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  Subjects -> MATHEMATICS (Total: 867 journals)
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    - MATHEMATICS (645 journals)
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MATHEMATICS (645 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 538 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abakós     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Academic Voices : A Multidisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Accounting Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
ACM Transactions on Computational Logic (TOCL)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Difference Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fixed Point Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Materials Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
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Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Pure and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Pure Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Air, Soil & Water Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
AKSIOMA Journal of Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Algebra Colloquium     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Algorithmic Operations Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Algorithms     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Algorithms Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Mathematical Analysis     Open Access  
American Journal of Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Mathematical Monthly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
An International Journal of Optimization and Control: Theories & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Matematica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analysis Mathematica     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales Mathematicae Silesianae     Open Access  
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales UMCS, Mathematica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales Universitatis Paedagogicae Cracoviensis. Studia Mathematica     Open Access  
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Discrete Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University - Mathematics     Open Access  
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of West University of Timisoara - Mathematics     Open Access  
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Mathematics - A Journal of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Mathematics Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arab Journal of Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arabian Journal of Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archive of Numerical Software     Open Access  
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arnold Mathematical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Satellites : The Journal of Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Algebra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian-European Journal of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mathematics Teacher, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Senior Mathematics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Automatic Documentation and Mathematical Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Axioms     Open Access  
Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BIBECHANA     Open Access  
BIT Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
BoEM - Boletim online de Educação Matemática     Open Access  
Boletim Cearense de Educação e História da Matemática     Open Access  
Boletim de Educação Matemática     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Matemática Mexicana     Hybrid Journal  
Bollettino dell'Unione Matematica Italiana     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Bruno Pini Mathematical Analysis Seminar     Open Access  
Buletinul Academiei de Stiinte a Republicii Moldova. Matematica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bulletin des Sciences Mathamatiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of Dnipropetrovsk University. Series : Communications in Mathematical Modeling and Differential Equations Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Brazilian Mathematical Society, New Series     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Malaysian Mathematical Sciences Society     Hybrid Journal  
Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Carpathian Mathematical Publications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Catalysis in Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
CHANCE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ChemSusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chinese Annals of Mathematics, Series B     Hybrid Journal  
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Mathematics     Open Access  
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Collectanea Mathematica     Hybrid Journal  
College Mathematics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Commentarii Mathematici Helvetici     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Contemporary Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Communications in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications On Pure & Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Complex Analysis and its Synergies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Complex Variables and Elliptic Equations: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Complexus     Full-text available via subscription  
Composite Materials Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Comptes Rendus Mathematique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Computational Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computational Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computational Methods and Function Theory     Hybrid Journal  
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Concrete Operators     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Confluentes Mathematici     Hybrid Journal  
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal  
Cryptography and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Cuadernos de Investigación y Formación en Educación Matemática     Open Access  
Cubo. A Mathematical Journal     Open Access  
Czechoslovak Mathematical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Demographic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Demonstratio Mathematica     Open Access  
Dependence Modeling     Open Access  
Design Journal : An International Journal for All Aspects of Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Developments in Clay Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Developments in Mineral Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Discrete Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Discrete Mathematics & Theoretical Computer Science     Open Access  
Discrete Mathematics, Algorithms and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Doklady Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Duke Mathematical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Edited Series on Advances in Nonlinear Science and Complexity     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Graph Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Elemente der Mathematik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Energy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Enseñanza de las Ciencias : Revista de Investigación y Experiencias Didácticas     Open Access  
Ensino da Matemática em Debate     Open Access  
Entropy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ESAIM: Control Optimisation and Calculus of Variations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Combinatorics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Experimental Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Expositiones Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Mathematics and Informatics     Open Access  
Fasciculi Mathematici     Open Access  
Finite Fields and Their Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Fixed Point Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Formalized Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Foundations and Trends® in Econometrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover Developments in Clay Science
  [SJR: 0.612]   [H-I: 19]   [1 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1572-4352
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Acknowledgements
    • Authors: P. Yuan; A. Thill; F. Bergaya
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Developments in Clay Science, Volume 7
      Author(s): P. Yuan, A. Thill, F. Bergaya


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-08-100293-3.09999-4
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2016)
       
  • Chapter 3 Geology and Mineralogy of Imogolite-Type Materials
    • Authors: C. Levard; I. Basile-Doelsch
      Pages: 49 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Developments in Clay Science, Volume 7
      Author(s): C. Levard, I. Basile-Doelsch
      Because of their occurrence, high specific surface area and reactivity, poorly ordered secondary minerals are key actors controlling a lot of biogeochemical processes in soils. Among them, short-range ordered aluminosilicates form in volcanic ash soils and control in part the larger scale properties of these soils in term of hydraulic properties, ion retention and organic matter cycling. This chapter aims at revisiting the mineralogy and formation understanding of these imogolite-type materials in regard of their occurrence (soils sensus-stricto vs weathered tephra layers). Finally, their reactivity and their effects on soil properties are examined.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-08-100293-3.00003-0
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2016)
       
  • Chapter 9 Physicochemical Properties of Imogolite
    • Authors: A. Fernandez-Martinez; L.J. Michot
      Pages: 202 - 222
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Developments in Clay Science, Volume 7
      Author(s): A. Fernandez-Martinez, L.J. Michot
      Imogolite and imogolite-like materials are currently considered for various industrial applications, such as gas capture and separation, catalysis or contaminant remediation, to name a few. This is linked to the particular nanotubular structure and unique physicochemical properties of this clay mineral, such as a highly hydrophilic internal pore and a high specificity towards metal uptake. These latter properties are also key explanations to the important role played by imogolite in the soil (mainly volcanic soil), where it controls water retention, organics mobility and metal uptake. Thanks to recent advances in synthesis and surface functionalization methods, the focus on imogolite has shifted from the soil science community, which was almost the only one interested in these materials in the 1960s and 1970s, to the materials science and physical chemistry communities, which consider imogolite as an extremely relevant model for various studies. In this chapter, physicochemical properties such as surface charge, electrokinetic phenomena, acid–base reactivity and adsorption properties in both the gas and liquid phases are reviewed and put in perspective according to the impact that imogolite has on soil, as well as to its potential industrial applications.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-08-100293-3.00009-1
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2016)
       
  • Chapter 11 Deformations and Thermal Modifications of Imogolite
    • Authors: S. Rouzière; M.S. Amara; E. Paineau; P. Launois
      Pages: 254 - 278
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Developments in Clay Science, Volume 7
      Author(s): S. Rouzière, M.S. Amara, E. Paineau, P. Launois
      Imogolites, which are aluminosilicate or aluminogermanate nanotubes, are usually known as cylindrical nanotubes. However, in powders, deformations or further structural modifications of these nanotubes occur due to intertube interactions or under the action of temperature. Depending on whether they are organised in bundles or not, ovalisation or hexagonalisation phenomena are reported, based on detailed X-ray scattering (XRS) studies. The basics of XRS and the specific models developed for investigating such structural modifications are presented. Finally, thermally induced structural transformations, from the dehydroxylation process to the lamellar and high-temperature mullite phases, are reviewed.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-08-100293-3.00011-x
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2016)
       
  • Chapter 13 Liquid-Crystalline Phases of Imogolite and Halloysite
           Dispersions
    • Authors: P. Davidson; I. Dozov
      Pages: 308 - 330
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Developments in Clay Science, Volume 7
      Author(s): P. Davidson, I. Dozov
      Colloidal dispersions of rodlike nanoparticles are known to spontaneously self-organize in liquid-crystalline phases at large enough concentrations. Tubular clay minerals, like imogolite and halloysite (which are both stiff and very elongated particles), are good candidates to explore such behaviour. Indeed, investigations of their dispersions, mostly in water but sometimes also in apolar solvents, by optical microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering prove the appearance of a liquid-crystalline order. In the nematic phase, all particles spontaneously align in the same direction, whereas in the columnar phase, they also order on a two-dimensional lattice. As examples of ‘soft matter’, the liquid-crystalline phases of imogolite dispersions are easily aligned by submitting them to an alternating electric field of high frequency. This phenomenon could be used to prepare imogolite-based anisotropic nanocomposite materials with improved physical properties.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-08-100293-3.00013-3
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2016)
       
  • Chapter 14 Molecular Simulation of Nanosized Tubular Clay Minerals
    • Authors: H.A. Duarte
      Pages: 331 - 359
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Developments in Clay Science, Volume 7
      Author(s): H.A. Duarte
      Computational chemistry has been used to investigate the chemical properties and structure of clay mineral nanotubes such as imogolite, halloysite and chrysotile. The different methodologies used, such as classical molecular dynamics, density-functional theory and approximate methods such as self-consistent-charge density-functional tight-binding, have provided insights into electronic, structural and mechanical properties of these nanotubes and their chemical modification. The main achievements and contributions for understanding these systems at a molecular level are discussed in this chapter. Most of the theoretical studies are focused on the imogolite (imogolite-Si) and aluminogermanate imogolite-like (imogolite-Ge) nanotubes due to their unique structure. The strain energy curves of the clay mineral nanotubes are compared and discussed in detail. The chemical modification of imogolites, double-walled imogolite nanotubes and other nanotubular silicas has also been investigated using computational chemistry, and the main results are presented.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-08-100293-3.00014-5
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2016)
       
  • Chapter 19 Imogolite-Like Family
    • Authors: N. Arancibia-Miranda; M. Escudey
      Pages: 458 - 483
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Developments in Clay Science, Volume 7
      Author(s): N. Arancibia-Miranda, M. Escudey
      The term nanotechnology can be defined as the science responsible for designing, manufacturing and exploiting matter on the nanometer scale. It seeks to explain and understand the relationship between structure, composition and physical properties, which may depart significantly from what bulk matter permits. In this context, imogolite can be considered an exceptional nanotube model. Using different and simple steps during imogolite synthesis, it is possible to partially or totally replace its constituting elements and significantly modify its shape while keeping the same local structure. This exceptional versatility in structure and composition makes imogolite not only a unique material but also a whole family of nanoparticles sharing the same original local structure. This chapter describes the different methods that can be used to obtain imogolite family members. The methods of syntheses, formation mechanisms and properties are also described in detail for some of the most studied imogolite varieties.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-08-100293-3.00019-4
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2016)
       
  • Chapter 20 An Overview on the Safety of Tubular Clay Minerals
    • Authors: M.-C. Jaurand
      Pages: 485 - 508
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Developments in Clay Science, Volume 7
      Author(s): M.-C. Jaurand
      This chapter reviews the studies that have been carried out to investigate the biological effects of halloysite and imogolite nanotubes. It summarises the evolution of the health issues related to fibre exposure, based on our knowledge on the mechanism of action of asbestos fibres, as well as of the determinants of fibre toxicity. Further investigations on the biological effects of carbon nanotubes have been conducted that link the adverse effects of fibres to their high-aspect ratio, justifying the concern about the potential health effects of nanotubular clay minerals. Both halloysite and imogolite are used in medical applications, but from the literature data, most studies performed with halloysite nanotubes were cytotoxicity studies developed in a context of medical research, while more classical toxicological studies (including one animal study) were developed with imogolite nanotubes. In this context, halloysite nanotubes do not appear to exert a cytotoxic effect, and some imogolite nanotubes may show both cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. However, the limited number of studies and end points assessed (mostly cytotoxicity and the diversity of the nanotubes used in the experiments) do not allow one to draw general conclusions on their potential impact on human health. The discussion covers a number of issues specific to the toxicology of nanotubular clay minerals and some perspectives on making proposals to acquire pertinent information on the human health risk from exposure to nanotubular clay minerals.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-08-100293-3.00020-0
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2016)
       
  • Chapter 22 Halloysite for Controllable Loading and Release
    • Authors: E. Abdullayev; Y. Lvov
      Pages: 554 - 605
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Developments in Clay Science, Volume 7
      Author(s): E. Abdullayev, Y. Lvov
      Natural halloysite nanotubes are described as inorganic nanocontainers for the controlled delivery of active agents like self-healing, anticorrosion and antimicrobial agents, medicines, dyes and proteins. Their small particle size and large pores make them attractive for sustained release applications in conjunction with polymeric additives. Doping such containers into polymers allows one to obtain smart clay polymer nanocomposites with functional properties that are used in tissue engineering, bone implants, protective coatings, scaffolds for wound healing and other applications. Loading and release properties of various active agents are discussed in this chapter, along with strategies of halloysite surface functionalisation to obtain enhanced loading and sustained release behaviours.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-08-100293-3.00022-4
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2016)
       
  • Chapter 25 Imogolite for Catalysis and Adsorption
    • Authors: E. Garrone; B. Bonelli
      Pages: 672 - 707
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Developments in Clay Science, Volume 7
      Author(s): E. Garrone, B. Bonelli
      The possible applications of imogolite and imogolite-like materials as heterogeneous catalysts are addressed, by taking into account the issues related to both diffusional problems and thermal stability. After a brief introduction, some examples from the research literature will be considered, including the catalytic properties of some modified imogolite and imogolite-related phases—namely its precursor (proto-imogolite) and the phase stemming from nanotubes thermal collapse above 300°C. Adsorption properties towards gases (mainly methane and carbon dioxide) and the high affinity for water vapour will be addressed, including some aspects specifically related to selective adsorption of CO2. Finally, the adsorptive properties of imogolite towards ions in aqueous phases will be briefly reviewed.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-08-100293-3.00025-x
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2016)
       
  • Chapter 26 Health and Medical Applications of Tubular Clay Minerals
    • Authors: C. Aguzzi; G. Sandri; P. Cerezo; E. Carazo; C. Viseras
      Pages: 708 - 725
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Developments in Clay Science, Volume 7
      Author(s): C. Aguzzi, G. Sandri, P. Cerezo, E. Carazo, C. Viseras
      Nanosized tubular clay minerals such as halloysite and imogolite have attracted a great deal of interest in the last several years as materials intended for drug delivery, tissue engineering and medical devices and diagnostics. Transferring the acquired knowledge to clinical practice and adequate cost-effectiveness in comparison to conventional alternatives are two of the challenges for the medical application of such tubular clay minerals. Basic research is needed to fully understand the underlying interaction mechanism between the nanosized tubular clay minerals and host drugs, genes and biological matter. These clay minerals have demonstrated their possibilities in both target delivery and diagnostics, and it is expected that in the near future, they will be used in theranostic platforms that can carry out an in situ, comprehensive diagnostic, and then deliver drugs, genes or both to the diseased tissue or cell and monitor the resultant therapeutic response. This is the new frontier of nanosized tubular clay minerals in health-care applications.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-08-100293-3.00026-1
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2016)
       
  • Chapter 27 Industrial Implications in the Uses of Tubular Clay Minerals
    • Authors: O. Poncelet; J. Skrzypski
      Pages: 726 - 734
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Developments in Clay Science, Volume 7
      Author(s): O. Poncelet, J. Skrzypski
      The purpose of this chapter is to give a pragmatic overview of the industrial uses of imogolite and halloysite. Some general considerations about the marketing of products containing nanocharges will be given. However, the industrial potentials of halloysite have already been well described in a recent review (Rawtani and Agrawal, 2012), so this topic will not be fully discussed here. A short review of the technical advantages of using tubular high-aspect ratio nanocharges will be given. Finally, a particular emphasis will be made on the uses of synthetic imogolite and parent materials at Eastman Kodak in the years 1990–2006. Imogolite and halloysite are clearly unique nanocharges that have been used in various high-value niche markets and that probably will be used advantageously in many other technical fields.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-08-100293-3.00027-3
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2016)
       
  • Chapter 1 General Introduction
    • Authors: Yuan Bergaya; Thill
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Developments in Clay Science, Volume 7
      Author(s): P. Yuan, F. Bergaya, A. Thill
      This chapter outlines the ‘whole picture’ of this book. The concept of nanosized tubular clay minerals is introduced, and the general information about the past and present studies on typical nanosized tubular clay minerals, halloysite and imogolite, is briefly reviewed. In addition, the main content of each chapter of this book is forenoticed.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:40Z
       
  • Chapter 2 Geology and Mineralogy of Nanosized Tubular Halloysite
    • Authors: Joussein
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Developments in Clay Science, Volume 7
      Author(s): E. Joussein
      Halloysite, a 1:1 clay mineral, occurs in a variety of particle shapes (tubes, spheres, plates, etc.) and has different hydration states. The actual nomenclature is based onto the hydration status (ie, halloysite (10Å) and halloysite (7Å) for the fully hydrated and the dehydrated forms, respectively). Typically, halloysite forms by hydrothermal alteration and exhibits in most cases a naturally occurring, hollow tubular structure. However, their chemical composition, cation exchange capacity and reactivity towards various components are also quite diverse. This chapter summarises the up-to-date literature, throughout the history of its nomenclature, from its natural occurrence, geological processes and main deposits, structure and chemical and morphological diversity, involving the various methods of differentiating halloysite from kaolinite. Finally, the hydration properties of the mineral are developed relative to the variation in relative humidity.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:40Z
       
  • Chapter 4 Physicochemical Properties of Halloysite
    • Authors: Yang Zhang; Ouyang
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Developments in Clay Science, Volume 7
      Author(s): H. Yang, Y. Zhang, J. Ouyang
      As a naturally occurring nanosized tubular clay mineral, halloysite possesses many unique physicochemical properties, which determine the application fields of this mineral resource. The increasing interests on the studies and applications of halloysite require an in-depth understanding of its intrinsic properties. This chapter reviews the up-to-date acquired physicochemical characteristics of halloysites, including cation exchange capacity, specific surface area, dispersion behaviour, hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity, mechanical properties and chemical stabilities in aqueous circumstances.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:40Z
       
  • Chapter 5 Characterisation of Halloysite by Electron Microscopy
    • Authors: Kogure
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Developments in Clay Science, Volume 7
      Author(s): T. Kogure
      Electron-beam microscopic methods, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron diffraction (ED) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), are indispensable ones for the characterisation of halloysite to understand its morphology and crystal structure. Tubular morphologies of halloysite are classified into two types, ‘cylindrical’ and ‘prismatic or polygonal’, from the observation of high-resolution SEM. ED has been traditionally used to investigate the crystal structure of halloysite, but its interpretation was inconclusive. Direct observation of the crystal structure or layer-stacking feature of halloysite using HRTEM had been desired, but not successful due to rapid degradation by electron radiation. However, recent HRTEM studies that overcame this problem revealed that halloysite does not adopt a two-layer structure, as suggested from previous ED work. Instead, a heavily disordered stacking model with two kinds of layer displacement revealed by the HRTEM images of a prismatic halloysite could reproduce its ED and X-ray diffraction pattern.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:40Z
       
  • Chapter 6 Characterisation of Halloysite by Spectroscopy
    • Authors: J.T. Kloprogge
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Developments in Clay Science, Volume 7
      Author(s): J.T. Kloprogge
      This chapter provides an overview of results obtained by a variety of spectroscopic techniques. The most common techniques employed are infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy, which enable detailed observation of the behaviour of water and OH-groups and the type of H-bonds formed. The inner-surface OH-groups that normally form H-bonds with adjacent layers in the kaolins and form H-bonds with water in the interlayer in halloysite. Infrared emission spectroscopy showed that the four inner and inner-surface OH-groups were removed at different temperatures, at different rates, or both. A slight increase in the Al 2p binding energy observed in the spectra of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy from kaolinite to halloysite reflects a change in the stacking order due to the interlayer water. The overall shape of the O 1s is indicative of two peaks associated with the oxygen atoms and with the OH-groups. A third, very weak peak was observed to be associated with interlayer water that is still present despite the ultrahigh vacuum.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:40Z
       
  • Chapter 7 Thermal-Treatment-Induced Deformations and Modifications of
           Halloysite
    • Authors: Yuan
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Developments in Clay Science, Volume 7
      Author(s): P. Yuan
      Comprehensive aspects of the thermally induced changes of tubular halloysite are overviewed in this chapter. Heating at low temperature (from approximately 30°C) results in the dehydration of halloysite; heating at higher temperatures (approximately 500–900°C) results in dehydroxylation, followed by the formation of nanocrystalline γ-Al2O3 at 1000–1100°C. Complete phase transformation happens at temperature higher than approximately 1200°C, when the mullite and cristobalite phases form. Accompanying the dehydration and dehydroxylation processes, extensive changes in the texture, porosity, surface reactivity and other physicochemical properties of halloysite occur. The related research advances concerning the abovementioned points are summarized, and the potential applications of heated halloysite are also discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:40Z
       
  • Chapter 8 Surface Modifications of Halloysite
    • Authors: Tan Yuan; Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Developments in Clay Science, Volume 7
      Author(s): D. Tan, P. Yuan, D. Liu, P. Du
      Tubular halloysite is a naturally occurring clay mineral with a characteristic lumen surface, as well as an interlayer surface and an external surface. The chemical environment endows these surfaces with specific chemical reactivity, enabling site-specific surface modification of halloysite. The lumen surface, covered by Al–OH groups, can be modified by covalently grafting organic compounds such as organosilane and organophosphonic acid. This covalent grafting allows durable immobilization of the reactive organic groups on the lumen surface of halloysite. The negatively charged external surface can be modified by coating with positive cations. The interlayer surface can be modified by some specific guest molecules via direct or indirect intercalation, but it cannot be directly grafted with organic compounds because of interlayer hydrogen bonding and limited interlayer space. Using preintercalated halloysite as a precursor, covalent modification of the interlayer surface can be achieved under harsh conditions. Surface modifications can regulate the physical (solubility, dispersion, hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity, rheology, etc.) and the chemical (reactivity, biotoxicity, electrochemistry, etc.) properties of halloysite and improve the performance of halloysite in the applications of clay polymer nanocomposites, controlled release and pollution remediation.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:40Z
       
  • Chapter 10 Characterisation of Imogolite by Microscopic and Spectroscopic
           Methods
    • Authors: Thill
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Developments in Clay Science, Volume 7
      Author(s): A. Thill
      The main techniques needed to characterise imogolite are reviewed. The global quality of an imogolite sample can be assessed by a simple visual inspection. It should be transparent and should display some birefringence if sufficiently concentrated when observed between crossed polarisers. To gain a deep knowledge about a particular sample, the most often used techniques are infrared (IR) spectroscopy, transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction. The main results are reviewed and some less commonly used techniques are also described. It is stressed that emerging techniques (namely, cryo-TEM and small-angle X-ray scattering) are particularly useful for assessing the global shape and the diameter of imogolite samples. Some characterisation developments are still needed, especially for obtaining reliable and fast measurements of the nanotube length distribution.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:40Z
       
  • Chapter 12 Surface Chemical Modifications of Imogolite
    • Authors: Bonelli
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Developments in Clay Science, Volume 7
      Author(s): B. Bonelli
      This chapter discusses the physicochemical properties of the three types of surfaces occurring within imogolite bundles—namely, pore A, related to imogolite inner pores; pore B, among three aligned nanotubes in a bundle; and (larger) slit pore C, among bundles. The issues of pore hydrophilicity, thermal stability and accessibility to different molecules are addressed. A review is given of the ways to modify the inner pores of imogolite in order to apply the latter materials in the field of gas storage (methane, carbon dioxide) and catalysis. C pores are mainly mesopores that can be modified either by grafting organic functionalities or by isomorphic substitution of Al by Fe. The focus is on the reactivity of the outer surface of nanotubes, which can be exploited to produce clay polymer nanocomposites and catalysts. Finally, the surface properties of the lamellar phases deriving from imogolite thermal collapse are discussed since the lamellar phases stemming from nanotubes collapsing above 300°C still have a certain degree of porosity and bear new surface functionalities (mainly related to Al) with respect to the parent imogolite.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:40Z
       
  • Chapter 15 Why a 1:1 2D Structure Tends to Roll?
    • Authors: Belloni Thill
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Developments in Clay Science, Volume 7
      Author(s): L. Belloni, A. Thill
      In this chapter, the equilibrium and thermodynamical properties of imogolite dispersions are analysed at a mesoscopic level of description with theories of self-assembly. The energy of an imogolite architecture results from bending, adhesion, surface and line-tension contributions. In the first part, the phase diagram at zero temperature (pure energy) is constructed that distinguishes between nanotubes and nanoscrolls characterised by different numbers of layers. Then, the entropy of mixing and the total free energy are calculated for mixtures of multilayer proto and nanotube imogolites at equilibrium. The full phase diagram exhibits the composition in the various structures, shapes, lengths, radii and layers as a function of temperature and concentration.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:40Z
       
  • Chapter 16 Formation Mechanisms of Tubular Structure of Halloysite
    • Authors: Niu
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Developments in Clay Science, Volume 7
      Author(s): J. Niu
      This chapter outlines studies on the three possible mechanisms of rolling kaolinite into tubular halloysite: the mismatch between octahedral and tetrahedral sheets, the attraction between interlayer hydroxyl groups in octahedrons and the surface tension of water. For the first mechanism, the tetrahedral rotation and curving effect, how water molecules enter the interlayer spaces and the curling orientations are discussed. In addition, the effects of octahedral and tetrahedral substitution on the rolling of the kaolinite layer are summarized. Furthermore, the theoretical explanations for the rolling phenomena of synthesized, halloysite-like nanorolls and the remaining transformation from flat kaolinite to halloysite tube are given.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:40Z
       
  • Chapter 17 Halloysite-like Structure via Delamination of Kaolinite
    • Authors: Matusik
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Developments in Clay Science, Volume 7
      Author(s): J. Matusik
      A nanotubular morphology of particles with accessible and functionalised lumen is of high demand in several applications, including catalysis, selective adsorption and drug delivery. However, the natural deposits of tubular halloysite are rather unique and the resources are relatively low. In turn, the deposits of kaolinite, which exhibits platy morphology, are widespread and commonly exploited. New methods are being developed in order to synthesise different nanotubes starting from various materials, including kaolinite. The theoretical and experimental research that has been conducted shows the possibility of 1:1 layer rolling, which could be induced by weakening interlayer hydrogen bonds through grafting, intercalation and deintercalation processes. This chapter summarises the current state of knowledge of synthetic routes that lead to transformation of platy kaolinite to halloysite-like nanotubes without destroying the initial aluminium silicate structure. The described techniques include one-step and two-step intercalation and deintercalation procedures, as well as polymer-induced exfoliation/delamination and subsequent layer rolling.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:40Z
       
  • Chapter 18 From Molecular Precursor to Imogolite Nanotubes
    • Authors: Thill
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Developments in Clay Science, Volume 7
      Author(s): A. Thill
      Imogolite is not available in large quantities from natural deposits, and its extraction requires several purification steps. Even though some research studies still use purified natural imogolite, most research activities and actual industrial applications use synthetic imogolite, which has been available since it was devised by Farmer et al. (1977). The various synthesis pathways and the current understanding of the imogolite formation mechanism are reviewed in this chapter.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:40Z
       
  • Chapter 21 Halloysite Polymer Nanocomposites
    • Authors: Huang Z.H.; Tang X.H. