Abstract: Forecasting in big datasets is a common but complicated task, which cannot be executed using the well-known parametric linear regression. However, nonparametric and semiparametric methods, which enable forecasting by building nonlinear data models, are computationally intensive and lack sufficient scalability to cope with big datasets to extract successful results in a reasonable time. We present distributed parallel versions of some nonparametric and semiparametric regression models. We used MapReduce paradigm and describe the algorithms in terms of SPARK data structures to parallelize the calculations. The forecasting accuracy of the proposed algorithms is compared with the linear regression model, which is the only forecasting model currently having parallel distributed realization within the SPARK framework to address big data problems. The advantages of the parallelization of the algorithm are also provided. We validate our models conducting various numerical experiments: evaluating the goodness of fit, analyzing how increasing dataset size influences time consumption, and analyzing time consumption by varying the degree of parallelism (number of workers) in the distributed realization. PubDate: Wed, 08 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000

Abstract: This paper presents Differential Evolution algorithm for solving high-dimensional optimization problems over continuous space. The proposed algorithm, namely, ANDE, introduces a new triangular mutation rule based on the convex combination vector of the triplet defined by the three randomly chosen vectors and the difference vectors between the best, better, and the worst individuals among the three randomly selected vectors. The mutation rule is combined with the basic mutation strategy DE/rand/1/bin, where the new triangular mutation rule is applied with the probability of 2/3 since it has both exploration ability and exploitation tendency. Furthermore, we propose a novel self-adaptive scheme for gradual change of the values of the crossover rate that can excellently benefit from the past experience of the individuals in the search space during evolution process which in turn can considerably balance the common trade-off between the population diversity and convergence speed. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated on the 20 standard high-dimensional benchmark numerical optimization problems for the IEEE CEC-2010 Special Session and Competition on Large Scale Global Optimization. The comparison results between ANDE and its versions and the other seven state-of-the-art evolutionary algorithms that were all tested on this test suite indicate that the proposed algorithm and its two versions are highly competitive algorithms for solving large scale global optimization problems. PubDate: Wed, 08 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000

Abstract: Based on the detailed analysis of collaborative running interface of Simulink/Fluent, a system simulation for the rated working condition as well as variable working condition of marine gas turbine has been achieved, which can improve the simulation efficiency of marine gas turbine by developing simulation model of combustor with Fluent and simulation models of other components with Simulink. The result shows that the Simulink/Fluent collaborative simulation zooming can make the inner working conditions of combustor be observed specifically, based on the overall performance matching analysis; thus an effective technical means for the structural optimization design of combustor has been provided. PubDate: Thu, 02 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000

Abstract: Deep learning is a subfield of machine learning, which aims to learn a hierarchy of features from input data. Nowadays, researchers have intensively investigated deep learning algorithms for solving challenging problems in many areas such as image classification, speech recognition, signal processing, and natural language processing. In this study, we not only review typical deep learning algorithms in computer vision and signal processing but also provide detailed information on how to apply deep learning to specific areas such as road crack detection, fault diagnosis, and human activity detection. Besides, this study also discusses the challenges of designing and training deep neural networks. PubDate: Sun, 19 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000

Abstract: Recently, the demand for wireless devices that support multiband frequency has increased. The integration of such technology in mobile communication system has led to a great demand in developing small size antenna with multiband operation, which is able to operate in the required system. In this paper, a novel type planar inverted F antenna (PIFA) with gridded ground plane structure and overlapping cells is presented. By controlling the overlapping size, we improve the characteristics of the proposed antenna. This antenna is developed to achieve multiband operation with small size and good performance. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed to a PIFA antenna to get rid of the limitations of single band operation by searching the optimal localization and length of linear slots on the ground plane to give triband operation. This PIFA antenna can be integrated to operate for several mobile applications as Bluetooth/WLAN, WIMAX, and 4G (UMTS2100, LTE). The optimized antenna is simulated by both Ansoft HFSS and computer simulation technology microwave studio (CSTMWS) in terms of -parameters. A good agreement between simulated performances by both software types is achieved. A parametric study is made to analyze the effect of different PIFA parameters on the operating frequency and the reflection coefficient in order to enhance the antenna performances. In these frequency bands, the antenna has nearly omnidirectional radiation pattern. PubDate: Wed, 15 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000

