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  Subjects -> MATHEMATICS (Total: 879 journals)
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    - MATHEMATICS (651 journals)
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MATHEMATICS (651 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 538 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abakós     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Academic Voices : A Multidisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Accounting Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
ACM Transactions on Computational Logic (TOCL)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Difference Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fixed Point Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Materials Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Pure and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Pure Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Air, Soil & Water Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
AKSIOMA Journal of Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Algebra Colloquium     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Algorithmic Operations Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Algorithms     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Algorithms Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Mathematical Analysis     Open Access  
American Journal of Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Mathematical Monthly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
An International Journal of Optimization and Control: Theories & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Matematica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Analysis Mathematica     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales Mathematicae Silesianae     Open Access  
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales UMCS, Mathematica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales Universitatis Paedagogicae Cracoviensis. Studia Mathematica     Open Access  
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Discrete Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University - Mathematics     Open Access  
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of West University of Timisoara - Mathematics     Open Access  
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Mathematics - A Journal of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Mathematics Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arab Journal of Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arabian Journal of Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archive of Numerical Software     Open Access  
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arnold Mathematical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Satellites : The Journal of Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Algebra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian-European Journal of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mathematics Teacher, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Senior Mathematics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Automatic Documentation and Mathematical Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Axioms     Open Access  
Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BIBECHANA     Open Access  
BIT Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
BoEM - Boletim online de Educação Matemática     Open Access  
Boletim Cearense de Educação e História da Matemática     Open Access  
Boletim de Educação Matemática     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Matemática Mexicana     Hybrid Journal  
Bollettino dell'Unione Matematica Italiana     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Bruno Pini Mathematical Analysis Seminar     Open Access  
Buletinul Academiei de Stiinte a Republicii Moldova. Matematica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bulletin des Sciences Mathamatiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of Dnipropetrovsk University. Series : Communications in Mathematical Modeling and Differential Equations Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Brazilian Mathematical Society, New Series     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Malaysian Mathematical Sciences Society     Hybrid Journal  
Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Carpathian Mathematical Publications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Catalysis in Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
CHANCE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ChemSusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chinese Annals of Mathematics, Series B     Hybrid Journal  
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Mathematics     Open Access  
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Collectanea Mathematica     Hybrid Journal  
College Mathematics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Commentarii Mathematici Helvetici     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Contemporary Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Communications in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications On Pure & Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Complex Analysis and its Synergies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Complex Variables and Elliptic Equations: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Complexus     Full-text available via subscription  
Composite Materials Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Comptes Rendus Mathematique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Computational Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computational Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computational Methods and Function Theory     Hybrid Journal  
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Concrete Operators     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Confluentes Mathematici     Hybrid Journal  
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal  
Cryptography and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cuadernos de Investigación y Formación en Educación Matemática     Open Access  
Cubo. A Mathematical Journal     Open Access  
Czechoslovak Mathematical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Demographic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Demonstratio Mathematica     Open Access  
Dependence Modeling     Open Access  
Design Journal : An International Journal for All Aspects of Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Developments in Clay Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Developments in Mineral Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Discrete Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Discrete Mathematics & Theoretical Computer Science     Open Access  
Discrete Mathematics, Algorithms and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dnipropetrovsk University Mathematics Bulletin     Open Access  
Doklady Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Duke Mathematical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Edited Series on Advances in Nonlinear Science and Complexity     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Graph Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Elemente der Mathematik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Energy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Enseñanza de las Ciencias : Revista de Investigación y Experiencias Didácticas     Open Access  
Ensino da Matemática em Debate     Open Access  
Entropy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ESAIM: Control Optimisation and Calculus of Variations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Combinatorics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Experimental Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Expositiones Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Mathematics and Informatics     Open Access  
Fasciculi Mathematici     Open Access  
Finite Fields and Their Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Fixed Point Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Formalized Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover Developments in Mineral Processing
  [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0167-4528
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Chapter 1 Introduction
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 17

