Abstract: Abstract This paper surveys some results on the existence and stability of solutions to some partial differential equations of gaseous stars in the framework of Newtonian mechanics, and presents some key ideas in the proofs. PubDate: 2019-01-01

Abstract: Abstract A formal asymptotics leading from a system of Boltzmann equations for mixtures towards either Vlasov-Navier-Stokes or Vlasov-Stokes equations of incompressible fluids was established by the same authors and Etienne Bernard in: A Derivation of the Vlasov-Navier-Stokes Model for Aerosol Flows from Kinetic Theory Commun. Math. Sci., 15: 1703–1741 (2017) and A Derivation of the Vlasov-Stokes System for Aerosol Flows from the Kinetic Theory of Binary Gas Mixtures. KRM, 11: 43–69 (2018). With the same starting point but with a different scaling, we establish here a formal asymptotics leading to the Vlasov-Euler system of compressible fluids. Explicit formulas for the coupling terms are obtained in two typical situations: for elastic hard spheres on one hand, and for collisions corresponding to the inelastic interaction with a macroscopic dust speck on the other hand. PubDate: 2019-01-01

Abstract: Abstract The advection-diffusion equation yεt − εyεxx + Myεx = 0, (x, t) ∈ (0, 1) × (0, T) is null controllable for any strictly positive values of the diffusion coefficient ε and of the controllability time T. We discuss here the behavior of the cost of control when the coefficient ε goes to zero, according to the values of T. It is actually known that this cost is uniformly bounded with respect to ε if T is greater than a minimal time TM, with TM in the interval \(\left[ {1,2\sqrt 3 } \right]/M\) for M > 0 and in the interval \(\left[ {2\sqrt 2 ,2\left( {1 + \sqrt 3 } \right)} \right]/ M \) for M< 0. The exact value of TM is however unknown. We investigate in this work the determination of the minimal time TM employing two distincts but complementary approaches. In a first one, we numerically estimate the cost of controllability, reformulated as the solution of a generalized eigenvalue problem for the underlying control operator, with respect to the parameter T and ε. This allows notably to exhibit the structure of initial data leading to large costs of control. At the practical level, this evaluation requires the non trivial and challenging approximation of null controls for the advection-diffusion equation. In the second approach, we perform an asymptotic analysis, with respect to the parameter ε, of the optimality system associated to the control of minimal L2-norm. The matched asymptotic expansion method is used to describe the multiple boundary layers. PubDate: 2019-01-01

Abstract: Abstract We define two nonlinear shell models whereby the deformation of an elastic shell with small thickness minimizes ad hoc functionals over sets of admissible deformations of Kirchhoff-Love type. We establish that both models are close in a specific sense to the well-known nonlinear shell model of W.T. Koiter and that one of them has a solution, by contrast with Koiter’s model for which such an existence theorem is yet to be proven. PubDate: 2019-01-01

Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we consider the lifespan of solution to the MHD boundary layer system as an analytic perturbation of general shear flow. By using the cancellation mechanism in the system observed in [12], the lifespan of solution is shown to have a lower bound in the order of ε−2− if the strength of the perturbation is of the order of ε. Since there is no restriction on the strength of the shear flow and the lifespan estimate is larger than the one obtained for the classical Prandtl system in this setting, it reveals the stabilizing effect of the magnetic field on the electrically conducting fluid near the boundary. PubDate: 2019-01-01

Abstract: Abstract This paper is concerned with the boundary-value problem on the Boltzmann equation in bounded domains with diffuse-reflection boundary where the boundary temperature is time-periodic. We establish the existence of time-periodic solutions with the same period for both hard and soft potentials, provided that the time-periodic boundary temperature is sufficiently close to a stationary one which has small variations around a positive constant. The dynamical stability of time-periodic profiles is also proved under small perturbations, and this in turn yields the non-negativity of the profile. For the proof, we develop new estimates in the time-periodic setting. PubDate: 2019-01-01