Abstract: In the present paper we first conduct simulations of the parallel evolutionary peer-to-peer (P2P) networking technique (referred to as P-EP2P) that we previously proposed using models of realistic environments to examine if P-EP2P is practical. Environments are here represented by what users have and want in the network, and P-EP2P adapts the P2P network topologies to the present environment in an evolutionary manner. The simulation results show that P-EP2P is hard to adapt the network topologies to some realistic environments. Then, based on the discussions of the results, we propose a strategy for better adaptability of P-EP2P to the realistic environments. The strategy first judges if evolutionary adaptation of the network topologies is likely to occur in the present environment, and if it judges so, it actually tries to achieve evolutionary adaptation of the network topologies. Otherwise, it brings random change to the network topologies. The simulation results indicate that P-EP2P with the proposed strategy can better adapt the network topologies to the realistic environments. The main contribution of the study is to present such a promising way to realize an evolvable network in which the evolution direction is given by users. PubDate: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 06:33:08 +000

Abstract: Human action recognition based on 3D skeleton has become an active research field in recent years with the recently developed commodity depth sensors. Most published methods analyze an entire 3D depth data, construct mid-level part representations, or use trajectory descriptor of spatial-temporal interest point for recognizing human activities. Unlike previous work, a novel and simple action representation is proposed in this paper which models the action as a sequence of inconsecutive and discriminative skeleton poses, named as key skeleton poses. The pairwise relative positions of skeleton joints are used as feature of the skeleton poses which are mined with the aid of the latent support vector machine (latent SVM). The advantage of our method is resisting against intraclass variation such as noise and large nonlinear temporal deformation of human action. We evaluate the proposed approach on three benchmark action datasets captured by Kinect devices: MSR Action 3D dataset, UTKinect Action dataset, and Florence 3D Action dataset. The detailed experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves superior performance to the state-of-the-art skeleton-based action recognition methods. PubDate: Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000

Abstract: We developed a fully automated multiobjective optimisation framework using genetic algorithms to generate a range of optimal barrel vault scissor structures. Compared to other optimisation methods, genetic algorithms are more robust and efficient when dealing with multiobjective optimisation problems and provide a better view of the search space while reducing the chance to be stuck in a local minimum. The novelty of this work is the application and validation (using metrics) of genetic algorithms for the shape and size optimisation of scissor structures, which has not been done so far for two objectives. We tested the feasibility and capacity of the methodology by optimising a 6 m span barrel vault to weight and compactness and by obtaining optimal solutions in an efficient way using NSGA-II. This paper presents the framework and the results of the case study. The in-depth analysis of the influence of the optimisation variables on the results yields new insights which can help in making choices with regard to the design variables, the constraints, and the number of individuals and generations in order to obtain efficiently a trade-off of optimal solutions. PubDate: Wed, 18 Jan 2017 12:52:10 +000

Abstract: Person reidentification, which aims to track people across nonoverlapping cameras, is a fundamental task in automated video processing. Moving people often appear differently when viewed from different nonoverlapping cameras because of differences in illumination, pose, and camera properties. The color histogram is a global feature of an object that can be used for identification. This histogram describes the distribution of all colors on the object. However, the use of color histograms has two disadvantages. First, colors change differently under different lighting and at different angles. Second, traditional color histograms lack spatial information. We used a perception-based color space to solve the illumination problem of traditional histograms. We also used the spatial pyramid matching (SPM) model to improve the image spatial information in color histograms. Finally, we used the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to show features for person reidentification, because the main color feature of GMM is more adaptable for scene changes, and improve the stability of the retrieved results for different color spaces in various scenes. Through a series of experiments, we found the relationships of different features that impact person reidentification. PubDate: Wed, 11 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000

Abstract: The growing demand in the field of security led to the development of interesting approaches in face classification. These works are interested since their beginning in extracting the invariant features of the face to build a single model easily identifiable by classification algorithms. Our goal in this article is to develop more efficient practical methods for face detection. We present a new fast and accurate approach based on local binary patterns (LBP) for the extraction of the features that is combined with the new classifier Neighboring Support Vector Classifier (NSVC) for classification. The experimental results on different natural images show that the proposed method can get very good results at a very short detection time. The best precision obtained by LBP-NSVC exceeds 99%. PubDate: Sun, 25 Dec 2016 12:47:37 +000

