is the sink. We present a bijection from these recurrent configurations to decorated parallelogram polyominoes whose bounding box is a $m×n$ rectangle. Other combinatorial structures appear in special cases of this correspondence: for example bicomposition matrices (a matrix analogue of set partitions), and (2+2)-free posets. A canonical toppling process for recurrent configurations gives rise to a path within the associated parallelogram polyominoes. We define a collection of polynomials that we call $q,t$-Narayana polynomials, the generating functions of the bistatistic $(\mathsf{area ,parabounce} )$ on the set of parallelogram polyominoes, akin to Haglund's $(\mathsf{area ,hagbounce} )$ bistatistic on Dyck paths. In doing so, we have extended a bistatistic of Egge et al. to the set of parallelogram polyominoes. This is one answer to their question concerning extensions to other combinatorial objects. We conjecture the $q,t$-Narayana polynomials to be symmetric and discuss the proofs for numerous special cases. We also show a relationship between the $q,t$-Catalan polynomials and our bistatistic $(\mathsf{area ,parabounce}) $on a subset of parallelogram polyominoes.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:51 +010
- The sandpile model, polyominoes, and a $q,t$-Narayana polynomial
Abstract: We give a polyomino characterisation of recurrent configurations of the sandpile model on the complete bipartite graph $K_{m,n}$ in which one designated vertex is the sink. We present a bijection from these recurrent configurations to decorated parallelogram polyominoes whose bounding box is a $m×n$ rectangle. Other combinatorial structures appear in special cases of this correspondence: for example bicomposition matrices (a matrix analogue of set partitions), and (2+2)-free posets. A canonical toppling process for recurrent configurations gives rise to a path within the associated parallelogram polyominoes. We define a collection of polynomials that we call $q,t$-Narayana polynomials, the generating functions of the bistatistic $(\mathsf{area ,parabounce} )$ on the set of parallelogram polyominoes, akin to Haglund's $(\mathsf{area ,hagbounce} )$ bistatistic on Dyck paths. In doing so, we have extended a bistatistic of Egge et al. to the set of parallelogram polyominoes. This is one answer to their question concerning extensions to other combinatorial objects. We conjecture the $q,t$-Narayana polynomials to be symmetric and discuss the proofs for numerous special cases. We also show a relationship between the $q,t$-Catalan polynomials and our bistatistic $(\mathsf{area ,parabounce}) $on a subset of parallelogram polyominoes.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:51 +010
- Arithmetic matroids and Tutte polynomials
Abstract: We introduce the notion of arithmetic matroid, whose main example is provided by a list of elements in a finitely generated abelian group. We study the representability of its dual, and, guided by the geometry of toric arrangements, we give a combinatorial interpretation of the associated arithmetic Tutte polynomial, which can be seen as a generalization of Crapo's formula.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:50 +010
- Arithmetic matroids and Tutte polynomials
Abstract: We introduce the notion of arithmetic matroid, whose main example is provided by a list of elements in a finitely generated abelian group. We study the representability of its dual, and, guided by the geometry of toric arrangements, we give a combinatorial interpretation of the associated arithmetic Tutte polynomial, which can be seen as a generalization of Crapo's formula.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:50 +010
- Combinatorial Reciprocity for Monotone Triangles
Abstract: The number of Monotone Triangles with bottom row $k_1 < k_2 < ⋯< k_n$ is given by a polynomial $\alpha (n; k_1,\ldots,k_n)$ in $n$ variables. The evaluation of this polynomial at weakly decreasing sequences $k_1 ≥k_2 ≥⋯≥k_n $turns out to be interpretable as signed enumeration of new combinatorial objects called Decreasing Monotone Triangles. There exist surprising connections between the two classes of objects – in particular it is shown that $\alpha (n;1,2,\ldots,n) = \alpha (2n; n,n,n-1,n-1,\ldots,1,1)$. In perfect analogy to the correspondence between Monotone Triangles and Alternating Sign Matrices, the set of Decreasing Monotone Triangles with bottom row $(n,n,n-1,n-1,\ldots,1,1)$ is in one-to-one correspondence with a certain set of ASM-like matrices, which also play an important role in proving the claimed identity algebraically. Finding a bijective proof remains an open problem.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:49 +010
- Combinatorial Reciprocity for Monotone Triangles
Abstract: The number of Monotone Triangles with bottom row $k_1 < k_2 < ⋯< k_n$ is given by a polynomial $\alpha (n; k_1,\ldots,k_n)$ in $n$ variables. The evaluation of this polynomial at weakly decreasing sequences $k_1 ≥k_2 ≥⋯≥k_n $turns out to be interpretable as signed enumeration of new combinatorial objects called Decreasing Monotone Triangles. There exist surprising connections between the two classes of objects – in particular it is shown that $\alpha (n;1,2,\ldots,n) = \alpha (2n; n,n,n-1,n-1,\ldots,1,1)$. In perfect analogy to the correspondence between Monotone Triangles and Alternating Sign Matrices, the set of Decreasing Monotone Triangles with bottom row $(n,n,n-1,n-1,\ldots,1,1)$ is in one-to-one correspondence with a certain set of ASM-like matrices, which also play an important role in proving the claimed identity algebraically. Finding a bijective proof remains an open problem.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:49 +010
- Smooth Fano polytopes whose Ehrhart polynomial has a root with large real
part
Abstract: The symmetric edge polytopes of odd cycles (del Pezzo polytopes) are known as smooth Fano polytopes. In this extended abstract, we show that if the length of the cycle is 127, then the Ehrhart polynomial has a root whose real part is greater than the dimension. As a result, we have a smooth Fano polytope that is a counterexample to the two conjectures on the roots of Ehrhart polynomials.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:48 +010
- Smooth Fano polytopes whose Ehrhart polynomial has a root with large real
part
Abstract: The symmetric edge polytopes of odd cycles (del Pezzo polytopes) are known as smooth Fano polytopes. In this extended abstract, we show that if the length of the cycle is 127, then the Ehrhart polynomial has a root whose real part is greater than the dimension. As a result, we have a smooth Fano polytope that is a counterexample to the two conjectures on the roots of Ehrhart polynomials.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:48 +010
- Les polynômes eul\IeC èriens stables de type B
Abstract: We give a multivariate analog of the type B Eulerian polynomial introduced by Brenti. We prove that this multivariate polynomial is stable generalizing Brenti's result that every root of the type B Eulerian polynomial is real. Our proof combines a refinement of the descent statistic for signed permutations with the notion of real stability—a generalization of real-rootedness to polynomials in multiple variables. The key is that our refined multivariate Eulerian polynomials satisfy a recurrence given by a stability-preserving linear operator.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:47 +010
- Les polynômes eul\IeC èriens stables de type B
Abstract: We give a multivariate analog of the type B Eulerian polynomial introduced by Brenti. We prove that this multivariate polynomial is stable generalizing Brenti's result that every root of the type B Eulerian polynomial is real. Our proof combines a refinement of the descent statistic for signed permutations with the notion of real stability—a generalization of real-rootedness to polynomials in multiple variables. The key is that our refined multivariate Eulerian polynomials satisfy a recurrence given by a stability-preserving linear operator.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:47 +010
- Invariants of vector configurations
Abstract: We investigate the Zariski closure of the projective equivalence class of a matrix. New results are presented regarding the matrices in this variety and their matroids, and we give equations for the variety. We also discuss the K-polynomial of the closure of a projective equivalence class, and two other geometric invariants that can be obtained from this.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:46 +010
- Invariants of vector configurations
Abstract: We investigate the Zariski closure of the projective equivalence class of a matrix. New results are presented regarding the matrices in this variety and their matroids, and we give equations for the variety. We also discuss the K-polynomial of the closure of a projective equivalence class, and two other geometric invariants that can be obtained from this.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:46 +010
- Arc Permutations (extended abstract)
Abstract: Arc permutations and unimodal permutations were introduced in the study of triangulations and characters. In this paper we describe combinatorial properties of these permutations, including characterizations in terms of pattern avoidance, connections to Young tableaux, and an affine Weyl group action on them.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:43 +010
- Arc Permutations (extended abstract)
Abstract: Arc permutations and unimodal permutations were introduced in the study of triangulations and characters. In this paper we describe combinatorial properties of these permutations, including characterizations in terms of pattern avoidance, connections to Young tableaux, and an affine Weyl group action on them.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:43 +010
- Promotion and Rowmotion
Abstract: We present an equivariant bijection between two actions—promotion and rowmotion—on order ideals in certain posets. This bijection simultaneously generalizes a result of R. Stanley concerning promotion on the linear extensions of two disjoint chains and certain cases of recent work of D. Armstrong, C. Stump, and H. Thomas on noncrossing and nonnesting partitions. We apply this bijection to several classes of posets, obtaining equivariant bijections to various known objects under rotation. We extend the same idea to give an equivariant bijection between alternating sign matrices under rowmotion and under B. Wieland's gyration. Lastly, we define two actions with related orders on alternating sign matrices and totally symmetric self-complementary plane partitions.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:43 +010
- Promotion and Rowmotion
Abstract: We present an equivariant bijection between two actions—promotion and rowmotion—on order ideals in certain posets. This bijection simultaneously generalizes a result of R. Stanley concerning promotion on the linear extensions of two disjoint chains and certain cases of recent work of D. Armstrong, C. Stump, and H. Thomas on noncrossing and nonnesting partitions. We apply this bijection to several classes of posets, obtaining equivariant bijections to various known objects under rotation. We extend the same idea to give an equivariant bijection between alternating sign matrices under rowmotion and under B. Wieland's gyration. Lastly, we define two actions with related orders on alternating sign matrices and totally symmetric self-complementary plane partitions.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:43 +010
- On an algebraicity theorem of Kontsevich
Abstract: We give in a particular case a combinatorial proof of a recent algebraicity result of Kontsevich; the proof uses generalized one-sided and two-sided Dyck words, or equivalently, excursions and bridges. We indicate a noncommutative version of these notions, which could lead to a full proof. We show also a relation with pointed planar maps.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:41 +010
- On an algebraicity theorem of Kontsevich
Abstract: We give in a particular case a combinatorial proof of a recent algebraicity result of Kontsevich; the proof uses generalized one-sided and two-sided Dyck words, or equivalently, excursions and bridges. We indicate a noncommutative version of these notions, which could lead to a full proof. We show also a relation with pointed planar maps.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:41 +010
- Consecutive patterns in permutations: clusters and generating functions
Abstract: We use the cluster method in order to enumerate permutations avoiding consecutive patterns. We reprove and generalize in a unified way several known results and obtain new ones, including some patterns of length 4 and 5, as well as some infinite families of patterns of a given shape. Our main tool is the cluster method of Goulden and Jackson. We also prove some that, for a large class of patterns, the inverse of the exponential generating function counting occurrences is an entire function, but we conjecture that it is not D-finite in general.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:41 +010
- Consecutive patterns in permutations: clusters and generating functions
Abstract: We use the cluster method in order to enumerate permutations avoiding consecutive patterns. We reprove and generalize in a unified way several known results and obtain new ones, including some patterns of length 4 and 5, as well as some infinite families of patterns of a given shape. Our main tool is the cluster method of Goulden and Jackson. We also prove some that, for a large class of patterns, the inverse of the exponential generating function counting occurrences is an entire function, but we conjecture that it is not D-finite in general.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:41 +010
- Constructing combinatorial operads from monoids
Abstract: We introduce a functorial construction which, from a monoid, produces a set-operad. We obtain new (symmetric or not) operads as suboperads or quotients of the operad obtained from the additive monoid. These involve various familiar combinatorial objects: parking functions, packed words, planar rooted trees, generalized Dyck paths, Schröder trees, Motzkin paths, integer compositions, directed animals, etc. We also retrieve some known operads: the magmatic operad, the commutative associative operad, and the diassociative operad.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:40 +010
- Constructing combinatorial operads from monoids
Abstract: We introduce a functorial construction which, from a monoid, produces a set-operad. We obtain new (symmetric or not) operads as suboperads or quotients of the operad obtained from the additive monoid. These involve various familiar combinatorial objects: parking functions, packed words, planar rooted trees, generalized Dyck paths, Schröder trees, Motzkin paths, integer compositions, directed animals, etc. We also retrieve some known operads: the magmatic operad, the commutative associative operad, and the diassociative operad.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:40 +010
- A simple model of trees for unicellular maps
Abstract: We consider unicellular maps, or polygon gluings, of fixed genus. In FPSAC '09 the first author gave a recursive bijection transforming unicellular maps into trees, explaining the presence of Catalan numbers in counting formulas for these objects. In this paper, we give another bijection that explicitly describes the ``recursive part'' of the first bijection. As a result we obtain a very simple description of unicellular maps as pairs made by a plane tree and a permutation-like structure. All the previously known formulas follow as an immediate corollary or easy exercise, thus giving a bijective proof for each of them, in a unified way. For some of these formulas, this is the first bijective proof, e.g. the Harer-Zagier recurrence formula, or the Lehman-Walsh/Goupil-Schaeffer formulas. Thanks to previous work of the second author this also leads us to a new expression for Stanley character polynomials, which evaluate irreducible characters of the symmetric group.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:39 +010
- A simple model of trees for unicellular maps
Abstract: We consider unicellular maps, or polygon gluings, of fixed genus. In FPSAC '09 the first author gave a recursive bijection transforming unicellular maps into trees, explaining the presence of Catalan numbers in counting formulas for these objects. In this paper, we give another bijection that explicitly describes the ``recursive part'' of the first bijection. As a result we obtain a very simple description of unicellular maps as pairs made by a plane tree and a permutation-like structure. All the previously known formulas follow as an immediate corollary or easy exercise, thus giving a bijective proof for each of them, in a unified way. For some of these formulas, this is the first bijective proof, e.g. the Harer-Zagier recurrence formula, or the Lehman-Walsh/Goupil-Schaeffer formulas. Thanks to previous work of the second author this also leads us to a new expression for Stanley character polynomials, which evaluate irreducible characters of the symmetric group.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:39 +010
- Constructing neighborly polytopes and oriented matroids
Abstract: A $d$-polytope $P$ is neighborly if every subset of $\lfloor\frac{d}{2}\rfloor $vertices is a face of $P$. In 1982, Shemer introduced a sewing construction that allows to add a vertex to a neighborly polytope in such a way as to obtain a new neighborly polytope. With this, he constructed superexponentially many different neighborly polytopes. The concept of neighborliness extends naturally to oriented matroids. Duals of neighborly oriented matroids also have a nice characterization: balanced oriented matroids. In this paper, we generalize Shemer's sewing construction to oriented matroids, providing a simpler proof. Moreover we provide a new technique that allows to construct balanced oriented matroids. In the dual setting, it constructs a neighborly oriented matroid whose contraction at a particular vertex is a prescribed neighborly oriented matroid. We compare the families of polytopes that can be constructed with both methods, and show that the new construction allows to construct many new polytopes.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:38 +010
- Constructing neighborly polytopes and oriented matroids
Abstract: A $d$-polytope $P$ is neighborly if every subset of $\lfloor\frac{d}{2}\rfloor $vertices is a face of $P$. In 1982, Shemer introduced a sewing construction that allows to add a vertex to a neighborly polytope in such a way as to obtain a new neighborly polytope. With this, he constructed superexponentially many different neighborly polytopes. The concept of neighborliness extends naturally to oriented matroids. Duals of neighborly oriented matroids also have a nice characterization: balanced oriented matroids. In this paper, we generalize Shemer's sewing construction to oriented matroids, providing a simpler proof. Moreover we provide a new technique that allows to construct balanced oriented matroids. In the dual setting, it constructs a neighborly oriented matroid whose contraction at a particular vertex is a prescribed neighborly oriented matroid. We compare the families of polytopes that can be constructed with both methods, and show that the new construction allows to construct many new polytopes.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:38 +010
- A polynomial realization of the Hopf algebra of uniform block permutations
Abstract: We investigate the combinatorial Hopf algebra based on uniform block permutations and we realize this algebra in terms of noncommutative polynomials in inﬁnitely many bi-letters.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:36 +010
- A polynomial realization of the Hopf algebra of uniform block permutations
Abstract: We investigate the combinatorial Hopf algebra based on uniform block permutations and we realize this algebra in terms of noncommutative polynomials in inﬁnitely many bi-letters.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:36 +010
- New light on Bergman complexes by decomposing matroid types
Abstract: Bergman complexes are polyhedral complexes associated to matroids. Faces of these complexes are certain matroids, called matroid types, too. In order to understand the structure of these faces we decompose matroid types into direct summands. Ardila/Klivans proved that the Bergman Complex of a matroid can be subdivided into the order complex of the proper part of its lattice of flats. Beyond that Feichtner/Sturmfels showed that the Bergman complex can even be subdivided to the even coarser nested set complex. We will give a much shorter and more general proof of this fact. Generalizing formulas proposed by Ardila/Klivans and Feichtner/Sturmfels for special cases, we present a decomposition into direct sums working for faces of any of these complexes. Additionally we show that it is the finest possible decomposition for faces of the Bergman complex.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:34 +010
- New light on Bergman complexes by decomposing matroid types
Abstract: Bergman complexes are polyhedral complexes associated to matroids. Faces of these complexes are certain matroids, called matroid types, too. In order to understand the structure of these faces we decompose matroid types into direct summands. Ardila/Klivans proved that the Bergman Complex of a matroid can be subdivided into the order complex of the proper part of its lattice of flats. Beyond that Feichtner/Sturmfels showed that the Bergman complex can even be subdivided to the even coarser nested set complex. We will give a much shorter and more general proof of this fact. Generalizing formulas proposed by Ardila/Klivans and Feichtner/Sturmfels for special cases, we present a decomposition into direct sums working for faces of any of these complexes. Additionally we show that it is the finest possible decomposition for faces of the Bergman complex.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:34 +010
- Excedances in classical and affine Weyl groups
Abstract: Based on the notion of colored and absolute excedances introduced by Bagno and Garber we give an analogue of the derangement polynomials. We obtain some basic properties of these polynomials. Moreover, we define an excedance statistic for the affine Weyl groups of type $\widetilde{B}_n, \widetilde {C}_n$ and $\widetilde {D}_n$ and determine the generating functions of their distributions. This paper is inspired by one of Clark and Ehrenborg (2011) in which the authors introduce the excedance statistic for the group of affine permutations and ask if this statistic can be defined for other affine groups.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:33 +010
- Excedances in classical and affine Weyl groups
Abstract: Based on the notion of colored and absolute excedances introduced by Bagno and Garber we give an analogue of the derangement polynomials. We obtain some basic properties of these polynomials. Moreover, we define an excedance statistic for the affine Weyl groups of type $\widetilde{B}_n, \widetilde {C}_n$ and $\widetilde {D}_n$ and determine the generating functions of their distributions. This paper is inspired by one of Clark and Ehrenborg (2011) in which the authors introduce the excedance statistic for the group of affine permutations and ask if this statistic can be defined for other affine groups.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:33 +010
- On the Sperner property and Gorenstein Algebras Associated to Matroids
Abstract: We introduce a certain class of algebras associated to matroids. We prove the Lefschetz property of the algebras for some special cases. Our result implies the Sperner property for the Boolean lattice and the vector space lattice.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:32 +010
- On the Sperner property and Gorenstein Algebras Associated to Matroids
Abstract: We introduce a certain class of algebras associated to matroids. We prove the Lefschetz property of the algebras for some special cases. Our result implies the Sperner property for the Boolean lattice and the vector space lattice.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:32 +010
- An explicit formula for ndinv, a new statistic for two-shuffle parking
functions
Abstract: In a recent paper, Duane, Garsia, and Zabrocki introduced a new statistic, "ndinv'', on a family of parking functions. The definition was guided by a recursion satisfied by the polynomial $\langle\Delta_{h_m}C_p1C_p2...C_{pk}1,e_n\rangle$, for $\Delta_{h_m}$ a Macdonald eigenoperator, $C_{p_i}$ a modified Hall-Littlewood operator and $(p_1,p_2,\dots ,p_k)$ a composition of n. Using their new statistics, they are able to give a new interpretation for the polynomial $\langle\nabla e_n, h_j h_n-j\rangle$ as a q,t numerator of parking functions by area and ndinv. We recall that in the shuffle conjecture, parking functions are q,t enumerated by area and diagonal inversion number (dinv). Since their definition is recursive, they pose the problem of obtaining a non recursive definition. We solved this problem by giving an explicit formula for ndinv similar to the classical definition of dinv. In this paper, we describe the work we did to construct this formula and to prove that the resulting ndinv is the same as the one recursively defined by Duane, Garsia, and Zabrocki.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:31 +010
- An explicit formula for ndinv, a new statistic for two-shuffle parking
functions
Abstract: In a recent paper, Duane, Garsia, and Zabrocki introduced a new statistic, "ndinv'', on a family of parking functions. The definition was guided by a recursion satisfied by the polynomial $\langle\Delta_{h_m}C_p1C_p2...C_{pk}1,e_n\rangle$, for $\Delta_{h_m}$ a Macdonald eigenoperator, $C_{p_i}$ a modified Hall-Littlewood operator and $(p_1,p_2,\dots ,p_k)$ a composition of n. Using their new statistics, they are able to give a new interpretation for the polynomial $\langle\nabla e_n, h_j h_n-j\rangle$ as a q,t numerator of parking functions by area and ndinv. We recall that in the shuffle conjecture, parking functions are q,t enumerated by area and diagonal inversion number (dinv). Since their definition is recursive, they pose the problem of obtaining a non recursive definition. We solved this problem by giving an explicit formula for ndinv similar to the classical definition of dinv. In this paper, we describe the work we did to construct this formula and to prove that the resulting ndinv is the same as the one recursively defined by Duane, Garsia, and Zabrocki.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:31 +010
- Tropical Oriented Matroids
Abstract: Tropical oriented matroids were defined by Ardila and Develin in 2007. They are a tropical analogue of classical oriented matroids in the sense that they encode the properties of the types of points in an arrangement of tropical hyperplanes – in much the same way as the covectors of (classical) oriented matroids describe the types in arrangements of linear hyperplanes. Not every oriented matroid can be realised by an arrangement of linear hyperplanes though. The famous Topological Representation Theorem by Folkman and Lawrence, however, states that every oriented matroid can be represented as an arrangement of $\textit{pseudo}$hyperplanes. Ardila and Develin proved that tropical oriented matroids can be represented as mixed subdivisions of dilated simplices. In this paper I prove that this correspondence is a bijection. Moreover, I present a tropical analogue for the Topological Representation Theorem.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:30 +010
- Tropical Oriented Matroids
Abstract: Tropical oriented matroids were defined by Ardila and Develin in 2007. They are a tropical analogue of classical oriented matroids in the sense that they encode the properties of the types of points in an arrangement of tropical hyperplanes – in much the same way as the covectors of (classical) oriented matroids describe the types in arrangements of linear hyperplanes. Not every oriented matroid can be realised by an arrangement of linear hyperplanes though. The famous Topological Representation Theorem by Folkman and Lawrence, however, states that every oriented matroid can be represented as an arrangement of $\textit{pseudo}$hyperplanes. Ardila and Develin proved that tropical oriented matroids can be represented as mixed subdivisions of dilated simplices. In this paper I prove that this correspondence is a bijection. Moreover, I present a tropical analogue for the Topological Representation Theorem.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:30 +010
- Explicit generating series for connection coefficients
Abstract: This paper is devoted to the explicit computation of generating series for the connection coefficients of two commutative subalgebras of the group algebra of the symmetric group, the class algebra and the double coset algebra. As shown by Hanlon, Stanley and Stembridge (1992), these series gives the spectral distribution of some random matrices that are of interest to statisticians. Morales and Vassilieva (2009, 2011) found explicit formulas for these generating series in terms of monomial symmetric functions by introducing a bijection between partitioned hypermaps on (locally) orientable surfaces and some decorated forests and trees. Thanks to purely algebraic means, we recover the formula for the class algebra and provide a new simpler formula for the double coset algebra. As a salient ingredient, we compute an explicit formulation for zonal polynomials indexed by partitions of type $[a,b,1^{n-a-b}]$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:28 +010
- Explicit generating series for connection coefficients
Abstract: This paper is devoted to the explicit computation of generating series for the connection coefficients of two commutative subalgebras of the group algebra of the symmetric group, the class algebra and the double coset algebra. As shown by Hanlon, Stanley and Stembridge (1992), these series gives the spectral distribution of some random matrices that are of interest to statisticians. Morales and Vassilieva (2009, 2011) found explicit formulas for these generating series in terms of monomial symmetric functions by introducing a bijection between partitioned hypermaps on (locally) orientable surfaces and some decorated forests and trees. Thanks to purely algebraic means, we recover the formula for the class algebra and provide a new simpler formula for the double coset algebra. As a salient ingredient, we compute an explicit formulation for zonal polynomials indexed by partitions of type $[a,b,1^{n-a-b}]$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:28 +010
- Polynomials and Parking Functions
Abstract: In a 2010 paper Haglund, Morse, and Zabrocki studied the family of polynomials $\nabla C_{p1}\dots C_{pk}1$ , where $p=(p_1,\ldots,p_k)$ is a composition, $\nabla$ is the Bergeron-Garsia Macdonald operator and the $C_\alpha$ are certain slightly modified Hall-Littlewood vertex operators. They conjecture that these polynomials enumerate a composition indexed family of parking functions by area, dinv and an appropriate quasi-symmetric function. This refinement of the nearly decade old ``Shuffle Conjecture,'' when combined with properties of the Hall-Littlewood operators can be shown to imply the existence of certain bijections between these families of parking functions. In previous work to appear in her PhD thesis, the author has shown that the existence of these bijections follows from some relatively simple properties of a certain family of polynomials in one variable x with coefficients in $\mathbb{N}[q]$. In this paper we introduce those polynomials, explain their connection to the conjecture of Haglund, Morse, and Zabrocki, and explore some of their surprising properties, both proven and conjectured.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:27 +010
- Polynomials and Parking Functions
Abstract: In a 2010 paper Haglund, Morse, and Zabrocki studied the family of polynomials $\nabla C_{p1}\dots C_{pk}1$ , where $p=(p_1,\ldots,p_k)$ is a composition, $\nabla$ is the Bergeron-Garsia Macdonald operator and the $C_\alpha$ are certain slightly modified Hall-Littlewood vertex operators. They conjecture that these polynomials enumerate a composition indexed family of parking functions by area, dinv and an appropriate quasi-symmetric function. This refinement of the nearly decade old ``Shuffle Conjecture,'' when combined with properties of the Hall-Littlewood operators can be shown to imply the existence of certain bijections between these families of parking functions. In previous work to appear in her PhD thesis, the author has shown that the existence of these bijections follows from some relatively simple properties of a certain family of polynomials in one variable x with coefficients in $\mathbb{N}[q]$. In this paper we introduce those polynomials, explain their connection to the conjecture of Haglund, Morse, and Zabrocki, and explore some of their surprising properties, both proven and conjectured.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:27 +010
- Symmetries of the k-bounded partition lattice
Abstract: We generalize the symmetry on Young's lattice, found by Suter, to a symmetry on the $k$-bounded partition lattice of Lapointe, Lascoux and Morse.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:26 +010
- Symmetries of the k-bounded partition lattice
Abstract: We generalize the symmetry on Young's lattice, found by Suter, to a symmetry on the $k$-bounded partition lattice of Lapointe, Lascoux and Morse.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:26 +010
- Integrality of hook ratios
Abstract: We study integral ratios of hook products of quotient partitions. This question is motivated by an analogous question in number theory concerning integral factorial ratios. We prove an analogue of a theorem of Landau that already applied in the factorial case. Under the additional condition that the ratio has one more factor on the denominator than the numerator, we provide a complete classification. Ultimately this relies on Kneser's theorem in additive combinatorics.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:24 +010
- Integrality of hook ratios
Abstract: We study integral ratios of hook products of quotient partitions. This question is motivated by an analogous question in number theory concerning integral factorial ratios. We prove an analogue of a theorem of Landau that already applied in the factorial case. Under the additional condition that the ratio has one more factor on the denominator than the numerator, we provide a complete classification. Ultimately this relies on Kneser's theorem in additive combinatorics.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:24 +010
- Generalized associahedra via brick polytopes
Abstract: We generalize the brick polytope of V. Pilaud and F. Santos to spherical subword complexes for finite Coxeter groups. This construction provides polytopal realizations for a certain class of subword complexes containing all cluster complexes of finite types. For the latter, the brick polytopes turn out to coincide with the known realizations of generalized associahedra, thus opening new perspectives on these constructions. This new approach yields in particular the vertex description and a relevant Minkowski sum decomposition of generalized associahedra.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:23 +010
- Generalized associahedra via brick polytopes
Abstract: We generalize the brick polytope of V. Pilaud and F. Santos to spherical subword complexes for finite Coxeter groups. This construction provides polytopal realizations for a certain class of subword complexes containing all cluster complexes of finite types. For the latter, the brick polytopes turn out to coincide with the known realizations of generalized associahedra, thus opening new perspectives on these constructions. This new approach yields in particular the vertex description and a relevant Minkowski sum decomposition of generalized associahedra.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:23 +010
- On the degree-chromatic polynomial of a tree
Abstract: The degree chromatic polynomial $P_m(G,k)$ of a graph $G$ counts the number of $k$ -colorings in which no vertex has m adjacent vertices of its same color. We prove Humpert and Martin's conjecture on the leading terms of the degree chromatic polynomial of a tree.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:22 +010
- On the degree-chromatic polynomial of a tree
Abstract: The degree chromatic polynomial $P_m(G,k)$ of a graph $G$ counts the number of $k$ -colorings in which no vertex has m adjacent vertices of its same color. We prove Humpert and Martin's conjecture on the leading terms of the degree chromatic polynomial of a tree.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:22 +010
- Enumeration of Graded (3 + 1)-Avoiding Posets
Abstract: The notion of (3+1)-avoidance appears in many places in enumerative combinatorics, but the natural goal of enumerating all (3+1)-avoiding posets remains open. In this paper, we enumerate \emphgraded (3+1)-avoiding posets. Our proof consists of a number of structural theorems followed by some generating function magic.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:21 +010
- Enumeration of Graded (3 + 1)-Avoiding Posets
Abstract: The notion of (3+1)-avoidance appears in many places in enumerative combinatorics, but the natural goal of enumerating all (3+1)-avoiding posets remains open. In this paper, we enumerate \emphgraded (3+1)-avoiding posets. Our proof consists of a number of structural theorems followed by some generating function magic.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:21 +010
- Modified Growth Diagrams, Permutation Pivots, and the BWX Map $\phi^*$
Abstract: In their paper on Wilf-equivalence for singleton classes, Backelin, West, and Xin introduced a transformation $\phi^*$, defined by an iterative process and operating on (all) full rook placements on Ferrers boards. Bousquet-Mélou and Steingrimsson proved the analogue of the main result of Backelin, West, and Xin in the context of involutions, and in so doing they needed to prove that $\phi^*$ commutes with the operation of taking inverses. The proof of this commutation result was long and difficult, and Bousquet-Mélou and Steingrimsson asked if $\phi^*$ might be reformulated in such a way as to make this result obvious. In the present paper we provide such a reformulation of $\phi^*$, by modifying the growth diagram algorithm of Fomin. This also answers a question of Krattenthaler, who noted that a bijection defined by the unmodified Fomin algorithm obviously commutes with inverses, and asked what the connection is between this bijection and $\phi^*$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:20 +010
- Modified Growth Diagrams, Permutation Pivots, and the BWX Map $\phi^*$
Abstract: In their paper on Wilf-equivalence for singleton classes, Backelin, West, and Xin introduced a transformation $\phi^*$, defined by an iterative process and operating on (all) full rook placements on Ferrers boards. Bousquet-Mélou and Steingrimsson proved the analogue of the main result of Backelin, West, and Xin in the context of involutions, and in so doing they needed to prove that $\phi^*$ commutes with the operation of taking inverses. The proof of this commutation result was long and difficult, and Bousquet-Mélou and Steingrimsson asked if $\phi^*$ might be reformulated in such a way as to make this result obvious. In the present paper we provide such a reformulation of $\phi^*$, by modifying the growth diagram algorithm of Fomin. This also answers a question of Krattenthaler, who noted that a bijection defined by the unmodified Fomin algorithm obviously commutes with inverses, and asked what the connection is between this bijection and $\phi^*$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:20 +010
- Combinatorial Hopf algebra of supercharacters of type D
Abstract: We provide a Hopf algebra structure on the supercharacter theory for the unipotent upper triangular group of type {D} over a finite field. Also, we make further comments with respect to types {B} and {C}. Type {A} was explored by M. Aguiar et. al (2010), thus this extended abstract is a contribution to understand combinatorially the supercharacter theory of the other classical Lie types.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:19 +010
- Combinatorial Hopf algebra of supercharacters of type D
Abstract: We provide a Hopf algebra structure on the supercharacter theory for the unipotent upper triangular group of type {D} over a finite field. Also, we make further comments with respect to types {B} and {C}. Type {A} was explored by M. Aguiar et. al (2010), thus this extended abstract is a contribution to understand combinatorially the supercharacter theory of the other classical Lie types.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:19 +010
- The Möbius function of generalized subword order
Abstract: Let $P$ be a poset and let $P^*$ be the set of all finite length words over $P$. Generalized subword order is the partial order on $P^*$ obtained by letting $u≤ w$ if and only if there is a subword $u'$ of $w$ having the same length as $u$ such that each element of $u$ is less than or equal to the corresponding element of $u'$ in the partial order on $P$. Classical subword order arises when $P$ is an antichain, while letting $P$ be a chain gives an order on compositions. For any finite poset $P$, we give a simple formula for the Möbius function of $P^*$ in terms of the Möbius function of $P$. This permits us to rederive in an easy and uniform manner previous results of Björner, Sagan and Vatter, and Tomie. We are also able to determine the homotopy type of all intervals in $P^*$ for any finite $P$ of rank at most 1.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:18 +010
- The Möbius function of generalized subword order
Abstract: Let $P$ be a poset and let $P^*$ be the set of all finite length words over $P$. Generalized subword order is the partial order on $P^*$ obtained by letting $u≤ w$ if and only if there is a subword $u'$ of $w$ having the same length as $u$ such that each element of $u$ is less than or equal to the corresponding element of $u'$ in the partial order on $P$. Classical subword order arises when $P$ is an antichain, while letting $P$ be a chain gives an order on compositions. For any finite poset $P$, we give a simple formula for the Möbius function of $P^*$ in terms of the Möbius function of $P$. This permits us to rederive in an easy and uniform manner previous results of Björner, Sagan and Vatter, and Tomie. We are also able to determine the homotopy type of all intervals in $P^*$ for any finite $P$ of rank at most 1.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:18 +010
- Crystal energy via charge
Abstract: The Ram–Yip formula for Macdonald polynomials (at t=0) provides a statistic which we call charge. In types ${A}$ and ${C}$ it can be defined on tensor products of Kashiwara–Nakashima single column crystals. In this paper we show that the charge is equal to the (negative of the) energy function on affine crystals. The algorithm for computing charge is much simpler than the recursive definition of energy in terms of the combinatorial ${R}$-matrix.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:17 +010
- Crystal energy via charge
Abstract: The Ram–Yip formula for Macdonald polynomials (at t=0) provides a statistic which we call charge. In types ${A}$ and ${C}$ it can be defined on tensor products of Kashiwara–Nakashima single column crystals. In this paper we show that the charge is equal to the (negative of the) energy function on affine crystals. The algorithm for computing charge is much simpler than the recursive definition of energy in terms of the combinatorial ${R}$-matrix.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:17 +010
- Multi-cluster complexes
Abstract: We present a family of simplicial complexes called \emphmulti-cluster complexes. These complexes generalize the concept of cluster complexes, and extend the notion of multi-associahedra of types ${A}$ and ${B}$ to general finite Coxeter groups. We study combinatorial and geometric properties of these objects and, in particular, provide a simple combinatorial description of the compatibility relation among the set of almost positive roots in the cluster complex.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:16 +010
- Multi-cluster complexes
Abstract: We present a family of simplicial complexes called \emphmulti-cluster complexes. These complexes generalize the concept of cluster complexes, and extend the notion of multi-associahedra of types ${A}$ and ${B}$ to general finite Coxeter groups. We study combinatorial and geometric properties of these objects and, in particular, provide a simple combinatorial description of the compatibility relation among the set of almost positive roots in the cluster complex.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:16 +010
- Simply generated trees, conditioned Galton―Watson trees, random
allocations and condensation: Extended abstract
Abstract: We give a unified treatment of the limit, as the size tends to infinity, of random simply generated trees, including both the well-known result in the standard case of critical Galton-Watson trees and similar but less well-known results in the other cases (i.e., when no equivalent critical Galton-Watson tree exists). There is a well-defined limit in the form of an infinite random tree in all cases; for critical Galton-Watson trees this tree is locally finite but for the other cases the random limit has exactly one node of infinite degree. The random infinite limit tree can in all cases be constructed by a modified Galton-Watson process. In the standard case of a critical Galton-Watson tree, the limit tree has an infinite "spine", where the offspring distribution is size-biased. In the other cases, the spine has finite length and ends with a vertex with infinite degree. A node of infinite degree in the limit corresponds to the existence of one node with very high degree in the finite random trees; in physics terminology, this is a type of condensation. In simple cases, there is one node with a degree that is roughly a constant times the number of nodes, while all other degrees are much smaller; however, more complicated behaviour is also possible. The proofs use a well-known connection to a random allocation model that we call balls-in-boxes, and we prove corresponding results for this model.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:15 +010
- Simply generated trees, conditioned Galton―Watson trees, random
allocations and condensation: Extended abstract
Abstract: We give a unified treatment of the limit, as the size tends to infinity, of random simply generated trees, including both the well-known result in the standard case of critical Galton-Watson trees and similar but less well-known results in the other cases (i.e., when no equivalent critical Galton-Watson tree exists). There is a well-defined limit in the form of an infinite random tree in all cases; for critical Galton-Watson trees this tree is locally finite but for the other cases the random limit has exactly one node of infinite degree. The random infinite limit tree can in all cases be constructed by a modified Galton-Watson process. In the standard case of a critical Galton-Watson tree, the limit tree has an infinite "spine", where the offspring distribution is size-biased. In the other cases, the spine has finite length and ends with a vertex with infinite degree. A node of infinite degree in the limit corresponds to the existence of one node with very high degree in the finite random trees; in physics terminology, this is a type of condensation. In simple cases, there is one node with a degree that is roughly a constant times the number of nodes, while all other degrees are much smaller; however, more complicated behaviour is also possible. The proofs use a well-known connection to a random allocation model that we call balls-in-boxes, and we prove corresponding results for this model.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:15 +010
- Infinite Systems of Functional Equations and Gaussian Limiting
Distributions
Abstract: In this paper infinite systems of functional equations in finitely or infinitely many random variables arising in combinatorial enumeration problems are studied. We prove sufficient conditions under which the combinatorial random variables encoded in the generating function of the system tend to a finite or infinite dimensional limiting distribution.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:14 +010
- Infinite Systems of Functional Equations and Gaussian Limiting
Distributions
Abstract: In this paper infinite systems of functional equations in finitely or infinitely many random variables arising in combinatorial enumeration problems are studied. We prove sufficient conditions under which the combinatorial random variables encoded in the generating function of the system tend to a finite or infinite dimensional limiting distribution.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:14 +010
- Toward the asymptotic count of bi-modular hidden patterns under
probabilistic dynamical sources: a case study
Abstract: Consider a countable alphabet $\mathcal{A}$. A multi-modular hidden pattern is an $r$-tuple $(w_1,\ldots , w_r)$, where each $w_i$ is a word over $\mathcal{A}$ called a module. The hidden pattern is said to occur in a text $t$ when the later admits the decomposition $t = v_0 w_1v_1 \cdots v_{r−1}w_r v_r$, for arbitrary words $v_i$ over $\mathcal{A}$. Flajolet, Szpankowski and Vallée (2006) proved via the method of moments that the number of matches (or occurrences) with a multi-modular hidden pattern in a random text $X_1\cdots X_n$ is asymptotically Normal, when $(X_n)_{n\geq1}$ are independent and identically distributed $\mathcal{A}$-valued random variables. Bourdon and Vallée (2002) had conjectured however that asymptotic Normality holds more generally when $(X_n)_{n\geq1}$ is produced by an expansive dynamical source. Whereas memoryless and Markovian sequences are instances of dynamical sources with finite memory length, general dynamical sources may be non-Markovian i.e. convey an infinite memory length. The technical difficulty to count hidden patterns under sources with memory is the context-free nature of these patterns as well as the lack of logarithm-and exponential-type transformations to rewrite the product of non-commuting transfer operators. In this paper, we address a case study in which we have successfully overpassed the aforementioned difficulties and which may illuminate how to address more general cases via auto-correlation operators. Our main result shows that the number of matches with a bi-modular pattern $(w_1, w_2)$ normalized by the number of matches with the pattern $w_1$, where $w_1$ and $w_2$ are different alphabet characters, is indeed asymptotically Normal when $(X_n)_{n\geq1}$ is produced by a holomorphic probabilistic dynamical source.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:13 +010
- Toward the asymptotic count of bi-modular hidden patterns under
probabilistic dynamical sources: a case study
Abstract: Consider a countable alphabet $\mathcal{A}$. A multi-modular hidden pattern is an $r$-tuple $(w_1,\ldots , w_r)$, where each $w_i$ is a word over $\mathcal{A}$ called a module. The hidden pattern is said to occur in a text $t$ when the later admits the decomposition $t = v_0 w_1v_1 \cdots v_{r−1}w_r v_r$, for arbitrary words $v_i$ over $\mathcal{A}$. Flajolet, Szpankowski and Vallée (2006) proved via the method of moments that the number of matches (or occurrences) with a multi-modular hidden pattern in a random text $X_1\cdots X_n$ is asymptotically Normal, when $(X_n)_{n\geq1}$ are independent and identically distributed $\mathcal{A}$-valued random variables. Bourdon and Vallée (2002) had conjectured however that asymptotic Normality holds more generally when $(X_n)_{n\geq1}$ is produced by an expansive dynamical source. Whereas memoryless and Markovian sequences are instances of dynamical sources with finite memory length, general dynamical sources may be non-Markovian i.e. convey an infinite memory length. The technical difficulty to count hidden patterns under sources with memory is the context-free nature of these patterns as well as the lack of logarithm-and exponential-type transformations to rewrite the product of non-commuting transfer operators. In this paper, we address a case study in which we have successfully overpassed the aforementioned difficulties and which may illuminate how to address more general cases via auto-correlation operators. Our main result shows that the number of matches with a bi-modular pattern $(w_1, w_2)$ normalized by the number of matches with the pattern $w_1$, where $w_1$ and $w_2$ are different alphabet characters, is indeed asymptotically Normal when $(X_n)_{n\geq1}$ is produced by a holomorphic probabilistic dynamical source.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:13 +010
- Mixing times of Markov chains on 3-Orientations of Planar Triangulations
Abstract: Given a planar triangulation, a 3-orientation is an orientation of the internal edges so all internal vertices have out-degree three. Each 3-orientation gives rise to a unique edge coloring known as a $\textit{Schnyder wood}$ that has proven useful for various computing and combinatorics applications. We consider natural Markov chains for sampling uniformly from the set of 3-orientations. First, we study a "triangle-reversing'' chain on the space of 3-orientations of a fixed triangulation that reverses the orientation of the edges around a triangle in each move. We show that (i) when restricted to planar triangulations of maximum degree six, the Markov chain is rapidly mixing, and (ii) there exists a triangulation with high degree on which this Markov chain mixes slowly. Next, we consider an "edge-flipping'' chain on the larger state space consisting of 3-orientations of all planar triangulations on a fixed number of vertices. It was also shown previously that this chain connects the state space and we prove that the chain is always rapidly mixing.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:09 +010
- Mixing times of Markov chains on 3-Orientations of Planar Triangulations
Abstract: Given a planar triangulation, a 3-orientation is an orientation of the internal edges so all internal vertices have out-degree three. Each 3-orientation gives rise to a unique edge coloring known as a $\textit{Schnyder wood}$ that has proven useful for various computing and combinatorics applications. We consider natural Markov chains for sampling uniformly from the set of 3-orientations. First, we study a "triangle-reversing'' chain on the space of 3-orientations of a fixed triangulation that reverses the orientation of the edges around a triangle in each move. We show that (i) when restricted to planar triangulations of maximum degree six, the Markov chain is rapidly mixing, and (ii) there exists a triangulation with high degree on which this Markov chain mixes slowly. Next, we consider an "edge-flipping'' chain on the larger state space consisting of 3-orientations of all planar triangulations on a fixed number of vertices. It was also shown previously that this chain connects the state space and we prove that the chain is always rapidly mixing.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:09 +010
- Analysis of Digital Expansions of Minimal Weight
Abstract: Extending an idea of Suppakitpaisarn, Edahiro and Imai, a dynamic programming approach for computing digital expansions of minimal weight is transformed into an asymptotic analysis of minimal weight expansions. The minimal weight of an optimal expansion of a random input of length $\ell$ is shown to be asymptotically normally distributed under suitable conditions. After discussing the general framework, we focus on expansions to the base of $\tau$, where $\tau$ is a root of the polynomial $X^2- \mu X + 2$ for $\mu \in \{ \pm 1\}$. As the Frobenius endomorphism on a binary Koblitz curve fulfils the same equation, digit expansions to the base of this $\tau$ can be used for scalar multiplication and linear combination in elliptic curve cryptosystems over these curves.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:08 +010
- Analysis of Digital Expansions of Minimal Weight
Abstract: Extending an idea of Suppakitpaisarn, Edahiro and Imai, a dynamic programming approach for computing digital expansions of minimal weight is transformed into an asymptotic analysis of minimal weight expansions. The minimal weight of an optimal expansion of a random input of length $\ell$ is shown to be asymptotically normally distributed under suitable conditions. After discussing the general framework, we focus on expansions to the base of $\tau$, where $\tau$ is a root of the polynomial $X^2- \mu X + 2$ for $\mu \in \{ \pm 1\}$. As the Frobenius endomorphism on a binary Koblitz curve fulfils the same equation, digit expansions to the base of this $\tau$ can be used for scalar multiplication and linear combination in elliptic curve cryptosystems over these curves.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:08 +010
- On the Number of 2-Protected Nodes in Tries and Suffix Trees
Abstract: We use probabilistic and combinatorial tools on strings to discover the average number of 2-protected nodes in tries and in suffix trees. Our analysis covers both the uniform and non-uniform cases. For instance, in a uniform trie with $n$ leaves, the number of 2-protected nodes is approximately 0.803$n$, plus small first-order fluctuations. The 2-protected nodes are an emerging way to distinguish the interior of a tree from the fringe.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:07 +010
- On the Number of 2-Protected Nodes in Tries and Suffix Trees
Abstract: We use probabilistic and combinatorial tools on strings to discover the average number of 2-protected nodes in tries and in suffix trees. Our analysis covers both the uniform and non-uniform cases. For instance, in a uniform trie with $n$ leaves, the number of 2-protected nodes is approximately 0.803$n$, plus small first-order fluctuations. The 2-protected nodes are an emerging way to distinguish the interior of a tree from the fringe.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:07 +010
- On Greedy Trie Execution
Abstract: In the paper "How to select a looser'' Prodinger was analyzing an algorithm where $n$ participants are selecting a leader by flipping fair coins, where recursively, the 0-party (those who i.e. have tossed heads) continues until the leader is chosen. We give an answer to the question stated in the Prodinger's paper – what happens if not a 0-party is recursively looking for a leader but always a party with a smaller cardinality. We show the lower bound on the number of rounds of the greedy algorithm (for fair coin).
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:06 +010
- On Greedy Trie Execution
Abstract: In the paper "How to select a looser'' Prodinger was analyzing an algorithm where $n$ participants are selecting a leader by flipping fair coins, where recursively, the 0-party (those who i.e. have tossed heads) continues until the leader is chosen. We give an answer to the question stated in the Prodinger's paper – what happens if not a 0-party is recursively looking for a leader but always a party with a smaller cardinality. We show the lower bound on the number of rounds of the greedy algorithm (for fair coin).
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:06 +010
- Mean field analysis for inhomogeneous bike sharing systems
Abstract: In the paper, bike sharing systems with stations having a finite capacity are studied as stochastic networks. The inhomogeneity is modeled by clusters. We use a mean field limit to compute the limiting stationary distribution of the number of bikes at the stations. This method is an alternative to analytical methods. It can be used even if a closed form expression for the stationary distribution is out of reach as illustrated on a variant. Both models are compared. A practical conclusion is that avoiding empty or full stations does not improve overall performance.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:05 +010
- Mean field analysis for inhomogeneous bike sharing systems
Abstract: In the paper, bike sharing systems with stations having a finite capacity are studied as stochastic networks. The inhomogeneity is modeled by clusters. We use a mean field limit to compute the limiting stationary distribution of the number of bikes at the stations. This method is an alternative to analytical methods. It can be used even if a closed form expression for the stationary distribution is out of reach as illustrated on a variant. Both models are compared. A practical conclusion is that avoiding empty or full stations does not improve overall performance.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:05 +010
- Stokes polyhedra for $X$-shaped polyminos
Abstract: Consider a pair of $\textit{interlacing regular convex polygons}$, each with $2(n + 2)$ vertices, which we will be referring to as $\textit{red}$ and $\textit{black}$ ones. One can place these vertices on the unit circle $ z = 1$ in the complex plane; the vertices of the red polygon at $\epsilon^{2k}, k = 0, \ldots , 2n − 1$, of the black polygon at $\epsilon^{2k+1}, k = 0, \ldots , 2n − 1$; here $\epsilon = \exp(i \pi /(2n + 2))$. We assign to the vertices of each polygon alternating (within each polygon) signs. Note that all the pairwise intersections of red and black sides are oriented consistently. We declare the corresponding orientation positive.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:04 +010
- Stokes polyhedra for $X$-shaped polyminos
Abstract: Consider a pair of $\textit{interlacing regular convex polygons}$, each with $2(n + 2)$ vertices, which we will be referring to as $\textit{red}$ and $\textit{black}$ ones. One can place these vertices on the unit circle $ z = 1$ in the complex plane; the vertices of the red polygon at $\epsilon^{2k}, k = 0, \ldots , 2n − 1$, of the black polygon at $\epsilon^{2k+1}, k = 0, \ldots , 2n − 1$; here $\epsilon = \exp(i \pi /(2n + 2))$. We assign to the vertices of each polygon alternating (within each polygon) signs. Note that all the pairwise intersections of red and black sides are oriented consistently. We declare the corresponding orientation positive.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:04 +010
- The Limiting Distribution for the Number of Symbol Comparisons Used by
QuickSort is Nondegenerate (Extended Abstract)
Abstract: In a continuous-time setting, Fill (2012) proved, for a large class of probabilistic sources, that the number of symbol comparisons used by $\texttt{QuickSort}$, when centered by subtracting the mean and scaled by dividing by time, has a limiting distribution, but proved little about that limiting random variable $Y$—not even that it is nondegenerate. We establish the nondegeneracy of $Y$. The proof is perhaps surprisingly difficult.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:03 +010
- The Limiting Distribution for the Number of Symbol Comparisons Used by
QuickSort is Nondegenerate (Extended Abstract)
Abstract: In a continuous-time setting, Fill (2012) proved, for a large class of probabilistic sources, that the number of symbol comparisons used by $\texttt{QuickSort}$, when centered by subtracting the mean and scaled by dividing by time, has a limiting distribution, but proved little about that limiting random variable $Y$—not even that it is nondegenerate. We establish the nondegeneracy of $Y$. The proof is perhaps surprisingly difficult.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:03 +010
- Exact $L^2$-Distance from the Limit for QuickSort Key Comparisons
(Extended Abstract)
Abstract: Using a recursive approach, we obtain a simple exact expression for the $L^2$-distance from the limit in the classical limit theorem of Régnier (1989) for the number of key comparisons required by $\texttt{QuickSort}$. A previous study by Fill and Janson (2002) using a similar approach found that the $d_2$-distance is of order between $n^{-1} \log{n}$ and $n^{-1/2}$, and another by Neininger and Ruschendorf (2002) found that the Zolotarev $\zeta _3$-distance is of exact order $n^{-1} \log{n}$. Our expression reveals that the $L^2$-distance is asymptotically equivalent to $(2 n^{-1} \ln{n})^{1/2}$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:02 +010
- Exact $L^2$-Distance from the Limit for QuickSort Key Comparisons
(Extended Abstract)
Abstract: Using a recursive approach, we obtain a simple exact expression for the $L^2$-distance from the limit in the classical limit theorem of Régnier (1989) for the number of key comparisons required by $\texttt{QuickSort}$. A previous study by Fill and Janson (2002) using a similar approach found that the $d_2$-distance is of order between $n^{-1} \log{n}$ and $n^{-1/2}$, and another by Neininger and Ruschendorf (2002) found that the Zolotarev $\zeta _3$-distance is of exact order $n^{-1} \log{n}$. Our expression reveals that the $L^2$-distance is asymptotically equivalent to $(2 n^{-1} \ln{n})^{1/2}$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:02 +010
- Data Streams as Random Permutations: the Distinct Element Problem
Abstract: In this paper, we show that data streams can sometimes usefully be studied as random permutations. This simple observation allows a wealth of classical and recent results from combinatorics to be recycled, with minimal effort, as estimators for various statistics over data streams. We illustrate this by introducing RECORDINALITY, an algorithm which estimates the number of distinct elements in a stream by counting the number of $k$-records occurring in it. The algorithm has a score of interesting properties, such as providing a random sample of the set underlying the stream. To the best of our knowledge, a modified version of RECORDINALITY is the first cardinality estimation algorithm which, in the random-order model, uses neither sampling nor hashing.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:01 +010
- Data Streams as Random Permutations: the Distinct Element Problem
Abstract: In this paper, we show that data streams can sometimes usefully be studied as random permutations. This simple observation allows a wealth of classical and recent results from combinatorics to be recycled, with minimal effort, as estimators for various statistics over data streams. We illustrate this by introducing RECORDINALITY, an algorithm which estimates the number of distinct elements in a stream by counting the number of $k$-records occurring in it. The algorithm has a score of interesting properties, such as providing a random sample of the set underlying the stream. To the best of our knowledge, a modified version of RECORDINALITY is the first cardinality estimation algorithm which, in the random-order model, uses neither sampling nor hashing.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:01 +010
- Joint String Complexity for Markov Sources
Abstract: String complexity is defined as the cardinality of a set of all distinct words (factors) of a given string. For two strings, we define $\textit{joint string complexity}$ as the set of words that are common to both strings. We also relax this definition and introduce $\textit{joint semi-complexity}$ restricted to the common words appearing at least twice in both strings. String complexity finds a number of applications from capturing the richness of a language to finding similarities between two genome sequences. In this paper we analyze joint complexity and joint semi-complexity when both strings are generated by a Markov source. The problem turns out to be quite challenging requiring subtle singularity analysis and saddle point method over infinity many saddle points leading to novel oscillatory phenomena with single and double periodicities.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:00 +010
- Joint String Complexity for Markov Sources
Abstract: String complexity is defined as the cardinality of a set of all distinct words (factors) of a given string. For two strings, we define $\textit{joint string complexity}$ as the set of words that are common to both strings. We also relax this definition and introduce $\textit{joint semi-complexity}$ restricted to the common words appearing at least twice in both strings. String complexity finds a number of applications from capturing the richness of a language to finding similarities between two genome sequences. In this paper we analyze joint complexity and joint semi-complexity when both strings are generated by a Markov source. The problem turns out to be quite challenging requiring subtle singularity analysis and saddle point method over infinity many saddle points leading to novel oscillatory phenomena with single and double periodicities.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:22:00 +010
- The Euclid Algorithm is totally gaussian
Abstract: We consider Euclid’s gcd algorithm for two integers $(p, q)$ with $1 \leq p \leq q \leq N$, with the uniform distribution on input pairs. We study the distribution of the total cost of execution of the algorithm for an additive cost function $d$ on the set of possible digits, asymptotically for $N \to \infty$. For any additive cost of moderate growth $d$, Baladi and Vallée obtained a central limit theorem, and –in the case when the cost $d$ is lattice– a local limit theorem. In both cases, the optimal speed was attained. When the cost is non lattice, the problem was later considered by Baladi and Hachemi, who obtained a local limit theorem under an intertwined diophantine condition which involves the cost $d$ together with the “canonical” cost $c$ of the underlying dynamical system. The speed depends on the irrationality exponent that intervenes in the diophantine condition. We show here how to replace this diophantine condition by another diophantine condition, much more natural, which already intervenes in simpler problems of the same vein, and only involves the cost $d$. This “replacement” is made possible by using the additivity of cost $d$, together with a strong property satisfied by the Euclidean Dynamical System, which states that the cost $c$ is both “strongly” non additive and diophantine in a precise sense. We thus obtain a local limit theorem, whose speed is related to the irrationality exponent which intervenes in the new diophantine condition. We mainly use the previous proof of Baladi and Hachemi, and “just” explain how their diophantine condition may be replaced by our condition. Our result also provides a precise comparison between the rational trajectories of the Euclid dynamical system and the real trajectories.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:58 +010
- The Euclid Algorithm is totally gaussian
Abstract: We consider Euclid’s gcd algorithm for two integers $(p, q)$ with $1 \leq p \leq q \leq N$, with the uniform distribution on input pairs. We study the distribution of the total cost of execution of the algorithm for an additive cost function $d$ on the set of possible digits, asymptotically for $N \to \infty$. For any additive cost of moderate growth $d$, Baladi and Vallée obtained a central limit theorem, and –in the case when the cost $d$ is lattice– a local limit theorem. In both cases, the optimal speed was attained. When the cost is non lattice, the problem was later considered by Baladi and Hachemi, who obtained a local limit theorem under an intertwined diophantine condition which involves the cost $d$ together with the “canonical” cost $c$ of the underlying dynamical system. The speed depends on the irrationality exponent that intervenes in the diophantine condition. We show here how to replace this diophantine condition by another diophantine condition, much more natural, which already intervenes in simpler problems of the same vein, and only involves the cost $d$. This “replacement” is made possible by using the additivity of cost $d$, together with a strong property satisfied by the Euclidean Dynamical System, which states that the cost $c$ is both “strongly” non additive and diophantine in a precise sense. We thus obtain a local limit theorem, whose speed is related to the irrationality exponent which intervenes in the new diophantine condition. We mainly use the previous proof of Baladi and Hachemi, and “just” explain how their diophantine condition may be replaced by our condition. Our result also provides a precise comparison between the rational trajectories of the Euclid dynamical system and the real trajectories.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:58 +010
- A phase transition in the distribution of the length of integer partitions
Abstract: We assign a uniform probability to the set consisting of partitions of a positive integer $n$ such that the multiplicity of each summand is less than a given number $d$ and we study the limiting distribution of the number of summands in a random partition. It is known from a result by Erdős and Lehner published in 1941 that the distributions of the length in random restricted $(d=2)$ and random unrestricted $(d \geq n+1)$ partitions behave very differently. In this paper we show that as the bound $d$ increases we observe a phase transition in which the distribution goes from the Gaussian distribution of the restricted case to the Gumbel distribution of the unrestricted case.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:57 +010
- A phase transition in the distribution of the length of integer partitions
Abstract: We assign a uniform probability to the set consisting of partitions of a positive integer $n$ such that the multiplicity of each summand is less than a given number $d$ and we study the limiting distribution of the number of summands in a random partition. It is known from a result by Erdős and Lehner published in 1941 that the distributions of the length in random restricted $(d=2)$ and random unrestricted $(d \geq n+1)$ partitions behave very differently. In this paper we show that as the bound $d$ increases we observe a phase transition in which the distribution goes from the Gaussian distribution of the restricted case to the Gumbel distribution of the unrestricted case.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:57 +010
- The weighted words collector
Abstract: We consider the word collector problem, i.e. the expected number of calls to a random weighted generator before all the words of a given length in a language are generated. The originality of this instance of the non-uniform coupon collector lies in the, potentially large, multiplicity of the words/coupons of a given probability/composition. We obtain a general theorem that gives an asymptotic equivalent for the expected waiting time of a general version of the Coupon Collector. This theorem is especially well-suited for classes of coupons featuring high multiplicities. Its application to a given language essentially necessitates knowledge on the number of words of a given composition/probability. We illustrate the application of our theorem, in a step-by-step fashion, on four exemplary languages, whose analyses reveal a large diversity of asymptotic waiting times, generally expressible as $\kappa \cdot m^p \cdot (\log{m})^q \cdot (\log \log{m})^r$, for $m$ the number of words, and $p, q, r$ some positive real numbers.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:55 +010
- The weighted words collector
Abstract: We consider the word collector problem, i.e. the expected number of calls to a random weighted generator before all the words of a given length in a language are generated. The originality of this instance of the non-uniform coupon collector lies in the, potentially large, multiplicity of the words/coupons of a given probability/composition. We obtain a general theorem that gives an asymptotic equivalent for the expected waiting time of a general version of the Coupon Collector. This theorem is especially well-suited for classes of coupons featuring high multiplicities. Its application to a given language essentially necessitates knowledge on the number of words of a given composition/probability. We illustrate the application of our theorem, in a step-by-step fashion, on four exemplary languages, whose analyses reveal a large diversity of asymptotic waiting times, generally expressible as $\kappa \cdot m^p \cdot (\log{m})^q \cdot (\log \log{m})^r$, for $m$ the number of words, and $p, q, r$ some positive real numbers.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:55 +010
- Locally Restricted Compositions IV. Nearly Free Large Parts and
Gap-Freeness
Abstract: We define the notion of $t$-free for locally restricted compositions, which means roughly that if such a composition contains a part $c_i$ and nearby parts are at least $t$ smaller, then $c_i$ can be replaced by any larger part. Two well-known examples are Carlitz and alternating compositions. We show that large parts have asymptotically geometric distributions. This leads to asymptotically independent Poisson variables for numbers of various large parts. Based on this we obtain asymptotic formulas for the probability of being gap free and for the expected values of the largest part and number distinct parts, all accurate to $o(1)$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:54 +010
- Locally Restricted Compositions IV. Nearly Free Large Parts and
Gap-Freeness
Abstract: We define the notion of $t$-free for locally restricted compositions, which means roughly that if such a composition contains a part $c_i$ and nearby parts are at least $t$ smaller, then $c_i$ can be replaced by any larger part. Two well-known examples are Carlitz and alternating compositions. We show that large parts have asymptotically geometric distributions. This leads to asymptotically independent Poisson variables for numbers of various large parts. Based on this we obtain asymptotic formulas for the probability of being gap free and for the expected values of the largest part and number distinct parts, all accurate to $o(1)$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:54 +010
- Exactly Solvable Balanced Tenable Urns with Random Entries via the
Analytic Methodology
Abstract: This paper develops an analytic theory for the study of some Pólya urns with random rules. The idea is to extend the isomorphism theorem in Flajolet et al. (2006), which connects deterministic balanced urns to a differential system for the generating function. The methodology is based upon adaptation of operators and use of a weighted probability generating function. Systems of differential equations are developed, and when they can be solved, they lead to characterization of the exact distributions underlying the urn evolution. We give a few illustrative examples.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:53 +010
- Exactly Solvable Balanced Tenable Urns with Random Entries via the
Analytic Methodology
Abstract: This paper develops an analytic theory for the study of some Pólya urns with random rules. The idea is to extend the isomorphism theorem in Flajolet et al. (2006), which connects deterministic balanced urns to a differential system for the generating function. The methodology is based upon adaptation of operators and use of a weighted probability generating function. Systems of differential equations are developed, and when they can be solved, they lead to characterization of the exact distributions underlying the urn evolution. We give a few illustrative examples.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:53 +010
- Adaptive compression against a countable alphabet
Abstract: This paper sheds light on universal coding with respect to classes of memoryless sources over a countable alphabet defined by an envelope function with finite and non-decreasing hazard rate. We prove that the auto-censuring (AC) code introduced by Bontemps (2011) is adaptive with respect to the collection of such classes. The analysis builds on the tight characterization of universal redundancy rate in terms of metric entropy by Haussler and Opper (1997) and on a careful analysis of the performance of the AC-coding algorithm. The latter relies on non-asymptotic bounds for maxima of samples from discrete distributions with finite and non-decreasing hazard rate.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:52 +010
- Adaptive compression against a countable alphabet
Abstract: This paper sheds light on universal coding with respect to classes of memoryless sources over a countable alphabet defined by an envelope function with finite and non-decreasing hazard rate. We prove that the auto-censuring (AC) code introduced by Bontemps (2011) is adaptive with respect to the collection of such classes. The analysis builds on the tight characterization of universal redundancy rate in terms of metric entropy by Haussler and Opper (1997) and on a careful analysis of the performance of the AC-coding algorithm. The latter relies on non-asymptotic bounds for maxima of samples from discrete distributions with finite and non-decreasing hazard rate.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:52 +010
- Support and density of the limit $m$-ary search trees distribution
Abstract: The space requirements of an $m$-ary search tree satisfies a well-known phase transition: when $m\leq 26$, the second order asymptotics is Gaussian. When $m\geq 27$, it is not Gaussian any longer and a limit $W$ of a complex-valued martingale arises. We show that the distribution of $W$ has a square integrable density on the complex plane, that its support is the whole complex plane, and that it has finite exponential moments. The proofs are based on the study of the distributional equation $ W \overset{\mathcal{L}}{=} \sum_{k=1}^mV_k^{\lambda}W_k$, where $V_1, ..., V_m$ are the spacings of $(m-1)$ independent random variables uniformly distributed on $[0,1]$, $W_1, ..., W_m$ are independent copies of W which are also independent of $(V_1, ..., V_m)$ and $\lambda$ is a complex number.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:51 +010
- Support and density of the limit $m$-ary search trees distribution
Abstract: The space requirements of an $m$-ary search tree satisfies a well-known phase transition: when $m\leq 26$, the second order asymptotics is Gaussian. When $m\geq 27$, it is not Gaussian any longer and a limit $W$ of a complex-valued martingale arises. We show that the distribution of $W$ has a square integrable density on the complex plane, that its support is the whole complex plane, and that it has finite exponential moments. The proofs are based on the study of the distributional equation $ W \overset{\mathcal{L}}{=} \sum_{k=1}^mV_k^{\lambda}W_k$, where $V_1, ..., V_m$ are the spacings of $(m-1)$ independent random variables uniformly distributed on $[0,1]$, $W_1, ..., W_m$ are independent copies of W which are also independent of $(V_1, ..., V_m)$ and $\lambda$ is a complex number.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:51 +010
- On Bernoulli Sums and Bernstein Polynomials
Abstract: In the paper we discuss a technology based on Bernstein polynomials of asymptotic analysis of a class of binomial sums that arise in information theory. Our method gives a quick derivation of required sums and can be generalized to multinomial distributions. As an example we derive a formula for the entropy of multinomial distributions. Our method simplifies previous work of Jacquet, Szpankowski and Flajolet from 1999.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:50 +010
- On Bernoulli Sums and Bernstein Polynomials
Abstract: In the paper we discuss a technology based on Bernstein polynomials of asymptotic analysis of a class of binomial sums that arise in information theory. Our method gives a quick derivation of required sums and can be generalized to multinomial distributions. As an example we derive a formula for the entropy of multinomial distributions. Our method simplifies previous work of Jacquet, Szpankowski and Flajolet from 1999.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:50 +010
- Matching solid shapes in arbitrary dimension via random sampling
Abstract: We give simple probabilistic algorithms that approximately maximize the volume of overlap of two solid, i.e. full-dimensional, shapes under translations and rigid motions. The shapes are subsets of $ℝ^d$ where $d≥ 2$. The algorithms approximate with respect to an pre-specified additive error and succeed with high probability. Apart from measurability assumptions, we only require that points from the shapes can be generated uniformly at random. An important example are shapes given as finite unions of simplices that have pairwise disjoint interiors.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:49 +010
- Matching solid shapes in arbitrary dimension via random sampling
Abstract: We give simple probabilistic algorithms that approximately maximize the volume of overlap of two solid, i.e. full-dimensional, shapes under translations and rigid motions. The shapes are subsets of $ℝ^d$ where $d≥ 2$. The algorithms approximate with respect to an pre-specified additive error and succeed with high probability. Apart from measurability assumptions, we only require that points from the shapes can be generated uniformly at random. An important example are shapes given as finite unions of simplices that have pairwise disjoint interiors.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:49 +010
- Generic properties of random subgroups of a free group for general
distributions
Abstract: We consider a generalization of the uniform word-based distribution for finitely generated subgroups of a free group. In our setting, the number of generators is not fixed, the length of each generator is determined by a random variable with some simple constraints and the distribution of words of a fixed length is specified by a Markov process. We show by probabilistic arguments that under rather relaxed assumptions, the good properties of the uniform word-based distribution are preserved: generically (but maybe not exponentially generically), the tuple we pick is a basis of the subgroup it generates, this subgroup is malnormal and the group presentation defined by this tuple satisfies a small cancellation condition.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:48 +010
- Generic properties of random subgroups of a free group for general
distributions
Abstract: We consider a generalization of the uniform word-based distribution for finitely generated subgroups of a free group. In our setting, the number of generators is not fixed, the length of each generator is determined by a random variable with some simple constraints and the distribution of words of a fixed length is specified by a Markov process. We show by probabilistic arguments that under rather relaxed assumptions, the good properties of the uniform word-based distribution are preserved: generically (but maybe not exponentially generically), the tuple we pick is a basis of the subgroup it generates, this subgroup is malnormal and the group presentation defined by this tuple satisfies a small cancellation condition.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:48 +010
- On the number of transversals in random trees
Abstract: We study transversals in random trees with n vertices asymptotically as n tends to infinity. Our investigation treats the average number of transversals of fixed size, the size of a random transversal as well as the probability that a random subset of the vertex set of a tree is a transversal for the class of simply generated trees and for Pólya trees. The last parameter was already studied by Devroye for simply generated trees. We offer an alternative proof based on generating functions and singularity analysis and extend the result to Pólya trees.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:47 +010
- On the number of transversals in random trees
Abstract: We study transversals in random trees with n vertices asymptotically as n tends to infinity. Our investigation treats the average number of transversals of fixed size, the size of a random transversal as well as the probability that a random subset of the vertex set of a tree is a transversal for the class of simply generated trees and for Pólya trees. The last parameter was already studied by Devroye for simply generated trees. We offer an alternative proof based on generating functions and singularity analysis and extend the result to Pólya trees.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:47 +010
- Biased Boltzmann samplers and generation of extended linear languages with
shuffle
Abstract: This paper is devoted to the construction of Boltzmann samplers according to various distributions, and uses stochastic bias on the parameter of a Boltzmann sampler, to produce a sampler with a different distribution for the size of the output. As a significant application, we produce Boltzmann samplers for words defined by regular specifications containing shuffle operators and linear recursions. This sampler has linear complexity in the size of the output, where the complexity is measured in terms of real-arithmetic operations and evaluations of generating functions.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:46 +010
- Biased Boltzmann samplers and generation of extended linear languages with
shuffle
Abstract: This paper is devoted to the construction of Boltzmann samplers according to various distributions, and uses stochastic bias on the parameter of a Boltzmann sampler, to produce a sampler with a different distribution for the size of the output. As a significant application, we produce Boltzmann samplers for words defined by regular specifications containing shuffle operators and linear recursions. This sampler has linear complexity in the size of the output, where the complexity is measured in terms of real-arithmetic operations and evaluations of generating functions.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:46 +010
- Some exact asymptotics in the counting of walks in the quarter plane
Abstract: Enumeration of planar lattice walks is a classical topic in combinatorics, at the cross-roads of several domains (e.g., probability, statistical physics, computer science). The aim of this paper is to propose a new approach to obtain some exact asymptotics for walks confined to the quarter plane.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:45 +010
- Some exact asymptotics in the counting of walks in the quarter plane
Abstract: Enumeration of planar lattice walks is a classical topic in combinatorics, at the cross-roads of several domains (e.g., probability, statistical physics, computer science). The aim of this paper is to propose a new approach to obtain some exact asymptotics for walks confined to the quarter plane.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:45 +010
- On total variation approximations for random assemblies
Abstract: We prove a total variation approximation for the distribution of component vector of a weakly logarithmic random assembly. The proof demonstrates an analytic approach based on a comparative analysis of the coefficients of two power series.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:44 +010
- On total variation approximations for random assemblies
Abstract: We prove a total variation approximation for the distribution of component vector of a weakly logarithmic random assembly. The proof demonstrates an analytic approach based on a comparative analysis of the coefficients of two power series.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:44 +010
- Enumeration and Random Generation of Concurrent Computations
Abstract: In this paper, we study the shuffle operator on concurrent processes (represented as trees) using analytic combinatorics tools. As a first result, we show that the mean width of shuffle trees is exponentially smaller than the worst case upper-bound. We also study the expected size (in total number of nodes) of shuffle trees. We notice, rather unexpectedly, that only a small ratio of all nodes do not belong to the last two levels. We also provide a precise characterization of what ``exponential growth'' means in the case of the shuffle on trees. Two practical outcomes of our quantitative study are presented: (1) a linear-time algorithm to compute the probability of a concurrent run prefix, and (2) an efficient algorithm for uniform random generation of concurrent runs.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:43 +010
- Domination analysis for scheduling on non preemptive uniformly related
machines
Abstract: no abstract
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:42 +010
- Additive tree functionals with small toll functions and subtrees of random
trees
Abstract: Many parameters of trees are additive in the sense that they can be computed recursively from the sum of the branches plus a certain toll function. For instance, such parameters occur very frequently in the analysis of divide-and-conquer algorithms. Here we are interested in the situation that the toll function is small (the average over all trees of a given size $n$ decreases exponentially with $n$). We prove a general central limit theorem for random labelled trees and apply it to a number of examples. The main motivation is the study of the number of subtrees in a random labelled tree, but it also applies to classical instances such as the number of leaves.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:41 +010
- Additive tree functionals with small toll functions and subtrees of random
trees
Abstract: Many parameters of trees are additive in the sense that they can be computed recursively from the sum of the branches plus a certain toll function. For instance, such parameters occur very frequently in the analysis of divide-and-conquer algorithms. Here we are interested in the situation that the toll function is small (the average over all trees of a given size $n$ decreases exponentially with $n$). We prove a general central limit theorem for random labelled trees and apply it to a number of examples. The main motivation is the study of the number of subtrees in a random labelled tree, but it also applies to classical instances such as the number of leaves.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:41 +010
- Asymptotics of Divide-And-Conquer Recurrences Via Iterated Function
Systems
Abstract: Let $k≥2$ be a fixed integer. Given a bounded sequence of real numbers $(a_n:n≥k)$, then for any sequence $(f_n:n≥1)$ of real numbers satisfying the divide-and-conquer recurrence $f_n = (k-mod(n,k))f_⌊n/k⌋+mod(n,k)f_⌈n/k⌉ + a_n, n ≥k$, there is a unique continuous periodic function $f^*:\mathbb{R}→\mathbb{R}$ with period 1 such that $f_n = nf^*(\log _kn)+o(n)$. If $(a_n)$ is periodic with period $k, a_k=0$, and the initial conditions $(f_i:1 ≤i ≤k-1)$ are all zero, we obtain a specific iterated function system $S$, consisting of $k$ continuous functions from $[0,1]×\mathbb{R}$ into itself, such that the attractor of $S$ is $\{(x,f^*(x)): 0 ≤x ≤1\}$. Using the system $S$, an accurate plot of $f^*$ can be rapidly obtained.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:40 +010
- Asymptotics of Divide-And-Conquer Recurrences Via Iterated Function
Systems
Abstract: Let $k≥2$ be a fixed integer. Given a bounded sequence of real numbers $(a_n:n≥k)$, then for any sequence $(f_n:n≥1)$ of real numbers satisfying the divide-and-conquer recurrence $f_n = (k-mod(n,k))f_⌊n/k⌋+mod(n,k)f_⌈n/k⌉ + a_n, n ≥k$, there is a unique continuous periodic function $f^*:\mathbb{R}→\mathbb{R}$ with period 1 such that $f_n = nf^*(\log _kn)+o(n)$. If $(a_n)$ is periodic with period $k, a_k=0$, and the initial conditions $(f_i:1 ≤i ≤k-1)$ are all zero, we obtain a specific iterated function system $S$, consisting of $k$ continuous functions from $[0,1]×\mathbb{R}$ into itself, such that the attractor of $S$ is $\{(x,f^*(x)): 0 ≤x ≤1\}$. Using the system $S$, an accurate plot of $f^*$ can be rapidly obtained.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:40 +010
- Asymptotic behavior of some statistics in Ewens random permutations
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to present a general method to find limiting laws for some renormalized statistics on random permutations. The model considered here is Ewens sampling model, which generalizes uniform random permutations. We describe the asymptotic behavior of a large family of statistics, including the number of occurrences of any given dashed pattern. Our approach is based on the method of moments and relies on the following intuition: two events involving the images of different integers are almost independent.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:39 +010
- Asymptotic behavior of some statistics in Ewens random permutations
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to present a general method to find limiting laws for some renormalized statistics on random permutations. The model considered here is Ewens sampling model, which generalizes uniform random permutations. We describe the asymptotic behavior of a large family of statistics, including the number of occurrences of any given dashed pattern. Our approach is based on the method of moments and relies on the following intuition: two events involving the images of different integers are almost independent.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:39 +010
- On death processes and urn models
Abstract: We use death processes and embeddings into continuous time in order to analyze several urn models with a diminishing content. In particular we discuss generalizations of the pill's problem, originally introduced by Knuth and McCarthy, and generalizations of the well known sampling without replacement urn models, and OK Corral urn models.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:38 +010
- On death processes and urn models
Abstract: We use death processes and embeddings into continuous time in order to analyze several urn models with a diminishing content. In particular we discuss generalizations of the pill's problem, originally introduced by Knuth and McCarthy, and generalizations of the well known sampling without replacement urn models, and OK Corral urn models.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:38 +010
- Approximate Counting via the Poisson-Laplace-Mellin Method
Abstract: Approximate counting is an algorithm that provides a count of a huge number of objects within an error tolerance. The first detailed analysis of this algorithm was given by Flajolet. In this paper, we propose a new analysis via the Poisson-Laplace-Mellin approach, a method devised for analyzing shape parameters of digital search trees in a recent paper of Hwang et al. Our approach yields a different and more compact expression for the periodic function from the asymptotic expansion of the variance. We show directly that our expression coincides with the one obtained by Flajolet. Moreover, we apply our method to variations of approximate counting, too.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:37 +010
- Approximate Counting via the Poisson-Laplace-Mellin Method
Abstract: Approximate counting is an algorithm that provides a count of a huge number of objects within an error tolerance. The first detailed analysis of this algorithm was given by Flajolet. In this paper, we propose a new analysis via the Poisson-Laplace-Mellin approach, a method devised for analyzing shape parameters of digital search trees in a recent paper of Hwang et al. Our approach yields a different and more compact expression for the periodic function from the asymptotic expansion of the variance. We show directly that our expression coincides with the one obtained by Flajolet. Moreover, we apply our method to variations of approximate counting, too.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:37 +010
- A New Binomial Recurrence Arising in a Graphical Compression Algorithm
Abstract: In a recently proposed graphical compression algorithm by Choi and Szpankowski (2009), the following tree arose in the course of the analysis. The root contains n balls that are consequently distributed between two subtrees according to a simple rule: In each step, all balls independently move down to the left subtree (say with probability $p$) or the right subtree (with probability 1-$p$). A new node is created as long as there is at least one ball in that node. Furthermore, a nonnegative integer $d$ is given, and at level $d$ or greater one ball is removed from the leftmost node before the balls move down to the next level. These steps are repeated until all balls are removed (i.e., after $n+d$ steps). Observe that when $d=∞$ the above tree can be modeled as a $\textit{trie}$ that stores $n$ independent sequences generated by a memoryless source with parameter $p$. Therefore, we coin the name $(n,d)$-tries for the tree just described, and to which we often refer simply as $d$-tries. Parameters of such a tree (e.g., path length, depth, size) are described by an interesting two-dimensional recurrence (in terms of $n$ and $d$) that – to the best of our knowledge – was not analyzed before. We study it, and show how much parameters of such a $(n,d)$-trie differ from the corresponding parameters of regular tries. We use methods of analytic algorithmics, from Mellin transforms to analytic poissonization.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:36 +010
- A New Binomial Recurrence Arising in a Graphical Compression Algorithm
Abstract: In a recently proposed graphical compression algorithm by Choi and Szpankowski (2009), the following tree arose in the course of the analysis. The root contains n balls that are consequently distributed between two subtrees according to a simple rule: In each step, all balls independently move down to the left subtree (say with probability $p$) or the right subtree (with probability 1-$p$). A new node is created as long as there is at least one ball in that node. Furthermore, a nonnegative integer $d$ is given, and at level $d$ or greater one ball is removed from the leftmost node before the balls move down to the next level. These steps are repeated until all balls are removed (i.e., after $n+d$ steps). Observe that when $d=∞$ the above tree can be modeled as a $\textit{trie}$ that stores $n$ independent sequences generated by a memoryless source with parameter $p$. Therefore, we coin the name $(n,d)$-tries for the tree just described, and to which we often refer simply as $d$-tries. Parameters of such a tree (e.g., path length, depth, size) are described by an interesting two-dimensional recurrence (in terms of $n$ and $d$) that – to the best of our knowledge – was not analyzed before. We study it, and show how much parameters of such a $(n,d)$-trie differ from the corresponding parameters of regular tries. We use methods of analytic algorithmics, from Mellin transforms to analytic poissonization.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:36 +010
- A fixed point theorem for Boolean networks expressed in terms of forbidden
subnetworks
Abstract: We are interested in fixed points in Boolean networks, $\textit{i.e.}$ functions $f$ from $\{0,1\}^n$ to itself. We define the subnetworks of $f$ as the restrictions of $f$ to the hypercubes contained in $\{0,1\}^n$, and we exhibit a class $\mathcal{F}$ of Boolean networks, called even or odd self-dual networks, satisfying the following property: if a network $f$ has no subnetwork in $\mathcal{F}$, then it has a unique fixed point. We then discuss this "forbidden subnetworks theorem''. We show that it generalizes the following fixed point theorem of Shih and Dong: if, for every $x$ in $\{0,1\}^n$, there is no directed cycle in the directed graph whose the adjacency matrix is the discrete Jacobian matrix of $f$ evaluated at point $x$, then $f$ has a unique fixed point. We also show that $\mathcal{F}$ contains the class $\mathcal{F'}$ of networks whose the interaction graph is a directed cycle, but that the absence of subnetwork in $\mathcal{F'}$ does not imply the existence and the uniqueness of a fixed point.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:35 +010
- A fixed point theorem for Boolean networks expressed in terms of forbidden
subnetworks
Abstract: We are interested in fixed points in Boolean networks, $\textit{i.e.}$ functions $f$ from $\{0,1\}^n$ to itself. We define the subnetworks of $f$ as the restrictions of $f$ to the hypercubes contained in $\{0,1\}^n$, and we exhibit a class $\mathcal{F}$ of Boolean networks, called even or odd self-dual networks, satisfying the following property: if a network $f$ has no subnetwork in $\mathcal{F}$, then it has a unique fixed point. We then discuss this "forbidden subnetworks theorem''. We show that it generalizes the following fixed point theorem of Shih and Dong: if, for every $x$ in $\{0,1\}^n$, there is no directed cycle in the directed graph whose the adjacency matrix is the discrete Jacobian matrix of $f$ evaluated at point $x$, then $f$ has a unique fixed point. We also show that $\mathcal{F}$ contains the class $\mathcal{F'}$ of networks whose the interaction graph is a directed cycle, but that the absence of subnetwork in $\mathcal{F'}$ does not imply the existence and the uniqueness of a fixed point.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:35 +010
- The structure of communication problems in cellular automata
Abstract: Studying cellular automata with methods from communication complexity appears to be a promising approach. In the past, interesting connections between communication complexity and intrinsic universality in cellular automata were shown. One of the last extensions of this theory was its generalization to various "communication problems'', or "questions'' one might ask about the dynamics of cellular automata. In this article, we aim at structuring these problems, and find what makes them interesting for the study of intrinsic universality and quasi-orders induced by simulation relations.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:34 +010
- The structure of communication problems in cellular automata
Abstract: Studying cellular automata with methods from communication complexity appears to be a promising approach. In the past, interesting connections between communication complexity and intrinsic universality in cellular automata were shown. One of the last extensions of this theory was its generalization to various "communication problems'', or "questions'' one might ask about the dynamics of cellular automata. In this article, we aim at structuring these problems, and find what makes them interesting for the study of intrinsic universality and quasi-orders induced by simulation relations.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:34 +010
- Asymptotic distribution of entry times in a cellular automaton with
annihilating particles
Abstract: This work considers a cellular automaton (CA) with two particles: a stationary particle $1$ and left-going one $\overline{1}$. When a $\overline{1}$ encounters a $1$, both particles annihilate. We derive asymptotic distribution of appearence of particles at a given site when the CA is initialized with the Bernoulli measure with the probabilities of both particles equal to $1/2$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:33 +010
- Asymptotic distribution of entry times in a cellular automaton with
annihilating particles
Abstract: This work considers a cellular automaton (CA) with two particles: a stationary particle $1$ and left-going one $\overline{1}$. When a $\overline{1}$ encounters a $1$, both particles annihilate. We derive asymptotic distribution of appearence of particles at a given site when the CA is initialized with the Bernoulli measure with the probabilities of both particles equal to $1/2$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:33 +010
- Bifurcations in Boolean Networks
Abstract: This paper characterizes the attractor structure of synchronous and asynchronous Boolean networks induced by bi-threshold functions. Bi-threshold functions are generalizations of standard threshold functions and have separate threshold values for the transitions $0 \rightarrow $1 (up-threshold) and $1 \rightarrow 0$ (down-threshold). We show that synchronous bi-threshold systems may, just like standard threshold systems, only have fixed points and 2-cycles as attractors. Asynchronous bi-threshold systems (fixed permutation update sequence), on the other hand, undergo a bifurcation. When the difference $\Delta$ of the down- and up-threshold is less than 2 they only have fixed points as limit sets. However, for $\Delta \geq 2$ they may have long periodic orbits. The limiting case of $\Delta = 2$ is identified using a potential function argument. Finally, we present a series of results on the dynamics of bi-threshold systems for families of graphs.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:32 +010
- Bifurcations in Boolean Networks
Abstract: This paper characterizes the attractor structure of synchronous and asynchronous Boolean networks induced by bi-threshold functions. Bi-threshold functions are generalizations of standard threshold functions and have separate threshold values for the transitions $0 \rightarrow $1 (up-threshold) and $1 \rightarrow 0$ (down-threshold). We show that synchronous bi-threshold systems may, just like standard threshold systems, only have fixed points and 2-cycles as attractors. Asynchronous bi-threshold systems (fixed permutation update sequence), on the other hand, undergo a bifurcation. When the difference $\Delta$ of the down- and up-threshold is less than 2 they only have fixed points as limit sets. However, for $\Delta \geq 2$ they may have long periodic orbits. The limiting case of $\Delta = 2$ is identified using a potential function argument. Finally, we present a series of results on the dynamics of bi-threshold systems for families of graphs.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:32 +010
- Selfsimilarity, Simulation and Spacetime Symmetries
Abstract: We study intrinsic simulations between cellular automata and introduce a new necessary condition for a CA to simulate another one. Although expressed for general CA, this condition is targeted towards surjective CA and especially linear ones. Following the approach introduced by the first author in an earlier paper, we develop proof techniques to tell whether some linear CA can simulate another linear CA. Besides rigorous proofs, the necessary condition for the simulation to occur can be heuristically checked via simple observations of typical space-time diagrams generated from finite configurations. As an illustration, we give an example of linear reversible CA which cannot simulate the identity and which is 'time-asymmetric', i.e. which can neither simulate its own inverse, nor the mirror of its own inverse.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:31 +010
- Selfsimilarity, Simulation and Spacetime Symmetries
Abstract: We study intrinsic simulations between cellular automata and introduce a new necessary condition for a CA to simulate another one. Although expressed for general CA, this condition is targeted towards surjective CA and especially linear ones. Following the approach introduced by the first author in an earlier paper, we develop proof techniques to tell whether some linear CA can simulate another linear CA. Besides rigorous proofs, the necessary condition for the simulation to occur can be heuristically checked via simple observations of typical space-time diagrams generated from finite configurations. As an illustration, we give an example of linear reversible CA which cannot simulate the identity and which is 'time-asymmetric', i.e. which can neither simulate its own inverse, nor the mirror of its own inverse.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:31 +010
- On the set of Fixed Points of the Parallel Symmetric Sand Pile Model
Abstract: Sand Pile Models are discrete dynamical systems emphasizing the phenomenon of $\textit{Self-Organized Criticality}$. From a configuration composed of a finite number of stacked grains, we apply on every possible positions (in parallel) two grain moving transition rules. The transition rules permit one grain to fall to its right or left (symmetric) neighboring column if the difference of height between those columns is larger than 2. The model is nondeterministic and grains always fall downward. We propose a study of the set of fixed points reachable in the Parallel Symmetric Sand Pile Model (PSSPM). Using a comparison with the Symmetric Sand Pile Model (SSPM) on which rules are applied once at each iteration, we get a continuity property. This property states that within PSSPM we can't reach every fixed points of SSPM, but a continuous subset according to the lexicographic order. Moreover we define a successor relation to browse exhaustively the sets of fixed points of those models.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:31 +010
- On the set of Fixed Points of the Parallel Symmetric Sand Pile Model
Abstract: Sand Pile Models are discrete dynamical systems emphasizing the phenomenon of $\textit{Self-Organized Criticality}$. From a configuration composed of a finite number of stacked grains, we apply on every possible positions (in parallel) two grain moving transition rules. The transition rules permit one grain to fall to its right or left (symmetric) neighboring column if the difference of height between those columns is larger than 2. The model is nondeterministic and grains always fall downward. We propose a study of the set of fixed points reachable in the Parallel Symmetric Sand Pile Model (PSSPM). Using a comparison with the Symmetric Sand Pile Model (SSPM) on which rules are applied once at each iteration, we get a continuity property. This property states that within PSSPM we can't reach every fixed points of SSPM, but a continuous subset according to the lexicographic order. Moreover we define a successor relation to browse exhaustively the sets of fixed points of those models.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:31 +010
- Orbits of the Bernoulli measure in single-transition asynchronous cellular
automata
Abstract: We study iterations of the Bernoulli measure under nearest-neighbour asynchronous binary cellular automata (CA) with a single transition. For these CA, we show that a coarse-level description of the orbit of the Bernoulli measure can be obtained, that is, one can explicitly compute measures of short cylinder sets after arbitrary number of iterations of the CA. In particular, we give expressions for probabilities of ones for all three minimal single-transition rules, as well as expressions for probabilities of blocks of length 3 for some of them. These expressions can be interpreted as "response curves'', that is, curves describing the dependence of the final density of ones on the initial density of ones.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:30 +010
- Orbits of the Bernoulli measure in single-transition asynchronous cellular
automata
Abstract: We study iterations of the Bernoulli measure under nearest-neighbour asynchronous binary cellular automata (CA) with a single transition. For these CA, we show that a coarse-level description of the orbit of the Bernoulli measure can be obtained, that is, one can explicitly compute measures of short cylinder sets after arbitrary number of iterations of the CA. In particular, we give expressions for probabilities of ones for all three minimal single-transition rules, as well as expressions for probabilities of blocks of length 3 for some of them. These expressions can be interpreted as "response curves'', that is, curves describing the dependence of the final density of ones on the initial density of ones.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:30 +010
- Product decomposition for surjective 2-block NCCA
Abstract: In this paper we define products of one-dimensional Number Conserving Cellular Automata (NCCA) and show that surjective NCCA with 2 blocks (i.e radius 1/2) can always be represented as products of shifts and identites. In particular, this shows that surjective 2-block NCCA are injective.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:28 +010
- Product decomposition for surjective 2-block NCCA
Abstract: In this paper we define products of one-dimensional Number Conserving Cellular Automata (NCCA) and show that surjective NCCA with 2 blocks (i.e radius 1/2) can always be represented as products of shifts and identites. In particular, this shows that surjective 2-block NCCA are injective.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:28 +010
- NOCAS : A Nonlinear Cellular Automata Based Stream Cipher
Abstract: LFSR and NFSR are the basic building blocks in almost all the state of the art stream ciphers like Trivium and Grain-128. However, a number of attacks are mounted on these type of ciphers. Cellular Automata (CA) has recently been chosen as a suitable structure for crypto-primitives. In this work, a stream cipher is presented based on hybrid CA. The stream cipher takes 128 bit key and 128 bit initialization vector (IV) as input. It is designed to produce $\mathrm{2^{128}}$ random keystream bits and initialization phase is made faster 4 times than that of Grain-128. We also analyze the cryptographic strength of this cipher. Finally, the proposed cipher is shown to be resistant against known existing attacks.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:27 +010
- NOCAS : A Nonlinear Cellular Automata Based Stream Cipher
Abstract: LFSR and NFSR are the basic building blocks in almost all the state of the art stream ciphers like Trivium and Grain-128. However, a number of attacks are mounted on these type of ciphers. Cellular Automata (CA) has recently been chosen as a suitable structure for crypto-primitives. In this work, a stream cipher is presented based on hybrid CA. The stream cipher takes 128 bit key and 128 bit initialization vector (IV) as input. It is designed to produce $\mathrm{2^{128}}$ random keystream bits and initialization phase is made faster 4 times than that of Grain-128. We also analyze the cryptographic strength of this cipher. Finally, the proposed cipher is shown to be resistant against known existing attacks.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:27 +010
- Projective subdynamics and universal shifts
Abstract: We study the projective subdynamics of two-dimensional shifts of finite type, which is the set of one-dimensional configurations that appear as columns in them. We prove that a large class of one-dimensional shifts can be obtained as such, namely the effective subshifts which contain positive-entropy sofic subshifts. The proof involves some simple notions of simulation that may be of interest for other constructions. As an example, it allows us to prove the undecidability of all non-trivial properties of projective subdynamics.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:26 +010
- Projective subdynamics and universal shifts
Abstract: We study the projective subdynamics of two-dimensional shifts of finite type, which is the set of one-dimensional configurations that appear as columns in them. We prove that a large class of one-dimensional shifts can be obtained as such, namely the effective subshifts which contain positive-entropy sofic subshifts. The proof involves some simple notions of simulation that may be of interest for other constructions. As an example, it allows us to prove the undecidability of all non-trivial properties of projective subdynamics.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:26 +010
- Conservation Laws and Invariant Measures in Surjective Cellular Automata
Abstract: We discuss a close link between two seemingly different topics studied in the cellular automata literature: additive conservation laws and invariant probability measures. We provide an elementary proof of a simple correspondence between invariant full-support Bernoulli measures and interaction-free conserved quantities in the case of one-dimensional surjective cellular automata. We also discuss a generalization of this fact to Markov measures and higher-range conservation laws in arbitrary dimension. As a corollary, we show that the uniform Bernoulli measure is the only shift-invariant, full-support Markov measure that is invariant under a strongly transitive cellular automaton.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:25 +010
- Conservation Laws and Invariant Measures in Surjective Cellular Automata
Abstract: We discuss a close link between two seemingly different topics studied in the cellular automata literature: additive conservation laws and invariant probability measures. We provide an elementary proof of a simple correspondence between invariant full-support Bernoulli measures and interaction-free conserved quantities in the case of one-dimensional surjective cellular automata. We also discuss a generalization of this fact to Markov measures and higher-range conservation laws in arbitrary dimension. As a corollary, we show that the uniform Bernoulli measure is the only shift-invariant, full-support Markov measure that is invariant under a strongly transitive cellular automaton.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:25 +010
- Philippe Flajolet, the Father of Analytic Combinatorics
Abstract: Philippe Flajolet, mathematician and computer scientist extraordinaire, suddenly passed away on March 22, 2011, at the prime of his career. He is celebrated for opening new lines of research in analysis of algo- rithms, developing powerful new methods, and solving difficult open problems. His research contributions will have impact for generations, and his approach to research, based on curiosity, a discriminating taste, broad knowledge and interest, intellectual integrity, and a genuine sense of camaraderie, will serve as an inspiration to those who knew him for years to come
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:22 +010
- Philippe Flajolet, the Father of Analytic Combinatorics
Abstract: Philippe Flajolet, mathematician and computer scientist extraordinaire, suddenly passed away on March 22, 2011, at the prime of his career. He is celebrated for opening new lines of research in analysis of algo- rithms, developing powerful new methods, and solving difficult open problems. His research contributions will have impact for generations, and his approach to research, based on curiosity, a discriminating taste, broad knowledge and interest, intellectual integrity, and a genuine sense of camaraderie, will serve as an inspiration to those who knew him for years to come
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:22 +010
- Supercharacters, symmetric functions in noncommuting variables (extended
abstract)
Abstract: We identify two seemingly disparate structures: supercharacters, a useful way of doing Fourier analysis on the group of unipotent uppertriangular matrices with coefficients in a finite field, and the ring of symmetric functions in noncommuting variables. Each is a Hopf algebra and the two are isomorphic as such. This allows developments in each to be transferred. The identification suggests a rich class of examples for the emerging field of combinatorial Hopf algebras.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:22 +010
- Supercharacters, symmetric functions in noncommuting variables (extended
abstract)
Abstract: We identify two seemingly disparate structures: supercharacters, a useful way of doing Fourier analysis on the group of unipotent uppertriangular matrices with coefficients in a finite field, and the ring of symmetric functions in noncommuting variables. Each is a Hopf algebra and the two are isomorphic as such. This allows developments in each to be transferred. The identification suggests a rich class of examples for the emerging field of combinatorial Hopf algebras.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:22 +010
- On the monotone hook hafnian conjecture
Abstract: We investigate a conjecture of Haglund that asserts that certain graph polynomials have only real roots. We prove a multivariate generalization of this conjecture for the special case of threshold graphs.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:20 +010
- On the monotone hook hafnian conjecture
Abstract: We investigate a conjecture of Haglund that asserts that certain graph polynomials have only real roots. We prove a multivariate generalization of this conjecture for the special case of threshold graphs.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:20 +010
- Noncommutative Symmetric Hall-Littlewood Polynomials
Abstract: Noncommutative symmetric functions have many properties analogous to those of classical (commutative) symmetric functions. For instance, ribbon Schur functions (analogs of the classical Schur basis) expand positively in noncommutative monomial basis. More of the classical properties extend to noncommutative setting as I will demonstrate introducing a new family of noncommutative symmetric functions, depending on one parameter. It seems to be an appropriate noncommutative analog of the Hall-Littlewood polynomials.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:19 +010
- Noncommutative Symmetric Hall-Littlewood Polynomials
Abstract: Noncommutative symmetric functions have many properties analogous to those of classical (commutative) symmetric functions. For instance, ribbon Schur functions (analogs of the classical Schur basis) expand positively in noncommutative monomial basis. More of the classical properties extend to noncommutative setting as I will demonstrate introducing a new family of noncommutative symmetric functions, depending on one parameter. It seems to be an appropriate noncommutative analog of the Hall-Littlewood polynomials.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:19 +010
- Representations on Hessenberg Varieties and Young's Rule
Abstract: We combinatorially construct the complex cohomology (equivariant and ordinary) of a family of algebraic varieties called regular semisimple Hessenberg varieties. This construction is purely in terms of the Bruhat order on the symmetric group. From this a representation of the symmetric group on the cohomology is defined. This representation generalizes work of Procesi, Stembridge and Tymoczko. Here a partial answer to an open question of Tymoczko is provided in our two main result. The first states, when the variety has multiple connected components, this representation is made up by inducing through a parabolic subgroup of the symmetric group. Using this, our second result obtains, for a special family of varieties, an explicit formula for this representation via Young's rule, giving the multiplicity of the irreducible representations in terms of the classical Kostka numbers.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:18 +010
- Representations on Hessenberg Varieties and Young's Rule
Abstract: We combinatorially construct the complex cohomology (equivariant and ordinary) of a family of algebraic varieties called regular semisimple Hessenberg varieties. This construction is purely in terms of the Bruhat order on the symmetric group. From this a representation of the symmetric group on the cohomology is defined. This representation generalizes work of Procesi, Stembridge and Tymoczko. Here a partial answer to an open question of Tymoczko is provided in our two main result. The first states, when the variety has multiple connected components, this representation is made up by inducing through a parabolic subgroup of the symmetric group. Using this, our second result obtains, for a special family of varieties, an explicit formula for this representation via Young's rule, giving the multiplicity of the irreducible representations in terms of the classical Kostka numbers.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:18 +010
- A $q$-analog of Ljunggren's binomial congruence
Abstract: We prove a $q$-analog of a classical binomial congruence due to Ljunggren which states that $\binom{ap}{bp} \equiv \binom{a}{b}$ modulo $p^3$ for primes $p \geq 5$. This congruence subsumes and builds on earlier congruences by Babbage, Wolstenholme and Glaisher for which we recall existing $q$-analogs. Our congruence generalizes an earlier result of Clark.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:17 +010
- A $q$-analog of Ljunggren's binomial congruence
Abstract: We prove a $q$-analog of a classical binomial congruence due to Ljunggren which states that $\binom{ap}{bp} \equiv \binom{a}{b}$ modulo $p^3$ for primes $p \geq 5$. This congruence subsumes and builds on earlier congruences by Babbage, Wolstenholme and Glaisher for which we recall existing $q$-analogs. Our congruence generalizes an earlier result of Clark.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:17 +010
- Generalized triangulations, pipe dreams, and simplicial spheres
Abstract: We exhibit a canonical connection between maximal $(0,1)$-fillings of a moon polyomino avoiding north-east chains of a given length and reduced pipe dreams of a certain permutation. Following this approach we show that the simplicial complex of such maximal fillings is a vertex-decomposable and thus a shellable sphere. In particular, this implies a positivity result for Schubert polynomials. For Ferrers shapes, we moreover construct a bijection to maximal fillings avoiding south-east chains of the same length which specializes to a bijection between $k$-triangulations of the $n$-gon and $k$-fans of Dyck paths. Using this, we translate a conjectured cyclic sieving phenomenon for $k$-triangulations with rotation to $k$-flagged tableaux with promotion.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:16 +010
- Generalized triangulations, pipe dreams, and simplicial spheres
Abstract: We exhibit a canonical connection between maximal $(0,1)$-fillings of a moon polyomino avoiding north-east chains of a given length and reduced pipe dreams of a certain permutation. Following this approach we show that the simplicial complex of such maximal fillings is a vertex-decomposable and thus a shellable sphere. In particular, this implies a positivity result for Schubert polynomials. For Ferrers shapes, we moreover construct a bijection to maximal fillings avoiding south-east chains of the same length which specializes to a bijection between $k$-triangulations of the $n$-gon and $k$-fans of Dyck paths. Using this, we translate a conjectured cyclic sieving phenomenon for $k$-triangulations with rotation to $k$-flagged tableaux with promotion.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:16 +010
- The equivariant topology of stable Kneser graphs
Abstract: Schrijver introduced the stable Kneser graph $SG_{n,k}, n \geq 1, k \geq 0$. This graph is a vertex critical graph with chromatic number $k+2$, its vertices are certain subsets of a set of cardinality $m=2n+k$. Björner and de Longueville have shown that its box complex is homotopy equivalent to a sphere, $\mathrm{Hom}(K_2,SG_{n,k}) \simeq \mathbb{S}^k$. The dihedral group $D_{2m}$ acts canonically on $SG_{n,k}$. We study the $D_{2m}$ action on $\mathrm{Hom}(K_2,SG_{n,k})$ and define a corresponding orthogonal action on $\mathbb{R}^{k+1} \supset \mathbb{S}^k$. We establish a close equivariant relationship between the graphs $SG_{n,k}$ and Borsuk graphs of the $k$-sphere and use this together with calculations in the $\mathbb{Z}_2$-cohomology ring of $D_{2m}$ to tell which stable Kneser graphs are test graphs in the sense of Babson and Kozlov. The graphs $SG_{2s,4}$ are test graphs, i.e. for every graph $H$ and $r \geq 0$ such that $\mathrm{Hom}(SG_{2s,4},H)$ is $(r-1)$-connected, the chromatic number $\chi (H)$ is at least $r+6$. On the other hand, if $k \notin \{0,1,2,4,8\}$ and $n \geq N(k)$ then $SG_{n,k}$ is not a homotopy test graph, i.e. there are a graph $G$ and an $r \geq 1$ such that $\mathrm{Hom}(SG_{n,k}, G)$ is $(r-1)$-connected and $\chi (G) < r+k+2$. The latter result also depends on a new necessary criterion for being a test graph, which involves the automorphism group of the graph.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:15 +010
- The equivariant topology of stable Kneser graphs
Abstract: Schrijver introduced the stable Kneser graph $SG_{n,k}, n \geq 1, k \geq 0$. This graph is a vertex critical graph with chromatic number $k+2$, its vertices are certain subsets of a set of cardinality $m=2n+k$. Björner and de Longueville have shown that its box complex is homotopy equivalent to a sphere, $\mathrm{Hom}(K_2,SG_{n,k}) \simeq \mathbb{S}^k$. The dihedral group $D_{2m}$ acts canonically on $SG_{n,k}$. We study the $D_{2m}$ action on $\mathrm{Hom}(K_2,SG_{n,k})$ and define a corresponding orthogonal action on $\mathbb{R}^{k+1} \supset \mathbb{S}^k$. We establish a close equivariant relationship between the graphs $SG_{n,k}$ and Borsuk graphs of the $k$-sphere and use this together with calculations in the $\mathbb{Z}_2$-cohomology ring of $D_{2m}$ to tell which stable Kneser graphs are test graphs in the sense of Babson and Kozlov. The graphs $SG_{2s,4}$ are test graphs, i.e. for every graph $H$ and $r \geq 0$ such that $\mathrm{Hom}(SG_{2s,4},H)$ is $(r-1)$-connected, the chromatic number $\chi (H)$ is at least $r+6$. On the other hand, if $k \notin \{0,1,2,4,8\}$ and $n \geq N(k)$ then $SG_{n,k}$ is not a homotopy test graph, i.e. there are a graph $G$ and an $r \geq 1$ such that $\mathrm{Hom}(SG_{n,k}, G)$ is $(r-1)$-connected and $\chi (G) < r+k+2$. The latter result also depends on a new necessary criterion for being a test graph, which involves the automorphism group of the graph.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:15 +010
- Demazure crystals and the energy function
Abstract: There is a close connection between Demazure crystals and tensor products of Kirillov–Reshetikhin crystals. For example, certain Demazure crystals are isomorphic as classical crystals to tensor products of Kirillov–Reshetikhin crystals via a canonically chosen isomorphism. Here we show that this isomorphism intertwines the natural affine grading on Demazure crystals with a combinatorially defined energy function. As a consequence, we obtain a formula of the Demazure character in terms of the energy function, which has applications to nonsymmetric Macdonald polynomials and $q$-deformed Whittaker functions.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:14 +010
- Demazure crystals and the energy function
Abstract: There is a close connection between Demazure crystals and tensor products of Kirillov–Reshetikhin crystals. For example, certain Demazure crystals are isomorphic as classical crystals to tensor products of Kirillov–Reshetikhin crystals via a canonically chosen isomorphism. Here we show that this isomorphism intertwines the natural affine grading on Demazure crystals with a combinatorially defined energy function. As a consequence, we obtain a formula of the Demazure character in terms of the energy function, which has applications to nonsymmetric Macdonald polynomials and $q$-deformed Whittaker functions.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:14 +010
- Asymptotics of several-partition Hurwitz numbers
Abstract: We derive in this paper the asymptotics of several-partition Hurwitz numbers, relying on a theorem of Kazarian for the one-partition case and on an induction carried on by Zvonkine. Essentially, the asymptotics for several partitions is the same as the one-partition asymptotics obtained by concatenating the partitions.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:13 +010
- Asymptotics of several-partition Hurwitz numbers
Abstract: We derive in this paper the asymptotics of several-partition Hurwitz numbers, relying on a theorem of Kazarian for the one-partition case and on an induction carried on by Zvonkine. Essentially, the asymptotics for several partitions is the same as the one-partition asymptotics obtained by concatenating the partitions.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:13 +010
- Maximal 0-1-fillings of moon polyominoes with restricted chain lengths and
rc-graphs
Abstract: We show that maximal 0-1-fillings of moon polynomials, with restricted chain lengths, can be identified with certain rc-graphs, also known as pipe dreams. In particular, this exhibits a connection between maximal 0-1-fillings of Ferrers shapes and Schubert polynomials. Moreover, it entails a bijective proof showing that the number of maximal fillings of a stack polyomino $S$ with no north-east chains longer than $k$ depends only on $k$ and the multiset of column heights of $S$. Our main contribution is a slightly stronger theorem, which in turn leads us to conjecture that the poset of rc-graphs with covering relation given by generalised chute moves is in fact a lattice.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:12 +010
- Maximal 0-1-fillings of moon polyominoes with restricted chain lengths and
rc-graphs
Abstract: We show that maximal 0-1-fillings of moon polynomials, with restricted chain lengths, can be identified with certain rc-graphs, also known as pipe dreams. In particular, this exhibits a connection between maximal 0-1-fillings of Ferrers shapes and Schubert polynomials. Moreover, it entails a bijective proof showing that the number of maximal fillings of a stack polyomino $S$ with no north-east chains longer than $k$ depends only on $k$ and the multiset of column heights of $S$. Our main contribution is a slightly stronger theorem, which in turn leads us to conjecture that the poset of rc-graphs with covering relation given by generalised chute moves is in fact a lattice.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:12 +010
- Local extrema in random permutations and the structure of longest
alternating subsequences
Abstract: Let $\textbf{as}_n$ denote the length of a longest alternating subsequence in a uniformly random permutation of order $n$. Stanley studied the distribution of $\textbf{as}_n$ using algebraic methods, and showed in particular that $\mathbb{E}(\textbf{as}_n) = (4n+1)/6$ and $\textrm{Var}(\textbf{as}_n) = (32n-13)/180$. From Stanley's result it can be shown that after rescaling, $\textbf{as}_n$ converges in the limit to the Gaussian distribution. In this extended abstract we present a new approach to the study of $\textbf{as}_n$ by relating it to the sequence of local extrema of a random permutation, which is shown to form a "canonical'' longest alternating subsequence. Using this connection we reprove the abovementioned results in a more probabilistic and transparent way. We also study the distribution of the values of the local minima and maxima, and prove that in the limit the joint distribution of successive minimum-maximum pairs converges to the two-dimensional distribution whose density function is given by $f(s,t) = 3(1-s)t e^{t-s}$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:11 +010
- Local extrema in random permutations and the structure of longest
alternating subsequences
Abstract: Let $\textbf{as}_n$ denote the length of a longest alternating subsequence in a uniformly random permutation of order $n$. Stanley studied the distribution of $\textbf{as}_n$ using algebraic methods, and showed in particular that $\mathbb{E}(\textbf{as}_n) = (4n+1)/6$ and $\textrm{Var}(\textbf{as}_n) = (32n-13)/180$. From Stanley's result it can be shown that after rescaling, $\textbf{as}_n$ converges in the limit to the Gaussian distribution. In this extended abstract we present a new approach to the study of $\textbf{as}_n$ by relating it to the sequence of local extrema of a random permutation, which is shown to form a "canonical'' longest alternating subsequence. Using this connection we reprove the abovementioned results in a more probabilistic and transparent way. We also study the distribution of the values of the local minima and maxima, and prove that in the limit the joint distribution of successive minimum-maximum pairs converges to the two-dimensional distribution whose density function is given by $f(s,t) = 3(1-s)t e^{t-s}$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:11 +010
- Submaximal factorizations of a Coxeter element in complex reflection
groups
Abstract: When $W$ is a finite reflection group, the noncrossing partition lattice $NC(W)$ of type $W$ is a very rich combinatorial object, extending the notion of noncrossing partitions of an $n$-gon. A formula (for which the only known proofs are case-by-case) expresses the number of multichains of a given length in $NC(W)$ as a generalized Fuß-Catalan number, depending on the invariant degrees of $W$. We describe how to understand some specifications of this formula in a case-free way, using an interpretation of the chains of $NC(W)$ as fibers of a "Lyashko-Looijenga covering''. This covering is constructed from the geometry of the discriminant hypersurface of $W$. We deduce new enumeration formulas for certain factorizations of a Coxeter element of $W$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:10 +010
- Submaximal factorizations of a Coxeter element in complex reflection
groups
Abstract: When $W$ is a finite reflection group, the noncrossing partition lattice $NC(W)$ of type $W$ is a very rich combinatorial object, extending the notion of noncrossing partitions of an $n$-gon. A formula (for which the only known proofs are case-by-case) expresses the number of multichains of a given length in $NC(W)$ as a generalized Fuß-Catalan number, depending on the invariant degrees of $W$. We describe how to understand some specifications of this formula in a case-free way, using an interpretation of the chains of $NC(W)$ as fibers of a "Lyashko-Looijenga covering''. This covering is constructed from the geometry of the discriminant hypersurface of $W$. We deduce new enumeration formulas for certain factorizations of a Coxeter element of $W$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:10 +010
- Cyclic sieving for two families of non-crossing graphs
Abstract: We prove the cyclic sieving phenomenon for non-crossing forests and non-crossing graphs. More precisely, the cyclic group acts on these graphs naturally by rotation and we show that the orbit structure of this action is encoded by certain polynomials. Our results confirm two conjectures of Alan Guo.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:08 +010
- Cyclic sieving for two families of non-crossing graphs
Abstract: We prove the cyclic sieving phenomenon for non-crossing forests and non-crossing graphs. More precisely, the cyclic group acts on these graphs naturally by rotation and we show that the orbit structure of this action is encoded by certain polynomials. Our results confirm two conjectures of Alan Guo.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:08 +010
- Isotropical Linear Spaces and Valuated Delta-Matroids
Abstract: The spinor variety is cut out by the quadratic Wick relations among the principal Pfaffians of an $n \times n$ skew-symmetric matrix. Its points correspond to $n$-dimensional isotropic subspaces of a $2n$-dimensional vector space. In this paper we tropicalize this picture, and we develop a combinatorial theory of tropical Wick vectors and tropical linear spaces that are tropically isotropic. We characterize tropical Wick vectors in terms of subdivisions of Delta-matroid polytopes, and we examine to what extent the Wick relations form a tropical basis. Our theory generalizes several results for tropical linear spaces and valuated matroids to the class of Coxeter matroids of type $D$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:08 +010
- Isotropical Linear Spaces and Valuated Delta-Matroids
Abstract: The spinor variety is cut out by the quadratic Wick relations among the principal Pfaffians of an $n \times n$ skew-symmetric matrix. Its points correspond to $n$-dimensional isotropic subspaces of a $2n$-dimensional vector space. In this paper we tropicalize this picture, and we develop a combinatorial theory of tropical Wick vectors and tropical linear spaces that are tropically isotropic. We characterize tropical Wick vectors in terms of subdivisions of Delta-matroid polytopes, and we examine to what extent the Wick relations form a tropical basis. Our theory generalizes several results for tropical linear spaces and valuated matroids to the class of Coxeter matroids of type $D$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:08 +010
- The brick polytope of a sorting network
Abstract: The associahedron is a polytope whose graph is the graph of flips on triangulations of a convex polygon. Pseudotriangulations and multitriangulations generalize triangulations in two different ways, which have been unified by Pilaud and Pocchiola in their study of pseudoline arrangements with contacts supported by a given network. In this paper, we construct the "brick polytope'' of a network, obtained as the convex hull of the "brick vectors'' associated to each pseudoline arrangement supported by the network. We characterize its vertices, describe its faces, and decompose it as a Minkowski sum of simpler polytopes. Our brick polytopes include Hohlweg and Lange's many realizations of the associahedron, which arise as brick polytopes of certain well-chosen networks.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:07 +010
- The brick polytope of a sorting network
Abstract: The associahedron is a polytope whose graph is the graph of flips on triangulations of a convex polygon. Pseudotriangulations and multitriangulations generalize triangulations in two different ways, which have been unified by Pilaud and Pocchiola in their study of pseudoline arrangements with contacts supported by a given network. In this paper, we construct the "brick polytope'' of a network, obtained as the convex hull of the "brick vectors'' associated to each pseudoline arrangement supported by the network. We characterize its vertices, describe its faces, and decompose it as a Minkowski sum of simpler polytopes. Our brick polytopes include Hohlweg and Lange's many realizations of the associahedron, which arise as brick polytopes of certain well-chosen networks.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:07 +010
- Adjacent transformations in permutations
Abstract: We continue a study of the equivalence class induced on $S_n$ when one is permitted to replace a consecutive set of elements in a permutation with the same elements in a different order. For each possible set of allowed replacements, we characterise and/or enumerate the set of permutations reachable from the identity. In some cases we also count the number of equivalence classes.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:06 +010
- Adjacent transformations in permutations
Abstract: We continue a study of the equivalence class induced on $S_n$ when one is permitted to replace a consecutive set of elements in a permutation with the same elements in a different order. For each possible set of allowed replacements, we characterise and/or enumerate the set of permutations reachable from the identity. In some cases we also count the number of equivalence classes.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:06 +010
- Tableaux and plane partitions of truncated shapes (extended abstract)
Abstract: We consider a new kind of straight and shifted plane partitions/Young tableaux — ones whose diagrams are no longer of partition shape, but rather Young diagrams with boxes erased from their upper right ends. We find formulas for the number of standard tableaux in certain cases, namely a shifted staircase without the box in its upper right corner, i.e. truncated by a box, a rectangle truncated by a staircase and a rectangle truncated by a square minus a box. The proofs involve finding the generating function of the corresponding plane partitions using interpretations and formulas for sums of restricted Schur functions and their specializations. The number of standard tableaux is then found as a certain limit of this function.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:04 +010
- Tableaux and plane partitions of truncated shapes (extended abstract)
Abstract: We consider a new kind of straight and shifted plane partitions/Young tableaux — ones whose diagrams are no longer of partition shape, but rather Young diagrams with boxes erased from their upper right ends. We find formulas for the number of standard tableaux in certain cases, namely a shifted staircase without the box in its upper right corner, i.e. truncated by a box, a rectangle truncated by a staircase and a rectangle truncated by a square minus a box. The proofs involve finding the generating function of the corresponding plane partitions using interpretations and formulas for sums of restricted Schur functions and their specializations. The number of standard tableaux is then found as a certain limit of this function.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:04 +010
- How often do we reject a superior value? (Extended abstract)
Abstract: Words $a_1 a_2 \ldots a_n$ with independent letters $a_k$ taken from the set of natural numbers, and a weight (probability) attached via the geometric distribution $pq^{i-1}(p+q=1)$ are considered. A consecutive record (motivated by the analysis of a skip list structure) can only advance from $k$ to $k+1$, thus ignoring perhaps some larger (=superior) values. We investigate the number of these rejected superior values. Further, we study the probability that there is a single consecutive maximum and show that (apart from fluctuations) it tends to a constant.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:03 +010
- How often do we reject a superior value? (Extended abstract)
Abstract: Words $a_1 a_2 \ldots a_n$ with independent letters $a_k$ taken from the set of natural numbers, and a weight (probability) attached via the geometric distribution $pq^{i-1}(p+q=1)$ are considered. A consecutive record (motivated by the analysis of a skip list structure) can only advance from $k$ to $k+1$, thus ignoring perhaps some larger (=superior) values. We investigate the number of these rejected superior values. Further, we study the probability that there is a single consecutive maximum and show that (apart from fluctuations) it tends to a constant.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:03 +010
- Stable rigged configurations and Littlewood―Richardson tableaux
Abstract: For an affine algebra of nonexceptional type in the large rank we show the fermionic formula depends only on the attachment of the node 0 of the Dynkin diagram to the rest, and the fermionic formula of not type $A$ can be expressed as a sum of that of type $A$ with Littlewood–Richardson coefficients. Combining this result with theorems of Kirillov–Schilling–Shimozono and Lecouvey–Okado–Shimozono, we settle the $X=M$ conjecture under the large rank hypothesis.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:02 +010
- Stable rigged configurations and Littlewood―Richardson tableaux
Abstract: For an affine algebra of nonexceptional type in the large rank we show the fermionic formula depends only on the attachment of the node 0 of the Dynkin diagram to the rest, and the fermionic formula of not type $A$ can be expressed as a sum of that of type $A$ with Littlewood–Richardson coefficients. Combining this result with theorems of Kirillov–Schilling–Shimozono and Lecouvey–Okado–Shimozono, we settle the $X=M$ conjecture under the large rank hypothesis.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:02 +010
- Triangulations of $\Delta_{n-1} \times \Delta_{d-1}$ and Tropical Oriented
Matroids
Abstract: Develin and Sturmfels showed that regular triangulations of $\Delta_{n-1} \times \Delta_{d-1}$ can be thought of as tropical polytopes. Tropical oriented matroids were defined by Ardila and Develin, and were conjectured to be in bijection with all subdivisions of $\Delta_{n-1} \times \Delta_{d-1}$. In this paper, we show that any triangulation of $\Delta_{n-1} \times \Delta_{d-1}$ encodes a tropical oriented matroid. We also suggest a new class of combinatorial objects that may describe all subdivisions of a bigger class of polytopes.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:01 +010
- Triangulations of $\Delta_{n-1} \times \Delta_{d-1}$ and Tropical Oriented
Matroids
Abstract: Develin and Sturmfels showed that regular triangulations of $\Delta_{n-1} \times \Delta_{d-1}$ can be thought of as tropical polytopes. Tropical oriented matroids were defined by Ardila and Develin, and were conjectured to be in bijection with all subdivisions of $\Delta_{n-1} \times \Delta_{d-1}$. In this paper, we show that any triangulation of $\Delta_{n-1} \times \Delta_{d-1}$ encodes a tropical oriented matroid. We also suggest a new class of combinatorial objects that may describe all subdivisions of a bigger class of polytopes.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:01 +010
- Generalized permutohedra, h-vectors of cotransversal matroids and pure
O-sequences (extended abstract)
Abstract: Stanley has conjectured that the h-vector of a matroid complex is a pure O-sequence. We will prove this for cotransversal matroids by using generalized permutohedra. We construct a bijection between lattice points inside a $r$-dimensional convex polytope and bases of a rank $r$ transversal matroid.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:00 +010
- Generalized permutohedra, h-vectors of cotransversal matroids and pure
O-sequences (extended abstract)
Abstract: Stanley has conjectured that the h-vector of a matroid complex is a pure O-sequence. We will prove this for cotransversal matroids by using generalized permutohedra. We construct a bijection between lattice points inside a $r$-dimensional convex polytope and bases of a rank $r$ transversal matroid.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:21:00 +010
- Bijective evaluation of the connection coefficients of the double coset
algebra
Abstract: This paper is devoted to the evaluation of the generating series of the connection coefficients of the double cosets of the hyperoctahedral group. Hanlon, Stanley, Stembridge (1992) showed that this series, indexed by a partition $ν$, gives the spectral distribution of some random matrices that are of interest in random matrix theory. We provide an explicit evaluation of this series when $ν =(n)$ in terms of monomial symmetric functions. Our development relies on an interpretation of the connection coefficients in terms of locally orientable hypermaps and a new bijective construction between partitioned locally orientable hypermaps and some permuted forests.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:59 +010
- Bijective evaluation of the connection coefficients of the double coset
algebra
Abstract: This paper is devoted to the evaluation of the generating series of the connection coefficients of the double cosets of the hyperoctahedral group. Hanlon, Stanley, Stembridge (1992) showed that this series, indexed by a partition $ν$, gives the spectral distribution of some random matrices that are of interest in random matrix theory. We provide an explicit evaluation of this series when $ν =(n)$ in terms of monomial symmetric functions. Our development relies on an interpretation of the connection coefficients in terms of locally orientable hypermaps and a new bijective construction between partitioned locally orientable hypermaps and some permuted forests.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:59 +010
- A topological interpretation of the cyclotomic polynomial
Abstract: We interpret the coefficients of the cyclotomic polynomial in terms of simplicial homology.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:59 +010
- A topological interpretation of the cyclotomic polynomial
Abstract: We interpret the coefficients of the cyclotomic polynomial in terms of simplicial homology.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:59 +010
- Kerov's central limit theorem for Schur-Weyl and Gelfand measures
(extended abstract)
Abstract: We show that the shapes of integer partitions chosen randomly according to Schur-Weyl measures of parameter $\alpha =1/2$ and Gelfand measures satisfy Kerov's central limit theorem. Thus, there is a gaussian process $\Delta$ such that under Plancherel, Schur-Weyl or Gelfand measures, the deviations $\Delta_n(s)=\lambda _n(\sqrt{n} s)-\sqrt{n} \lambda _{\infty}^{\ast}(s)$ converge in law towards $\Delta (s)$, up to a translation along the $x$-axis in the case of Schur-Weyl measures, and up to a factor $\sqrt{2}$ and a deterministic remainder in the case of Gelfand measures. The proofs of these results follow the one given by Ivanov and Olshanski for Plancherel measures; hence, one uses a "method of noncommutative moments''.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:58 +010
- Kerov's central limit theorem for Schur-Weyl and Gelfand measures
(extended abstract)
Abstract: We show that the shapes of integer partitions chosen randomly according to Schur-Weyl measures of parameter $\alpha =1/2$ and Gelfand measures satisfy Kerov's central limit theorem. Thus, there is a gaussian process $\Delta$ such that under Plancherel, Schur-Weyl or Gelfand measures, the deviations $\Delta_n(s)=\lambda _n(\sqrt{n} s)-\sqrt{n} \lambda _{\infty}^{\ast}(s)$ converge in law towards $\Delta (s)$, up to a translation along the $x$-axis in the case of Schur-Weyl measures, and up to a factor $\sqrt{2}$ and a deterministic remainder in the case of Gelfand measures. The proofs of these results follow the one given by Ivanov and Olshanski for Plancherel measures; hence, one uses a "method of noncommutative moments''.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:58 +010
- Row-strict quasisymmetric Schur functions
Abstract: Haglund, Luoto, Mason, and van Willigenburg introduced a basis for quasisymmetric functions called the $\textit{quasisymmetric Schur function basis}$ which are generated combinatorially through fillings of composition diagrams in much the same way as Schur functions are generated through reverse column-strict tableaux. We introduce a new basis for quasisymmetric functions called the $\textit{row-strict quasisymmetric Schur function basis}$ which are generated combinatorially through fillings of composition diagrams in much the same way as Schur functions are generated through row-strict tableaux. We describe the relationship between this new basis and other known bases for quasisymmetric functions, as well as its relationship to Schur polynomials. We obtain a refinement of the omega transform operator as a result of these relationships.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:57 +010
- Row-strict quasisymmetric Schur functions
Abstract: Haglund, Luoto, Mason, and van Willigenburg introduced a basis for quasisymmetric functions called the $\textit{quasisymmetric Schur function basis}$ which are generated combinatorially through fillings of composition diagrams in much the same way as Schur functions are generated through reverse column-strict tableaux. We introduce a new basis for quasisymmetric functions called the $\textit{row-strict quasisymmetric Schur function basis}$ which are generated combinatorially through fillings of composition diagrams in much the same way as Schur functions are generated through row-strict tableaux. We describe the relationship between this new basis and other known bases for quasisymmetric functions, as well as its relationship to Schur polynomials. We obtain a refinement of the omega transform operator as a result of these relationships.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:57 +010
- Matrices with restricted entries and q-analogues of permutations (extended
abstract)
Abstract: We study the functions that count matrices of given rank over a finite field with specified positions equal to zero. We show that these matrices are $q$-analogues of permutations with certain restricted values. We obtain a simple closed formula for the number of invertible matrices with zero diagonal, a $q$-analogue of derangements, and a curious relationship between invertible skew-symmetric matrices and invertible symmetric matrices with zero diagonal. In addition, we provide recursions to enumerate matrices and symmetric matrices with zero diagonal by rank. Finally, we provide a brief exposition of polynomiality results for enumeration questions related to those mentioned, and give several open questions.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:55 +010
- Matrices with restricted entries and q-analogues of permutations (extended
abstract)
Abstract: We study the functions that count matrices of given rank over a finite field with specified positions equal to zero. We show that these matrices are $q$-analogues of permutations with certain restricted values. We obtain a simple closed formula for the number of invertible matrices with zero diagonal, a $q$-analogue of derangements, and a curious relationship between invertible skew-symmetric matrices and invertible symmetric matrices with zero diagonal. In addition, we provide recursions to enumerate matrices and symmetric matrices with zero diagonal by rank. Finally, we provide a brief exposition of polynomiality results for enumeration questions related to those mentioned, and give several open questions.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:55 +010
- Special Cases of the Parking Functions Conjecture and Upper-Triangular
Matrices
Abstract: We examine the $q=1$ and $t=0$ special cases of the parking functions conjecture. The parking functions conjecture states that the Hilbert series for the space of diagonal harmonics is equal to the bivariate generating function of $area$ and $dinv$ over the set of parking functions. Haglund recently proved that the Hilbert series for the space of diagonal harmonics is equal to a bivariate generating function over the set of Tesler matrices–upper-triangular matrices with every hook sum equal to one. We give a combinatorial interpretation of the Haglund generating function at $q=1$ and prove the corresponding case of the parking functions conjecture (first proven by Garsia and Haiman). We also discuss a possible proof of the $t = 0$ case consistent with this combinatorial interpretation. We conclude by briefly discussing possible refinements of the parking functions conjecture arising from this research and point of view. $\textbf{Note added in proof}$: We have since found such a proof of the $t = 0$ case and conjectured more detailed refinements. This research will most likely be presented in full in a forthcoming article.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:54 +010
- Special Cases of the Parking Functions Conjecture and Upper-Triangular
Matrices
Abstract: We examine the $q=1$ and $t=0$ special cases of the parking functions conjecture. The parking functions conjecture states that the Hilbert series for the space of diagonal harmonics is equal to the bivariate generating function of $area$ and $dinv$ over the set of parking functions. Haglund recently proved that the Hilbert series for the space of diagonal harmonics is equal to a bivariate generating function over the set of Tesler matrices–upper-triangular matrices with every hook sum equal to one. We give a combinatorial interpretation of the Haglund generating function at $q=1$ and prove the corresponding case of the parking functions conjecture (first proven by Garsia and Haiman). We also discuss a possible proof of the $t = 0$ case consistent with this combinatorial interpretation. We conclude by briefly discussing possible refinements of the parking functions conjecture arising from this research and point of view. $\textbf{Note added in proof}$: We have since found such a proof of the $t = 0$ case and conjectured more detailed refinements. This research will most likely be presented in full in a forthcoming article.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:54 +010
- Hierarchical Zonotopal Power Ideals
Abstract: Zonotopal algebra deals with ideals and vector spaces of polynomials that are related to several combinatorial and geometric structures defined by a finite sequence of vectors. Given such a sequence $X$, an integer $k \geq -1$ and an upper set in the lattice of flats of the matroid defined by $X$, we define and study the associated $\textit{hierarchical zonotopal power ideal}$. This ideal is generated by powers of linear forms. Its Hilbert series depends only on the matroid structure of $X$. It is related to various other matroid invariants, $\textit{e. g.}$ the shelling polynomial and the characteristic polynomial. This work unifies and generalizes results by Ardila-Postnikov on power ideals and by Holtz-Ron and Holtz-Ron-Xu on (hierarchical) zonotopal algebra. We also generalize a result on zonotopal Cox modules due to Sturmfels-Xu.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:53 +010
- Hierarchical Zonotopal Power Ideals
Abstract: Zonotopal algebra deals with ideals and vector spaces of polynomials that are related to several combinatorial and geometric structures defined by a finite sequence of vectors. Given such a sequence $X$, an integer $k \geq -1$ and an upper set in the lattice of flats of the matroid defined by $X$, we define and study the associated $\textit{hierarchical zonotopal power ideal}$. This ideal is generated by powers of linear forms. Its Hilbert series depends only on the matroid structure of $X$. It is related to various other matroid invariants, $\textit{e. g.}$ the shelling polynomial and the characteristic polynomial. This work unifies and generalizes results by Ardila-Postnikov on power ideals and by Holtz-Ron and Holtz-Ron-Xu on (hierarchical) zonotopal algebra. We also generalize a result on zonotopal Cox modules due to Sturmfels-Xu.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:53 +010
- Minkowski decompositions of associahedra
Abstract: Realisations of associahedra can be obtained from the classical permutahedron by removing some of its facets and the set of facets is determined by the diagonals of certain labeled convex planar $n$-gons as shown by Hohlweg and Lange (2007). Ardila, Benedetti, and Doker (2010) expressed polytopes of this type as Minkowski sums and differences of scaled faces of a standard simplex and computed the corresponding coefficients $y_I$ by Möbius inversion from the $z_I$ if tight right-hand sides $z_I$ for all inequalities of the permutahedron are assumed. Given an associahedron of Hohlweg and Lange, we first characterise all tight values $z_I$ in terms of non-crossing diagonals of the associated labeled $n$-gon, simplify the formula of Ardila et al., and characterise the remaining terms combinatorially.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:52 +010
- Minkowski decompositions of associahedra
Abstract: Realisations of associahedra can be obtained from the classical permutahedron by removing some of its facets and the set of facets is determined by the diagonals of certain labeled convex planar $n$-gons as shown by Hohlweg and Lange (2007). Ardila, Benedetti, and Doker (2010) expressed polytopes of this type as Minkowski sums and differences of scaled faces of a standard simplex and computed the corresponding coefficients $y_I$ by Möbius inversion from the $z_I$ if tight right-hand sides $z_I$ for all inequalities of the permutahedron are assumed. Given an associahedron of Hohlweg and Lange, we first characterise all tight values $z_I$ in terms of non-crossing diagonals of the associated labeled $n$-gon, simplify the formula of Ardila et al., and characterise the remaining terms combinatorially.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:52 +010
- Closed paths whose steps are roots of unity
Abstract: We give explicit formulas for the number $U_n(N)$ of closed polygonal paths of length $N$ (starting from the origin) whose steps are $n^{\textrm{th}}$ roots of unity, as well as asymptotic expressions for these numbers when $N \rightarrow \infty$. We also prove that the sequences $(U_n(N))_{N \geq 0}$ are $P$-recursive for each fixed $n \geq 1$ and leave open the problem of determining the values of $N$ for which the $\textit{dual}$ sequences $(U_n(N))_{n \geq 1}$ are $P$-recursive.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:51 +010
- Closed paths whose steps are roots of unity
Abstract: We give explicit formulas for the number $U_n(N)$ of closed polygonal paths of length $N$ (starting from the origin) whose steps are $n^{\textrm{th}}$ roots of unity, as well as asymptotic expressions for these numbers when $N \rightarrow \infty$. We also prove that the sequences $(U_n(N))_{N \geq 0}$ are $P$-recursive for each fixed $n \geq 1$ and leave open the problem of determining the values of $N$ for which the $\textit{dual}$ sequences $(U_n(N))_{n \geq 1}$ are $P$-recursive.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:51 +010
- Skew quantum Murnaghan-Nakayama rule
Abstract: In this extended abstract, we extend recent results of Assaf and McNamara, the skew Pieri rule and the skew Murnaghan-Nakayama rule, to a more general identity, which gives an elegant expansion of the product of a skew Schur function with a quantum power sum function in terms of skew Schur functions. We give two proofs, one completely bijective in the spirit of Assaf-McNamara's original proof, and one via Lam-Lauve-Sotille's skew Littlewood-Richardson rule.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:50 +010
- Skew quantum Murnaghan-Nakayama rule
Abstract: In this extended abstract, we extend recent results of Assaf and McNamara, the skew Pieri rule and the skew Murnaghan-Nakayama rule, to a more general identity, which gives an elegant expansion of the product of a skew Schur function with a quantum power sum function in terms of skew Schur functions. We give two proofs, one completely bijective in the spirit of Assaf-McNamara's original proof, and one via Lam-Lauve-Sotille's skew Littlewood-Richardson rule.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:50 +010
- Double homotopy Cohen-Macaulayness for the poset of injective words and
the classical NC-partition lattice
Abstract: In this paper we study topological properties of the poset of injective words and the lattice of classical non-crossing partitions. Specifically, it is shown that after the removal of the bottom and top elements (if existent) these posets are doubly Cohen-Macaulay. This extends the well-known result that those posets are shellable. Both results rely on a new poset fiber theorem, for doubly homotopy Cohen-Macaulay posets, which can be considered as an extension of the classical poset fiber theorem for homotopy Cohen-Macaulay posets.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:49 +010
- Double homotopy Cohen-Macaulayness for the poset of injective words and
the classical NC-partition lattice
Abstract: In this paper we study topological properties of the poset of injective words and the lattice of classical non-crossing partitions. Specifically, it is shown that after the removal of the bottom and top elements (if existent) these posets are doubly Cohen-Macaulay. This extends the well-known result that those posets are shellable. Both results rely on a new poset fiber theorem, for doubly homotopy Cohen-Macaulay posets, which can be considered as an extension of the classical poset fiber theorem for homotopy Cohen-Macaulay posets.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:49 +010
- Touchard-Riordan formulas, T-fractions, and Jacobi's triple product
identity
Abstract: We give a combinatorial proof of a Touchard-Riordan-like formula discovered by the first author. As a consequence we find a connection between his formula and Jacobi's triple product identity. We then give a combinatorial analog of Jacobi's triple product identity by showing that a finite sum can be interpreted as a generating function of weighted Schröder paths, so that the triple product identity is recovered by taking the limit. This can be stated in terms of some continued fractions called T-fractions, whose important property is the fact that they satisfy some functional equation. We show that this result permits to explain and generalize some Touchard-Riordan-like formulas appearing in enumerative problems.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:48 +010
- Touchard-Riordan formulas, T-fractions, and Jacobi's triple product
identity
Abstract: We give a combinatorial proof of a Touchard-Riordan-like formula discovered by the first author. As a consequence we find a connection between his formula and Jacobi's triple product identity. We then give a combinatorial analog of Jacobi's triple product identity by showing that a finite sum can be interpreted as a generating function of weighted Schröder paths, so that the triple product identity is recovered by taking the limit. This can be stated in terms of some continued fractions called T-fractions, whose important property is the fact that they satisfy some functional equation. We show that this result permits to explain and generalize some Touchard-Riordan-like formulas appearing in enumerative problems.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:48 +010
- A reciprocity approach to computing generating functions for permutations
with no pattern matches
Abstract: In this paper, we develop a new method to compute generating functions of the form $NM_τ (t,x,y) = \sum\limits_{n ≥0} {\frac{t^n} {n!}}∑_{σ ∈\mathcal{lNM_{n}(τ )}} x^{LRMin(σ)} y^{1+des(σ )}$ where $τ$ is a permutation that starts with $1, \mathcal{NM_n}(τ )$ is the set of permutations in the symmetric group $S_n$ with no $τ$ -matches, and for any permutation $σ ∈S_n$, $LRMin(σ )$ is the number of left-to-right minima of $σ$ and $des(σ )$ is the number of descents of $σ$ . Our method does not compute $NM_τ (t,x,y)$ directly, but assumes that $NM_τ (t,x,y) = \frac{1}{/ (U_τ (t,y))^x}$ where $U_τ (t,y) = \sum_{n ≥0} U_τ ,n(y) \frac{t^n}{ n!}$ so that $U_τ (t,y) = \frac{1}{ NM_τ (t,1,y)}$. We then use the so-called homomorphism method and the combinatorial interpretation of $NM_τ (t,1,y)$ to develop recursions for the coefficient of $U_τ (t,y)$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:47 +010
- A reciprocity approach to computing generating functions for permutations
with no pattern matches
Abstract: In this paper, we develop a new method to compute generating functions of the form $NM_τ (t,x,y) = \sum\limits_{n ≥0} {\frac{t^n} {n!}}∑_{σ ∈\mathcal{lNM_{n}(τ )}} x^{LRMin(σ)} y^{1+des(σ )}$ where $τ$ is a permutation that starts with $1, \mathcal{NM_n}(τ )$ is the set of permutations in the symmetric group $S_n$ with no $τ$ -matches, and for any permutation $σ ∈S_n$, $LRMin(σ )$ is the number of left-to-right minima of $σ$ and $des(σ )$ is the number of descents of $σ$ . Our method does not compute $NM_τ (t,x,y)$ directly, but assumes that $NM_τ (t,x,y) = \frac{1}{/ (U_τ (t,y))^x}$ where $U_τ (t,y) = \sum_{n ≥0} U_τ ,n(y) \frac{t^n}{ n!}$ so that $U_τ (t,y) = \frac{1}{ NM_τ (t,1,y)}$. We then use the so-called homomorphism method and the combinatorial interpretation of $NM_τ (t,1,y)$ to develop recursions for the coefficient of $U_τ (t,y)$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:47 +010
- Counting self-dual interval orders
Abstract: In this paper, we first derive an explicit formula for the generating function that counts unlabeled interval orders (a.k.a. (2+2)-free posets) with respect to several natural statistics, including their size, magnitude, and the number of minimal and maximal elements. In the second part of the paper, we derive a generating function for the number of self-dual unlabeled interval orders, with respect to the same statistics. Our method is based on a bijective correspondence between interval orders and upper-triangular matrices in which each row and column has a positive entry.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:46 +010
- Counting self-dual interval orders
Abstract: In this paper, we first derive an explicit formula for the generating function that counts unlabeled interval orders (a.k.a. (2+2)-free posets) with respect to several natural statistics, including their size, magnitude, and the number of minimal and maximal elements. In the second part of the paper, we derive a generating function for the number of self-dual unlabeled interval orders, with respect to the same statistics. Our method is based on a bijective correspondence between interval orders and upper-triangular matrices in which each row and column has a positive entry.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:46 +010
- Bumping algorithm for set-valued shifted tableaux
Abstract: We present an insertion algorithm of Robinson–Schensted type that applies to set-valued shifted Young tableaux. Our algorithm is a generalization of both set-valued non-shifted tableaux by Buch and non set-valued shifted tableaux by Worley and Sagan. As an application, we obtain a Pieri rule for a K-theoretic analogue of the Schur Q-functions.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:45 +010
- Bumping algorithm for set-valued shifted tableaux
Abstract: We present an insertion algorithm of Robinson–Schensted type that applies to set-valued shifted Young tableaux. Our algorithm is a generalization of both set-valued non-shifted tableaux by Buch and non set-valued shifted tableaux by Worley and Sagan. As an application, we obtain a Pieri rule for a K-theoretic analogue of the Schur Q-functions.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:45 +010
- The Incidence Hopf Algebra of Graphs
Abstract: The graph algebra is a commutative, cocommutative, graded, connected incidence Hopf algebra, whose basis elements correspond to finite simple graphs and whose Hopf product and coproduct admit simple combinatorial descriptions. We give a new formula for the antipode in the graph algebra in terms of acyclic orientations; our formula contains many fewer terms than Schmitt's more general formula for the antipode in an incidence Hopf algebra. Applications include several formulas (some old and some new) for evaluations of the Tutte polynomial.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:44 +010
- The Incidence Hopf Algebra of Graphs
Abstract: The graph algebra is a commutative, cocommutative, graded, connected incidence Hopf algebra, whose basis elements correspond to finite simple graphs and whose Hopf product and coproduct admit simple combinatorial descriptions. We give a new formula for the antipode in the graph algebra in terms of acyclic orientations; our formula contains many fewer terms than Schmitt's more general formula for the antipode in an incidence Hopf algebra. Applications include several formulas (some old and some new) for evaluations of the Tutte polynomial.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:44 +010
- 0-Hecke algebra actions on coinvariants and flags
Abstract: By investigating the action of the 0-Hecke algebra on the coinvariant algebra and the complete flag variety, we interpret generating functions counting the permutations with fixed inverse descent set by their inversion number and major index.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:41 +010
- 0-Hecke algebra actions on coinvariants and flags
Abstract: By investigating the action of the 0-Hecke algebra on the coinvariant algebra and the complete flag variety, we interpret generating functions counting the permutations with fixed inverse descent set by their inversion number and major index.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:41 +010
- Combinatorics of k-shapes and Genocchi numbers
Abstract: In this paper we present a work in progress on a conjectural new combinatorial model for the Genocchi numbers. This new model called irreducible k-shapes has a strong algebraic background in the theory of symmetric functions and leads to seemingly new features on the theory of Genocchi numbers. In particular, the natural q-analogue coming from the degree of symmetric functions seems to be unknown so far.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:40 +010
- Combinatorics of k-shapes and Genocchi numbers
Abstract: In this paper we present a work in progress on a conjectural new combinatorial model for the Genocchi numbers. This new model called irreducible k-shapes has a strong algebraic background in the theory of symmetric functions and leads to seemingly new features on the theory of Genocchi numbers. In particular, the natural q-analogue coming from the degree of symmetric functions seems to be unknown so far.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:40 +010
- The short toric polynomial
Abstract: We introduce the short toric polynomial associated to a graded Eulerian poset. This polynomial contains the same information as Stanley's pair of toric polynomials, but allows different algebraic manipulations. Stanley's intertwined recurrence may be replaced by a single recurrence, in which the degree of the discarded terms is independent of the rank. A short toric variant of the formula by Bayer and Ehrenborg, expressing the toric h-vector in terms of the cd-index, may be stated in a rank-independent form, and it may be shown using weighted lattice path enumeration and the reflection principle. We use our techniques to derive a formula expressing the toric h-vector of a dual simplicial Eulerian poset in terms of its f-vector. This formula implies Gessel's formula for the toric h-vector of a cube, and may be used to prove that the nonnegativity of the toric h-vector of a simple polytope is a consequence of the Generalized Lower Bound Theorem holding for simplicial polytopes.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:39 +010
- The short toric polynomial
Abstract: We introduce the short toric polynomial associated to a graded Eulerian poset. This polynomial contains the same information as Stanley's pair of toric polynomials, but allows different algebraic manipulations. Stanley's intertwined recurrence may be replaced by a single recurrence, in which the degree of the discarded terms is independent of the rank. A short toric variant of the formula by Bayer and Ehrenborg, expressing the toric h-vector in terms of the cd-index, may be stated in a rank-independent form, and it may be shown using weighted lattice path enumeration and the reflection principle. We use our techniques to derive a formula expressing the toric h-vector of a dual simplicial Eulerian poset in terms of its f-vector. This formula implies Gessel's formula for the toric h-vector of a cube, and may be used to prove that the nonnegativity of the toric h-vector of a simple polytope is a consequence of the Generalized Lower Bound Theorem holding for simplicial polytopes.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:39 +010
- Meander Graphs
Abstract: We consider a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach to the uniform sampling of meanders. Combinatorially, a meander $M = [A:B]$ is formed by two noncrossing perfect matchings, above $A$ and below $B$ the same endpoints, which form a single closed loop. We prove that meanders are connected under appropriate pairs of balanced local moves, one operating on $A$ and the other on $B$. We also prove that the subset of meanders with a fixed $B$ is connected under a suitable local move operating on an appropriately defined meandric triple in $A$. We provide diameter bounds under such moves, tight up to a (worst case) factor of two. The mixing times of the Markov chains remain open.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:38 +010
- Meander Graphs
Abstract: We consider a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach to the uniform sampling of meanders. Combinatorially, a meander $M = [A:B]$ is formed by two noncrossing perfect matchings, above $A$ and below $B$ the same endpoints, which form a single closed loop. We prove that meanders are connected under appropriate pairs of balanced local moves, one operating on $A$ and the other on $B$. We also prove that the subset of meanders with a fixed $B$ is connected under a suitable local move operating on an appropriately defined meandric triple in $A$. We provide diameter bounds under such moves, tight up to a (worst case) factor of two. The mixing times of the Markov chains remain open.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:38 +010
- A polynomial expression for the Hilbert series of the quotient ring of
diagonal coinvariants (condensed version)
Abstract: A special case of Haiman's identity [Invent. Math. 149 (2002), pp. 371–407] for the character of the quotient ring of diagonal coinvariants under the diagonal action of the symmetric group yields a formula for the bigraded Hilbert series as a sum of rational functions in $q,t$. In this paper we show how a summation identity of Garsia and Zabrocki for Macdonald polynomial Pieri coefficients can be used to transform Haiman's formula for the Hilbert series into an explicit polynomial in $q,t$ with integer coefficients. We also provide an equivalent formula for the Hilbert series as the constant term in a multivariate Laurent series.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:36 +010
- A polynomial expression for the Hilbert series of the quotient ring of
diagonal coinvariants (condensed version)
Abstract: A special case of Haiman's identity [Invent. Math. 149 (2002), pp. 371–407] for the character of the quotient ring of diagonal coinvariants under the diagonal action of the symmetric group yields a formula for the bigraded Hilbert series as a sum of rational functions in $q,t$. In this paper we show how a summation identity of Garsia and Zabrocki for Macdonald polynomial Pieri coefficients can be used to transform Haiman's formula for the Hilbert series into an explicit polynomial in $q,t$ with integer coefficients. We also provide an equivalent formula for the Hilbert series as the constant term in a multivariate Laurent series.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:36 +010
- The enumeration of fully commutative affine permutations
Abstract: We give a generating function for the fully commutative affine permutations enumerated by rank and Coxeter length, extending formulas due to Stembridge and Barcucci–Del Lungo–Pergola–Pinzani. For fixed rank, the length generating functions have coefficients that are periodic with period dividing the rank. In the course of proving these formulas, we obtain results that elucidate the structure of the fully commutative affine permutations. This is a summary of the results; the full version appears elsewhere.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:36 +010
- The enumeration of fully commutative affine permutations
Abstract: We give a generating function for the fully commutative affine permutations enumerated by rank and Coxeter length, extending formulas due to Stembridge and Barcucci–Del Lungo–Pergola–Pinzani. For fixed rank, the length generating functions have coefficients that are periodic with period dividing the rank. In the course of proving these formulas, we obtain results that elucidate the structure of the fully commutative affine permutations. This is a summary of the results; the full version appears elsewhere.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:36 +010
- Cyclic sieving phenomenon in non-crossing connected graphs
Abstract: A non-crossing connected graph is a connected graph on vertices arranged in a circle such that its edges do not cross. The count for such graphs can be made naturally into a q-binomial generating function. We prove that this generating function exhibits the cyclic sieving phenomenon, as conjectured by S.-P. Eu.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:34 +010
- Cyclic sieving phenomenon in non-crossing connected graphs
Abstract: A non-crossing connected graph is a connected graph on vertices arranged in a circle such that its edges do not cross. The count for such graphs can be made naturally into a q-binomial generating function. We prove that this generating function exhibits the cyclic sieving phenomenon, as conjectured by S.-P. Eu.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:34 +010
- Enumeration of minimal 3D polyominoes inscribed in a rectangular prism
Abstract: We consider the family of 3D minimal polyominoes inscribed in a rectanglar prism. These objects are polyominos and so they are connected sets of unitary cubic cells inscribed in a given rectangular prism of size $b\times k \times h$ and of minimal volume equal to $b+k+h-2$. They extend the concept of minimal 2D polyominoes inscribed in a rectangle studied in a previous work. Using their geometric structure and elementary combinatorial principles, we construct rational generating functions of minimal 3D polyominoes. We also obtain a number of exact formulas and recurrences for sub-families of these polyominoes.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:33 +010
- Enumeration of minimal 3D polyominoes inscribed in a rectangular prism
Abstract: We consider the family of 3D minimal polyominoes inscribed in a rectanglar prism. These objects are polyominos and so they are connected sets of unitary cubic cells inscribed in a given rectangular prism of size $b\times k \times h$ and of minimal volume equal to $b+k+h-2$. They extend the concept of minimal 2D polyominoes inscribed in a rectangle studied in a previous work. Using their geometric structure and elementary combinatorial principles, we construct rational generating functions of minimal 3D polyominoes. We also obtain a number of exact formulas and recurrences for sub-families of these polyominoes.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:33 +010
- On the evaluation of the Tutte polynomial at the points (1,-1) and (2,-1)
Abstract: C. Merino [Electron. J. Combin. 15 (2008)] showed that the Tutte polynomial of a complete graph satisfies $t(K_{n+2};2,-1)=t(K_n;1,-1)$. We first give a bijective proof of this identity based on the relationship between the Tutte polynomial and the inversion polynomial for trees. Next we move to our main result, a sufficient condition for a graph G to have two vertices u and v such that $t(G;2,-1)=t(G-\{u,v\};1,-1)$; the condition is satisfied in particular by the class of threshold graphs. Finally, we give a formula for the evaluation of $t(K_{n,m};2,-1)$ involving up-down permutations.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:32 +010
- On the evaluation of the Tutte polynomial at the points (1,-1) and (2,-1)
Abstract: C. Merino [Electron. J. Combin. 15 (2008)] showed that the Tutte polynomial of a complete graph satisfies $t(K_{n+2};2,-1)=t(K_n;1,-1)$. We first give a bijective proof of this identity based on the relationship between the Tutte polynomial and the inversion polynomial for trees. Next we move to our main result, a sufficient condition for a graph G to have two vertices u and v such that $t(G;2,-1)=t(G-\{u,v\};1,-1)$; the condition is satisfied in particular by the class of threshold graphs. Finally, we give a formula for the evaluation of $t(K_{n,m};2,-1)$ involving up-down permutations.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:32 +010
- The pentagram map and Y-patterns
Abstract: The pentagram map, introduced by R. Schwartz, is defined by the following construction: given a polygon as input, draw all of its ``shortest'' diagonals, and output the smaller polygon which they cut out. We employ the machinery of cluster algebras to obtain explicit formulas for the iterates of the pentagram map.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:31 +010
- The pentagram map and Y-patterns
Abstract: The pentagram map, introduced by R. Schwartz, is defined by the following construction: given a polygon as input, draw all of its ``shortest'' diagonals, and output the smaller polygon which they cut out. We employ the machinery of cluster algebras to obtain explicit formulas for the iterates of the pentagram map.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:31 +010
- Algebraic and combinatorial structures on Baxter permutations
Abstract: We give a new construction of a Hopf subalgebra of the Hopf algebra of Free quasi-symmetric functions whose bases are indexed by objects belonging to the Baxter combinatorial family (\emphi.e. Baxter permutations, pairs of twin binary trees, \emphetc.). This construction relies on the definition of the Baxter monoid, analog of the plactic monoid and the sylvester monoid, and on a Robinson-Schensted-like insertion algorithm. The algebraic properties of this Hopf algebra are studied. This Hopf algebra appeared for the first time in the work of Reading [Lattice congruences, fans and Hopf algebras, \textitJournal of Combinatorial Theory Series A, 110:237–273, 2005].
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:30 +010
- Algebraic and combinatorial structures on Baxter permutations
Abstract: We give a new construction of a Hopf subalgebra of the Hopf algebra of Free quasi-symmetric functions whose bases are indexed by objects belonging to the Baxter combinatorial family (\emphi.e. Baxter permutations, pairs of twin binary trees, \emphetc.). This construction relies on the definition of the Baxter monoid, analog of the plactic monoid and the sylvester monoid, and on a Robinson-Schensted-like insertion algorithm. The algebraic properties of this Hopf algebra are studied. This Hopf algebra appeared for the first time in the work of Reading [Lattice congruences, fans and Hopf algebras, \textitJournal of Combinatorial Theory Series A, 110:237–273, 2005].
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:30 +010
- Dissimilarity Vectors of Trees and Their Tropical Linear Spaces (Extended
Abstract)
Abstract: We study the combinatorics of weighted trees from the point of view of tropical algebraic geometry and tropical linear spaces. The set of dissimilarity vectors of weighted trees is contained in the tropical Grassmannian, so we describe here the tropical linear space of a dissimilarity vector and its associated family of matroids. This gives a family of complete flags of tropical linear spaces, where each flag is described by a weighted tree.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:29 +010
- Cofree compositions of coalgebras
Abstract: We develop the notion of the composition of two coalgebras, which arises naturally in higher category theory and the theory of species. We prove that the composition of two cofree coalgebras is cofree and give conditions which imply that the composition is a one-sided Hopf algebra. These conditions hold when one coalgebra is a graded Hopf operad $\mathcal{D}$ and the other is a connected graded coalgebra with coalgebra map to $\mathcal{D}$. We conclude with examples of these structures, where the factor coalgebras have bases indexed by the vertices of multiplihedra, composihedra, and hypercubes.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:26 +010
- Counting Shi regions with a fixed separating wall
Abstract: Athanasiadis introduced separating walls for a region in the extended Shi arrangement and used them to generalize the Narayana numbers. In this paper, we fix a hyperplane in the extended Shi arrangement for type A and calculate the number of dominant regions which have the fixed hyperplane as a separating wall; that is, regions where the hyperplane supports a facet of the region and separates the region from the origin.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:25 +010
- K-classes for matroids and equivariant localization
Abstract: To every matroid, we associate a class in the K-theory of the Grassmannian. We study this class using the method of equivariant localization. In particular, we provide a geometric interpretation of the Tutte polynomial. We also extend results of the second author concerning the behavior of such classes under direct sum, series and parallel connection and two-sum; these results were previously only established for realizable matroids, and their earlier proofs were more difficult.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:24 +010
- A Littlewood-Richardson type rule for row-strict quasisymmetric Schur
functions
Abstract: We establish several properties of an algorithm defined by Mason and Remmel (2010) which inserts a positive integer into a row-strict composition tableau. These properties lead to a Littlewood-Richardson type rule for expanding the product of a row-strict quasisymmetric Schur function and a symmetric Schur function in terms of row-strict quasisymmetric Schur functions.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:23 +010
- Dual combinatorics of zonal polynomials
Abstract: In this paper we establish a new combinatorial formula for zonal polynomials in terms of power-sums. The proof relies on the sign-reversing involution principle. We deduce from it formulas for zonal characters, which are defined as suitably normalized coefficients in the expansion of zonal polynomials in terms of power-sum symmetric functions. These formulas are analogs of recent developments on irreducible character values of symmetric groups. The existence of such formulas could have been predicted from the work of M. Lassalle who formulated two positivity conjectures for Jack characters, which we prove in the special case of zonal polynomials.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:22 +010
- Polytopes from Subgraph Statistics
Abstract: We study polytopes that are convex hulls of vectors of subgraph densities. Many graph theoretical questions can be expressed in terms of these polytopes, and statisticians use them to understand exponential random graph models. Relations among their Ehrhart polynomials are described, their duals are applied to certify that polynomials are non-negative, and we find some of their faces. For the general picture we inscribe cyclic polytopes in them and calculate volumes. From the volume calculations we conjecture that a variation of the Selberg integral indexed by Schur polynomials has a combinatorial formula. We inscribe polynomially parametrized sets, called curvy zonotopes, in the polytopes and show that they approximate the polytopes arbitrarily close.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:21 +010
- Allowed patterns of β -shifts
Abstract: For a real number $β>1$, we say that a permutation $π$ of length $n$ is allowed (or realized) by the $β$-shift if there is some $x∈[0,1]$ such that the relative order of the sequence $x,f(x),\ldots,f^n-1(x)$, where $f(x)$ is the fractional part of $βx$, is the same as that of the entries of $π$ . Widely studied from such diverse fields as number theory and automata theory, $β$-shifts are prototypical examples of one-dimensional chaotic dynamical systems. When $β$ is an integer, permutations realized by shifts have been recently characterized. In this paper we generalize some of the results to arbitrary $β$-shifts. We describe a method to compute, for any given permutation $π$ , the smallest $β$ such that $π$ is realized by the $β$-shift.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:20 +010
- The topology of restricted partition posets
Abstract: For each composition $\vec{c}$ we show that the order complex of the poset of pointed set partitions $Π ^• _{\vec{c}}$ is a wedge of $β\vec{c}$ spheres of the same dimensions, where $β\vec{c}$ is the number of permutations with descent composition ^$\vec{c}$. Furthermore, the action of the symmetric group on the top homology is isomorphic to the Specht module $S^B$ where $B$ is a border strip associated to the composition $\vec{c}$. We also study the filter of pointed set partitions generated by a knapsack integer partitions and show the analogous results on homotopy type and action on the top homology.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:19 +010
- Critical Groups of Simplicial Complexes
Abstract: We generalize the theory of critical groups from graphs to simplicial complexes. Specifically, given a simplicial complex, we define a family of abelian groups in terms of combinatorial Laplacian operators, generalizing the construction of the critical group of a graph. We show how to realize these critical groups explicitly as cokernels of reduced Laplacians, and prove that they are finite, with orders given by weighted enumerators of simplicial spanning trees. We describe how the critical groups of a complex represent flow along its faces, and sketch another potential interpretation as analogues of Chow groups.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:17 +010
- Polynomial functions on Young diagrams arising from bipartite graphs
Abstract: We study the class of functions on the set of (generalized) Young diagrams arising as the number of embeddings of bipartite graphs. We give a criterion for checking when such a function is a polynomial function on Young diagrams (in the sense of Kerov and Olshanski) in terms of combinatorial properties of the corresponding bipartite graphs. Our method involves development of a differential calculus of functions on the set of generalized Young diagrams.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:16 +010
- Statistics on staircase tableaux, eulerian and mahonian statistics
Abstract: We give a simple bijection between some staircase tableaux and tables of inversion. Some nice properties of the bijection allows us to define some q-Eulerian polynomials related to the staircase tableaux. We also give a combinatorial interpretation of these q-Eulerian polynomials in terms of permutations.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:15 +010
- Path tableaux and combinatorial interpretations of immanants for class
functions on $S_n$
Abstract: Let $χ ^λ$ be the irreducible $S_n$-character corresponding to the partition $λ$ of $n$, equivalently, the preimage of the Schur function $s_λ$ under the Frobenius characteristic map. Let $\phi ^λ$ be the function $S_n →ℂ$ which is the preimage of the monomial symmetric function $m_λ$ under the Frobenius characteristic map. The irreducible character immanant $Imm_λ {(x)} = ∑_w ∈S_n χ ^λ (w) x_1,w_1 ⋯x_n,w_n$ evaluates nonnegatively on each totally nonnegative matrix $A$. We provide a combinatorial interpretation for the value $Imm_λ (A)$ in the case that $λ$ is a hook partition. The monomial immanant $Imm_{{\phi} ^λ} (x) = ∑_w ∈S_n φ ^λ (w) x_1,w_1 ⋯x_n,w_n$ is conjectured to evaluate nonnegatively on each totally nonnegative matrix $A$. We confirm this conjecture in the case that $λ$ is a two-column partition by providing a combinatorial interpretation for the value $Imm_{{\phi} ^λ} (A)$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:14 +010
- Partition and composition matrices: two matrix analogues of set partitions
Abstract: This paper introduces two matrix analogues for set partitions; partition and composition matrices. These two analogues are the natural result of lifting the mapping between ascent sequences and integer matrices given in Dukes & Parviainen (2010). We prove that partition matrices are in one-to-one correspondence with inversion tables. Non-decreasing inversion tables are shown to correspond to partition matrices with a row ordering relation. Partition matrices which are s-diagonal are classified in terms of inversion tables. Bidiagonal partition matrices are enumerated using the transfer-matrix method and are equinumerous with permutations which are sortable by two pop-stacks in parallel. We show that composition matrices on the set $X$ are in one-to-one correspondence with (2+2)-free posets on $X$.We show that pairs of ascent sequences and permutations are in one-to-one correspondence with (2+2)-free posets whose elements are the cycles of a permutation, and use this relation to give an expression for the number of (2+2)-free posets on $\{1,\ldots,n\}$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:13 +010
- Arc Spaces and Rogers-Ramanujan Identities
Abstract: Arc spaces have been introduced in algebraic geometry as a tool to study singularities but they show strong connections with combinatorics as well. Exploiting these relations we obtain a new approach to the classical Rogers-Ramanujan Identities. The linking object is the Hilbert-Poincaré series of the arc space over a point of the base variety. In the case of the double point this is precisely the generating series for the integer partitions without equal or consecutive parts.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:12 +010
- Relative Node Polynomials for Plane Curves
Abstract: We generalize the recent work of Fomin and Mikhalkin on polynomial formulas for Severi degrees. The degree of the Severi variety of plane curves of degree d and δ nodes is given by a polynomial in d, provided δ is fixed and d is large enough. We extend this result to generalized Severi varieties parametrizing plane curves which, in addition, satisfy tangency conditions of given orders with respect to a given line. We show that the degrees of these varieties, appropriately rescaled, are given by a combinatorially defined ``relative node polynomial'' in the tangency orders, provided the latter are large enough. We describe a method to compute these polynomials for arbitrary δ , and use it to present explicit formulas for δ ≤ 6. We also give a threshold for polynomiality, and compute the first few leading terms for any δ .
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:11 +010
- Shortest path poset of Bruhat intervals
Abstract: Let $[u,v]$ be a Bruhat interval and $B(u,v)$ be its corresponding Bruhat graph. The combinatorial and topological structure of the longest $u-v$ paths of $B(u,v)$ has been extensively studied and is well-known. Nevertheless, not much is known of the remaining paths. Here we describe combinatorial properties of the shortest $u-v$ paths of $B(u,v)$. We also derive the non-negativity of some coefficients of the complete mcd-index of $[u,v]$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:10 +010
- A tight colored Tverberg theorem for maps to manifolds (extended abstract)
Abstract: Any continuous map of an $N$-dimensional simplex $Δ _N$ with colored vertices to a $d$-dimensional manifold $M$ must map $r$ points from disjoint rainbow faces of $Δ _N$ to the same point in $M$, assuming that $N≥(r-1)(d+1)$, no $r$ vertices of $Δ _N$ get the same color, and our proof needs that $r$ is a prime. A face of $Δ _N$ is called a rainbow face if all vertices have different colors. This result is an extension of our recent "new colored Tverberg theorem'', the special case of $M=ℝ^d$. It is also a generalization of Volovikov's 1996 topological Tverberg theorem for maps to manifolds, which arises when all color classes have size 1 (i.e., without color constraints); for this special case Volovikov's proofs, as well as ours, work when r is a prime power.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:09 +010
- Rational smoothness and affine Schubert varieties of type A
Abstract: The study of Schubert varieties in G/B has led to numerous advances in algebraic combinatorics and algebraic geometry. These varieties are indexed by elements of the corresponding Weyl group, an affine Weyl group, or one of their parabolic quotients. Often times, the goal is to determine which of the algebraic and topological properties of the Schubert variety can be described in terms of the combinatorics of its corresponding Weyl group element. A celebrated example of this occurs when G/B is of type A, due to Lakshmibai and Sandhya. They showed that the smooth Schubert varieties are precisely those indexed by permutations that avoid the patterns 3412 and 4231. Our main result is a characterization of the rationally smooth Schubert varieties corresponding to affine permutations in terms of the patterns 4231 and 3412 and the twisted spiral permutations.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:08 +010
- Finite Eulerian posets which are binomial or Sheffer
Abstract: In this paper we study finite Eulerian posets which are binomial or Sheffer. These important classes of posets are related to the theory of generating functions and to geometry. The results of this paper are organized as follows: (1) We completely determine the structure of Eulerian binomial posets and, as a conclusion, we are able to classify factorial functions of Eulerian binomial posets; (2) We give an almost complete classification of factorial functions of Eulerian Sheffer posets by dividing the original question into several cases; (3) In most cases above, we completely determine the structure of Eulerian Sheffer posets, a result stronger than just classifying factorial functions of these Eulerian Sheffer posets. We also study Eulerian triangular posets. This paper answers questions posed by R. Ehrenborg and M. Readdy. This research is also motivated by the work of R. Stanley about recognizing the \emphboolean lattice by looking at smaller intervals.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:07 +010
- Enumerating projective reflection groups
Abstract: Projective reflection groups have been recently defined by the second author. They include a special class of groups denoted G(r,p,s,n) which contains all classical Weyl groups and more generally all the complex reflection groups of type G(r,p,n). In this paper we define some statistics analogous to descent number and major index over the projective reflection groups G(r,p,s,n), and we compute several generating functions concerning these parameters. Some aspects of the representation theory of G(r,p,s,n), as distribution of one-dimensional characters and computation of Hilbert series of some invariant algebras, are also treated.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:06 +010
- Deformed diagonal harmonic polynomials for complex reflection groups
Abstract: We introduce deformations of the space of (multi-diagonal) harmonic polynomials for any finite complex reflection group of the form W=G(m,p,n), and give supporting evidence that this space seems to always be isomorphic, as a graded W-module, to the undeformed version.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:05 +010
- Primitive orthogonal idempotents for R-trivial monoids
Abstract: We construct a recursive formula for a complete system of primitive orthogonal idempotents for any R-trivial monoid. This uses the newly proved equivalence between the notions of R-trivial monoid and weakly ordered monoid.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:04 +010
- On the enumeration of column-convex permutominoes
Abstract: We study the enumeration of \emphcolumn-convex permutominoes, i.e. column-convex polyominoes defined by a pair of permutations. We provide a direct recursive construction for the column-convex permutominoes of a given size, based on the application of the ECO method and generating trees, which leads to a functional equation. Then we obtain some upper and lower bounds for the number of column-convex permutominoes, and conjecture its asymptotic behavior using numerical analysis.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:03 +010
- The Murnaghan―Nakayama rule for k-Schur functions
Abstract: We prove a Murnaghan–Nakayama rule for k-Schur functions of Lapointe and Morse. That is, we give an explicit formula for the expansion of the product of a power sum symmetric function and a k-Schur function in terms of k-Schur functions. This is proved using the noncommutative k-Schur functions in terms of the nilCoxeter algebra introduced by Lam and the affine analogue of noncommutative symmetric functions of Fomin and Greene.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:02 +010
- Powers of the Vandermonde determinant, Schur functions, and the dimension
game
Abstract: Since every even power of the Vandermonde determinant is a symmetric polynomial, we want to understand its decomposition in terms of the basis of Schur functions. We investigate several combinatorial properties of the coefficients in the decomposition. In particular, I will give a recursive approach for computing the coefficient of the Schur function $s_μ$ in the decomposition of an even power of the Vandermonde determinant in $n+1$ variables in terms of the coefficient of the Schur function $s_λ$ in the decomposition of the same even power of the Vandermonde determinant in $n$ variables if the Young diagram of $μ$ is obtained from the Young diagram of $λ$ by adding a tetris type shape to the top or to the left.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:20:00 +010
- The # product in combinatorial Hopf algebras
Abstract: We show that the # product of binary trees introduced by Aval and Viennot (2008) is in fact defined at the level of the free associative algebra, and can be extended to most of the classical combinatorial Hopf algebras.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:57 +010
- Tree-like tableaux
Abstract: In this work we introduce and study tree-like tableaux, which are certain fillings of Ferrers diagrams in simple bijection with permutation tableaux and alternative tableaux. We exhibit an elementary insertion procedure on our tableaux which gives a clear proof that tableaux of size n are counted by n!, and which moreover respects most of the well-known statistics studied originally on alternative and permutation tableaux. Our insertion procedure allows to define in particular two simple new bijections between tree-like tableaux and permutations: the first one is conceived specifically to respect the generalized pattern 2-31, while the second one respects the underlying tree of a tree-like tableau.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:56 +010
- The Shi arrangement and the Ish arrangement
Abstract: This paper is about two arrangements of hyperplanes. The first — the Shi arrangement — was introduced by Jian-Yi Shi to describe the Kazhdan-Lusztig cells in the affine Weyl group of type A. The second — the Ish arrangement — was recently defined by the first author who used the two arrangements together to give a new interpretation of the q,t-Catalan numbers of Garsia and Haiman. In the present paper we will define a mysterious "combinatorial symmetry'' between the two arrangements and show that this symmetry preserves a great deal of information. For example, the Shi and Ish arrangements share the same characteristic polynomial, the same numbers of regions, bounded regions, dominant regions, regions with c "ceilings'' and d "degrees of freedom'', etc. Moreover, all of these results hold in the greater generality of "deleted'' Shi and Ish arrangements corresponding to an arbitrary subgraph of the complete graph. Our proofs are based on nice combinatorial labellings of Shi and Ish regions and a new set partition-valued statistic on these regions.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:55 +010
- Hyperplane Arrangements and Diagonal Harmonics
Abstract: In 2003, Haglund's bounce statistic gave the first combinatorial interpretation of the q,t-Catalan numbers and the Hilbert series of diagonal harmonics. In this paper we propose a new combinatorial interpretation in terms of the affine Weyl group of type A. In particular, we define two statistics on affine permutations; one in terms of the Shi hyperplane arrangement, and one in terms of a new arrangement — which we call the Ish arrangement. We prove that our statistics are equivalent to the area' and bounce statistics of Haglund and Loehr. In this setting, we observe that bounce is naturally expressed as a statistic on the root lattice. We extend our statistics in two directions: to "extended'' Shi arrangements and to the bounded chambers of these arrangements. This leads to a (conjectural) combinatorial interpretation for all integral powers of the Bergeron-Garsia nabla operator applied to elementary symmetric functions.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:54 +010
- Gelfand―Tsetlin Polytopes and Feigin―Fourier―Littelmann―Vinberg
Polytopes as Marked Poset Polytopes
Abstract: Stanley (1986) showed how a finite partially ordered set gives rise to two polytopes, called the order polytope and chain polytope, which have the same Ehrhart polynomial despite being quite different combinatorially. We generalize his result to a wider family of polytopes constructed from a poset P with integers assigned to some of its elements. Through this construction, we explain combinatorially the relationship between the Gelfand–Tsetlin polytopes (1950) and the Feigin–Fourier–Littelmann–Vinberg polytopes (2010, 2005), which arise in the representation theory of the special linear Lie algebra. We then use the generalized Gelfand–Tsetlin polytopes of Berenstein and Zelevinsky (1989) to propose conjectural analogues of the Feigin–Fourier–Littelmann–Vinberg polytopes corresponding to the symplectic and odd orthogonal Lie algebras.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:53 +010
- Lagrange's Theorem for Hopf Monoids in Species
Abstract: We prove Lagrange's theorem for Hopf monoids in the category of connected species. We deduce necessary conditions for a given subspecies $\textrm{k}$ of a Hopf monoid $\textrm{h}$ to be a Hopf submonoid: each of the generating series of $\textrm{k}$ must divide the corresponding generating series of $\textrm{k}$ in ℕ〚x〛. Among other corollaries we obtain necessary inequalities for a sequence of nonnegative integers to be the sequence of dimensions of a Hopf monoid. In the set-theoretic case the inequalities are linear and demand the non negativity of the binomial transform of the sequence.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:52 +010
- A Pieri rule for skew shapes
Abstract: The Pieri rule expresses the product of a Schur function and a single row Schur function in terms of Schur functions. We extend the classical Pieri rule by expressing the product of a skew Schur function and a single row Schur function in terms of skew Schur functions. Like the classical rule, our rule involves simple additions of boxes to the original skew shape. Our proof is purely combinatorial and extends the combinatorial proof of the classical case.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:51 +010
- Compositions and samples of geometric random variables with constrained
multiplicities
Abstract: We investigate the probability that a random composition (ordered partition) of the positive integer $n$ has no parts occurring exactly $j$ times, where $j$ belongs to a specified finite $\textit{`forbidden set'}$ $A$ of multiplicities. This probability is also studied in the related case of samples $\Gamma =(\Gamma_1,\Gamma_2,\ldots, \Gamma_n)$ of independent, identically distributed random variables with a geometric distribution.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:50 +010
- The spectrum of an asymmetric annihilation process
Abstract: In recent work on nonequilibrium statistical physics, a certain Markovian exclusion model called an asymmetric annihilation process was studied by Ayyer and Mallick. In it they gave a precise conjecture for the eigenvalues (along with the multiplicities) of the transition matrix. They further conjectured that to each eigenvalue, there corresponds only one eigenvector. We prove the first of these conjectures by generalizing the original Markov matrix by introducing extra parameters, explicitly calculating its eigenvalues, and showing that the new matrix reduces to the original one by a suitable specialization. In addition, we outline a derivation of the partition function in the generalized model, which also reduces to the one obtained by Ayyer and Mallick in the original model.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:49 +010
- Weakly directed self-avoiding walks
Abstract: We define a new family of self-avoiding walks (SAW) on the square lattice, called $\textit{weakly directed walks}$. These walks have a simple characterization in terms of the irreducible bridges that compose them. We determine their generating function. This series has a complex singularity structure and in particular, is not D-finite. The growth constant is approximately 2.54 and is thus larger than that of all natural families of SAW enumerated so far (but smaller than that of general SAW, which is about 2.64). We also prove that the end-to-end distance of weakly directed walks grows linearly. Finally, we study a diagonal variant of this model.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:48 +010
- The Homology of the Real Complement of a $k$-parabolic Subspace
Arrangement
Abstract: The $k$-parabolic subspace arrangement, introduced by Barcelo, Severs and White, is a generalization of the well known $k$-equal arrangements of type-$A$ and type-$B$. In this paper we use the discrete Morse theory of Forman to study the homology of the complements of $k$-parabolic subspace arrangements. In doing so, we recover some known results of Björner et al. and provide a combinatorial interpretation of the Betti numbers for any $k$-parabolic subspace arrangement. The paper provides results for any $k$-parabolic subspace arrangement, however we also include an extended example of our methods applied to the $k$-equal arrangements of type-$A$ and type-$B$. In these cases, we obtain new formulas for the Betti numbers.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:47 +010
- Fully Packed Loop configurations in a triangle and Littlewood Richardson
coefficients
Abstract: We are interested in Fully Packed Loops in a triangle (TFPLs), as introduced by Caselli at al. and studied by Thapper. We show that for Fully Packed Loops with a fixed link pattern (refined FPL), there exist linear recurrence relations with coefficients computed from TFPL configurations. We then give constraints and enumeration results for certain classes of TFPL configurations. For special boundary conditions, we show that TFPLs are counted by the famous Littlewood Richardson coefficients.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:46 +010
- Pattern avoidance in alternating permutations and tableaux (extended
abstract)
Abstract: We give bijective proofs of pattern-avoidance results for a class of permutations generalizing alternating permutations. The bijections employed include a modified form of the RSK insertion algorithm and recursive bijections based on generating trees. As special cases, we show that the sets $A_{2n}(1234)$ and $A_{2n}(2143)$ are in bijection with standard Young tableaux of shape $\langle 3^n \rangle$. Alternating permutations may be viewed as the reading words of standard Young tableaux of a certain skew shape. In the last section of the paper, we study pattern avoidance in the reading words of standard Young tableaux of any skew shape. We show bijectively that the number of standard Young tableaux of shape $\lambda / \mu$ whose reading words avoid $213$ is a natural $\mu$-analogue of the Catalan numbers. Similar results for the patterns $132$, $231$ and $312$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:45 +010
- Unitary Matrix Integrals, Primitive Factorizations, and Jucys-Murphy
Elements
Abstract: A factorization of a permutation into transpositions is called "primitive'' if its factors are weakly ordered.We discuss the problem of enumerating primitive factorizations of permutations, and its place in the hierarchy of previously studied factorization problems. Several formulas enumerating minimal primitive and possibly non-minimal primitive factorizations are presented, and interesting connections with Jucys-Murphy elements, symmetric group characters, and matrix models are described.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:43 +010
- Zonotopes, toric arrangements, and generalized Tutte polynomials
Abstract: We introduce a multiplicity Tutte polynomial $M(x,y)$, which generalizes the ordinary one and has applications to zonotopes and toric arrangements. We prove that $M(x,y)$ satisfies a deletion-restriction recurrence and has positive coefficients. The characteristic polynomial and the Poincaré polynomial of a toric arrangement are shown to be specializations of the associated polynomial $M(x,y)$, likewise the corresponding polynomials for a hyperplane arrangement are specializations of the ordinary Tutte polynomial. Furthermore, $M(1,y)$ is the Hilbert series of the related discrete Dahmen-Micchelli space, while $M(x,1)$ computes the volume and the number of integral points of the associated zonotope.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:42 +010
- Involutions of the Symmetric Group and Congruence B-Orbits (Extended
Abstract)
Abstract: We study the poset of Borel congruence classes of symmetric matrices ordered by containment of closures. We give a combinatorial description of this poset and calculate its rank function. We discuss the relation between this poset and the Bruhat poset of involutions of the symmetric group. Also we present the poset of Borel congruence classes of anti-symmetric matrices ordered by containment of closures. We show that there exists a bijection between the set of these classes and the set of involutions of the symmetric group. We give two formulas for the rank function of this poset.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:41 +010
- Harmonics for deformed Steenrod operators (Extended Abstract)
Abstract: We explore in this paper the spaces of common zeros of several deformations of Steenrod operators. Proofs are omitted in view of pages limitation for the extended abstract. \par
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:40 +010
- The Geometry of Lecture Hall Partitions and Quadratic Permutation
Statistics
Abstract: We take a geometric view of lecture hall partitions and anti-lecture hall compositions in order to settle some open questions about their enumeration. In the process, we discover an intrinsic connection between these families of partitions and certain quadratic permutation statistics. We define some unusual quadratic permutation statistics and derive results about their joint distributions with linear statistics. We show that certain specializations are equivalent to the lecture hall and anti-lecture hall theorems and another leads back to a special case of a Weyl group generating function that "ought to be better known.''
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:39 +010
- On $k$-crossings and $k$-nestings of permutations
Abstract: We introduce $k$-crossings and $k$-nestings of permutations. We show that the crossing number and the nesting number of permutations have a symmetric joint distribution. As a corollary, the number of $k$-noncrossing permutations is equal to the number of $k$-nonnesting permutations. We also provide some enumerative results for $k$-noncrossing permutations for some values of $k$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:38 +010
- A preorder-free construction of the Kazhdan-Lusztig representations of
Hecke algebras $H_n(q)$ of symmetric groups
Abstract: We use a quantum analog of the polynomial ring $\mathbb{Z}[x_{1,1},\ldots, x_{n,n}]$ to modify the Kazhdan-Lusztig construction of irreducible $H_n(q)$-modules. This modified construction produces exactly the same matrices as the original construction in [$\textit{Invent. Math.}$ $\textbf{53}$ (1979)], but does not employ the Kazhdan-Lusztig preorders. Our main result is dependent on new vanishing results for immanants in the quantum polynomial ring.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:38 +010
- The stability of the Kronecker product of Schur functions
Abstract: In the late 1930's Murnaghan discovered the existence of a stabilization phenomenon for the Kronecker product of Schur functions. For $n$ large enough, the values of the Kronecker coefficients appearing in the product of two Schur functions of degree $n$ do not depend on the first part of the indexing partitions, but only on the values of their remaining parts. We compute the exact value of n when this stable expansion is reached. We also compute two new bounds for the stabilization of a particular coefficient of such a product. Given partitions $\alpha$ and $\beta$, we give bounds for all the parts of any partition $\gamma$ such that the corresponding Kronecker coefficient is nonzero. Finally, we also show that the reduced Kronecker coefficients are structure coefficients for the Heisenberg product introduced by Aguiar, Ferrer and Moreira.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:37 +010
- Viewing counting polynomials as Hilbert functions via Ehrhart theory
Abstract: Steingrímsson (2001) showed that the chromatic polynomial of a graph is the Hilbert function of a relative Stanley-Reisner ideal. We approach this result from the point of view of Ehrhart theory and give a sufficient criterion for when the Ehrhart polynomial of a given relative polytopal complex is a Hilbert function in Steingrímsson's sense. We use this result to establish that the modular and integral flow and tension polynomials of a graph are Hilbert functions.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:36 +010
- Words and Noncommutative Invariants of the Hyperoctahedral Group
Abstract: Let $\mathcal{B}_n$ be the hyperoctahedral group acting on a complex vector space $\mathcal{V}$. We present a combinatorial method to decompose the tensor algebra $T(\mathcal{V})$ on $\mathcal{V}$ into simple modules via certain words in a particular Cayley graph of $\mathcal{B}_n$. We then give combinatorial interpretations for the graded dimension and the number of free generators of the subalgebra $T(\mathcal{V})^{\mathcal{B}_n}$ of invariants of $\mathcal{B}_n$, in terms of these words, and make explicit the case of the signed permutation module. To this end, we require a morphism from the Mantaci-Reutenauer algebra onto the algebra of characters due to Bonnafé and Hohlweg.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:35 +010
- A unified bijective method for maps: application to two classes with
boundaries
Abstract: Based on a construction of the first author, we present a general bijection between certain decorated plane trees and certain orientations of planar maps with no counterclockwise circuit. Many natural classes of maps (e.g. Eulerian maps, simple triangulations,...) are in bijection with a subset of these orientations, and our construction restricts in a simple way on the subset. This gives a general bijective strategy for classes of maps. As a non-trivial application of our method we give the first bijective proofs for counting (rooted) simple triangulations and quadrangulations with a boundary of arbitrary size, recovering enumeration results found by Brown using Tutte's recursive method.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:34 +010
- Combinatorial aspects of Escher tilings
Abstract: In the late 30's, Maurits Cornelis Escher astonished the artistic world by producing some puzzling drawings. In particular, the tesselations of the plane obtained by using a single tile appear to be a major concern in his work, drawing attention from the mathematical community. Since a tile in the continuous world can be approximated by a path on a sufficiently small square grid - a widely used method in applications using computer displays - the natural combinatorial object that models the tiles is the polyomino. As polyominoes are encoded by paths on a four letter alphabet coding their contours, the use of combinatorics on words for the study of tiling properties becomes relevant. In this paper we present several results, ranging from recognition of these tiles to their generation, leading also to some surprising links with the well-known sequences of Fibonacci and Pell.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:33 +010
- An Algebraic Analogue of a Formula of Knuth
Abstract: We generalize a theorem of Knuth relating the oriented spanning trees of a directed graph $G$ and its directed line graph $\mathcal{L} G$. The sandpile group is an abelian group associated to a directed graph, whose order is the number of oriented spanning trees rooted at a fixed vertex. In the case when $G$ is regular of degree $k$, we show that the sandpile group of $G$ is isomorphic to the quotient of the sandpile group of $\mathcal{L} G$ by its $k$-torsion subgroup. As a corollary we compute the sandpile groups of two families of graphs widely studied in computer science, the de Bruijn graphs and Kautz graphs.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:32 +010
- QSym over Sym has a stable basis
Abstract: We prove that the subset of quasisymmetric polynomials conjectured by Bergeron and Reutenauer to be a basis for the coinvariant space of quasisymmetric polynomials is indeed a basis. This provides the first constructive proof of the Garsia―Wallach result stating that quasisymmetric polynomials form a free module over symmetric polynomials and that the dimension of this module is $n!$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:31 +010
- Three notions of tropical rank for symmetric matrices
Abstract: We introduce and study three different notions of tropical rank for symmetric matrices and dissimilarity matrices in terms of minimal decompositions into rank 1 symmetric matrices, star tree matrices, and tree matrices. Our results provide a close study of the tropical secant sets of certain nice tropical varieties, including the tropical Grassmannian. In particular, we determine the dimension of each secant set, the convex hull of the variety, and in most cases, the smallest secant set which is equal to the convex hull.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:30 +010
- Models and refined models for involutory reflection groups and classical
Weyl groups
Abstract: A finite subgroup $G$ of $GL(n,\mathbb{C})$ is involutory if the sum of the dimensions of its irreducible complex representations is given by the number of absolute involutions in the group, i.e. elements $g \in G$ such that $g \bar{g}=1$, where the bar denotes complex conjugation. A uniform combinatorial model is constructed for all non-exceptional irreducible complex reflection groups which are involutory including, in particular, all infinite families of finite irreducible Coxeter groups. If $G$ is a classical Weyl group this result is much refined in a way which is compatible with the Robinson-Schensted correspondence on involutions.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:29 +010
- Chamber Structure For Double Hurwitz Numbers
Abstract: Double Hurwitz numbers count covers of the sphere by genus $g$ curves with assigned ramification profiles over $0$ and $\infty$, and simple ramification over a fixed branch divisor. Goulden, Jackson and Vakil (2005) have shown double Hurwitz numbers are piecewise polynomial in the orders of ramification, and Shadrin, Shapiro and Vainshtein (2008) have determined the chamber structure and wall crossing formulas for $g=0$. We provide new proofs of these results, and extend them in several directions. Most importantly we prove wall crossing formulas for all genera. The main tool is the authors' previous work expressing double Hurwitz number as a sum over labelled graphs. We identify the labels of the graphs with lattice points in the chambers of certain hyperplane arrangements, which give rise to piecewise polynomial functions. Our understanding of the wall crossing for these functions builds on the work of Varchenko (1987). This approach to wall crossing appears novel, and may be of broader interest. This extended abstract is based on a new preprint by the authors.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:27 +010
- Random Walks in the Plane
Abstract: We study the expected distance of a two-dimensional walk in the plane with unit steps in random directions. A series evaluation and recursions are obtained making it possible to explicitly formulate this distance for small number of steps. Formulae for all the moments of a 2-step and a 3-step walk are given, and an expression is conjectured for the 4-step walk. The paper makes use of the combinatorical features exhibited by the even moments which, for instance, lead to analytic continuations of the underlying integral.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:26 +010
- Computing Node Polynomials for Plane Curves
Abstract: According to the Göttsche conjecture (now a theorem), the degree $N^{d, \delta}$ of the Severi variety of plane curves of degree $d$ with $\delta$ nodes is given by a polynomial in $d$, provided $d$ is large enough. These "node polynomials'' $N_{\delta} (d)$ were determined by Vainsencher and Kleiman―Piene for $\delta \leq 6$ and $\delta \leq 8$, respectively. Building on ideas of Fomin and Mikhalkin, we develop an explicit algorithm for computing all node polynomials, and use it to compute $N_{\delta} (d)$ for $\delta \leq 14$. Furthermore, we improve the threshold of polynomiality and verify Göttsche's conjecture on the optimal threshold up to $\delta \leq 14$. We also determine the first 9 coefficients of $N_{\delta} (d)$, for general $\delta$, settling and extending a 1994 conjecture of Di Francesco and Itzykson.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:25 +010
- The expansion of Hall-Littlewood functions in the dual Grothendieck
polynomial basis
Abstract: A combinatorial expansion of the Hall-Littlewood functions into the Schur basis of symmetric functions was first given by Lascoux and Schützenberger, with their discovery of the charge statistic. A combinatorial expansion of stable Grassmannian Grothendieck polynomials into monomials was first given by Buch, using set-valued tableaux. The dual basis of the stable Grothendieck polynomials was given a combinatorial expansion into monomials by Lam and Pylyavskyy using reverse plane partitions. We generalize charge to set-valued tableaux and use all of these combinatorial ideas to give a nice expansion of Hall-Littlewood polynomials into the dual Grothendieck basis. \par
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:24 +010
- Counting unicellular maps on non-orientable surfaces
Abstract: A unicellular map is the embedding of a connected graph in a surface in such a way that the complement of the graph is a topological disk. In this paper we give a bijective operation that relates unicellular maps on a non-orientable surface to unicellular maps of a lower topological type, with distinguished vertices. From that we obtain a recurrence equation that leads to (new) explicit counting formulas for non-orientable precubic (all vertices of degree 1 or 3) unicellular maps of fixed topology. We also determine asymptotic formulas for the number of all unicellular maps of fixed topology, when the number of edges goes to infinity. Our strategy is inspired by recent results obtained for the orientable case [Chapuy, PTRF 2010], but significant novelties are introduced: in particular we construct an involution which, in some sense, ``averages'' the effects of non-orientability. \par
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:23 +010
- Generalized Ehrhart polynomials
Abstract: Let $P$ be a polytope with rational vertices. A classical theorem of Ehrhart states that the number of lattice points in the dilations $P(n) = nP$ is a quasi-polynomial in $n$. We generalize this theorem by allowing the vertices of $P(n)$ to be arbitrary rational functions in $n$. In this case we prove that the number of lattice points in $P(n)$ is a quasi-polynomial for $n$ sufficiently large. Our work was motivated by a conjecture of Ehrhart on the number of solutions to parametrized linear Diophantine equations whose coefficients are polynomials in $n$, and we explain how these two problems are related.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:22 +010
- A canonical basis for Garsia-Procesi modules
Abstract: We identify a subalgebra $\widehat{\mathscr{H}}^+_n$ of the extended affine Hecke algebra $\widehat{\mathscr{H}}_n$ of type $A$. The subalgebra $\widehat{\mathscr{H}}^+_n$ is a u-analogue of the monoid algebra of $\mathcal{S}_n ⋉ℤ_≥0^n$ and inherits a canonical basis from that of $\widehat{\mathscr{H}}_n$. We show that its left cells are naturally labeled by tableaux filled with positive integer entries having distinct residues mod $n$, which we term positive affine tableaux (PAT). We then exhibit a cellular subquotient $\mathscr{R}_1^n$ of $\widehat{\mathscr{H}}^+_n$ that is a $u$-analogue of the ring of coinvariants $ℂ[y_1,\ldots,y_n]/(e_1, \ldots,e_n)$ with left cells labeled by PAT that are essentially standard Young tableaux with cocharge labels. Multiplying canonical basis elements by a certain element $*π ∈ \widehat{\mathscr{H}}^+_n$ corresponds to rotations of words, and on cells corresponds to cocyclage. We further show that $\mathscr{R}_1^n$ has cellular quotients $\mathscr{R}_λ$ that are $u$-analogues of the Garsia-Procesi modules $R_λ$ with left cells labeled by (a PAT version of) the $λ$ -catabolizable tableaux.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:22 +010
- Descent polynomials for permutations with bounded drop size
Abstract: Motivated by juggling sequences and bubble sort, we examine permutations on the set${1, 2, \ldots, n}$ with $d$ descents and maximum drop size $k$. We give explicit formulas for enumerating such permutations for given integers $k$ and $d$. We also derive the related generating functions and prove unimodality and symmetry of the coefficients.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:21 +010
- Combinatorics of the PASEP partition function
Abstract: We consider a three-parameter PASEP model on $N$ sites. A closed formula for the partition function was obtained analytically by Blythe et al. We give a new formula which generalizes the one of Blythe et al, and is proved in two combinatorial ways. Moreover the first proof can be adapted to give the moments of Al-Salam-Chihara polynomials.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:19 +010
- Generalized Energy Statistics and Kostka―Macdonald Polynomials
Abstract: We give an interpretation of the $t=1$ specialization of the modified Macdonald polynomial as a generating function of the energy statistics defined on the set of paths arising in the context of Box-Ball Systems (BBS-paths for short). We also introduce one parameter generalizations of the energy statistics on the set of BBS-paths which all, conjecturally, have the same distribution.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:18 +010
- Skew Littlewood―Richardson rules from Hopf algebras
Abstract: We use Hopf algebras to prove a version of the Littlewood―Richardson rule for skew Schur functions, which implies a conjecture of Assaf and McNamara. We also establish skew Littlewood―Richardson rules for Schur $P-$ and $Q-$functions and noncommutative ribbon Schur functions, as well as skew Pieri rules for k-Schur functions, dual k-Schur functions, and for the homology of the affine Grassmannian of the symplectic group.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:17 +010
- Criteria for rational smoothness of some symmetric orbit closures
Abstract: Let $G$ be a connected reductive linear algebraic group over $ℂ$ with an involution $θ$ . Denote by $K$ the subgroup of fixed points. In certain cases, the $K-orbits$ in the flag variety $G/B$ are indexed by the twisted identities $ι (θ ) = {θ (w^{-1})w w∈W}$ in the Weyl group $W$. Under this assumption, we establish a criterion for rational smoothness of orbit closures which generalises classical results of Carrell and Peterson for Schubert varieties. That is, whether an orbit closure is rationally smooth at a given point can be determined by examining the degrees in a "Bruhat graph'' whose vertices form a subset of $ι (θ )$. Moreover, an orbit closure is rationally smooth everywhere if and only if its corresponding interval in the Bruhat order on $ι (θ )$ is rank symmetric. In the special case $K=\mathrm{Sp}_{2n}(ℂ), G=\mathrm{SL}_{2n}(ℂ)$, we strengthen our criterion by showing that only the degree of a single vertex, the "bottom one'', needs to be examined. This generalises a result of Deodhar for type A Schubert varieties.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:16 +010
- The biHecke monoid of a finite Coxeter group
Abstract: For any finite Coxeter group $W$, we introduce two new objects: its cutting poset and its biHecke monoid. The cutting poset, constructed using a generalization of the notion of blocks in permutation matrices, almost forms a lattice on $W$. The construction of the biHecke monoid relies on the usual combinatorial model for the $0-Hecke$ algebra $H_0(W)$, that is, for the symmetric group, the algebra (or monoid) generated by the elementary bubble sort operators. The authors previously introduced the Hecke group algebra, constructed as the algebra generated simultaneously by the bubble sort and antisort operators, and described its representation theory. In this paper, we consider instead the monoid generated by these operators. We prove that it admits W simple and projective modules. In order to construct the simple modules, we introduce for each $w∈W$ a combinatorial module $T_w$ whose support is the interval $[1,w]_R$ in right weak order. This module yields an algebra, whose representation theory generalizes that of the Hecke group algebra, with the combinatorics of descents replaced by that of blocks and of the cutting poset.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:15 +010
- Weighted branching formulas for the hook lengths
Abstract: The famous hook-length formula is a simple consequence of the branching rule for the hook lengths. While the Greene-Nijenhuis-Wilf probabilistic proof is the most famous proof of the rule, it is not completely combinatorial, and a simple bijection was an open problem for a long time. In this extended abstract, we show an elegant bijective argument that proves a stronger, weighted analogue of the branching rule. Variants of the bijection prove seven other interesting formulas. Another important approach to the formulas is via weighted hook walks; we discuss some results in this area. We present another motivation for our work: $J$-functions of the Hilbert scheme of points.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:14 +010
- Valuative invariants for polymatroids
Abstract: Many important invariants for matroids and polymatroids, such as the Tutte polynomial, the Billera-Jia-Reiner quasi-symmetric function, and the invariant $\mathcal{G}$ introduced by the first author, are valuative. In this paper we construct the $\mathbb{Z}$-modules of all $\mathbb{Z}$-valued valuative functions for labelled matroids and polymatroids on a fixed ground set, and their unlabelled counterparts, the $\mathbb{Z}$-modules of valuative invariants. We give explicit bases for these modules and for their dual modules generated by indicator functions of polytopes, and explicit formulas for their ranks. Our results confirm a conjecture of the first author that $\mathcal{G}$ is universal for valuative invariants.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:13 +010
- A bijection between (bounded) dominant Shi regions and core partitions
Abstract: It is well-known that Catalan numbers $C_n = \frac{1}{ n+1} \binom{2n}{n}$ count the number of dominant regions in the Shi arrangement of type $A$, and that they also count partitions which are both n-cores as well as $(n+1)$-cores. These concepts have natural extensions, which we call here the $m$-Catalan numbers and $m$-Shi arrangement. In this paper, we construct a bijection between dominant regions of the $m$-Shi arrangement and partitions which are both $n$-cores as well as $(mn+1)$-cores. We also modify our construction to produce a bijection between bounded dominant regions of the $m$-Shi arrangement and partitions which are both $n$-cores as well as $(mn-1)$-cores. The bijections are natural in the sense that they commute with the action of the affine symmetric group.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:12 +010
- Linear Systems on Tropical Curves
Abstract: A tropical curve $\Gamma$ is a metric graph with possibly unbounded edges, and tropical rational functions are continuous piecewise linear functions with integer slopes. We define the complete linear system $ D $ of a divisor $D$ on a tropical curve $\Gamma$ analogously to the classical counterpart. We investigate the structure of $ D $ as a cell complex and show that linear systems are quotients of tropical modules, finitely generated by vertices of the cell complex. Using a finite set of generators, $ D $ defines a map from $\Gamma$ to a tropical projective space, and the image can be modified to a tropical curve of degree equal to $\mathrm{deg}(D)$. The tropical convex hull of the image realizes the linear system $ D $ as a polyhedral complex.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:11 +010
- Mixed Statistics on $01$-Fillings of Moon Polyominoes
Abstract: We establish a stronger symmetry between the numbers of northeast and southeast chains in the context of $01$-fillings of moon polyominoes. Let $\mathcal{M}$ be a moon polyomino. Consider all the $01$-fillings of $\mathcal{M}$ in which every row has at most one $1$. We introduce four mixed statistics with respect to a bipartition of rows or columns of $\mathcal{M}$. More precisely, let $S$ be a subset of rows of $\mathcal{M}$. For any filling $M$, the top-mixed (resp. bottom-mixed) statistic $\alpha (S; M)$ (resp. $\beta (S; M)$) is the sum of the number of northeast chains whose top (resp. bottom) cell is in $S$, together with the number of southeast chains whose top (resp. bottom) cell is in the complement of $S$. Similarly, we define the left-mixed and right-mixed statistics $\gamma (T; M)$ and $\delta (T; M)$, where $T$ is a subset of the columns. Let $\lambda (A; M)$ be any of these four statistics $\alpha (S; M)$, $\beta (S; M)$, $\gamma (T; M)$ and $\delta (T; M)$. We show that the joint distribution of the pair $(\lambda (A; M), \lambda (M/A; M))$ is symmetric and independent of the subsets $S, T$. In particular, the pair of statistics $(\lambda (A;M), \lambda (M/A; M))$ is equidistributed with $(\mathrm{se}(M), \mathrm{ne}(M))$, where $\mathrm{se}(M)$ and $\mathrm{ne}(M)$ are the numbers of southeast chains and northeast chains of $M$, respectively.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:10 +010
- On joint distribution of adjacencies, descents and some Mahonian
statistics
Abstract: We prove several conjectures of Eriksen regarding the joint distribution on permutations of the number of adjacencies (descents with consecutive values in consecutive positions), descents and some Mahonian statistics. We also prove Eriksen's conjecture that a certain bistatistic on Viennot's alternative tableaux is Euler-Mahonian.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:10 +010
- Products of Geck-Rouquier conjugacy classes and the Hecke algebra of
composed permutations
Abstract: We show the $q$-analog of a well-known result of Farahat and Higman: in the center of the Iwahori-Hecke algebra $\mathscr{H}_{n,q}$, if $(a_{\lambda \mu}^ν (n,q))_ν$ is the set of structure constants involved in the product of two Geck-Rouquier conjugacy classes $\Gamma_{\lambda, n}$ and $\Gamma_{\mu,n}$, then each coefficient $a_{\lambda \mu}^ν (n,q)$ depend on $n$ and $q$ in a polynomial way. Our proof relies on the construction of a projective limit of the Hecke algebras; this projective limit is inspired by the Ivanov-Kerov algebra of partial permutations.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:09 +010
- An algorithm which generates linear extensions for a generalized Young
diagram with uniform probability
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present an algorithm which generates linear extensions for a generalized Young diagram, in the sense of D. Peterson and R. A. Proctor, with uniform probability. This gives a proof of a D. Peterson's hook formula for the number of reduced decompositions of a given minuscule elements. \par
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:08 +010
- On $\gamma$-vectors satisfying the Kruskal-Katona inequalities
Abstract: We present examples of flag homology spheres whose $\gamma$-vectors satisfy the Kruskal-Katona inequalities. This includes several families of well-studied simplicial complexes, including Coxeter complexes and the simplicial complexes dual to the associahedron and to the cyclohedron. In these cases, we construct explicit flag simplicial complexes whose $f$-vectors are the $\gamma$-vectors in question, and so a result of Frohmader shows that the $\gamma$-vectors satisfy not only the Kruskal-Katona inequalities but also the stronger Frankl-Füredi-Kalai inequalities. In another direction, we show that if a flag $(d-1)$-sphere has at most $2d+3$ vertices its $\gamma$-vector satisfies the Frankl-Füredi-Kalai inequalities. We conjecture that if $\Delta$ is a flag homology sphere then $\gamma (\Delta)$ satisfies the Kruskal-Katona, and further, the Frankl-Füredi-Kalai inequalities. This conjecture is a significant refinement of Gal's conjecture, which asserts that such $\gamma$-vectors are nonnegative.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:07 +010
- Equivalence Relations of Permutations Generated by Constrained
Transpositions
Abstract: We consider a large family of equivalence relations on permutations in $S_n$ that generalise those discovered by Knuth in his study of the Robinson-Schensted correspondence. In our most general setting, two permutations are equivalent if one can be obtained from the other by a sequence of pattern-replacing moves of prescribed form; however, we limit our focus to patterns where two elements are transposed, conditional upon the presence of a third element of suitable value and location. For some relations of this type, we compute the number of equivalence classes, determine how many $n$-permutations are equivalent to the identity permutation, or characterise this equivalence class. Although our results include familiar integer sequences (e.g., Catalan, Fibonacci, and Tribonacci numbers) and special classes of permutations (layered, connected, and $123$-avoiding), some of the sequences that arise appear to be new.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:06 +010
- Nonzero coefficients in restrictions and tensor products of
supercharacters of $U_n(q)$ (extended abstract)
Abstract: The standard supercharacter theory of the finite unipotent upper-triangular matrices $U_n(q)$ gives rise to a beautiful combinatorics based on set partitions. As with the representation theory of the symmetric group, embeddings of $U_m(q) \subseteq U_n(q)$ for $m \leq n$ lead to branching rules. Diaconis and Isaacs established that the restriction of a supercharacter of $U_n(q)$ is a nonnegative integer linear combination of supercharacters of $U_m(q)$ (in fact, it is polynomial in $q$). In a first step towards understanding the combinatorics of coefficients in the branching rules of the supercharacters of $U_n(q)$, this paper characterizes when a given coefficient is nonzero in the restriction of a supercharacter and the tensor product of two supercharacters. These conditions are given uniformly in terms of complete matchings in bipartite graphs.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:05 +010
- Crystals from categorified quantum groups
Abstract: We study the crystal structure on categories of graded modules over algebras which categorify the negative half of the quantum Kac-Moody algebra associated to a symmetrizable Cartan data. We identify this crystal with Kashiwara's crystal for the corresponding negative half of the quantum Kac-Moody algebra. As a consequence, we show the simple graded modules for certain cyclotomic quotients carry the structure of highest weight crystals, and hence compute the rank of the corresponding Grothendieck group.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:04 +010
- On the diagonal ideal of $(\mathbb{C}^2)^n$ and $q,t$-Catalan numbers
Abstract: Let $I_n$ be the (big) diagonal ideal of $(\mathbb{C}^2)^n$. Haiman proved that the $q,t$-Catalan number is the Hilbert series of the graded vector space $M_n=\bigoplus_{d_1,d_2}(M_n)_{d_1,d_2}$ spanned by a minimal set of generators for $I_n$. We give simple upper bounds on $\textrm{dim} (M_n)_{d_1, d_2}$ in terms of partition numbers, and find all bi-degrees $(d_1,d_2)$ such that $\textrm{dim} (M_n)_{d_1, d_2}$ achieve the upper bounds. For such bi-degrees, we also find explicit bases for $(M_n)_{d_1, d_2}$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:03 +010
- Toric Ideals of Flow Polytopes
Abstract: We show that toric ideals of flow polytopes are generated in degree $3$. This was conjectured by Diaconis and Eriksson for the special case of the Birkhoff polytope. Our proof uses a hyperplane subdivision method developed by Haase and Paffenholz. It is known that reduced revlex Gröbner bases of the toric ideal of the Birkhoff polytope $B_n$ have at most degree $n$. We show that this bound is sharp for some revlex term orders. For $(m \times n)$-transportation polytopes, a similar result holds: they have Gröbner bases of at most degree $\lfloor mn/2 \rfloor$. We construct a family of examples, where this bound is sharp.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:02 +010
- On formulas for moments of the Wishart distributions as weighted
generating functions of matchings
Abstract: We consider the real and complex noncentral Wishart distributions. The moments of these distributions are shown to be expressed as weighted generating functions of graphs associated with the Wishart distributions. We give some bijections between sets of graphs related to moments of the real Wishart distribution and the complex noncentral Wishart distribution. By means of the bijections, we see that calculating these moments of a certain class the real Wishart distribution boils down to calculations for the case of complex Wishart distributions.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:19:01 +010
- Bruhat order, rationally smooth Schubert varieties, and hyperplane
arrangements
Abstract: We link Schubert varieties in the generalized flag manifolds with hyperplane arrangements. For an element of a Weyl group, we construct a certain graphical hyperplane arrangement. We show that the generating function for regions of this arrangement coincides with the Poincaré polynomial of the corresponding Schubert variety if and only if the Schubert variety is rationally smooth.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:18:59 +010
- Counting RNA pseudoknotted structures (extended abstract)
Abstract: In 2004, Condon and coauthors gave a hierarchical classification of exact RNA structure prediction algorithms according to the generality of structure classes that they handle. We complete this classification by adding two recent prediction algorithms. More importantly, we precisely quantify the hierarchy by giving closed or asymptotic formulas for the theoretical number of structures of given size n in all the classes but one. This allows to assess the tradeoff between the expressiveness and the computational complexity of RNA structure prediction algorithms. \par
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:18:58 +010
- Boolean complexes and boolean numbers
Abstract: The Bruhat order gives a poset structure to any Coxeter group. The ideal of elements in this poset having boolean principal order ideals forms a simplicial poset. This simplicial poset defines the boolean complex for the group. In a Coxeter system of rank n, we show that the boolean complex is homotopy equivalent to a wedge of (n-1)-dimensional spheres. The number of these spheres is the boolean number, which can be computed inductively from the unlabeled Coxeter system, thus defining a graph invariant. For certain families of graphs, the boolean numbers have intriguing combinatorial properties. This work involves joint efforts with Claesson, Kitaev, and Ragnarsson. \par
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:18:57 +010
- Schubert complexes and degeneracy loci
Abstract: The classical Thom―Porteous formula expresses the homology class of the degeneracy locus of a generic map between two vector bundles as an alternating sum of Schur polynomials. A proof of this formula was given by Pragacz by expressing this alternating sum as the Euler characteristic of a Schur complex, which gives an explanation for the signs. Fulton later generalized this formula to the situation of flags of vector bundles by using alternating sums of Schubert polynomials. Building on the Schubert functors of Kraśkiewicz and Pragacz, we introduce Schubert complexes and show that Fulton's alternating sum can be realized as the Euler characteristic of this complex, thereby providing a conceptual proof for why an alternating sum appears. \par
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:18:55 +010
- A unification of permutation patterns related to Schubert varieties
Abstract: We prove new connections between permutation patterns and singularities of Schubert varieties, by giving a new characterization of factorial and Gorenstein varieties in terms of so called bivincular patterns. These are generalizations of classical patterns where conditions are placed on the location of an occurrence in a permutation, as well as on the values in the occurrence. This clarifies what happens when the requirement of smoothness is weakened to factoriality and further to Gorensteinness, extending work of Bousquet-Mélou and Butler (2007), and Woo and Yong (2006). We also prove results that translate some known patterns in the literature into bivincular patterns.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:18:55 +010
- The Hodge Structure of the Coloring Complex of a Hypergraph (Extended
Abstract)
Abstract: Let $G$ be a simple graph with $n$ vertices. The coloring complex$ Δ (G)$ was defined by Steingrímsson, and the homology of $Δ (G)$ was shown to be nonzero only in dimension $n-3$ by Jonsson. Hanlon recently showed that the Eulerian idempotents provide a decomposition of the homology group $H_{n-3}(Δ (G))$ where the dimension of the $j^th$ component in the decomposition, $H_{n-3}^{(j)}(Δ (G))$, equals the absolute value of the coefficient of $λ ^j$ in the chromatic polynomial of $G, _{\mathcal{χg}}(λ )$. Let $H$ be a hypergraph with $n$ vertices. In this paper, we define the coloring complex of a hypergraph, $Δ (H)$, and show that the coefficient of $λ ^j$ in $χ _H(λ )$ gives the Euler Characteristic of the $j^{th}$ Hodge subcomplex of the Hodge decomposition of $Δ (H)$. We also examine conditions on a hypergraph, $H$, for which its Hodge subcomplexes are Cohen-Macaulay, and thus where the absolute value of the coefficient of $λ ^j$ in $χ _H(λ )$ equals the dimension of the $j^{th}$ Hodge piece of the Hodge decomposition of $Δ (H)$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:18:54 +010
- Bijective enumeration of permutations starting with a longest increasing
subsequence
Abstract: We prove a formula for the number of permutations in $S_n$ such that their first $n-k$ entries are increasing and their longest increasing subsequence has length $n-k$. This formula first appeared as a consequence of character polynomial calculations in recent work of Adriano Garsia and Alain Goupil. We give two "elementary' bijective proofs of this result and of its q-analogue, one proof using the RSK correspondence and one only permutations.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:18:51 +010
- Cyclic sieving for longest reduced words in the hyperoctahedral group
Abstract: We show that the set $R(w_0)$ of reduced expressions for the longest element in the hyperoctahedral group exhibits the cyclic sieving phenomenon. More specifically, $R(w_0)$ possesses a natural cyclic action given by moving the first letter of a word to the end, and we show that the orbit structure of this action is encoded by the generating function for the major index on $R(w_0)$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:18:50 +010
- The cluster and dual canonical bases of Z [x_11, ..., x_33] are equal
Abstract: The polynomial ring $\mathbb{Z}[x_{11}, . . . , x_{33}]$ has a basis called the dual canonical basis whose quantization facilitates the study of representations of the quantum group $U_q(\mathfrak{sl}3(\mathbb{C}))$. On the other hand, $\mathbb{Z}[x_{11}, . . . , x_{33}]$ inherits a basis from the cluster monomial basis of a geometric model of the type $D_4$ cluster algebra. We prove that these two bases are equal. This extends work of Skandera and proves a conjecture of Fomin and Zelevinsky. This also provides an explicit factorization of the dual canonical basis elements of $\mathbb{Z}[x_{11}, . . . , x_{33}]$ into irreducible polynomials.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:18:49 +010
- Crossings and nestings in set partitions of classical types
Abstract: In this extended abstract, we investigate bijections on various classes of set partitions of classical types that preserve openers and closers. On the one hand we present bijections for types $B$ and $C$ that interchange crossings and nestings, which generalize a construction by Kasraoui and Zeng for type $A$. On the other hand we generalize a bijection to type $B$ and $C$ that interchanges the cardinality of a maximal crossing with the cardinality of a maximal nesting, as given by Chen, Deng, Du, Stanley and Yan for type $A$. For type $D$, we were only able to construct a bijection between non-crossing and non-nesting set partitions. For all classical types we show that the set of openers and the set of closers determine a non-crossing or non-nesting set partition essentially uniquely.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:18:48 +010
- Combinatorial formulas for double parabolic R-polynomials
Abstract: The well-known R-polynomials in ℤ[q], which appear in Hecke algebra computations, are closely related to certain modified R-polynomials in ℕ[q] whose coefficients have simple combinatorial interpretations. We generalize this second family of polynomials, providing combinatorial interpretations for expressions arising in a much broader class of computations. In particular, we extend results of Brenti, Deodhar, and Dyer to new settings which include parabolic Hecke algebra modules and the quantum polynomial ring.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:18:47 +010
- On extensions of the Newton-Raphson iterative scheme to arbitrary orders
Abstract: The classical quadratically convergent Newton-Raphson iterative scheme for successive approximations of a root of an equation $f(t)=0$ has been extended in various ways by different authors, going from cubical convergence to convergence of arbitrary orders. We introduce two such extensions, using appropriate differential operators as well as combinatorial arguments. We conclude with some applications including special series expansions for functions of the root and enumeration of classes of tree-like structures according to their number of leaves.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:18:46 +010
- A note on moments of derivatives of characteristic polynomials
Abstract: We present a simple technique to compute moments of derivatives of unitary characteristic polynomials. The first part of the technique relies on an idea of Bump and Gamburd: it uses orthonormality of Schur functions over unitary groups to compute matrix averages of characteristic polynomials. In order to consider derivatives of those polynomials, we here need the added strength of the Generalized Binomial Theorem of Okounkov and Olshanski. This result is very natural as it provides coefficients for the Taylor expansions of Schur functions, in terms of shifted Schur functions. The answer is finally given as a sum over partitions of functions of the contents. One can also obtain alternative expressions involving hypergeometric functions of matrix arguments.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:18:45 +010
- $f$-vectors of subdivided simplicial complexes (extended abstract)
Abstract: We take a geometric point of view on the recent result by Brenti and Welker, who showed that the roots of the $f$-polynomials of successive barycentric subdivisions of a finite simplicial complex $X$ converge to fixed values depending only on the dimension of $X$. We show that these numbers are roots of a certain polynomial whose coefficients can be computed explicitly. We observe and prove an interesting symmetry of these roots about the real number $-2$. This symmetry can be seen via a nice realization of barycentric subdivision as a simple map on formal power series. We then examine how such a symmetry extends to more general types of subdivisions. The generalization is formulated in terms of an operator on the (formal) ring on the set of simplices of the complex.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:18:44 +010
- A Combinatorial Formula for Orthogonal Idempotents in the $0$-Hecke
Algebra of $S_N$
Abstract: Building on the work of P.N. Norton, we give combinatorial formulae for two maximal decompositions of the identity into orthogonal idempotents in the $0$-Hecke algebra of the symmetric group, $\mathbb{C}H_0(S_N)$. This construction is compatible with the branching from $H_0(S_{N-1})$ to $H_0(S_N)$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:18:43 +010
- Tropical secant graphs of monomial curves
Abstract: We construct and study an embedded weighted balanced graph in $\mathbb{R}^{n+1}$ parametrized by a strictly increasing sequence of $n$ coprime numbers $\{ i_1, \ldots, i_n\}$, called the $\textit{tropical secant surface graph}$. We identify it with the tropicalization of a surface in $\mathbb{C}^{n+1}$ parametrized by binomials. Using this graph, we construct the tropicalization of the first secant variety of a monomial projective curve with exponent vector $(0, i_1, \ldots, i_n)$, which can be described by a balanced graph called the $\textit{tropical secant graph}$. The combinatorics involved in computing the degree of this classical secant variety is non-trivial. One earlier approach to this is due to K. Ranestad. Using techniques from tropical geometry, we give algorithms to effectively compute this degree (as well as its multidegree) and the Newton polytope of the first secant variety of any given monomial curve in $\mathbb{P}^4$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:40 +010
- Extended Abstract for Enumerating Pattern Avoidance for Affine
Permutations
Abstract: In this paper we study pattern avoidance for affine permutations. In particular, we show that for a given pattern $p$, there are only finitely many affine permutations in $\widetilde{S}_n$ that avoid $p$ if and only if $p$ avoids the pattern $321$. We then count the number of affine permutations that avoid a given pattern $p$ for each $p$ in $S_3$, as well as give some conjectures for the patterns in $S_4$. This paper is just an outline; the full version will appear elsewhere.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:39 +010
- Pattern avoidance in partial permutations (extended abstract)
Abstract: Motivated by the concept of partial words, we introduce an analogous concept of partial permutations. A $\textit{partial permutation of length n with k holes}$ is a sequence of symbols $\pi = \pi_1 \pi_2 \cdots \pi_n$ in which each of the symbols from the set $\{1,2,\ldots,n-k\}$ appears exactly once, while the remaining $k$ symbols of $\pi$ are "holes''. We introduce pattern-avoidance in partial permutations and prove that most of the previous results on Wilf equivalence of permutation patterns can be extended to partial permutations with an arbitrary number of holes. We also show that Baxter permutations of a given length $k$ correspond to a Wilf-type equivalence class with respect to partial permutations with $(k-2)$ holes. Lastly, we enumerate the partial permutations of length $n$ with $k$ holes avoiding a given pattern of length at most four, for each $n \geq k \geq 1$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:38 +010
- $n!$ matchings, $n!$ posets (extended abstract)
Abstract: We show that there are $n!$ matchings on $2n$ points without, so called, left (neighbor) nestings. We also define a set of naturally labelled $(2+2)$-free posets, and show that there are $n!$ such posets on $n$ elements. Our work was inspired by Bousquet-Mélou, Claesson, Dukes and Kitaev [J. Combin. Theory Ser. A. 117 (2010) 884―909]. They gave bijections between four classes of combinatorial objects: matchings with no neighbor nestings (due to Stoimenow), unlabelled $(2+2)$-free posets, permutations avoiding a specific pattern, and so called ascent sequences. We believe that certain statistics on our matchings and posets could generalize the work of Bousquet-Mélou et al. and we make a conjecture to that effect. We also identify natural subsets of matchings and posets that are equinumerous to the class of unlabeled $(2+2)$-free posets. We give bijections that show the equivalence of (neighbor) restrictions on nesting arcs with (neighbor) restrictions on crossing arcs. These bijections are thought to be of independent interest. One of the bijections maps via certain upper-triangular integer matrices that have recently been studied by Dukes and Parviainen [Electron. J. Combin. 17 (2010) #R53].
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:36 +010
- The Frobenius Complex
Abstract: Motivated by the classical Frobenius problem, we introduce the Frobenius poset on the integers $\mathbb{Z}$, that is, for a sub-semigroup $\Lambda$ of the non-negative integers $(\mathbb{N},+)$, we define the order by $n \leq_{\Lambda} m$ if $m-n \in \Lambda$. When $\Lambda$ is generated by two relatively prime integers $a$ and $b$, we show that the order complex of an interval in the Frobenius poset is either contractible or homotopy equivalent to a sphere. We also show that when $\Lambda$ is generated by the integers $\{a,a+d,a+2d,\ldots,a+(a-1)d\}$, the order complex is homotopy equivalent to a wedge of spheres.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:34 +010
- Linear coefficients of Kerov's polynomials: bijective proof and refinement
of Zagier's result
Abstract: We look at the number of permutations $\beta$ of $[N]$ with $m$ cycles such that $(1 2 \ldots N) \beta^{-1}$ is a long cycle. These numbers appear as coefficients of linear monomials in Kerov's and Stanley's character polynomials. D. Zagier, using algebraic methods, found an unexpected connection with Stirling numbers of size $N+1$. We present the first combinatorial proof of his result, introducing a new bijection between partitioned maps and thorn trees. Moreover, we obtain a finer result, which takes the type of the permutations into account.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:33 +010
- Balanced binary trees in the Tamari lattice
Abstract: We show that the set of balanced binary trees is closed by interval in the Tamari lattice. We establish that the intervals $[T_0, T_1]$ where $T_0$ and $T_1$ are balanced trees are isomorphic as posets to a hypercube. We introduce tree patterns and synchronous grammars to get a functional equation of the generating series enumerating balanced tree intervals.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:31 +010
- Chain enumeration of k-divisible noncrossing partitions of classical types
Abstract: We give combinatorial proofs of the formulas for the number of multichains in the $k-divisible$ noncrossing partitions of classical types with certain conditions on the rank and the block size due to Krattenthaler and Müller. We also prove Armstrong's conjecture on the zeta polynomial of the poset of k-divisible noncrossing partitions of type A invariant under the 180° rotation in the cyclic representation.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:30 +010
- Enumerating (2+2)-free posets by the number of minimal elements and other
statistics
Abstract: A poset is said to be (2+2)-free if it does not contain an induced subposet that is isomorphic to 2+2, the union of two disjoint 2-element chains. In a recent paper, Bousquet-Mélou et al. found, using so called ascent sequences, the generating function for the number of (2+2)-free posets: $P(t)=∑_n≥ 0 ∏_i=1^n ( 1-(1-t)^i)$. We extend this result by finding the generating function for (2+2)-free posets when four statistics are taken into account, one of which is the number of minimal elements in a poset. We also show that in a special case when only minimal elements are of interest, our rather involved generating function can be rewritten in the form $P(t,z)=∑_n,k ≥0 p_n,k t^n z^k = 1+ ∑_n ≥0\frac{zt}{(1-zt)^n+1}∏_i=1^n (1-(1-t)^i)$ where $p_n,k$ equals the number of (2+2)-free posets of size $n$ with $k$ minimal elements.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:28 +010
- A Closed Character Formula for Symmetric Powers of Irreducible
Representations
Abstract: We prove a closed character formula for the symmetric powers $S^N V(λ )$ of a fixed irreducible representation $V(λ )$ of a complex semi-simple Lie algebra $\mathfrak{g}$ by means of partial fraction decomposition. The formula involves rational functions in rank of $\mathfrak{g}$ many variables which are easier to determine than the weight multiplicities of $S^N V(λ )$ themselves. We compute those rational functions in some interesting cases. Furthermore, we introduce a residue-type generating function for the weight multiplicities of $S^N V(λ )$ and explain the connections between our character formula, vector partition functions and iterated partial fraction decomposition.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:27 +010
- Denominator formulas for Lie superalgebras (extended abstract)
Abstract: We provide formulas for the Weyl-Kac denominator and superdenominator of a basic classical Lie superalgebra for a distinguished set of positive roots. \par
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:26 +010
- Affine structures and a tableau model for $E_6$ crystals
Abstract: We provide the unique affine crystal structure for type $E_6^{(1)}$ Kirillov―Reshetikhin crystals corresponding to the multiples of fundamental weights $s\Lambda _1, s\Lambda _2$, and $s\Lambda _6$ for all $s≥ 1$ (in Bourbaki's labeling of the Dynkin nodes, where 2 is the adjoint node). Our methods introduce a generalized tableaux model for classical highest weight crystals of type $E$ and use the order three automorphism of the affine $E_6^{(1)}$ Dynkin diagram. In addition, we provide a conjecture for the affine crystal structure of type $E_7^{(1)}$ Kirillov―Reshetikhin crystals corresponding to the adjoint node.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:25 +010
- Enumeration of inscribed polyominos
Abstract: We introduce a new family of polyominos that are inscribed in a rectangle of given size for which we establish a number of exact formulas and generating functions. In particular, we study polyominos inscribed in a rectangle with minimum area and minimum area plus one. These results are then used for the enumeration of lattice trees inscribed in a rectangle with minimum area plus one.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:24 +010
- Word equations in a uniquely divisible group
Abstract: We study equations in groups $G$ with unique $m$-th roots for each positive integer $m$. A word equation in two letters is an expression of the form$ w(X,A) = B$, where $w$ is a finite word in the alphabet ${X,A}$. We think of $A,B ∈G$ as fixed coefficients, and $X ∈G$ as the unknown. Certain word equations, such as $XAXAX=B$, have solutions in terms of radicals: $X = A^-1/2(A^1/2BA^1/2)^1/3A^-1/2$, while others such as $X^2 A X = B$ do not. We obtain the first known infinite families of word equations not solvable by radicals, and conjecture a complete classification. To a word w we associate a polynomial $P_w ∈ℤ[x,y]$ in two commuting variables, which factors whenever $w$ is a composition of smaller words. We prove that if $P_w(x^2,y^2)$ has an absolutely irreducible factor in $ℤ[x,y]$, then the equation $w(X,A)=B$ is not solvable in terms of radicals.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:22 +010
- Constant term evaluation for summation of C-finite sequences
Abstract: Based on constant term evaluation, we present a new method to compute a closed form of the summation $∑_k=0^n-1 ∏_j=1^r F_j(a_jn+b_jk+c_j)$, where ${F_j(k)} are $C$-finite sequences and $a_j$ and $a_j+b_j$ are nonnegative integers. Our algorithm is much faster than that of Greene and Wilf.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:21 +010
- The Möbius function of separable permutations (extended abstract)
Abstract: A permutation is separable if it can be generated from the permutation 1 by successive sums and skew sums or, equivalently, if it avoids the patterns 2413 and 3142. Using the notion of separating tree, we give a computationally efficient formula for the Möbius function of an interval $(q,p)$ in the poset of separable permutations ordered by pattern containment. A consequence of the formula is that the Möbius function of such an interval $(q,p)$ is bounded by the number of occurrences of $q$ as a pattern in $p$. The formula also implies that for any separable permutation $p$ the Möbius function of $(1,p)$ is either 0, 1 or -1.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:20 +010
- Cover time of a random graph with given degree sequence
Abstract: In this paper we establish the cover time of a random graph $G(\textbf{d})$ chosen uniformly at random from the set of graphs with vertex set $[n]$ and degree sequence $\textbf{d}$. We show that under certain restrictions on $\textbf{d}$, the cover time of $G(\textbf{d})$ is with high probability asymptotic to $\frac{d-1}{ d-2} \frac{\theta}{ d}n \log n$. Here $\theta$ is the average degree and $d$ is the $\textit{effective minimum degree}$. The effective minimum degree is the first entry in the sorted degree sequence which occurs order $n$ times.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:19 +010
- Stochastic Flips on Dimer Tilings
Abstract: This paper introduces a Markov process inspired by the problem of quasicrystal growth. It acts over dimer tilings of the triangular grid by randomly performing local transformations, called $\textit{flips}$, which do not increase the number of identical adjacent tiles (this number can be thought as the tiling energy). Fixed-points of such a process play the role of quasicrystals. We are here interested in the worst-case expected number of flips to converge towards a fixed-point. Numerical experiments suggest a $\Theta (n^2)$ bound, where $n$ is the number of tiles of the tiling. We prove a $O(n^{2.5})$ upper bound and discuss the gap between this bound and the previous one. We also briefly discuss the average-case.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:18 +010
- Finding hidden cliques in linear time
Abstract: In the hidden clique problem, one needs to find the maximum clique in an $n$-vertex graph that has a clique of size $k$ but is otherwise random. An algorithm of Alon, Krivelevich and Sudakov that is based on spectral techniques is known to solve this problem (with high probability over the random choice of input graph) when $k \geq c \sqrt{n}$ for a sufficiently large constant $c$. In this manuscript we present a new algorithm for finding hidden cliques. It too provably works when $k> c \sqrt{n}$ for a sufficiently large constant $c$. However, our algorithm has the advantage of being much simpler (no use of spectral techniques), running faster (linear time), and experiments show that the leading constant $c$ is smaller than in the spectral approach. We also present linear time algorithms that experimentally find even smaller hidden cliques, though it remains open whether any of these algorithms finds hidden cliques of size $o(\sqrt{n})$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:17 +010
- Asymptotics for Walks in a Weyl chamber of Type $B$ (extended abstract)
Abstract: We consider lattice walks in $\mathbb{R}^k$ confined to the region $0 < x_1 < x_2 \ldots < x_k$ with fixed (but arbitrary) starting and end points. The walks are required to be "reflectable", that is, we assume that the number of paths can be counted using the reflection principle. The main result is an asymptotic formula for the total number of walks of length $n$ with fixed but arbitrary starting and end point for a general class of walks as the number $n$ of steps tends to infinity. As applications, we find the asymptotics for the number of $k$-non-crossing tangled diagrams on the set $\{1,2, \ldots,n\}$ as $n$ tends to infinity, and asymptotics for the number of $k$-vicious walkers subject to a wall restriction in the random turns model as well as in the lock step model. Asymptotics for all of these objects were either known only for certain special cases, or have only been partially determined.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:16 +010
- Distributional Convergence for the Number of Symbol Comparisons Used by
QuickSort (Extended Abstract)
Abstract: Most previous studies of the sorting algorithm $\mathtt{QuickSort}$ have used the number of key comparisons as a measure of the cost of executing the algorithm. Here we suppose that the $n$ independent and identically distributed (iid) keys are each represented as a sequence of symbols from a probabilistic source and that $\mathtt{QuickSort}$ operates on individual symbols, and we measure the execution cost as the number of symbol comparisons. Assuming only a mild "tameness'' condition on the source, we show that there is a limiting distribution for the number of symbol comparisons after normalization: first centering by the mean and then dividing by $n$. Additionally, under a condition that grows more restrictive as $p$ increases, we have convergence of moments of orders $p$ and smaller. In particular, we have convergence in distribution and convergence of moments of every order whenever the source is memoryless, i.e., whenever each key is generated as an infinite string of iid symbols. This is somewhat surprising: Even for the classical model that each key is an iid string of unbiased ("fair'') bits, the mean exhibits periodic fluctuations of order $n$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:15 +010
- Digital Trees and Memoryless Sources: from Arithmetics to Analysis
Abstract: Digital trees, also known as $\textit{"tries''}$, are fundamental to a number of algorithmic schemes, including radix-based searching and sorting, lossless text compression, dynamic hashing algorithms, communication protocols of the tree or stack type, distributed leader election, and so on. This extended abstract develops the asymptotic form of expectations of the main parameters of interest, such as tree size and path length. The analysis is conducted under the simplest of all probabilistic models; namely, the $\textit{memoryless source}$, under which letters that data items are comprised of are drawn independently from a fixed (finite) probability distribution. The precise asymptotic structure of the parameters' expectations is shown to depend on fine singular properties in the complex plane of a ubiquitous $\textit{Dirichlet series}$. Consequences include the characterization of a broad range of asymptotic regimes for error terms associated with trie parameters, as well as a classification that depends on specific $\textit{arithmetic properties}$, especially irrationality measures, of the sources under consideration.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:14 +010
- Asymptotics of Decomposable Combinatorial Structures of Alg-Log Type With
Positive Log Exponent
Abstract: We consider the multiset construction of decomposable structures with component generating function $C(z)$ of alg-log type, $\textit{i.e.}$, $C(z) = (1-z)^{-\alpha} (\log \frac{1}{ 1-z})^{\beta}$. We provide asymptotic results for the number of labeled objects of size $n$ in the case when $\alpha$ is positive and $\beta$ is positive and in the case $\alpha = 0$ and $\beta \geq 2$. The case $0
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:12 +010
- The distribution of the number of small cuts in a random planar
triangulation
Abstract: We enumerate rooted 3-connected (2-connected) planar triangulations with respect to the vertices and 3-cuts (2-cuts). Consequently, we show that the distribution of the number of 3-cuts in a random rooted 3-connected planar triangulation with $n+3$ vertices is asymptotically normal with mean $(10/27)n$ and variance $(320/729)n$, and the distribution of the number of 2-cuts in a random 2-connected planar triangulation with $n+2$ vertices is asymptotically normal with mean $(8/27)n$ and variance $(152/729)n$. We also show that the distribution of the number of 3-connected components in a random 2-connected triangulation with $n+2$ vertices is asymptotically normal with mean $n/3$ and variance $\frac{8}{ 27}n$ .
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:11 +010
- The variance for partial match retrievals in $k$-dimensional bucket
digital trees
Abstract: The variance of partial match queries in $k$-dimensional tries was investigated in a couple of papers in the mid-nineties, the resulting analysis being long and complicated. In this paper, we are going to re-derive these results with a much easier approach. Moreover, our approach works for $k$-dimensional PATRICIA tries, $k$-dimensional digital search trees and bucket versions as well.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:10 +010
- Induced acyclic subgraphs in random digraphs: Improved bounds
Abstract: Given a simple directed graph $D = (V,A)$, let the size of the largest induced directed acyclic graph $\textit{(dag)}$ be denoted by $mas(D)$. Let $D \in \mathcal{D}(n,p)$ be a $\textit{random}$ instance, obtained by choosing each of the $\binom{n}{2}$ possible undirected edges independently with probability $2p$ and then orienting each chosen edge independently in one of two possible directions with probabibility $1/2$. We obtain improved bounds on the range of concentration, upper and lower bounds of $mas(D)$. Our main result is that $mas(D) \geq \lfloor 2\log_q np - X \rfloor$ where $q = (1-p)^{-1}, X=W$ if $p \geq n^{-1/3+\epsilon}$ ($\epsilon> 0$ is any constant), $X=W/(\ln q)$ if $p \geq n^{-1/2}(\ln n)^2$, and $W$ is a suitably large constant. where we have an $O(\ln \ln np/\ln q)$ term instead of $W$. This improves the previously known lower bound with an $O(\ln \ln np/\ln q)$ term instead of $W$. We also obtain a slight improvement on the upper bound, using an upper bound on the number of acyclic orientations of an undirected graph. We also analyze a polynomial-time heuristic to find a large induced dag and show that it produces a solution whose size is at least $\log _q np + \Theta (\sqrt{\log_q np})$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:09 +010
- Combinatorial aspects of pyramids of one-dimensional pieces of fixed
integer length
Abstract: We consider pyramids made of one-dimensional pieces of fixed integer length $a$ and which may have pairwise overlaps of integer length from $1$ to $a$. We give a combinatorial proof that the number of pyramids of size $m$, i.e., consisting of $m$ pieces, equals $\binom{am-1}{m-1}$ for each $a \geq 2$. This generalises a well known result for $a=2$. A bijective correspondence between so-called right (or left) pyramids and $a$-ary trees is pointed out, and it is shown that asymptotically the average width of pyramids equals $\sqrt{\frac{\pi}{2} a(a-1)m}$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:08 +010
- Multi-dimensional Boltzmann Sampling of Languages
Abstract: We address the uniform random generation of words from a context-free language (over an alphabet of size $k$), while constraining every letter to a targeted frequency of occurrence. Our approach consists in a multidimensional extension of Boltzmann samplers. We show that, under mostly $\textit{strong-connectivity}$ hypotheses, our samplers return a word of size in $[(1- \epsilon)n, (1+ \epsilon)n]$ and exact frequency in $\mathcal{O}(n^{1+k/2})$ expected time. Moreover, if we accept tolerance intervals of width in $\Omega (\sqrt{n})$ for the number of occurrences of each letters, our samplers perform an approximate-size generation of words in expected $\mathcal{O}(n)$ time. We illustrate our approach on the generation of Tetris tessellations with uniform statistics in the different types of tetraminoes.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:07 +010
- Bounded discrete walks
Abstract: This article tackles the enumeration and asymptotics of directed lattice paths (that are isomorphic to unidimensional paths) of bounded height (walks below one wall, or between two walls, for $\textit{any}$ finite set of jumps). Thus, for any lattice paths, we give the generating functions of bridges ("discrete'' Brownian bridges) and reflected bridges ("discrete'' reflected Brownian bridges) of a given height. It is a new success of the "kernel method'' that the generating functions of such walks have some nice expressions as symmetric functions in terms of the roots of the kernel. These formulae also lead to fast algorithms for computing the $n$-th Taylor coefficients of the corresponding generating functions. For a large class of walks, we give the discrete distribution of the height of bridges, and show the convergence to a Rayleigh limit law. For the family of walks consisting of a $-1$ jump and many positive jumps, we give more precise bounds for the speed of convergence. We end our article with a heuristic application to bioinformatics that has a high speed-up relative to previous work.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:06 +010
- Stochastic Analysis of the $k$-Server Problem on the Circle
Abstract: We consider a stochastic version of the $k$-server problem in which $k$ servers move on a circle to satisfy stochastically generated requests. The requests are independent and identically distributed according to an arbitrary distribution on a circle, which is either discrete or continuous. The cost of serving a request is the distance that a server needs to move to reach the request. The goal is to minimize the steady-state expected cost induced by the requests. We study the performance of a greedy strategy, focusing, in particular, on its convergence properties and the interplay between the discrete and continuous versions of the process.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:05 +010
- On the diameter of random planar graphs
Abstract: We show that the diameter $D(G_n)$ of a random (unembedded) labelled connected planar graph with $n$ vertices is asymptotically almost surely of order $n^{1/4}$, in the sense that there exists a constant $c>0$ such that $P(D(G_n) \in (n^{1/4-\epsilon} ,n^{1/4+\epsilon})) \geq 1-\exp (-n^{c\epsilon})$ for $\epsilon$ small enough and $n$ large enough $(n \geq n_0(\epsilon))$. We prove similar statements for rooted $2$-connected and $3$-connected embedded (maps) and unembedded planar graphs.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:04 +010
- Occupancy distributions in Markov chains via Doeblin's ergodicity
coefficient
Abstract: We state and prove new properties about Doeblin's ergodicity coefficient for finite Markov chains. We show that this coefficient satisfies a sub-multiplicative type inequality (analogous to the Markov-Dobrushin's ergodicity coefficient), and provide a novel but elementary proof of Doeblin's characterization of weak-ergodicity for non-homogeneous chains. Using Doeblin's coefficient, we illustrate how to approximate a homogeneous but possibly non-stationary Markov chain of duration $n$ by independent and short-lived realizations of an auxiliary chain of duration of order $\ln (n)$. This leads to approximations of occupancy distributions in homogeneous chains, which may be particularly useful when exact calculations via one-step methods or transfer matrices are impractical, and when asymptotic approximations may not be yet reliable. Our findings may find applications to pattern problems in Markovian and non-Markovian sequences that are treatable via embedding techniques.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:03 +010
- The height of scaled attachment random recursive trees
Abstract: We study depth properties of a general class of random recursive trees where each node $n$ attaches to the random node $\lfloor nX_n \rfloor$ and $X_0, \ldots , X_n$ is a sequence of i.i.d. random variables taking values in $[0,1)$. We call such trees scaled attachment random recursive trees (SARRT). We prove that the height $H_n$ of a SARRT is asymptotically given by $H_n \sim \alpha_{\max} \log n$ where $\alpha_{\max}$ is a constant depending only on the distribution of $X_0$ whenever $X_0$ has a bounded density. This gives a new elementary proof for the height of uniform random recursive trees $H_n \sim e \log n$ that does not use branching random walks.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:02 +010
- The number of Euler tours of a random $d$-in/$d$-out graph
Abstract: In this paper we obtain the expectation and variance of the number of Euler tours of a random $d$-in/$d$-out directed graph, for $d \geq 2$. We use this to obtain the asymptotic distribution and prove a concentration result. We are then able to show that a very simple approach for uniform sampling or approximately counting Euler tours yields algorithms running in expected polynomial time for almost every $d$-in/$d$-out graph. We make use of the BEST theorem of de Bruijn, van Aardenne-Ehrenfest, Smith and Tutte, which shows that the number of Euler tours of a $d$-in/$d$-out graph is the product of the number of arborescences and the term $[(d-1)!]^n/n$. Therefore most of our effort is towards estimating the asymptotic distribution of the number of arborescences of a random $d$-in/$d$-out graph.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:01 +010
- A Note on Invariant Random Variables
Abstract: In this paper we present a simple theory, based on the notion of group action on a set, which explains why processes of throwing random sets of points and throwing random lines are similar up to the second moment of counting functions connected with them. We also discuss other applications of this method and show how to calculate higher moments using the group acting on a set.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:15:00 +010
- Analyzing a Weighted Digital Sum Variant
Abstract: Consider the following weighted digital sum (WDS) variant: write integer $n$ as $n=2^{i_1} + 2^{i_2} + \cdots + 2^{i_k}$ with $i_1> i_2> \cdots> i_k \geq 0$ and set $W_M(n) := \sum_{t=1}^k t^M 2^{i_t}$. This type of weighted digital sum arises (when $M=1$) in the analysis of bottom-up mergesort but is not "smooth'' enough to permit a clean analysis. We therefore analyze its average $TW_M(n) := \frac{1}{n}\sum_{j \gt n} W_M(j)$. We show that $TW_M(n)$ has a solution of the form $n G_M(\lg n) + d_M \lg ^M n + \sum\limits_{d=0}^{M-1}(\lg ^d n)G_{M,d}(\lg n)$, where $d_M$ is a constant and $G_M(u), G_{M,d}(u)$'s are periodic functions with period one (given by absolutely convergent Fourier series).
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:59 +010
- No Shannon effect on probability distributions on Boolean functions
induced by random expressions
Abstract: The Shannon effect states that "almost all'' Boolean functions have a complexity close to the maximal possible for the uniform probability distribution. In this paper we use some probability distributions on functions, induced by random expressions, and prove that this model does not exhibit the Shannon effect.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:58 +010
- Random sampling of lattice paths with constraints, via transportation
Abstract: We build and analyze in this paper Markov chains for the random sampling of some one-dimensional lattice paths with constraints, for various constraints. These chains are easy to implement, and sample an "almost" uniform path of length $n$ in $n^{3+\epsilon}$ steps. This bound makes use of a certain $\textit{contraction property}$ of the Markov chain, and is proved with an approach inspired by optimal transport.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:57 +010
- Square root singularities of infinite systems of functional equations
Abstract: Infinite systems of equations appear naturally in combinatorial counting problems. Formally, we consider functional equations of the form $\mathbf{y} (x)=F(x,\mathbf{y} (x))$, where $F(x,\mathbf{y} ):\mathbb{C} \times \ell^p \to \ell^p$ is a positive and nonlinear function, and analyze the behavior of the solution $\mathbf{y} (x)$ at the boundary of the domain of convergence. In contrast to the finite dimensional case different types of singularities are possible. We show that if the Jacobian operator of the function $F$ is compact, then the occurring singularities are of square root type, as it is in the finite dimensional setting. This leads to asymptotic expansions of the Taylor coefficients of $\mathbf{y} (x)$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:56 +010
- Partial Quicksort and Quickpartitionsort
Abstract: Partial Quicksort sorts the $l$ smallest elements in a list of length $n$. We provide a complete running time analysis for this combination of Find and Quicksort. Further we give some optimal adapted versions, called Partition Quicksort, with an asymptotic running time $c_1l\ln l+c_2l+n+o(n)$. The constant $c_1$ can be as small as the information theoretic lower bound $\log_2 e$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:54 +010
- An optimal cardinality estimation algorithm based on order statistics and
its full analysis
Abstract: Building on the ideas of Flajolet and Martin (1985), Alon et al. (1987), Bar-Yossef et al. (2002), Giroire (2005), we develop a new algorithm for cardinality estimation, based on order statistics which, according to Chassaing and Gerin (2006), is optimal among similar algorithms. This algorithm has a remarkably simple analysis that allows us to take its $\textit{fine-tuning}$ and the $\textit{characterization of its properties}$ further than has been done until now. We prove that, asymptotically, it is $\textit{strictly unbiased}$ (contrarily to Probabilistic Counting, Loglog, Hyperloglog), we verify that its relative precision is about $1/\sqrt{m-2}$ when $m$ words of storage are used, and we fully characterize the limit law of the estimates it provides, in terms of gamma distribution―-this is the first such algorithm for which the limit law has been established. We also develop a Poisson analysis for the pre-asymptotic regime. In this way, we are able to devise a complete algorithm, covering all cardinalities ranges from $0$ to very large.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:53 +010
- The total Steiner $k$-distance for $b$-ary recursive trees and linear
recursive trees
Abstract: We prove a limit theorem for the total Steiner $k$-distance of a random $b$-ary recursive tree with weighted edges. The total Steiner $k$-distance is the sum of all Steiner $k$-distances in a tree and it generalises the Wiener index. The limit theorem is obtained by using a limit theorem in the general setting of the contraction method. In order to use the contraction method we prove a recursion formula and determine the asymptotic expansion of the expectation using the so-called Master Theorem by Roura (2001). In a second step we prove a transformation of the total Steiner $k$-distance of $b$-ary trees with weighted edges to arbitrary recursive trees. This transformation yields the limit theorem for the total Steiner $k$-distance of the linear recursive trees when the parameter of these trees is a non-negative integer.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:51 +010
- Ordered increasing $k$-trees: Introduction and analysis of a preferential
attachment network model
Abstract: We introduce a random graph model based on $k$-trees, which can be generated by applying a probabilistic preferential attachment rule, but which also has a simple combinatorial description. We carry out a precise distributional analysis of important parameters for the network model such as the degree, the local clustering coefficient and the number of descendants of the nodes and root-to-node distances. We do not only obtain results for random nodes, but in particular we also get a precise description of the behaviour of parameters for the $j$-th inserted node in a random $k$-tree of size $n$, where $j=j(n)$ might grow with $n$. The approach presented is not restricted to this specific $k$-tree model, but can also be applied to other evolving $k$-tree models.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:50 +010
- Asymptotic Rational Approximation To Pi: Solution of an "Unsolved
Problem'' Posed By Herbert Wilf
Abstract: The webpage of Herbert Wilf describes eight Unsolved Problems. Here, we completely resolve the third of these eight problems. The task seems innocent: find the first term of the asymptotic behavior of the coefficients of an ordinary generating function, whose coefficients naturally yield rational approximations to $\pi$. Upon closer examination, however, the analysis is fraught with difficulties. For instance, the function is the composition of three functions, but the innermost function has a non-zero constant term, so many standard techniques for analyzing function compositions will completely fail. Additionally, the signs of the coefficients are neither all positive, nor alternating in a regular manner. The generating function involves both a square root and an arctangent. The complex-valued square root and arctangent functions each rely on complex logarithms, which are multivalued and fundamentally depend on branch cuts. These multiple values and branch cuts make the function extremely tedious to visualize using Maple. We provide a complete asymptotic analysis of the coefficients of Wilf's generating function. The asymptotic expansion is naturally additive (not multiplicative); each term of the expansion contains oscillations, which we precisely characterize. The proofs rely on complex analysis, in particular, singularity analysis (which, in turn, rely on a Hankel contour and transfer theorems).
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:49 +010
- On unary nodes in tries
Abstract: The difference between ordinary tries and Patricia tries lies in the fact that all unary nodes are removed in the latter. Their average number is thus easily determined from earlier results on the size of tries/Patricia tries. In a well-known contention resolution algorithm, whose probabilistic model is essentially equivalent to tries, unary nodes correspond to repetitions, i.e., steps in the algorithm that do not resolve anything at all. In this paper, we take an individual's view on such repetitions: we consider the distribution of the number of repetitions a certain contender encounters in the course of the algorithm―-which is equivalent to the number of unary nodes on the path from the root to a random string in a trie. We encounter an example of a sequence of distributions that does not actually converge to a limit distribution, but rather oscillates around a (discrete) limit distribution.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:48 +010
- Almost sure asymptotics for the random binary search tree
Abstract: We consider a (random permutation model) binary search tree with $n$ nodes and give asymptotics on the $\log$ $\log$ scale for the height $H_n$ and saturation level $h_n$ of the tree as $n \to \infty$, both almost surely and in probability. We then consider the number $F_n$ of particles at level $H_n$ at time $n$, and show that $F_n$ is unbounded almost surely.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:43 +010
- A symbolic method to compute the probability distribution of the number of
pattern occurences in random texts generated by stochastic 0L-systems
Abstract: The analysis of pattern occurrences has numerous applications, in particular in biology. In this article, a symbolic method is proposed to compute the distribution associated to the number of occurences of a specific pattern in a random text generated by a stochastic 0L-system. To that purpose, a semiring structure is set for combinatorial classes composed of weighted words. This algebraic structure relies on new union and concatenation operators which, under some assumptions, are admissible constructions. Decomposing the combinatorial classes of interest by using these binary operators enables the direct translation of specifications into a set of functional equations relating generating functions thanks to transformation rules. The article ends with two examples. The first one deals with unary patterns and the connection with multitype branching process is established. The second one is about a pattern composed of two letters and underlines the importance of writing a proper specification.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:42 +010
- The degree distribution in unlabelled $2$-connected graph families
Abstract: We study the random variable $X_n^k$, counting the number of vertices of degree $k$ in a randomly chosen $2$-connected graph of given families. We prove a central limit theorem for $X_n^k$ with expected value $\mathbb{E}X_n^k \sim \mu_kn$ and variance $\mathbb{V}X_n^k \sim \sigma_k^2n$, both asymptotically linear in $n$, for both rooted and unrooted unlabelled $2$-connected outerplanar or series-parallel graphs.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:41 +010
- Random Generation Using Binomial Approximations
Abstract: Generalizing an idea used by Alonso to generate uniformly at random Motzkin words, we outline an approach to build efficient random generators using binomial distributions and rejection algorithms. As an application of this method, we present random generators, both efficient and easy to implement, for partial injections and colored unary-binary trees.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:40 +010
- Phase transitions in Proof Theory
Abstract: Using standard methods of analytic combinatorics we elaborate critical points (thresholds) of phase transitions from provability to unprovability of arithmetical well-partial-ordering assertions in several familiar theories occurring in the reverse mathematics program.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:38 +010
- The Bernoulli sieve: an overview
Abstract: The Bernoulli sieve is a version of the classical balls-in-boxes occupancy scheme, in which random frequencies of infinitely many boxes are produced by a multiplicative random walk, also known as the residual allocation model or stick-breaking. We give an overview of the limit theorems concerning the number of boxes occupied by some balls out of the first $n$ balls thrown, and present some new results concerning the number of empty boxes within the occupancy range.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:37 +010
- The analysis of a prioritised probabilistic algorithm to find large
induced forests in regular graphs with large girth
Abstract: The analysis of probabilistic algorithms has proved to be very successful for finding asymptotic bounds on parameters of random regular graphs. In this paper, we show that similar ideas may be used to obtain deterministic bounds for one such parameter in the case of regular graphs with large girth. More precisely, we address the problem of finding a large induced forest in a graph $G$, by which we mean an acyclic induced subgraph of $G$ with a lot of vertices. For a fixed integer $r \geq 3$, we obtain new lower bounds on the size of a maximum induced forest in graphs with maximum degree $r$ and large girth. These bounds are derived from the solution of a system of differential equations that arises naturally in the analysis of an iterative probabilistic procedure to generate an induced forest in a graph. Numerical approximations suggest that these bounds improve substantially the best previous bounds. Moreover, they improve previous asymptotic lower bounds on the size of a maximum induced forest in a random regular graph.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:34 +010
- Counting Markov Types
Abstract: The method of types is one of the most popular techniques in information theory and combinatorics. Two sequences of equal length have the same type if they have identical empirical distributions. In this paper, we focus on Markov types, that is, sequences generated by a Markov source (of order one). We note that sequences having the same Markov type share the same so called $\textit{balanced frequency matrix}$ that counts the number of distinct pairs of symbols. We enumerate the number of Markov types for sequences of length $n$ over an alphabet of size $m$. This turns out to coincide with the number of the balanced frequency matrices as well as with the number of special $\textit{linear diophantine equations}$, and also balanced directed multigraphs. For fixed $m$ we prove that the number of Markov types is asymptotically equal to $d(m) \frac{n^{m^{2-m}}}{(m^2-m)!}$, where $d(m)$ is a constant for which we give an integral representation. For $m \to \infty$ we conclude that asymptotically the number of types is equivalent to $\frac{\sqrt{2}m^{3m/2} e^{m^2}}{m^{2m^2} 2^m \pi^{m/2}} n^{m^2-m}$ provided that $m=o(n^{1/4})$ (however, our techniques work for $m=o(\sqrt{n})$). These findings are derived by analytical techniques ranging from multidimensional generating functions to the saddle point method.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:33 +010
- Dynamic Threshold Strategy for Universal Best Choice Problem
Abstract: We propose a new strategy for universal best choice problem for partially ordered sets. We present its partial analysis which is sufficient to prove that the probability of success with this strategy is asymptotically strictly greater than 1/4, which is the value of the best universal strategy known so far.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:32 +010
- The maximum of Brownian motion with parabolic drift (Extended abstract)
Abstract: We study the maximum of a Brownian motion with a parabolic drift; this is a random variable that often occurs as a limit of the maximum of discrete processes whose expectations have a maximum at an interior point. This has some applications in algorithmic and data structures analysis. We give series expansions and integral formulas for the distribution and the first two moments, together with numerical values to high precision.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:30 +010
- Renewal theory in analysis of tries and strings: Extended abstract
Abstract: We give a survey of a number of simple applications of renewal theory to problems on random strings, in particular to tries and Khodak and Tunstall codes.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:29 +010
- Geometric Bucket Trees: Analysis of Linear Bucket Tree
Abstract: We analyse the average number of buckets in a Linear Bucket tree created by $n$ points uniformly dispatched on an interval of length $y$. A new bucket is created when a point does not fall in an existing bucket. The bucket is the interval of length 2 centered on the point. We illustrate this concept by an interesting tale of how the moon's surface took on its present form. Thanks to an explicit Laplace transform of the Poissonized sequence, and the use of dePoissonization tools, we obtain the explicit asymptotic expansions of the average number of buckets in most of the asymptotic regimes relative to $n$ and $y$.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:28 +010
- Faster Methods for Identifying Nontrivial Energy Conservation Functions
for Cellular Automata
Abstract: The biggest obstacle to the efficient discovery of conserved energy functions for cellular auotmata is the elimination of the trivial functions from the solution space. Once this is accomplished, the identification of nontrivial conserved functions can be accomplished computationally through appropriate linear algebra. As a means to this end, we introduce a general theory of trivial conserved functions. We consider the existence of nontrivial additive conserved energy functions ("nontrivials") for cellular automata in any number of dimensions, with any size of neighborhood, and with any number of cell states. We give the first known basis set for all trivial conserved functions in the general case, and use this to derive a number of optimizations for reducing time and memory for the discovery of nontrivials. We report that the Game of Life has no nontrivials with energy windows of size 13 or smaller. Other $2D$ automata, however, do have nontrivials. We give the complete list of those functions for binary outer-totalistic automata with energy windows of size 9 or smaller, and discuss patterns we have observed.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:27 +010
- Block-sequential update schedules and Boolean automata circuits
Abstract: Our work is set in the framework of complex dynamical systems and, more precisely, that of Boolean automata networks modeling regulation networks. We study how the choice of an update schedule impacts on the dynamics of such a network. To do this, we explain how studying the dynamics of any network updated with an arbitrary block-sequential update schedule can be reduced to the study of the dynamics of a different network updated in parallel. We give special attention to networks whose underlying structure is a circuit, that is, Boolean automata circuits. These particular and simple networks are known to serve as the "engines'' of the dynamics of arbitrary regulation networks containing them as sub-networks in that they are responsible for their variety of dynamical behaviours. We give both the number of attractors of period $p$, $\forall p\in \mathbb{N}$ and the total number of attractors in the dynamics of Boolean automata circuits updated with any block-sequential update schedule. We also detail the variety of dynamical behaviours that such networks may exhibit according to the update schedule.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:25 +010
- Probabilistic initial value problem for cellular automaton rule 172
Abstract: We present a method of solving of the probabilistic initial value problem for cellular automata (CA) using CA rule 172 as an example. For a disordered initial condition on an infinite lattice, we derive exact expressions for the density of ones at arbitrary time step. In order to do this, we analyze topological structure of preimage trees of finite strings of length 3. Level sets of these trees can be enumerated directly using classical combinatorial methods, yielding expressions for the number of $n$-step preimages of all strings of length 3, and, subsequently, probabilities of occurrence of these strings in a configuration obtained from the initial one after $n$ iterations of rule 172. The density of ones can be expressed in terms of Fibonacci numbers, while expressions for probabilities of other strings involve Lucas numbers. Applicability of this method to other CA rules is briefly discussed.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:23 +010
- 60/102 Null Boundary Cellular Automata based expander graphs
Abstract: Expander graphs are useful in the design and analysis of communication networks. Mukhopadhyay et al. introduced a method to generate a family of expander graphs based on nongroup two predecessor single attractor Cellular Automata(CA). In this paper we propose a method to generate a family of expander graphs based on 60/102 Null Boundary CA(NBCA) which is a group CA. The spectral gap generated by our method is maximal. Moreover, the spectral gap is larger than that of Mukhopadhyay et al.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:22 +010
- The fractal structure of cellular automata on abelian groups
Abstract: It is a well-known fact that the spacetime diagrams of some cellular automata have a fractal structure: for instance Pascal's triangle modulo $2$ generates a Sierpinski triangle. Explaining the fractal structure of the spacetime diagrams of cellular automata is a much explored topic, but virtually all of the results revolve around a special class of automata, whose main features include irreversibility, an alphabet with a ring structure and a rule respecting this structure, and a property known as being (weakly) $p$-Fermat. The class of automata that we study in this article fulfills none of these properties. Their cell structure is weaker and they are far from being $p$-Fermat, even weakly. However, they do produce fractal spacetime diagrams, and we will explain why and how. These automata emerge naturally from the field of quantum cellular automata, as they include the classical equivalent of the Clifford quantum cellular automata, which have been studied by the quantum community for several reasons. They are a basic building block of a universal model of quantum computation, and they can be used to generate highly entangled states, which are a primary resource for measurement-based models of quantum computing.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:20 +010
- The Size of One-Way Cellular Automata
Abstract: We investigate the descriptional complexity of basic operations on real-time one-way cellular automata with an unbounded as well well as a fixed number of cells. The size of the automata is measured by their number of states. Most of the bounds shown are tight in the order of magnitude, that is, the sizes resulting from the effective constructions given are optimal with respect to worst case complexity. Conversely, these bounds also show the maximal savings of size that can be achieved when a given minimal real-time OCA is decomposed into smaller ones with respect to a given operation. From this point of view the natural problem of whether a decomposition can algorithmically be solved is studied. It turns out that all decomposition problems considered are algorithmically unsolvable. Therefore, a very restricted cellular model is studied in the second part of the paper, namely, real-time one-way cellular automata with a fixed number of cells. These devices are known to capture the regular languages and, thus, all the problems being undecidable for general one-way cellular automata become decidable. It is shown that these decision problems are $\textsf{NLOGSPACE}$-complete and thus share the attractive computational complexity of deterministic finite automata. Furthermore, the state complexity of basic operations for these devices is studied and upper and lower bounds are given.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:19 +010
- Minimal Recurrent Configurations of Chip Firing Games and Directed Acyclic
Graphs
Abstract: We discuss a very close relation between minimal recurrent configurations of Chip Firing Games and Directed Acyclic Graphs and demonstrate the usefulness of this relation by giving a lower bound for the number of minimal recurrent configurations of the Abelian Sandpile Model as well as a lower bound for the number of firings which are caused by the addition of two recurrent configurations on particular graphs.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:17 +010
- On the complexity of enumerating possible dynamics of sparsely connected
Boolean network automata with simple update rules
Abstract: We study how hard is to determine some fundamental properties of dynamics of certain types of network automata. We address the computational complexity of determining how many different possible dynamic evolutions can arise from some structurally very simple, deterministic and sparsely connected network automata. In this as well as our prior, related work, we try to push the limits on the underlying simplicity of two structural aspects of such network automata: (i) the uniform sparseness of their topologies, and (ii) severely restricted local behaviors of the individual agents (that is, the local update rules of the network nodes). In this endeavor, we prove that counting the Fixed Point (FP) configurations and the predecessor and ancestor configurations in two classes of network automata, called Sequential and Synchronous Dynamical Systems (SDSs and SyDSs, respectively), are computationally intractable problems. Moreover, this intractability is shown to hold when each node in such a network is required to update according to (i) a monotone Boolean function, (ii) a symmetric Boolean function, or even (iii) a simple threshold function that is both monotone and symmetric. Furthermore, the hardness of the exact enumeration of FPs and other types of configurations of interest remains to hold even in some severely restricted cases with respect to both the network topology and the diversity (or lack thereof) of individual node's local update rules. Namely, we show that the counting problems of interest remain hard even when the nodes of an SDS or SyDS use at most two different update rules from a given restricted class, and, additionally, when the network topologies are constrained so that each node has only $c = O(1)$ neighbors for small values of constant $c$. Our results also have considerable implications for other discrete dynamical system models studied in applied mathematics, physics, biology and computer science, such as Hopfield networks and spin glasses. In particular, one corollary of our results is that determining the memory capacity of sparse discrete Hopfield networks (viewed as associative memories) remains computationally intractable even when the interconnection and dependence structure among the nodes of a Hopfield network is severely restricted.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:14:17 +010