Abstract: After menopause, decreased levels of estrogen and progesterone remodel the collagen of the soft tissues thereby reducing their stiffness. Stress urinary incontinence is associated with involuntary urine leakage due to pathological movement of the pelvic organs resulting from lax suspension system, fasciae, and ligaments. This study compares the changes in the orientation and position of the female pelvic organs due to weakened fasciae, ligaments, and their combined laxity. A mixture theory weighted by respective volume fraction of elastin-collagen fibre compound (5%), adipose tissue (85%), and smooth muscle (5%) is adopted to characterize the mechanical behaviour of the fascia. The load carrying response (other than the functional response to the pelvic organs) of each fascia component, pelvic organs, muscles, and ligaments are assumed to be isotropic, hyperelastic, and incompressible. Finite element simulations are conducted during Valsalva manoeuvre with weakened tissues modelled by reduced tissue stiffness. A significant dislocation of the urethrovesical junction is observed due to weakness of the fascia (13.89 mm) compared to the ligaments (5.47 mm). The dynamics of the pelvic floor observed in this study during Valsalva manoeuvre is associated with urethral-bladder hypermobility, greater levator plate angulation, and positive Q-tip test which are observed in incontinent females. PubDate: Mon, 15 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000

Abstract: In early phase clinical trials of cytotoxic drugs in oncology, the efficacy is typically evaluated based on the tumor shrinkage. However, this criterion is not always appropriate for more recent cytostatic agents, and alternative endpoints have been proposed. The growth modulation index (GMI), defined as the ratio between the times to progression in two successive treatment lines, has been proposed for a single-arm phase II trials. The treatment effect is evaluated by estimating the rate of patients having a GMI superior to a given threshold. To estimate this rate, we investigated a parametric method based on the distribution of the times to progression and a nonparametric one based on a midrank estimator. Through simulations, we studied their operating characteristics and the impact of different design parameters (censoring, dependence, and distribution) on them. In these simulations, the nonparametric estimator slightly underestimated the rate and had slightly overconservative confidence intervals in some cases. Conversely, the parametric estimator overestimated the rate and had anticonservative confidence intervals in some cases. The nonparametric method appeared to be more robust to censoring than the parametric one. In conclusion, we recommend the nonparametric method, but the parametric method can be used as a supplementary tool. PubDate: Thu, 11 Jan 2018 08:04:04 +000

Abstract: The accurate segmentation of pulmonary nodules is an important preprocessing step in computer-aided diagnoses of lung cancers. However, the existing segmentation methods may cause the problem of edge leakage and cannot segment juxta-vascular pulmonary nodules accurately. To address this problem, a novel automatic segmentation method based on an LBF active contour model with information entropy and joint vector is proposed in this paper. Our method extracts the interest area of pulmonary nodules by a standard uptake value (SUV) in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images, and automatic threshold iteration is used to construct an initial contour roughly. The SUV information entropy and the gray-value joint vector of Positron Emission Tomography–Computed Tomography (PET-CT) images are calculated to drive the evolution of contour curve. At the edge of pulmonary nodules, evolution will be stopped and accurate results of pulmonary nodule segmentation can be obtained. Experimental results show that our method can achieve 92.35% average dice similarity coefficient, 2.19 mm Hausdorff distance, and 3.33% false positive with the manual segmentation results. Compared with the existing methods, our proposed method that segments juxta-vascular pulmonary nodules in PET-CT images is more accurate and efficient. PubDate: Mon, 08 Jan 2018 08:34:19 +000

Abstract: Human heart electrophysiology is complex biological phenomenon, which is indirectly assessed by the measured ECG signal. ECG trace is further analyzed to derive interpretable surrogates including QT interval, QRS complex, PR interval, and T wave morphology. QT interval and its modification are the most commonly used surrogates of the drug triggered arrhythmia, but it is known that the QT interval itself is determined by other nondrug related parameters, physiological and pathological. In the current study, we used the computational intelligence algorithms to analyze correlations between various simulated physiological parameters and QT interval. Terfenadine given concomitantly with 8 enzymatic inhibitors was used as an example. The equation developed with the use of genetic programming technique leads to general reasoning about the changes in the prolonged QT. For small changes of the QT interval, the drug-related IKr and ICa currents inhibition potentials have major impact. The physiological parameters such as body surface area, potassium, sodium, and calcium ions concentrations are negligible. The influence of the physiological variables increases gradually with the more pronounced changes in QT. As the significant QT prolongation is associated with the drugs triggered arrhythmia risk, analysis of the role of physiological parameters influencing ECG seems to be advisable. PubDate: Thu, 04 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000

Abstract: Histopathological image classification is one of the most important steps for disease diagnosis. We proposed a method for multiclass histopathological image classification based on deep convolutional neural network referred to as coding network. It can gain better representation for the histopathological image than only using coding network. The main process is that training a deep convolutional neural network is to extract high-level feature and fuse two convolutional layers’ high-level feature as multiscale high-level feature. In order to gain better performance and high efficiency, we would employ sparse autoencoder (SAE) and principal components analysis (PCA) to reduce the dimensionality of multiscale high-level feature. We evaluate the proposed method on a real histopathological image dataset. Our results suggest that the proposed method is effective and outperforms the coding network. PubDate: Sun, 31 Dec 2017 09:30:10 +000

Abstract: Breast cancer is one of the largest causes of women’s death in the world today. Advance engineering of natural image classification techniques and Artificial Intelligence methods has largely been used for the breast-image classification task. The involvement of digital image classification allows the doctor and the physicians a second opinion, and it saves the doctors’ and physicians’ time. Despite the various publications on breast image classification, very few review papers are available which provide a detailed description of breast cancer image classification techniques, feature extraction and selection procedures, classification measuring parameterizations, and image classification findings. We have put a special emphasis on the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) method for breast image classification. Along with the CNN method we have also described the involvement of the conventional Neural Network (NN), Logic Based classifiers such as the Random Forest (RF) algorithm, Support Vector Machines (SVM), Bayesian methods, and a few of the semisupervised and unsupervised methods which have been used for breast image classification. PubDate: Sun, 31 Dec 2017 08:47:12 +000

Abstract: Purpose. To develop generic optimization strategies for image reconstruction using graphical processing units (GPUs) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to exemplarily report on our experience with a highly accelerated implementation of the nonlinear inversion (NLINV) algorithm for dynamic MRI with high frame rates. Methods. The NLINV algorithm is optimized and ported to run on a multi-GPU single-node server. The algorithm is mapped to multiple GPUs by decomposing the data domain along the channel dimension. Furthermore, the algorithm is decomposed along the temporal domain by relaxing a temporal regularization constraint, allowing the algorithm to work on multiple frames in parallel. Finally, an autotuning method is presented that is capable of combining different decomposition variants to achieve optimal algorithm performance in different imaging scenarios. Results. The algorithm is successfully ported to a multi-GPU system and allows online image reconstruction with high frame rates. Real-time reconstruction with low latency and frame rates up to 30 frames per second is demonstrated. Conclusion. Novel parallel decomposition methods are presented which are applicable to many iterative algorithms for dynamic MRI. Using these methods to parallelize the NLINV algorithm on multiple GPUs, it is possible to achieve online image reconstruction with high frame rates. PubDate: Sun, 31 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000

Abstract: Atrial fibrosis is characterized by expansion of extracellular matrix and increase in the number of fibroblasts which has been associated with the development and maintenance of atrial arrhythmias. However, the mechanisms how the fibrosis contributes to atrial arrhythmia remain incompletely understood. In this study, we used a proposed fibroblast model coupled with the human atrial myocyte to investigate the effects of fibrosis on atrial excitability and repolarization at both cellular and macroscopic levels. The 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) was also simulated to explore the index of clinical diagnosis for fibrosis. The simulation results showed that the fibrosis can modify action potential morphology of human atrial myocyte, slow down wave propagation, and have rate adaptation, thus causing the atrial electrical heterogeneity. The fibrosis alone was sufficient to cause arrhythmia, induce reentry wave, and result in low amplitude and wide P waves at normal heart rate and significant prolonged and inverse P waves at high heart rate. All these symptoms aggravated when the level of fibrosis increased. Our simulations demonstrated that fibrosis is the substrate of atrial arrhythmia and thereby may be a potential target in the treatment of atrial arrhythmias. PubDate: Tue, 26 Dec 2017 09:24:10 +000