      This chapter presents a review of the solution chemistry of reagent or mineral systems. Physico–chemical interactions in aqueous solutions play a governing role in determining the attachment of air bubbles or oil droplets to particles and hence their behavior in processes such as flotation. Relevant major interactions include self association, dissociation and precipitation of surfactants, dissolution of minerals, hydrolysis/complexation/precipitation of different species, and the reactions of surfactants with other species in the solution. In addition to the adsorption of various species, several reactions similar to the above bulk reactions can occur also at the solid/liquid interface and they will have a predominant role in determining the ultimate surfactant adsorption and thus flotation, flocculation and other colloidal behavior. Flotation process has become a cost effective and highly efficient industrial technology. Flotation theories were also developed along with the commercialization of the flotation process. These theories expounded by researchers were based on the application of fundamental chemical knowledge to explain the interactions between minerals and reagents involved in flotation.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Chapter 2 Solution equilibria of surfactants
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 17

      Reagents used in flotation, collectors, frothers, depressants, flocculants and inorganic modifiers can interact with each other in the flotation pulp and at the mineral–solution interface. The chemical equilibria involved in these interactions and the nature of the products will have a significant effect on their adsorption and the resultant flotation processes. Surfactants as acids or bases can undergo hydrolysis or dissociation reactions in aqueous solutions and change the pH of the solution. This change can further affect the interactions among reagents and minerals and between reagent species themselves. Both anionic and cationic type long-chain reagents are widely used in flotation as collectors. These include carboxylates, alkyl sulfonates, alkyl sulfates, alkyl amines and chelating agents. Most minerals, except sulfides, require long-chain collectors for their flotation. The behavior of long-chain collectors in solution is determined by the properties of the polar heads and hydrophobic tails and their resultant solvent power. The estimation of the surface activities of various species suggests that the surface activity of the acid-soap is five orders of magnitude higher than that of the neutral molecule and about seven orders of magnitude higher than that of the oleate monomer.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Chapter 3 Mineral–solution equilibria
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 17

      Most minerals dissolve in aqueous solution to some extent, the extent of which is dependent, among other factors, upon the type and concentration of relevant chemical species in the solution. The dissolved mineral species can undergo further reactions such as hydrolysis, complexation, adsorption and even surface or bulk precipitation. Surface conversion due to reactions between the dissolved species and the mineral surface can be predicted using the thermodynamic stability diagrams for heterogeneous mineral systems based on various equilibria for their dissociation. The pH values of the saturated solutions are either acidic or basic, suggesting that the dissolution and flotation of salt type minerals are much more complicated than those of sulfide and oxide minerals. Presence of even trace amounts of sparingly soluble minerals can lead to fairly high concentrations of active inorganic species such as polyvalent metallic ions. Polyvalent metallic ions can adsorb specifically on oxides and silicates; this phenomenon occurs when the cation involved hydrolyzes to its first hydroxy complex or its dioxide precipitates on the particle surface.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Chapter 4 Mineral–flotation reagent equilibria
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 17

      This chapter focuses on the interaction forces responsible for adsorption at solid–liquid interfaces and the microstructure of the adsorbed layer that influences the flotation and flocculation processes. Surface adsorption of molecules on solids from solution is an important process controlling a variety of interfacial processes such as mineral flotation, dewatering, flocculation/dispersion, blood clotting and micellar flooding of oil wells. Adsorption of surfactants on minerals from aqueous solutions results from energetically favorable interactions between the solid adsorbent and the solute species and is often a complex process since it can be influenced by the properties of solid, solvent and solute components of the system. Adsorption can be considered to be a process of selective partitioning of the adsorbent species to the interface in preference to the bulk and is the result of interactions of such species with the surface species on the solid. Chemical adsorption occurs through covalent bonding between the adsorbate and the surface species on the solid. Chemical adsorption normally involves an activation stage and is characterized by relatively higher energy changes and a lower rate of adsorption.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Chapter 5 Application of flotation agents and their
           structure–property relationships
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 17

      This chapter focuses on application of flotation agents and their structure–property relationships. Each group of the molecule has an individual role in the flotation. Overall property of the molecule is a cumulative one of all the groups. A reagent molecule with various structural portions can therefore be divided into individual groups and its effect on the whole molecular property can be assessed. A collector is required to have at least two essential properties—namely, adsorption on desired mineral particles and hydrophobization of their surfaces. Except for non-polar oils that are used sometimes as collectors for such naturally hydrophobic minerals like coal, the most common collector molecules possess minerophilic and hydrophobic portions to acquire the above properties. Solubility products of collector–metallic ion compounds suggest that the sulfide mineral collectors such as xanthates, mercaptans and thiophosphates containing sulfur bonding atom in the minerophilic group can form compounds of low solubility products with ions of elements with affinity for copper (II).