Abstract: Abstract We consider a previously proposed general nonlinear poromechanical formulation, and we derive a linearized version of this model. For this linearized model, we obtain an existence result and we propose a complete discretization strategy–in time and space–with a special concern for issues associated with incompressible or nearly-incompressible behavior. We provide a detailed mathematical analysis of this strategy, the main result being an error estimate uniform with respect to the compressibility parameter. We then illustrate our approach with detailed simulation results and we numerically investigate the importance of the assumptions made in the analysis, including the fulfillment of specific inf-sup conditions. PubDate: 2019-01-01

Abstract: Abstract This paper is concerned with the inflow problem for one-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations. For such a problem, Huang, Matsumura, and Shi showed in [4] that there exists viscous shock wave solution to the inflow problem and both the boundary layer solution, the viscous shock wave, and their superposition are time-asymptotically nonlinear stable provided that both the initial perturbation and the boundary velocity are assumed to be sufficiently small. The main purpose of this paper is to show that similar stability results still hold for a class of large initial perturbation which can allow the initial density to have large oscillations. The proofs are given by an elementary energy method and our main idea is to use the smallness of the strength of the viscous shock wave and the boundary velocity to control the possible growth of the solutions induced by the nonlinearity of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations and the inflow boundary condition. The key point in our analysis is to deduce the desired uniform positive lower and upper bounds on the density. PubDate: 2019-01-01

Abstract: Abstract The human tricuspid valve, one of the key cardiac structures, plays an important role in the circulatory system. However, there are few mathematical models to accurately simulate it. In this paper, firstly, we consider the tricuspid valve as an elastic shell with a specific shape and establish its novel geometric model. Concretely, the anterior, the posterior and the septal leaflets of the valve are supposed to be portions of the union of two interfacing semi-elliptic cylindrical shells when they are fully open. Next, we use Koiter’s linear shell model to describe the tricuspid valve leaflets in the static case, and provide a numerical scheme for this elastostatics model. Specifically, we discretize the space variable, i.e., the two tangent components of the displacement are discretized by using conforming finite elements (linear triangles) and the normal component of the displacement is discretized by using conforming Hsieh-Clough-Tocher triangles (HCT triangles). Finally, we make numerical experiments for the tricuspid valve and analyze the outcome. The numerical results show that the proposed mathematical model describes well the human tricuspid valve subjected to applied forces. PubDate: 2019-01-01

Abstract: Abstract Let a, b, r be nonnegative integers with \(1\leq{a}\leq{b}\) and \(r\geq2\) . Let G be a graph of order n with \(n >\frac{(a+2b)(r(a+b)-2)}{b}\) . In this paper, we prove that G is fractional ID-[a, b]-factor-critical if \(\delta(G)\geq\frac{bn}{a+2b}+a(r-1)\) and \(\mid N_{G}(x_{1}) \cup N_{G}(x_{2}) \cup \cdotp \cdotp \cdotp \cup N_{G}(x_{r})\mid\geq\frac{(a+b)n}{a+2b}\) for any independent subset {x1, x2, · · ·, xr} in G. It is a generalization of Zhou et al.’s previous result [Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory, 36: 409–418 (2016)] in which r = 2 is discussed. Furthermore, we show that this result is best possible in some sense. PubDate: 2018-10-01

Abstract: Abstract A vertex coloring of a graph G is called r-acyclic if it is a proper vertex coloring such that every cycle D receives at least min{ D , r} colors. The r-acyclic chromatic number of G is the least number of colors in an r-acyclic coloring of G. We prove that for any number r ≥ 4, the r-acyclic chromatic number of any graph G with maximum degree Δ ≥ 7 and with girth at least (r − 1)Δ is at most (4r − 3)Δ. PubDate: 2018-10-01

Abstract: Abstract Inspired by the multiple recurrence and multiple ergodic theorems for measure preserving systems, we discuss an analogous question for measure preserving semigroups. In this note, we deal with the symmetric semigroups associated to reversible Markov chains. PubDate: 2018-10-01

Abstract: Abstract The long-time behavior of the particle density of the compressible quantum Navier-Stokes equations in one space dimension is studied. It is shown that the particle density converges exponentially fast to the constant thermal equilibrium state as the time tends to infinity, the decay rate is also obtained. The results hold regardless of either the bigger of the scaled Planck constant or the viscosity constant. This improves the decay results of [5] by removing the crucial assumption that the scaled Planck constant is bigger than the viscosity constant. The proof is based on the entropy dissipation method and the Bresch-Desjardins type of entropy. PubDate: 2018-10-01

Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we consider the composed convex optimization problem which consists in minimizing the sum of a convex function and a convex composite function. By using the properties of the epigraph of the conjugate functions and the subdifferentials of convex functions, we give some new constraint qualifications which completely characterize the strong Fenchel duality and the total Fenchel duality for composed convex optimiztion problem in real locally convex Hausdorff topological vector spaces. PubDate: 2018-10-01

Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we analyze ovarian cancer cases from six hospitals in China, screen the prognostic factors and predict the survival rate. The data has the feature that all the covariates are categorical. We use three methods to estimate the survival rate–the traditional Cox regression, the two-step Cox regression and a method based on conditional inference tree. By comparison, we know that they are all effective and can predict the survival curve reasonably. The analysis results show that the survival rate is determined by a combination of risk factors, where clinical stage is the most important prognosis factor. PubDate: 2018-10-01

Abstract: Abstract Let N = {0, 1, · · ·, n − 1}. A strongly idempotent self-orthogonal row Latin magic array of order n (SISORLMA(n) for short) based on N is an n × n array M satisfying the following properties: (1) each row of M is a permutation of N, and at least one column is not a permutation of N; (2) the sums of the n numbers in every row and every column are the same; (3) M is orthogonal to its transpose; (4) the main diagonal and the back diagonal of M are 0, 1, · · ·, n − 1 from left to right. In this paper, it is proved that an SISORLMA(n) exists if and only if n ∉ {2, 3}. As an application, it is proved that a nonelementary rational diagonally ordered magic square exists if and only if n ∉ {2, 3}, and a rational diagonally ordered magic square exists if and only if n ≠ 2. PubDate: 2018-10-01

Abstract: Abstract A remarkable connection between the clique number and the Lagrangian of a graph was established by Motzkin and Straus. Later, Rota Buló and Pelillo extended the theorem of Motzkin-Straus to r-uniform hypergraphs by studying the relation of local (global) minimizers of a homogeneous polynomial function of degree r and the maximal (maximum) cliques of an r-uniform hypergraph. In this paper, we study polynomial optimization problems for non-uniform hypergraphs with four different types of edges and apply it to get an upper bound of Turán densities of complete non-uniform hypergraphs. PubDate: 2018-10-01

Abstract: Abstract We investigate how the algebraic connectivity of a graph changes by relocating a connected branch from one vertex to another vertex, and then minimize the algebraic connectivity among all connected graphs of order n with fixed domination number \(\gamma\leq\frac{n+2}{3}\) , and finally present a lower bound for the algebraic connectivity in terms of the domination number. We also characterize the minimum algebraic connectivity of graphs with domination number half their order. PubDate: 2018-10-01

Abstract: Abstract Let G be a connected graph with order n, minimum degree δ = δ(G) and edge-connectivity λ = λ(G). A graph G is maximally edge-connected if λ = δ, and super edge-connected if every minimum edgecut consists of edges incident with a vertex of minimum degree. Define the zeroth-order general Randić index \(R_\alpha ^0\left( G \right) = \sum\limits_{x \in V\left( G \right)} {d_G^\alpha \left( x \right)} \) , where dG(x) denotes the degree of the vertex x. In this paper, we present two sufficient conditions for graphs and triangle-free graphs to be super edge-connected in terms of the zeroth-order general Randić index for −1 ≤ α < 0, respectively. PubDate: 2018-10-01