Abstract: Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is an attractive target for treating cancer, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. In our work, the way of combined ligand- and structure-based approach was applied to analyze the characteristics of PTP1B enzyme and its interaction with competitive inhibitors. Firstly, the pharmacophore model of PTP1B inhibitors was built based on the common feature of sixteen compounds. It was found that the pharmacophore model consisted of five chemical features: one aromatic ring (R) region, two hydrophobic (H) groups, and two hydrogen bond acceptors (A). To further elucidate the binding modes of these inhibitors with PTP1B active sites, four docking programs (AutoDock 4.0, AutoDock Vina 1.0, standard precision (SP) Glide 9.7, and extra precision (XP) Glide 9.7) were used. The characteristics of the active sites were then described by the conformations of the docking results. In conclusion, a combination of various pharmacophore features and the integration information of structure activity relationship (SAR) can be used to design novel potent PTP1B inhibitors. PubDate: Tue, 26 Dec 2017 08:14:48 +000

Abstract: Mathematical modeling holds great potential for quantitatively describing biofilm growth in presence or absence of chemical agents used to limit or promote biofilm growth. In this paper, we describe a general mathematical/statistical framework that allows for the characterization of complex data in terms of few parameters and the capability to (i) compare different experiments and exposures to different agents, (ii) test different hypotheses regarding biofilm growth and interaction with different agents, and (iii) simulate arbitrary administrations of agents. The mathematical framework is divided to submodels characterizing biofilm, including new models characterizing live biofilm growth and dead cell accumulation; the interaction with agents inhibiting or stimulating growth; the kinetics of the agents. The statistical framework can take into account measurement and interexperiment variation. We demonstrate the application of (some of) the models using confocal microscopy data obtained using the computer program COMSTAT. PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2017 08:36:06 +000

Abstract: Epileptic seizures occur due to disorder in brain functionality which can affect patient’s health. Prediction of epileptic seizures before the beginning of the onset is quite useful for preventing the seizure by medication. Machine learning techniques and computational methods are used for predicting epileptic seizures from Electroencephalograms (EEG) signals. However, preprocessing of EEG signals for noise removal and features extraction are two major issues that have an adverse effect on both anticipation time and true positive prediction rate. Therefore, we propose a model that provides reliable methods of both preprocessing and feature extraction. Our model predicts epileptic seizures’ sufficient time before the onset of seizure starts and provides a better true positive rate. We have applied empirical mode decomposition (EMD) for preprocessing and have extracted time and frequency domain features for training a prediction model. The proposed model detects the start of the preictal state, which is the state that starts few minutes before the onset of the seizure, with a higher true positive rate compared to traditional methods, 92.23%, and maximum anticipation time of 33 minutes and average prediction time of 23.6 minutes on scalp EEG CHB-MIT dataset of 22 subjects. PubDate: Tue, 19 Dec 2017 07:39:23 +000

Abstract: We evaluated the changes in the dose distribution of radiation during volumetric arc radiotherapy (VMAT), to determine the right time for adaptive replanning in prostate cancer patients with progressive weight (WT) changes. Five prostate cancer patients treated with VMAT were selected for dosimetric analysis. On the original computed tomography images, nine artificial body contours were created to reflect progressive WT changes. Combined with three different photon energies (6, 10, and 15-MV), 27 comparable virtual VMAT plans were created per patient. The dosimetric analysis included evaluation of target coverage , conformity index, homogeneity index, and organs at risk doses. The dose differences among the plans were determined using the gamma index analysis and were compared with the dosimetric analysis. Mean became lower than 98% when body contour expanded by 2.0 cm or more and became higher than 107% when body contour contracted by 1.5 cm or more in 10-MV plans. This cut-off values correlated well with gamma index analysis results. Adaptive replanning should, therefore, be considered if the depth of body contour becomes 1.5 cm smaller (WT loss) or 2.0 cm larger (WT gain) in patients treated by VMAT with 10-MV photons. PubDate: Mon, 18 Dec 2017 09:41:11 +000

Abstract: High-order functional connectivity networks are rich in time information that can reflect dynamic changes in functional connectivity between brain regions. Accordingly, such networks are widely used to classify brain diseases. However, traditional methods for processing high-order functional connectivity networks generally include the clustering method, which reduces data dimensionality. As a result, such networks cannot be effectively interpreted in the context of neurology. Additionally, due to the large scale of high-order functional connectivity networks, it can be computationally very expensive to use complex network or graph theory to calculate certain topological properties. Here, we propose a novel method of generating a high-order minimum spanning tree functional connectivity network. This method increases the neurological significance of the high-order functional connectivity network, reduces network computing consumption, and produces a network scale that is conducive to subsequent network analysis. To ensure the quality of the topological information in the network structure, we used frequent subgraph mining technology to capture the discriminative subnetworks as features and combined this with quantifiable local network features. Then we applied a multikernel learning technique to the corresponding selected features to obtain the final classification results. We evaluated our proposed method using a data set containing 38 patients with major depressive disorder and 28 healthy controls. The experimental results showed a classification accuracy of up to 97.54%. PubDate: Thu, 14 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000