Abstract: Many industrial processes are inherently distributed in space and time and are called spatially distributed dynamical systems (SDDSs). Sensor placement affects capturing the spatial distribution and then becomes crucial issue to model or control an SDDS. In this study, a new data-driven based sensor placement method is developed. SVR algorithm is innovatively used to extract the characteristics of spatial distribution from a spatiotemporal data set. The support vectors learned by SVR represent the crucial spatial data structure in the spatiotemporal data set, which can be employed to determine optimal sensor location and sensor number. A systematic sensor placement design scheme in three steps (data collection, SVR learning, and sensor locating) is developed for an easy implementation. Finally, effectiveness of the proposed sensor placement scheme is validated on two spatiotemporal 3D fuzzy controlled spatially distributed systems. PubDate: Mon, 14 Nov 2016 12:33:21 +000

Abstract: In order to discover the structure of local community more effectively, this paper puts forward a new local community detection algorithm based on minimal cluster. Most of the local community detection algorithms begin from one node. The agglomeration ability of a single node must be less than multiple nodes, so the beginning of the community extension of the algorithm in this paper is no longer from the initial node only but from a node cluster containing this initial node and nodes in the cluster are relatively densely connected with each other. The algorithm mainly includes two phases. First it detects the minimal cluster and then finds the local community extended from the minimal cluster. Experimental results show that the quality of the local community detected by our algorithm is much better than other algorithms no matter in real networks or in simulated networks. PubDate: Mon, 07 Nov 2016 07:10:49 +000

Abstract: The end of the course evaluation has become an integral part of education management in almost every academic institution. The existing automated evaluation method primarily employs the Likert scale based quantitative scores provided by students about the delivery of the course and the knowledge of the instructor. The feedback is subsequently used to improve the quality of the teaching and often for the annual appraisal process. In addition to the Likert scale questions, the evaluation form typically contains open-ended questions where students can write general comments/feedback that might not be covered by the fixed questions. The textual feedback, however, is usually provided to teachers and administration and due to its nonquantitative nature is frequently not processed to gain more insight. This paper aims to address this aspect by applying several text analytics methods on students’ feedback. The paper not only presents a sentiment analysis based metric, which is shown to be highly correlated with the aggregated Likert scale scores, but also provides new insight into a teacher’s performance with the help of tag clouds, sentiment score, and other frequency-based filters. PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2016 09:33:04 +000

Abstract: We define WK linear grammars, as an extension of WK regular grammars with linear grammar rules, and WK context-free grammars, thus investigating their computational power and closure properties. We show that WK linear grammars can generate some context-sensitive languages. Moreover, we demonstrate that the family of WK regular languages is the proper subset of the family of WK linear languages, but it is not comparable with the family of linear languages. We also establish that the Watson-Crick regular grammars are closed under almost all of the main closure operations. PubDate: Mon, 29 Aug 2016 16:35:21 +000

Abstract: Semisupervised Discriminant Analysis (SDA) aims at dimensionality reduction with both limited labeled data and copious unlabeled data, but it may fail to discover the intrinsic geometry structure when the data manifold is highly nonlinear. The kernel trick is widely used to map the original nonlinearly separable problem to an intrinsically larger dimensionality space where the classes are linearly separable. Inspired by low-rank representation (LLR), we proposed a novel kernel SDA method called low-rank kernel-based SDA (LRKSDA) algorithm where the LRR is used as the kernel representation. Since LRR can capture the global data structures and get the lowest rank representation in a parameter-free way, the low-rank kernel method is extremely effective and robust for kinds of data. Extensive experiments on public databases show that the proposed LRKSDA dimensionality reduction algorithm can achieve better performance than other related kernel SDA methods. PubDate: Wed, 20 Jul 2016 16:43:21 +000

Abstract: Aiming at data sparsity and timeliness in traditional E-commerce collaborative filtering recommendation algorithms, when constructing user-item rating matrix, this paper utilizes the feature that commodities in E-commerce system belong to different levels to fill in nonrated items by calculating RF/IRF of the commodity’s corresponding level. In the recommendation prediction stage, considering timeliness of the recommendation system, time weighted based recommendation prediction formula is adopted to design a personalized recommendation model by integrating level filling method and rating time. The experimental results on real dataset verify the feasibility and validity of the algorithm and it owns higher predicting accuracy compared with present recommendation algorithms. PubDate: Wed, 20 Jul 2016 09:05:29 +000