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • The Ka values of commonly used anionic flotagents (Tables A1.1–A1.5)
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 17



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Appendix B: Proton addition constants of some flotation reagents
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 17



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Appendix C: Stability coefficients of metallic ionic hydroxy complex
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 17



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Appendix D: Solubility products of some minerals and compounds
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 17



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Chapter 1 Harmonizing the resource, technology and environmental cycles
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 16



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Chapter 2 Sustainability and industrial ecology
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 16

      In the last decades, sustainable development has become the cornerstone of environmental policy, and a leading principle for resource management. Sustainability, the continued welfare of human and other life on earth, is an emerging system property. The designation refers to the fact that sustainability is a property of the system as a whole and that one can not know that the system is sustainable until in fact sustainability has been achieved. Sustainability is not a specific system configuration that can be accomplished, but rather a property that emerges from the continuous co-evolution of human and natural systems. As a consequence the concept of sustainability provides little assistance for decision making in specific cases. Industrial ecology is an ecological or systems approach that focuses on a part of sustainability. It can make the concept of sustainability applicable to decision-making. Based on sustainable examples in nature, ecosystems, it aims to achieve a deliberate (r)evolution of industrial activities within the boundaries set forth by natural systems they are founded on. Industrial ecology thus determines the industrial conditions for sustainability. Its implementation can buy time for the necessary societal evolution. This deliberate development of industrial systems towards sustainability requires (i) the co-ordination of industrial activities mutually, and with the other activities in the resource cycles, and therefore (ii) the support of decisionmaking across various organizational levels that influence industrial activities. Two elements can be distinguished in industrial ecology approach: descriptive and prescriptive elements. the descriptive element describes the industrial system at and across system levels. The prescriptive element aims to stimulate decision-making based on considerations of sustainability. However, different prescriptive elements are not always complementary, and can be conflicting. For the realization of the objective, through co-ordination of decision-making across system levels, descriptive approaches should be able link the different prescriptive efforts by showing their effect consistently at the various levels of the industrial system. This can be realized by proper modelling of the underlying technological subsystems, and convergence of the different descriptive models that generally address the higher system levels. Only if industrial ecology models can build on the results of models of underlying systems (and the other way round), a consistent picture of the influence of different effort can be obtained.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Chapter 3 A description of the metal cycles
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 16

      In comparison with the well-known examples of eco-industrial parks, the interconnected metal production and recycling system is a less recognized example of industrial ecology in practice. The metallurgical industries minimized the use of resources and production of wastes by interchanging resources, intermediates and residues between processes. As a result, the production of metals is so interdependent that they can hardly be considered separately. The metal production and recycling system is an excellent case to study the potential of the current descriptive approaches to design and manage industrial systems as industrial ecosystems. To date, however, industrial ecology studies on metals production and recycling lack a sufficient depth to invoke improvement for metal processing and recycling systems. Because the metal production and recycling capacity is realized by a dynamic network of reactors, tools to invoke improvement in this capacity also require modelling at level of reactors. The metal wheel is introduced as a simple means to visualize the interdependencies in metals processing. It can be used in the establishment of system boundaries. The (dynamic) interdependence in metals processing resulting from the ecosystem organization calls for a different model approach than for other resources that are less interdependent. Capturing the interdependence in MFA models requires modelling the interconnections between the metal process steps, i.e. based on detailed mass balances of individual processes and process steps. Without sufficient detail on the underlying networks of process steps, the flows between the different metal production circuits, but also from and into the environment can not be adequately estimated. To construct a quantitative description of the metal cycles, it is necessary to rely on a mix of information from a great many sources often collected for different purposes, with different detail and accuracy. Statistical methods, in particular data reconciliation, are necessary to ensure the reliability and consistency of the data at the different system levels. The required efforts to do so may be an impediment for many (LCA) studies on the metals production and recycling system or parts of it. Additional tools to complement these (LCA) studies are required to calculate changes in the metallurgy. For these tools SFA models can be used based on reconciled mass balances of all metallurgical process steps involved. Because this is a very data-intensive process, industrial ecologists must clearly define their data requirements. Only if a model methodology is well defined, data can be collected and published in a structured way. In this context, methodological convergence in the current trends in research and modelling of environment related flows in the physical economy is essential. Such convergence could yield significant benefits with respect to the underlying data collection, accessibility and conformity. Thus it could reduce the effort of considering the interdependences in metallurgical systems. For this reason, the data underlying the quantitative description is reported in detail in the appendices. The data can serve as a solid basis for other studies on metals processing and recovery. It is essential that the metallurgical, the manufacturing and waste management industries collect and present data on the different stages in the metal cycles (i) in a way that allows modelling of these systems, and (ii) in literature available to industrial ecologists (or other people that construct material inventories) rather than in specialist or professional literature, conference proceedings etc. alone. Availability of current data is even more important considering that the metallurgical system is an evolving system. The tacit knowledge plays an important role in the development of the performance of existing processes and of the development of new processes, but can hardly be modelled. For representative modelling of metallurgical systems, industry must ensure that model data and flowsheets (the configuration of the processes) represent industrial practice.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Chapter 4 A prescription for the metal cycles
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 16