Abstract: The complexity of the immune responses is a major challenge in current virotherapy. This study incorporates the innate immune response into our basic model for virotherapy and investigates how the innate immunity affects the outcome of virotherapy. The viral therapeutic dynamics is largely determined by the viral burst size, relative innate immune killing rate, and relative innate immunity decay rate. The innate immunity may complicate virotherapy in the way of creating more equilibria when the viral burst size is not too big, while the dynamics is similar to the system without innate immunity when the viral burst size is big. PubDate: Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000

Abstract: Big data analytics (BDA) is important to reduce healthcare costs. However, there are many challenges of data aggregation, maintenance, integration, translation, analysis, and security/privacy. The study objective to establish an interactive BDA platform with simulated patient data using open-source software technologies was achieved by construction of a platform framework with Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) using HBase (key-value NoSQL database). Distributed data structures were generated from benchmarked hospital-specific metadata of nine billion patient records. At optimized iteration, HDFS ingestion of HFiles to HBase store files revealed sustained availability over hundreds of iterations; however, to complete MapReduce to HBase required a week (for 10 TB) and a month for three billion (30 TB) indexed patient records, respectively. Found inconsistencies of MapReduce limited the capacity to generate and replicate data efficiently. Apache Spark and Drill showed high performance with high usability for technical support but poor usability for clinical services. Hospital system based on patient-centric data was challenging in using HBase, whereby not all data profiles were fully integrated with the complex patient-to-hospital relationships. However, we recommend using HBase to achieve secured patient data while querying entire hospital volumes in a simplified clinical event model across clinical services. PubDate: Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000

Abstract: Malignant neoplasms are one of the principal world health concerns and breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Advances in cancer detection technologies allow treating it in early stages; however, it is necessary to develop treatments which carry fewer complications and aesthetic repercussions. This work presents a feasibility study for the use of microwave ablation as a novel technique for breast cancer treatment. A microwave applicator design is also being proposed for this purpose. The coupling of the designed antenna was predicted with computer simulation. The standing wave ratio obtained through simulation was 1.87 and the result of experimental validation was 1.04. The optimized antenna has an optimal coupling (SWR = 1.04) so ablation temperatures can be achieved in a relatively short time using low power. Varying the time and power, the heating pattern can be changed to treat different tumors. However, as some discrepancies are still present, a deeper study of the dielectric properties and their variation with temperature is required. PubDate: Sun, 10 Dec 2017 07:07:52 +000

Abstract: To optimize delivery of health care services in clinical practice, the use of unnecessary interventions should be reduced. Although recommendations for this reduction have been accepted worldwide, recent studies have revealed that the use of such procedures continues to increase. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using a nationwide claim-based database to evaluate factors influencing preoperative blood testing prior to low-risk surgery, via a Bayesian generalized linear mixed approach. The study period was set from April 1, 2012, to March 31, 2016, and 69,252 surgeries performed at 9,922 institutions were included in the analysis. Mean patient age was 44.3 ± 11.3 years (57% female). Preoperative blood tests were performed for 59.0% of procedures. Among institutional factors, the number of beds was strongly associated with preoperative blood testing (odds ratio [95% highest posterior density interval (HPD interval)], 2.64 [2.53 to 2.75]). The difference (95% credible interval) in the rate of preoperative blood testing between institutions with PubDate: Thu, 07 Dec 2017 07:53:46 +000

Abstract: Using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method, the feasibility of simulating transient airflow in a CT-based airway tree with more than 100 outlets for a whole respiratory period is studied, and the influence of truncations of terminal bronchi on CFD characteristics is investigated. After an airway model with 122 outlets is extracted from CT images, the transient airflow is simulated. Spatial and temporal variations of flow velocity, wall pressure, and wall shear stress are presented; the flow pattern and lobar distribution of air are gotten as well. All results are compared with those of a truncated model with 22 outlets. It is found that the flow pattern shows lobar heterogeneity that the near-wall air in the trachea is inhaled into the upper lobe while the center flow enters the other lobes, and the lobar distribution of air is significantly correlated with the outlet area ratio. The truncation decreases airflow to right and left upper lobes and increases the deviation of airflow distributions between inspiration and expiration. Simulating the transient airflow in an airway tree model with 122 bronchi using CFD is feasible. The model with more terminal bronchi decreases the difference between the lobar distributions at inspiration and at expiration. PubDate: Sun, 03 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000

Abstract: Image segmentation has always been a considerable challenge in image analysis and understanding due to the intensity inhomogeneity, which is also commonly known as bias field. In this paper, we present a novel region-based approach based on local entropy for segmenting images and estimating the bias field simultaneously. Firstly, a local Gaussian distribution fitting (LGDF) energy function is defined as a weighted energy integral, where the weight is local entropy derived from a grey level distribution of local image. The means of this objective function have a multiplicative factor that estimates the bias field in the transformed domain. Then, the bias field prior is fully used. Therefore, our model can estimate the bias field more accurately. Finally, minimization of this energy function with a level set regularization term, image segmentation, and bias field estimation can be achieved. Experiments on images of various modalities demonstrated the superior performance of the proposed method when compared with other state-of-the-art approaches. PubDate: Mon, 27 Nov 2017 06:14:59 +000

Abstract: Obtaining a fast and reliable decision is an important issue in brain-computer interfaces (BCI), particularly in practical real-time applications such as wheelchair or neuroprosthetic control. In this study, the EEG signals were firstly analyzed with a power projective base method. Then we were applied a decision-making model, the sequential probability ratio testing (SPRT), for single-trial classification of motor imagery movement events. The unique strength of this proposed classification method lies in its accumulative process, which increases the discriminative power as more and more evidence is observed over time. The properties of the method were illustrated on thirteen subjects’ recordings from three datasets. Results showed that our proposed power projective method outperformed two benchmark methods for every subject. Moreover, with sequential classifier, the accuracies across subjects were significantly higher than that with nonsequential ones. The average maximum accuracy of the SPRT method was 84.1%, as compared with 82.3% accuracy for the sequential Bayesian (SB) method. The proposed SPRT method provides an explicit relationship between stopping time, thresholds, and error, which is important for balancing the time-accuracy trade-off. These results suggest SPRT would be useful in speeding up decision-making while trading off errors in BCI. PubDate: Tue, 14 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000

Abstract: Background. We describe a nomogram to explain an Acute Illness Severity model, derived from emergency room triage and admission laboratory data, to predict 30-day in-hospital survival following an emergency medical admission. Methods. For emergency medical admissions (96,305 episodes in 50,612 patients) between 2002 and 2016, the relationship between 30-day in-hospital mortality and admission laboratory data was determined using logistic regression. The previously validated Acute Illness Severity model was then transposed to a Kattan-style nomogram with a Stata user-written program. Results. The Acute Illness Severity was based on the admission Manchester triage category and biochemical laboratory score; these latter were based on the serum albumin, sodium, potassium, urea, red cell distribution width, and troponin status. The laboratory admission data was predictive with an AUROC of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.86). The sensitivity was 94.4%, with a specificity of 62.7%. The positive predictive value was 21.2%, with a negative predictive value of 99.1%. For the Kattan-style nomogram, the regression coefficients are converted to a 100-point scale with the predictor parameters mapped to a probability axis. The nomogram would be an easy-to-use tool at the bedside and for educational purposes, illustrating the relative importance of the contribution of each predictor to the overall score. Conclusion. A nomogram to illustrate and explain the prognostic factors underlying an Acute Illness Severity Score system is described. PubDate: Tue, 14 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000

Abstract: Ambulatory 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring has been considered as the gold standard for diagnosing gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and in clinical application, static parameters are widely used, such as DeMeester score. However, a shortcoming of these static variables is their relatively high false negative rate and long recording time required. They may be falsely labeled as nonrefluxers and not appropriately treated. Therefore, it is necessary to seek more accurate and objective parameters to detect and quantify GERD. This paper first describes a new effort that investigated the feasibility of dynamic features of 24-hour pH recording. Wavelet energy, information entropy, and wavelet entropy were estimated for three groups (severe, mild-to-moderate, and normal). The results suggest that wavelet energy and entropy are physiologically meaningful since they differentiated patients with varying degrees of GERD. -means clustering algorithm was employed to obtain the sensitivity and specificity of new parameters. It is obvious that information entropy goes with the highest sensitivity of 87.3% and wavelet energy has the highest specificity of 97.1%. This would allow a more accurate definition of the best indicators to detect and quantify GERD as well as provide an alternative insight into the early diagnosis of GERD. PubDate: Tue, 14 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000

Abstract: Multimodal image fusion techniques can integrate the information from different medical images to get an informative image that is more suitable for joint diagnosis, preoperative planning, intraoperative guidance, and interventional treatment. Fusing images of CT and different MR modalities are studied in this paper. Firstly, the CT and MR images are both transformed to nonsubsampled shearlet transform (NSST) domain. So the low-frequency components and high-frequency components are obtained. Then the high-frequency components are merged using the absolute-maximum rule, while the low-frequency components are merged by a sparse representation- (SR-) based approach. And the dynamic group sparsity recovery (DGSR) algorithm is proposed to improve the performance of the SR-based approach. Finally, the fused image is obtained by performing the inverse NSST on the merged components. The proposed fusion method is tested on a number of clinical CT and MR images and compared with several popular image fusion methods. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed fusion method can provide better fusion results in terms of subjective quality and objective evaluation. PubDate: Thu, 09 Nov 2017 10:07:33 +000

Abstract: Immunotherapy is one of the most recent approaches for controlling and curing malignant tumors. In this paper, we consider a mathematical model of periodically pulsed immunotherapy using T cells and an antitumor cytokine. Mathematical analyses are performed to determine the threshold of a successful treatment. The interindividual variability is explored by one-, two-, and three-parameter bifurcation diagrams for a nontreatment case. Numerical simulation conducted in this paper shows that (i) the tumor can be regulated by administering T cells alone in a patient with a strong immune system or who has been diagnosed at an early stage, (ii) immunotherapy with a large amount of an antitumor cytokine can boost the immune system to remit or even to suppress tumor cells completely, and (iii) through polytherapy the tumor can be kept at a smaller size with reduced dosages. PubDate: Thu, 09 Nov 2017 09:05:09 +000

Abstract: When considering a genetic disease with variable age at onset (e.g., familial amyloid neuropathy, cancers), computing the individual risk of the disease based on family history (FH) is of critical interest for both clinicians and patients. Such a risk is very challenging to compute because the genotype of the individual of interest is in general unknown, the posterior distribution changes with ( is the age at disease onset for the targeted individual), and the competing risk of death is not negligible. In this work, we present modeling of this problem using a Bayesian network mixed with (right-censored) survival outcomes where hazard rates only depend on the genotype of each individual. We explain how belief propagation can be used to obtain posterior distribution of genotypes given the FH and how to obtain a time-dependent posterior hazard rate for any individual in the pedigree. Finally, we use this posterior hazard rate to compute individual risk, with or without the competing risk of death. Our method is illustrated using the Claus-Easton model for breast cancer. The competing risk of death is derived from the national French registry. PubDate: Thu, 09 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000

Abstract: The noninvasive peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and the pulse rate can be extracted from photoplethysmography (PPG) signals. However, the accuracy of the extraction is directly affected by the quality of the signal obtained and the peak of the signal identified; therefore, a hybrid wavelet-based method is proposed in this study. Firstly, we suppressed the partial motion artifacts and corrected the baseline drift by using a wavelet method based on the principle of wavelet multiresolution. And then, we designed a quadratic spline wavelet modulus maximum algorithm to identify the PPG peaks automatically. To evaluate this hybrid method, a reflective pulse oximeter was used to acquire ten subjects’ PPG signals under sitting, raising hand, and gently walking postures, and the peak recognition results on the raw signal and on the corrected signal were compared, respectively. The results showed that the hybrid method not only corrected the morphologies of the signal well but also optimized the peaks identification quality, subsequently elevating the measurement accuracy of SpO2 and the pulse rate. As a result, our hybrid wavelet-based method profoundly optimized the evaluation of respiratory function and heart rate variability analysis. PubDate: Tue, 07 Nov 2017 07:16:49 +000

Abstract: In this paper, we construct a linear differential system in both continuous time and discrete time to model HIV transmission on the population level. The main question is the determination of parameters based on the posterior information obtained from statistical analysis of the HIV population. We call these parameters dynamic constants in the sense that these constants determine the behavior of the system in various models. There is a long history of using linear or nonlinear dynamic systems to study the HIV population dynamics or other infectious diseases. Nevertheless, the question of determining the dynamic constants in the system has not received much attention. In this paper, we take some initial steps to bridge such a gap. We study the dynamic constants that appear in the linear differential system model in both continuous and discrete time. Our computations are mostly carried out in Matlab. PubDate: Tue, 07 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000