Abstract: One challenge of unsupervised MRI brain image segmentation is the central gray matter due to the faint contrast with respect to the surrounding white matter. In this paper, the necessity of supervised image segmentation is addressed, and a soft Mumford-Shah model is introduced. Then, a framework of semisupervised image segmentation based on soft Mumford-Shah model is developed. The main contribution of this paper lies in the development a framework of a semisupervised soft image segmentation using both Bayesian principle and the principle of soft image segmentation. The developed framework classifies pixels using a semisupervised and interactive way, where the class of a pixel is not only determined by its features but also determined by its distance from those known regions. The developed semisupervised soft segmentation model turns out to be an extension of the unsupervised soft Mumford-Shah model. The framework is then applied to MRI brain image segmentation. Experimental results demonstrate that the developed framework outperforms the state-of-the-art methods of unsupervised segmentation. The new method can produce segmentation as precise as required. PubDate: Tue, 28 Jun 2016 08:00:29 +000

Abstract: We present our data-driven supervised machine-learning (ML) model to predict heat load for buildings in a district heating system (DHS). Even though ML has been used as an approach to heat load prediction in literature, it is hard to select an approach that will qualify as a solution for our case as existing solutions are quite problem specific. For that reason, we compared and evaluated three ML algorithms within a framework on operational data from a DH system in order to generate the required prediction model. The algorithms examined are Support Vector Regression (SVR), Partial Least Square (PLS), and random forest (RF). We use the data collected from buildings at several locations for a period of 29 weeks. Concerning the accuracy of predicting the heat load, we evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms using mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and correlation coefficient. In order to determine which algorithm had the best accuracy, we conducted performance comparison among these ML algorithms. The comparison of the algorithms indicates that, for DH heat load prediction, SVR method presented in this paper is the most efficient one out of the three also compared to other methods found in the literature. PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2016 12:37:20 +000

Abstract: Due to the single-phase loads and their stochastic behavior, the current in the distribution feeders is not balanced. In addition, the single-phase loads are located in different positions along the LV feeders. So the amount of the unbalanced load and its location affect the feeder losses. An unbalanced load causes the feeder losses and the voltage drop. Because of time-varying behavior of the single-phase loads, phase balancing is a dynamic and combinatorial problem. In this research, a heuristic and dynamic solution for the phase balancing of the LV feeders is proposed. In this method, it is supposed that the loads’ tie could be connected to all phases through a three-phase switch. The aim of the proposed method is to make the feeder conditions as balanced as possible. The amount and the location of single-phase loads are considered in the proposed phase balancing method. Since the proposed method needs no communication interface or no remote controller, it is inexpensive, simple, practical, and robust. Applying this method provides a distributed and dynamic phase balancing control. In addition, the feasibility of reducing the used switches is investigated. The ability of the proposed method in the phase balancing of the LV feeders is approved by carrying out some simulations. PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2016 12:05:50 +000

Abstract: Doping and fabrication conditions bring about disorder in MgB2 superconductor and further influence its room temperature resistivity as well as its superconducting transition temperature (). Existence of a model that directly estimates of any doped MgB2 superconductor from the room temperature resistivity would have immense significance since room temperature resistivity is easily measured using conventional resistivity measuring instrument and the experimental measurement of wastes valuable resources and is confined to low temperature regime. This work develops a model, superconducting transition temperature estimator (STTE), that directly estimates of disordered MgB2 superconductors using room temperature resistivity as input to the model. STTE was developed through training and testing support vector regression (SVR) with ten experimental values of room temperature resistivity and their corresponding using the best performance parameters obtained through test-set cross validation optimization technique. The developed STTE was used to estimate of different disordered MgB2 superconductors and the obtained results show excellent agreement with the reported experimental data. STTE can therefore be incorporated into resistivity measuring instruments for quick and direct estimation of of disordered MgB2 superconductors with high degree of accuracy. PubDate: Mon, 23 May 2016 14:02:56 +000

