Authors:Fabio Pioldi; Egidio Rizzi Pages: 539 - 553 Abstract: The present paper takes from the original output-only identification approach named Full Dynamic Compound Inverse Method (FDCIM), recently published on this journal by the authors, and proposes an innovative, much enhanced version, in the description of more general forms of structural damping, including for classically adopted Rayleigh damping. This has led to an extended FDCIM formulation, which offers superior performance, on all the targeted identification parameters, namely: modal properties, Rayleigh damping coefficients, structural features at the element-level and input seismic excitation time history. Synthetic earthquake-induced structural response signals are adopted as input channels for the FDCIM approach, towards comparison and validation. The identification algorithm is run first on a benchmark 3-storey shear-type frame, and then on a realistic 10-storey frame, also by considering noise added to the response signals. Consistency of the identification results is demonstrated, with definite superiority of this latter FDCIM proposal. PubDate: 2017-04-01 DOI: 10.1007/s00466-016-1347-2 Issue No:Vol. 59, No. 4 (2017)

Authors:Iván David Patiño; Henry Power; César Nieto-Londoño; Whady Felipe Flórez Pages: 555 - 577 Abstract: A numerical study of voids formation in dual-scale fibrous reinforcements is presented. Flow fields in channels (Stokes) and tows (Brinkman) are solved via direct Boundary Element Method and Dual Reciprocity Boundary Element Method, respectively. The present approach uses only boundary discretization and Dual Reciprocity domain interpolation, which is advantageous in this type of moving boundary problems and leads to an accurate representation of the moving interfaces. A problem admitting analytical solution, previously solved by domain-meshing techniques, is used to assess the accuracy of the present approach, obtaining satisfactory results. Fillings of Representative Unitary Cells at constant pressure are considered to analyze the influence of capillary ratio, jump stress coefficient and two formulations (Stokes–Brinkman and Stokes–Darcy) on the filling process, void formation and void characterization. Filling times, fluid front shapes, void size and shape, time and space evolution of the saturation, are influenced by these parameters, but voids location is not. PubDate: 2017-04-01 DOI: 10.1007/s00466-016-1360-5 Issue No:Vol. 59, No. 4 (2017)

Authors:O. Lloberas-Valls; M. Cafiero; J. Cante; A. Ferrer; J. Oliver Pages: 579 - 610 Abstract: The Domain Interface Method (DIM) is extended in this contribution for the case of mixed fields as encountered in multiphysics problems. The essence of the non-conforming domain decomposition technique consists in a discretization of a fictitious zero-thickness interface as in the original methodology and continuity of the solution fields across the domains is satisfied by incorporating the corresponding Lagrange Multipliers. The multifield DIM inherits the advantages of its irreducible version in the sense that the connections between non-matching meshes, with possible geometrically non-conforming interfaces, is accounted by the automatic Delaunay interface discretization without considering master and slave surfaces or intermediate surface projections as done in many established techniques, e.g. mortar methods. The multifield enhancement identifies the Lagrange multiplier field and incorporates its contribution in the weak variational form accounting for the corresponding consistent stabilization term based on a Nitsche method. This type of constraint enforcement circumvents the appearance of instabilities when the Ladyzhenskaya–Babuška–Brezzi (LBB) condition is not fulfilled by the chosen discretization. The domain decomposition framework is assessed in a large deformation setting for mixed displacement/pressure formulations and coupled thermomechanical problems. The continuity of the mixed field is studied in well selected benchmark problems for both mixed formulations and the objectivity of the response is compared to reference monolithic solutions. Results suggest that the presented strategy shows sufficient potential to be a valuable tool in situations where the evolving physics at particular domains require the use of different spatial discretizations or field interpolations. PubDate: 2017-04-01 DOI: 10.1007/s00466-016-1361-4 Issue No:Vol. 59, No. 4 (2017)

Authors:Qiao Wang; Wei Zhou; Yonggang Cheng; Gang Ma; Xiaolin Chang Pages: 611 - 624 Abstract: A line integration method (LIM) is proposed to calculate the domain integrals for 3D problems. In the proposed method, the domain integrals are transformed into boundary integrals and only line integrals on straight lines are needed to be computed. A background cell structure is applied to further simplify the line integrals and improve the accuracy. The method creates elements only on the boundary, and the integral lines are created from the boundary elements. The procedure is quite suitable for the boundary element method, and we have applied it to 3D situations. Directly applying the method is time-consuming since the complexity of the computational time is O(NM), where N and M are the numbers of nodes and lines, respectively. To overcome this problem, the fast multipole method is used with the LIM for large-scale computation. The numerical results show that the proposed method is efficient and accurate. PubDate: 2017-04-01 DOI: 10.1007/s00466-016-1363-2 Issue No:Vol. 59, No. 4 (2017)

Authors:Takeki Yamamoto; Takahiro Yamada; Kazumi Matsui Pages: 625 - 646 Abstract: This paper presents a quadrilateral shell element incorporating thickness–stretch, and demonstrates its performance in small and large deformation analyses for hyperelastic material and elastoplastic models. In terms of geometry, the proposed shell element is based on the formulation of the MITC4 shell element, with additional degrees of freedom to represent thickness–stretch. To consider the change in thickness, we introduce a displacement variation to the MITC4 shell element, in the thickness direction. After the thickness direction is expressed in terms of the director vectors that are defined at each midsurface node, additional nodes are placed along the thickness direction from the bottom surface to the top surface. The thickness–stretch is described by the movement of these additional nodes. The additional degrees of freedom are used to compute the transverse normal strain without assuming the plane stress condition. Hence, the three dimensional constitutive equation can be employed in the proposed formulation without any modification. By virtue of not imposing the plane stress condition, the surface traction is evaluated at the surface where the traction is applied, whereas it is assessed at the midsurface for conventional shell elements. Several numerical examples are presented to examine the fundamental performance of the proposed shell element. In particular, the proposed approach is capable of evaluating the change in thickness and the stress distribution when the effect of the surface traction is included. The behavior of the proposed shell element is compared with that of solid elements. PubDate: 2017-04-01 DOI: 10.1007/s00466-016-1364-1 Issue No:Vol. 59, No. 4 (2017)

Authors:Weisheng Zhang; Dong Li; Jie Yuan; Junfu Song; Xu Guo Pages: 647 - 665 Abstract: In the present paper, a new method for solving three-dimensional topology optimization problem is proposed. This method is constructed under the so-called moving morphable components based solution framework. The novel aspect of the proposed method is that a set of structural components is introduced to describe the topology of a three-dimensional structure and the optimal structural topology is found by optimizing the layout of the components explicitly. The standard finite element method with ersatz material is adopted for structural response analysis and the shape sensitivity analysis only need to be carried out along the structural boundary. Compared to the existing methods, the description of structural topology is totally independent of the finite element/finite difference resolution in the proposed solution framework and therefore the number of design variables can be reduced substantially. Some widely investigated benchmark examples, in the three-dimensional topology optimization designs, are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PubDate: 2017-04-01 DOI: 10.1007/s00466-016-1365-0 Issue No:Vol. 59, No. 4 (2017)

Authors:Soheil Soghrati; Fei Xiao; Anand Nagarajan Pages: 667 - 684 Abstract: A Conforming to Interface Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement (CISAMR) technique is introduced for the automated transformation of a structured grid into a conforming mesh with appropriate element aspect ratios. The CISAMR algorithm is composed of three main phases: (i) Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement (SAMR) of the background grid; (ii) r-adaptivity of the nodes of elements cut by the crack; (iii) sub-triangulation of the elements deformed during the r-adaptivity process and those with hanging nodes generated during the SAMR process. The required considerations for the treatment of crack tips and branching cracks are also discussed in this manuscript. Regardless of the complexity of the problem geometry and without using iterative smoothing or optimization techniques, CISAMR ensures that aspect ratios of conforming elements are lower than three. Multiple numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the application of CISAMR for modeling linear elastic fracture problems with intricate morphologies. PubDate: 2017-04-01 DOI: 10.1007/s00466-016-1366-z Issue No:Vol. 59, No. 4 (2017)

Authors:Guo Huang; Haiming Huang; Jin Guo Pages: 685 - 692 Abstract: In the computation of fluid mechanics problems with moving boundaries, including fluid-structure interaction, fluid mesh deformation is a common problem to be solved. An automatic mesh deformation technique for large deformations of the fluid mesh is presented on the basis of a pseudo-solid method in which the fluid mesh motion is governed by the equations of elasticity. A two-dimensional mathematical model of a linear elastic body is built by using the finite element method. The numerical result shows that the proposed method has a better performance in moving the fluid mesh without producing distorted elements than that of the classic one-step methods. PubDate: 2017-04-01 DOI: 10.1007/s00466-016-1367-y Issue No:Vol. 59, No. 4 (2017)

Authors:Yujie Guo; Martin Ruess; Dominik Schillinger Pages: 693 - 715 Abstract: The non-symmetric variant of Nitsche’s method was recently applied successfully for variationally enforcing boundary and interface conditions in non-boundary-fitted discretizations. In contrast to its symmetric variant, it does not require stabilization terms and therefore does not depend on the appropriate estimation of stabilization parameters. In this paper, we further consolidate the non-symmetric Nitsche approach by establishing its application in isogeometric thin shell analysis, where variational coupling techniques are of particular interest for enforcing interface conditions along trimming curves. To this end, we extend its variational formulation within Kirchhoff–Love shell theory, combine it with the finite cell method, and apply the resulting framework to a range of representative shell problems based on trimmed NURBS surfaces. We demonstrate that the non-symmetric variant applied in this context is stable and can lead to the same accuracy in terms of displacements and stresses as its symmetric counterpart. Based on our numerical evidence, the non-symmetric Nitsche method is a viable parameter-free alternative to the symmetric variant in elastostatic shell analysis. PubDate: 2017-04-01 DOI: 10.1007/s00466-016-1368-x Issue No:Vol. 59, No. 4 (2017)

Authors:Ali Esmaeili; Paul Steinmann; Ali Javili Pages: 361 - 383 Abstract: Within the continuum mechanics framework, there are two main approaches to model interfaces: classical cohesive zone modeling (CZM) and interface elasticity theory. The classical CZM deals with geometrically non-coherent interfaces for which the constitutive relation is expressed in terms of traction–separation laws. However, CZM lacks any response related to the stretch of the mid-plane of the interface. This issue becomes problematic particularly at small scales with increasing interface area to bulk volume ratios, where interface elasticity is no longer negligible. The interface elasticity theory, in contrast to CZM, deals with coherent interfaces that are endowed with their own energetic structures, and thus is capable of capturing elastic resistance to tangential stretch. Nonetheless, the interface elasticity theory suffers from the lack of inelastic material response, regardless of the strain level. The objective of this contribution therefore is to introduce a generalized mechanical interface model that couples both the elastic response along the interface and the cohesive response across the interface whereby interface degradation is taken into account. The material degradation of the interface mid-plane is captured by a non-local damage model of integral-type. The out-of-plane decohesion is described by a classical cohesive zone model. These models are then coupled through their corresponding damage variables. The non-linear governing equations and the weak forms thereof are derived. The numerical implementation is carried out using the finite element method and consistent tangents are derived. Finally, a series of numerical examples is studied to provide further insight into the problem and to carefully elucidate key features of the proposed theory. PubDate: 2017-03-01 DOI: 10.1007/s00466-016-1342-7 Issue No:Vol. 59, No. 3 (2017)

Authors:W. B. Wen; S. Y. Duan; J. Yan; Y. B. Ma; K. Wei; D. N. Fang Pages: 403 - 418 Abstract: An explicit time integration scheme based on quartic B-splines is presented for solving linear structural dynamics problems. The scheme is of a one-parameter family of schemes where free algorithmic parameter controls stability, accuracy and numerical dispersion. The proposed scheme possesses at least second-order accuracy and at most third-order accuracy. A 2D wave problem is analyzed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in reducing high-frequency modes and retaining low-frequency modes. Except for general structural dynamics, the proposed scheme can be used effectively for wave propagation problems in which numerical dissipation is needed to reduce spurious oscillations. PubDate: 2017-03-01 DOI: 10.1007/s00466-016-1352-5 Issue No:Vol. 59, No. 3 (2017)

Authors:Ante Buljac; Modesar Shakoor; Jan Neggers; Marc Bernacki; Pierre-Olivier Bouchard; Lukas Helfen; Thilo F. Morgeneyer; François Hild Pages: 419 - 441 Abstract: A combined computational–experimental framework is introduced herein to validate numerical simulations at the microscopic scale. It is exemplified for a flat specimen with central hole made of cast iron and imaged via in-situ synchrotron laminography at micrometer resolution during a tensile test. The region of interest in the reconstructed volume, which is close to the central hole, is analyzed by digital volume correlation (DVC) to measure kinematic fields. Finite element (FE) simulations, which account for the studied material microstructure, are driven by Dirichlet boundary conditions extracted from DVC measurements. Gray level residuals for DVC measurements and FE simulations are assessed for validation purposes. PubDate: 2017-03-01 DOI: 10.1007/s00466-016-1357-0 Issue No:Vol. 59, No. 3 (2017)

Authors:R. de Rooij; K. E. Miller; E. Kuhl Pages: 523 - 537 Abstract: Axons are living systems that display highly dynamic changes in stiffness, viscosity, and internal stress. However, the mechanistic origin of these phenomenological properties remains elusive. Here we establish a computational mechanics model that interprets cellular-level characteristics as emergent properties from molecular-level events. We create an axon model of discrete microtubules, which are connected to neighboring microtubules via discrete crosslinking mechanisms that obey a set of simple rules. We explore two types of mechanisms: passive and active crosslinking. Our passive and active simulations suggest that the stiffness and viscosity of the axon increase linearly with the crosslink density, and that both are highly sensitive to the crosslink detachment and reattachment times. Our model explains how active crosslinking with dynein motors generates internal stresses and actively drives axon elongation. We anticipate that our model will allow us to probe a wide variety of molecular phenomena—both in isolation and in interaction—to explore emergent cellular-level features under physiological and pathological conditions. PubDate: 2017-03-01 DOI: 10.1007/s00466-016-1359-y Issue No:Vol. 59, No. 3 (2017)

Authors:Tong Shen; Franck Vernerey Abstract: When immersed in solution, surface-active particles interact with solute molecules and migrate along gradients of solute concentration. Depending on the conditions, this phenomenon could arise from either diffusiophoresis or the Marangoni effect, both of which involve strong interactions between the fluid and the particle surface. We introduce here a numerical approach that can accurately capture these interactions, and thus provide an efficient tool to understand and characterize the phoresis of soft particles. The model is based on a combination of the extended finite element—that enable the consideration of various discontinuities across the particle surface—and the particle-based moving interface method—that is used to measure and update the interface deformation in time. In addition to validating the approach with analytical solutions, the model is used to study the motion of deformable vesicles in solutions with spatial variations in both solute concentration and temperature. PubDate: 2017-03-20 DOI: 10.1007/s00466-017-1399-y

Authors:Reza Yaghmaie; Somnath Ghosh Abstract: This paper develops an accurate and efficient finite element model for simulating coupled transient electromagnetic and dynamic mechanical fields that differ widely in the frequency ranges. This coupled modeling framework is necessary for effective modeling and simulation of structures such as antennae that are governed by multi-physics problems operating in different frequency and temporal regimes. A key development is the wavelet transformation induced multi-time scaling or WATMUS method that is designed to overcome shortcomings of modeling coupled multi-physics problems that are governed by disparate frequencies. The WATMUS-based FE model is enhanced in this paper with a scaled and preconditioned Newton-GMRES solver for efficient solution. Results from the WATMUS-based FE model show the accuracy and highly improved computational efficiency in comparison with single time-scale methods. The coupled FE model is used to solve two different antenna problems with large electromagnetic to mechanical frequency ratios. The examples considered are a monopole antenna and a microstrip patch antenna. Comparing the electromagnetic fields with the progression of mechanical cycles demonstrate complex multi-physics relations in these applications. PubDate: 2017-03-17 DOI: 10.1007/s00466-017-1396-1

Authors:Y. Bazilevs; K. Kamran; G. Moutsanidis; D. J. Benson; E. Oñate Abstract: In this two-part paper we begin the development of a new class of methods for modeling fluid–structure interaction (FSI) phenomena for air blast. We aim to develop accurate, robust, and practical computational methodology, which is capable of modeling the dynamics of air blast coupled with the structure response, where the latter involves large, inelastic deformations and disintegration into fragments. An immersed approach is adopted, which leads to an a-priori monolithic FSI formulation with intrinsic contact detection between solid objects, and without formal restrictions on the solid motions. In Part I of this paper, the core air-blast FSI methodology suitable for a variety of discretizations is presented and tested using standard finite elements. Part II of this paper focuses on a particular instantiation of the proposed framework, which couples isogeometric analysis (IGA) based on non-uniform rational B-splines and a reproducing-kernel particle method (RKPM), which is a Meshfree technique. The combination of IGA and RKPM is felt to be particularly attractive for the problem class of interest due to the higher-order accuracy and smoothness of both discretizations, and relative simplicity of RKPM in handling fragmentation scenarios. A collection of mostly 2D numerical examples is presented in each of the parts to illustrate the good performance of the proposed air-blast FSI framework. PubDate: 2017-03-15 DOI: 10.1007/s00466-017-1394-3

Authors:Y. Bazilevs; G. Moutsanidis; J. Bueno; K. Kamran; D. Kamensky; M. C. Hillman; H. Gomez; J. S. Chen Abstract: In this two-part paper we begin the development of a new class of methods for modeling fluid–structure interaction (FSI) phenomena for air blast. We aim to develop accurate, robust, and practical computational methodology, which is capable of modeling the dynamics of air blast coupled with the structure response, where the latter involves large, inelastic deformations and disintegration into fragments. An immersed approach is adopted, which leads to an a-priori monolithic FSI formulation with intrinsic contact detection between solid objects, and without formal restrictions on the solid motions. In Part I of this paper, the core air-blast FSI methodology suitable for a variety of discretizations is presented and tested using standard finite elements. Part II of this paper focuses on a particular instantiation of the proposed framework, which couples isogeometric analysis (IGA) based on non-uniform rational B-splines and a reproducing-kernel particle method (RKPM), which is a meshfree technique. The combination of IGA and RKPM is felt to be particularly attractive for the problem class of interest due to the higher-order accuracy and smoothness of both discretizations, and relative simplicity of RKPM in handling fragmentation scenarios. A collection of mostly 2D numerical examples is presented in each of the parts to illustrate the good performance of the proposed air-blast FSI framework. PubDate: 2017-03-14 DOI: 10.1007/s00466-017-1395-2

Authors:Fatima-Ezzahra Fekak; Michael Brun; Anthony Gravouil; Bruno Depale Abstract: In computational structural dynamics, particularly in the presence of nonsmooth behavior, the choice of the time-step and the time integrator has a critical impact on the feasibility of the simulation. Furthermore, in some cases, as in the case of a bridge crane under seismic loading, multiple time-scales coexist in the same problem. In that case, the use of multi-time scale methods is suitable. Here, we propose a new explicit–implicit heterogeneous asynchronous time integrator (HATI) for nonsmooth transient dynamics with frictionless unilateral contacts and impacts. Furthermore, we present a new explicit time integrator for contact/impact problems where the contact constraints are enforced using a Lagrange multiplier method. In other words, the aim of this paper consists in using an explicit time integrator with a fine time scale in the contact area for reproducing high frequency phenomena, while an implicit time integrator is adopted in the other parts in order to reproduce much low frequency phenomena and to optimize the CPU time. In a first step, the explicit time integrator is tested on a one-dimensional example and compared to Moreau-Jean’s event-capturing schemes. The explicit algorithm is found to be very accurate and the scheme has generally a higher order of convergence than Moreau-Jean’s schemes and provides also an excellent energy behavior. Then, the two time scales explicit–implicit HATI is applied to the numerical example of a bridge crane under seismic loading. The results are validated in comparison to a fine scale full explicit computation. The energy dissipated in the implicit–explicit interface is well controlled and the computational time is lower than a full-explicit simulation. PubDate: 2017-03-11 DOI: 10.1007/s00466-017-1397-0

Authors:Valentine Rey; Guillaume Anciaux; Jean-François Molinari Abstract: We introduce a numerical methodology to compute the solution of an adhesive normal contact problem on rough surfaces with the Boundary Element Method. Based on the Fast Fourier Transform and the Westergaard’s fundamental solution, the proposed algorithm enables to solve efficiently the constrained minimization problem: the numerical solution strictly verifies contact orthogonality and the algorithm takes advantage of the constraints to speed up the minimization. Comparisons with the analytical solution of the Hertz case prove the quality of the numerical computation. The method is also used to compute normal adhesive contact between rough surfaces made of multiple asperities. PubDate: 2017-03-09 DOI: 10.1007/s00466-017-1392-5