      In comparison with the well-known examples of eco-industrial parks, the interconnected metal production and recycling system is a less recognized example of industrial ecology in practice. The metallurgical industries minimized the use of resources and production of wastes by interchanging resources, intermediates and residues between processes. As a result, the production of metals is so interdependent that they can hardly be considered separately. The metal production and recycling system is an excellent case to study the potential of the current descriptive approaches to design and manage industrial systems as industrial ecosystems. To date, however, industrial ecology studies on metals production and recycling lack a sufficient depth to invoke improvement for metal processing and recycling systems. Because the metal production and recycling capacity is realized by a dynamic network of reactors, tools to invoke improvement in this capacity also require modelling at level of reactors. The metal wheel is introduced as a simple means to visualize the interdependencies in metals processing. It can be used in the establishment of system boundaries. The (dynamic) interdependence in metals processing resulting from the ecosystem organization calls for a different model approach than for other resources that are less interdependent. Capturing the interdependence in MFA models requires modelling the interconnections between the metal process steps, i.e. based on detailed mass balances of individual processes and process steps. Without sufficient detail on the underlying networks of process steps, the flows between the different metal production circuits, but also from and into the environment can not be adequately estimated. To construct a quantitative description of the metal cycles, it is necessary to rely on a mix of information from a great many sources often collected for different purposes, with different detail and accuracy. Statistical methods, in particular data reconciliation, are necessary to ensure the reliability and consistency of the data at the different system levels. The required efforts to do so may be an impediment for many (LCA) studies on the metals production and recycling system or parts of it. Additional tools to complement these (LCA) studies are required to calculate changes in the metallurgy. For these tools SFA models can be used based on reconciled mass balances of all metallurgical process steps involved. Because this is a very data-intensive process, industrial ecologists must clearly define their data requirements. Only if a model methodology is well defined, data can be collected and published in a structured way. In this context, methodological convergence in the current trends in research and modelling of environment related flows in the physical economy is essential. Such convergence could yield significant benefits with respect to the underlying data collection, accessibility and conformity. Thus it could reduce the effort of considering the interdependences in metallurgical systems. For this reason, the data underlying the quantitative description is reported in detail in the appendices. The data can serve as a solid basis for other studies on metals processing and recovery. It is essential that the metallurgical, the manufacturing and waste management industries collect and present data on the different stages in the metal cycles (i) in a way that allows modelling of these systems, and (ii) in literature available to industrial ecologists (or other people that construct material inventories) rather than in specialist or professional literature, conference proceedings etc. alone. Availability of current data is even more important considering that the metallurgical system is an evolving system. The tacit knowledge plays an important role in the development of the performance of existing processes and of the development of new processes, but can hardly be modelled. For representative modelling of metallurgical systems, industry must ensure that model data and flowsheets (the configuration of the processes) represent industrial practice.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Chapter 5 Electronics recycling: Lead free solder
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 16

      In the previous chapter it is shown that the current metallurgic knowledge and industrial infrastructure have the capacity to realize industrial ecology strategies, but only if the metallurgic constraints of metals production and recycling are taken into account in waste management, policy development, and product design (and vice versa). Adequate modelling and presentation of modelling results of the metal production network are required to assess the consequences of existing and new regulation, product innovations, and process improvements. The model of the interdependent industrial metal resource cycles presented meets these criteria. The model can be used to estimate the effect of regulatory, product and process changes system-wide, and identify possible bottlenecks at process level. In such a way, the model can be used to co-ordinate decision-making across the different systems levels by identifying possible (technological) bottlenecks. The system of metal production and recycling processes is too complex to fully predict the environmental consequences of technological changes or new policy and legislation. The effects of changes to the metal metabolism can not be completely modelled using mass balances only, among others due to the complex interdependence between feed composition and product quality in metallurgical processes- partly controlled by the tacit knowledge in the processes. The model can sufficiently predict system-wide changes in the system, to assist in initiating stakeholder assessments. The combined (partly tacit) knowledge of the stakeholders can be feed back into the model and further develop the model. This is why and where industrial ecologists and metallurgists must join forces. In short, metallurgical process technology know-how must complement a sound understanding of economics and regulation to bring to fruition industrial ecology concepts. Without a sound technological and scientific basis, industrial ecology will remain in theory and philosophy books.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Chapter 6 Web of metals model discussed
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 16



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Chapter 7 The dynamic and distributed nature of the recycling rate of the
           car—a fundamental description of recycling systems
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 16

      Recycling is an important factor in order to achieve a sustainable development our society.In Europe targets have been laid down by EU legislation for the recycling rate of end-of-lifevehicles to be achieved within the nearby future. These strict recycling targets are one of thedriving forces for more awareness on the importance of recycling in the product's life cycle aswell as for the optimisation of recycling systems. A solid technological framework is requiredto discuss and assess the performance of recycling systems, as well as to calculate recyclingrates in view of EU legislation. u ⊙ Literature survey has indicated that a fundamental technological framework is lacking.No theoretically founded and therefore consistent basis exists in order to describe recycling systems and its parameters and to determine the recycling rate of passengervehicles or any other product under consideration. The EU definition does not provideany insight into the various parameters playing a role in the achievement of the imposedrecycling targets, which is however essential to improve recycling systems and productdesign in order to fulfil these strict targets and therefore does not provide a solid basisto understand and assess recycling systems. ⊙ The definition of the recycling rate of the car as used in the EU directive on end-of-life vehicles is critically reviewed. It is discussed that the recycling rate cannot berepresented by an average or single value as required by EU legislation and the ISOnorm, but is largely dependent on the dynamic and distributed nature and therefore thestandard deviations of the time-varying lifetime, weight and composition of the car. Adynamic systems model have been developed describing the behaviour of the resourcecycle and its dynamic and statistically distributed parameters over time and is used tomore precisely define the recycling rate and its parameters. ⊙ The various simulations presented, using the dynamic system model, make clear thatthe weight and composition of the car at production and dismantling, as well as thematerials accumulating in the system, are determined by the different distributions andare highly dependent on changes in these. Hence the simulations show the effect of thedistributions for the lifetime, weight and composition on the definitions of the recyclingand recovery rate of the car as explored in this paper. Moreover, the simulations clearlyillustrate the difference in the recycling rates to be achieved, applying the differentdefinitions for the recycling and recovery rate as presented in this chapter. Althoughthis may be obvious, it emphasises the critical importance of an accurately definedrecycling rate and its time-dependent parameters used in EU legislation. ⊙ Without the use of a dynamic knowledge based model, the complex recycling systemcannot be described properly and accurate enough to discuss the implications of EUrecycling policy and the achievement of EU recycling targets. ⊙ It is indicated that without any statistics involved and the issues and theory discussedin this chapter the ISO norm for recycling rate calculation is really useless. The significant conclusions of this chapter and the consequences for legislation are sum-marized by the following: ⊙ if output quotas are to imposed as sharply as is foreseen in the EU directive theyshould be supported by a physical, thermodynamic and practical basis, otherwise it isquestionable if quotas have any legal and technological meaning; ⊙ monitoring the quality of the complete system, which includes the guaranteeing of thestatistical integrity of all data of complex material flows, could cause such excessivecosts that this would become impractical; - therefore the calculation of recycling/recovery rate, without the statistical basedmonitoring of data for the recycling system as a whole, is legally impossible todefend; ⊙ in a well run recycling system all actors and plants will operate their process econom-ically, and therefore implicitly within environmental legislation, ensuring an optimalrecycling rate will be achieved within and for the system, which permits the flexibil-ity of each operator within the system to run his operation as best as possible withinnature's laws.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Chapter 8 Dynamic modelling and optimization of the resource cycle of
           passenger vehicles - a technological framework
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 16



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Chapter 9 The role of particle size reduction, liberation and product
           design in recycling passenger vehicles
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 16



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Chapter 10 Recycling experiments—from theory to practice
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 16



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Chapter 11 Raw materials for aluminium production
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 16



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Chapter 12 Pre-treatment of aluminium containing material
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 16



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Chapter 13 Aluminium metal production
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 16



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Chapter 14 Simulating a rotary furnace for aluminium recycling
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 16



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Appendix A Fundamentals of physical separation and metallurgical recycling
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 16



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Appendix B Description of metal production flowcharts
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 16



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Appendix C Car recycling - a numerical study
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 16



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Appendix D Simulink model for metal web
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 16



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Bibliography
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 16



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Acknowledgements
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 15



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • List of Acronyms
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 15



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • List of Mineral Formulae
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 15



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Gold – An historical introduction
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 15

      From ancient times to the present day, gold has been valued by man. Man valued gold for its lustrous color and its resistance to tarnishing, and so it was used for special decorative ornaments and jewellery. The veneration reserved for gold by the ancients has led to its use for many centuries for religious artefacts. Egypt was the principal gold-producing country in ancient times. Herodotus refers to several great gold-mining centers in Asia Minor and Strabo mentions gold mining in many different places. Pliny gives many details of ancient placer mining, which was extensive. To the medieval alchemists, gold has been regarded as a metal of perfection. They identified it with the sun by virtue of its bright yellow color and it was given the symbol of a circle with a dot in the center. Through the centuries gold-making has been alternately encouraged, and banned by monarchs and the church.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Sampling procedures
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 15

      Accurate sampling methods are critical to obtaining meaningful analytical data in the gold industry. The basic rule for correct sampling and sample processing is that all parts of the ore, concentrate or slurry being sampled, must have an equal probability of being collected and becoming part of the final sample for analysis. If this is not the case, bias is easily introduced that cannot be eliminated by simply averaging replicate measurements. Special care must also be taken to ensure that sample masses are adequate at each stage of sampling and sample preparation to achieve the required precision. Different sampling basics, components of sampling, and how to process the samples are described in this chapter.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Mineralogical investigation of gold ores
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 15

      Mineralogical investigation is a critical and integral aspect of any prefeasibility study, as well as one of the quality control measures in the process optimization step. Characterization of gold minerals and carriers in composite ore sample can be used to diagnose, and predict metallurgical response, identify potential problems, and help in the design of a more robust metallurgical testwork program. Detailed gold deportment study of tailing samples with the assistance of all available microbeam techniques is used to determine each form and carrier of gold, on a quantitative and independent basis to assess unequivocally, and to rank causes for not recovering gold. This is the best approach for identifying the problems in gold plants, for setting realistic targets for tails grade, and assisting in developing strategies for pushing recovery even higher.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Process flowsheet selection
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 15

      The treatment of gold ores, in particular the competing technologies and their relative advantages and economics, has become a major focus within the industry. A common issue is the increasingly refractory and complex nature of the ores being treated. This chapter gives an overview of the key process options and provides a starting point for the process engineer engaged in establishing the optimum flowsheet. Flowsheet selection for free-milling ores can be relatively straightforward, with the key issues revolving around comminution circuit selection, the use of heap leaching, treatment of high-silver ores, and flotation options for freemilling sulfides. The chapter describes comminution process options, free-milling ore process options, complex ore process options, and factors for consideration in refractory process selection.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Metallurgical testwork: Gold processing options, physical ore properties
           and cyanide management
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 15

      Processing of gold ores has become a site-specific choice of techniques and processes, depending on mineralogical, chemical, and metallurgical factors. Knowledge of these is important in the formulation of testwork for any gold operation. As general community expectations and awareness have increased, other aspects of gold mining have also become more important during early testing and evaluation of gold projects. This includes more pro-active cyanide management plans that inevitably involve a comprehensive understanding of the deportment of cyanide throughout the plant. The chapter provides a list of typical tests and procedures likely to be considered for a gold program. Cyanidation process has been the key element in the processing of gold ore. Over the years steady improvements have occurred in equipment design; milling has evolved from stamp mills, through tube mills and ball mills, to the large semi-autogenous grinding (SAG) and fullyautogenous grinding (FAG) circuits in modern gold plants. Application of gravity concentration has also waxed and waned over the years but with the development of modern centrifugal machines; this technique has become more popular and sees a greater variety of equipment alternatives being available than ever before. The advent of carbon-in-pulp was the single most important technological development over the past hundred years.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Process simulation and modelling
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 15

      Simulation technology has been used in the gold industry for over two decades. It is firmly established in the engineering and design field, and is most commonly used to produce steady-state mass and energy balances. Process simulation involves building a model either of a single area of the gold recovery plant or of the whole operation, usually using specialized software tools. This model responds to given inputs much as the operation would be expected to behave in the real world. Using it, the engineer can experiment testing various ideas and options to get an understanding of how the actual operation would behave in certain situations. It is used to size new plant and equipment, trial new equipment or control strategies, and to see how the system will perform at different loads or ore blends. By simulating the process plant closely, the process engineer can remove a large amount of uncertainty from engineering decisions. Modeling for decision support is therefore becoming a project requirement in the gold industry.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Feasibility study plant design
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 15

      There are a number of key objectives in completing the process plant design for a feasibility study: the plant design must be feasible and constructible; the plant design must focus on the key issues that drive the capital and operating costs; only sufficient design is completed to provide backup for the capital and operating cost estimates at appropriate level of accuracy to establish the feasibility of the design; and the feasibility study design may identify a number of issues needing resolution at the detailed design stage. Every study is different and has a number of project specific factors. This chapter provides an overview of some of the key drivers for the process plant design on an area basis.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Commissioning
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 15

      This chapter addresses the commissioning activities that bring a gold plant from the construction phase to routine plant operation. These activities are initiated early in the engineering and design phase to ensure that construction is scheduled, such that commissioning occurs in a safe, timely, and cost-effective manner. Commissioning includes all the activities relating to the installation testing, no-load testing, systems checks, water commissioning, ore commissioning, performance trials, and early gold plant operation. Commissioning programs require careful planning, effective communication, and detailed reporting. Managing the expectations of all parties, particularly when cost pressures exist on the project, is one of the first activities during the lead up to ore commissioning. Effective communication throughout the project with engineering, construction management, contractors, vendors, and owner's representatives is paramount.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • International cyanide management code
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 15

      The development of an International Cyanide Management Code is seen as an important and responsible action by gold producers, cyanide manufacturers, and associated transportation companies to augment existing regulatory requirements or fill in gaps when such regulatory requirements are lacking. The code provides comprehensive guidance for best practice in the use and management of cyanide at gold mines around the world, and reaches beyond the requirements of most governments and regulatory agencies. A significant body of technical and administrative work in developing the code has already been carried out by a large, and varied international group of contributors and stakeholders. The challenge now exists to carry this forward to practical implementation and administration.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Process control
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 15

      Gold plants are operated with process control, and optimization strategies that are inadequate and poorly supported. In recent times, however, plants are increasingly gaining substantial benefits by the installation and operation of good control systems that increase recovery, save costs, and streamline operation. Process control should fulfill several direct technical aims. Intrinsically, unstable process variables like sump levels and thickener underflow densities need to be stabilized and regulated at set points. Compensation might be required for measured disturbances, such as varying feeds to flotation plants. Quality-indicating measurements of final or intermediate products, such as particle size after milling, should be controlled when possible. Operating conditions should be regulated at optimum conditions, which themselves often need to be determined in a slower-acting strategy.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
  • Closure and rehabilitation of gold-processing plants
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Developments in Mineral Processing, Volume 15

      Each mining operation goes through a number of phases in the course of its life; the final one being that of closure, abandonment, and rehabilitation back to an appropriate landform and land use. Essentially, it is an exercise in risk management to achieve the outcomes appropriate to stakeholder objectives and expectations. The strategy should include consideration of likely outcomes within the context of the potential for: (i) an operation to reopen at some future time subject to future exploration success and (ii) total closure, abandonment, and rehabilitation in the event that mining and exploration leases are sterilized. Ideally, a closure strategy and plan should be completed at the earliest opportunity in the life cycle of the operation. This chapter deals with one section of mining operation under closure— that is, process closure and clean-up.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:31:33Z
       
 
 
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