Abstract: Nature-inspired algorithms are becoming popular among researchers due to their simplicity and flexibility. The nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithms are analysed in terms of their key features like their diversity and adaptation, exploration and exploitation, and attractions and diffusion mechanisms. The success and challenges concerning these algorithms are based on their parameter tuning and parameter control. A comparatively new algorithm motivated by the social hierarchy and hunting behavior of grey wolves is Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO), which is a very successful algorithm for solving real mechanical and optical engineering problems. In the original GWO, half of the iterations are devoted to exploration and the other half are dedicated to exploitation, overlooking the impact of right balance between these two to guarantee an accurate approximation of global optimum. To overcome this shortcoming, a modified GWO (mGWO) is proposed, which focuses on proper balance between exploration and exploitation that leads to an optimal performance of the algorithm. Simulations based on benchmark problems and WSN clustering problem demonstrate the effectiveness, efficiency, and stability of mGWO compared with the basic GWO and some well-known algorithms. PubDate: Wed, 04 May 2016 13:29:30 +000

Abstract: Hybrid computational intelligence is defined as a combination of multiple intelligent algorithms such that the resulting model has superior performance to the individual algorithms. Therefore, the importance of fusing two or more intelligent algorithms to achieve better performance cannot be overemphasized. In this work, a novel homogenous hybridization scheme is proposed for the improvement of the generalization and predictive ability of support vector machines regression (SVR). The proposed and developed hybrid SVR (HSVR) works by considering the initial SVR prediction as a feature extraction process and then employs the SVR output, which is the extracted feature, as its sole descriptor. The developed hybrid model is applied to the prediction of reservoir permeability and the predicted permeability is compared to core permeability which is regarded as standard in petroleum industry. The results show that the proposed hybrid scheme (HSVR) performed better than the existing SVR in both generalization and prediction ability. The outcome of this research will assist petroleum engineers to effectively predict permeability of carbonate reservoirs with higher degree of accuracy and will invariably lead to better reservoir. Furthermore, the encouraging performance of this hybrid will serve as impetus for further exploring homogenous hybrid system. PubDate: Wed, 27 Apr 2016 12:17:29 +000

Abstract: Gaussian noise is one of the dominant noises, which degrades the quality of acquired Computed Tomography (CT) image data. It creates difficulties in pathological identification or diagnosis of any disease. Gaussian noise elimination is desirable to improve the clarity of a CT image for clinical, diagnostic, and postprocessing applications. This paper proposes an evolutionary nonlinear adaptive filter approach, using Cat Swarm Functional Link Artificial Neural Network (CS-FLANN) to remove the unwanted noise. The structure of the proposed filter is based on the Functional Link Artificial Neural Network (FLANN) and the Cat Swarm Optimization (CSO) is utilized for the selection of optimum weight of the neural network filter. The applied filter has been compared with the existing linear filters, like the mean filter and the adaptive Wiener filter. The performance indices, such as peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), have been computed for the quantitative analysis of the proposed filter. The experimental evaluation established the superiority of the proposed filtering technique over existing methods. PubDate: Sun, 24 Apr 2016 11:52:30 +000

Abstract: A chaotic map-based mutual authentication scheme with strong anonymity is proposed in this paper, in which the real identity of the user is encrypted with a shared key between the user and the trusted server. Only the trusted server can determine the real identity of a user during the authentication, and any other entities including other users of the system get nothing about the user’s real identity. In addition, the shared key of encryption can be easily computed by the user and trusted server using the Chebyshev map without additional burdensome key management. Once the partnered two users are authenticated by the trusted server, they can easily proceed with the agreement of the session key. Formal security analysis demonstrates that the proposed scheme is secure under the random oracle model. PubDate: Thu, 14 Apr 2016 16:47:15 +000

Abstract: The process of thinned antenna array synthesis involves the optimization of a number of mutually conflicting parameters, such as peak sidelobe level, first null beam width, and number of active elements. This necessitates the development of a multiobjective optimization approach which will provide the best compromised solution based on the application at hand. In this paper, a novel multiobjective normal mutated binary cat swarm optimization (MO-NMBCSO) is developed and proposed for the synthesis of thinned planar antenna arrays. Through this method, a high degree of flexibility is introduced to the realm of thinned array design. A Pareto-optimal front containing all the probable designs is obtained in this process. Targeted solutions may be chosen from the Pareto front to satisfy the different requirements demonstrating the superiority of the proposed approach over multiobjective binary particle swarm optimization method (MO-BPSO). A comparative study is carried out to quantify the performance of the two algorithms using two performance metrics. PubDate: Mon, 11 Apr 2016 07:49:04 +000

Abstract: Integration of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation with power distribution networks leads to many operational challenges and complexities. Unintentional islanding is one of them which is of rising concern given the steady increase in grid-connected PV power. This paper builds up on an exploratory study of unintentional islanding on a modeled radial feeder having large PV penetration. Dynamic simulations, also run in real time, resulted in exploration of unique potential causes of creation of accidental islands. The resulting voltage and current data underwent dimensionality reduction using principal component analysis (PCA) which formed the basis for the application of statistic control charts for detecting the anomalous currents that could island the system. For reducing the false alarm rate of anomaly detection, Kullback-Leibler (K-L) divergence was applied on the principal component projections which concluded that statistic based approach alone is not reliable for detection of the symptoms liable to cause unintentional islanding. The obtained data was labeled and a -nearest neighbor (-NN) binomial classifier was then trained for identification and classification of potential islanding precursors from other power system transients. The three-phase short-circuit fault case was successfully identified as statistically different from islanding symptoms. PubDate: Wed, 30 Mar 2016 07:37:42 +000

Abstract: The design of a proportional, derivative, and integral (PID) based power system stabilizer (PSS) is carried out using the bat algorithm (BA). The design of proposed PID controller is considered with an objective function based on square error minimization to enhance the small signal stability of nonlinear power system for a wide range of operating conditions. Three benchmark power system models as single-machine infinite-bus (SMIB) power system, two-area four-machine ten-bus power system, and IEEE New England ten-machine thirty-nine-bus power system are considered to examine the effectiveness of the designed controller. The BA optimized PID based PSS (BA-PID-PSS) controller is applied to these benchmark systems, and the performance is compared with controllers reported in literature. The robustness is tested by considering eight plant conditions of each system, representing the wide range of operating conditions. It includes unlike loading conditions and system configurations to establish the superior performance with BA-PID-PSS over-the-counter controllers. PubDate: Tue, 15 Mar 2016 12:34:18 +000

Abstract: Handwritten digit recognition plays a significant role in many user authentication applications in the modern world. As the handwritten digits are not of the same size, thickness, style, and orientation, therefore, these challenges are to be faced to resolve this problem. A lot of work has been done for various non-Indic scripts particularly, in case of Roman, but, in case of Indic scripts, the research is limited. This paper presents a script invariant handwritten digit recognition system for identifying digits written in five popular scripts of Indian subcontinent, namely, Indo-Arabic, Bangla, Devanagari, Roman, and Telugu. A 130-element feature set which is basically a combination of six different types of moments, namely, geometric moment, moment invariant, affine moment invariant, Legendre moment, Zernike moment, and complex moment, has been estimated for each digit sample. Finally, the technique is evaluated on CMATER and MNIST databases using multiple classifiers and, after performing statistical significance tests, it is observed that Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) classifier outperforms the others. Satisfactory recognition accuracies are attained for all the five mentioned scripts. PubDate: Thu, 10 Mar 2016 10:00:59 +000

Abstract: The classical model of vehicle routing problem (VRP) generally minimizes either the total vehicle travelling distance or the total number of dispatched vehicles. Due to the increased importance of environmental sustainability, one variant of VRPs that minimizes the total vehicle fuel consumption has gained much attention. The resulting fuel consumption VRP (FCVRP) becomes increasingly important yet difficult. We present a mixed integer programming model for the FCVRP, and fuel consumption is measured through the degree of road gradient. Complexity analysis of FCVRP is presented through analogy with the capacitated VRP. To tackle the FCVRP’s computational intractability, we propose an efficient two-objective hybrid local search algorithm (TOHLS). TOHLS is based on a hybrid local search algorithm (HLS) that is also used to solve FCVRP. Based on the Golden CVRP benchmarks, 60 FCVRP instances are generated and tested. Finally, the computational results show that the proposed TOHLS significantly outperforms the HLS. PubDate: Mon, 07 Mar 2016 12:09:49 +000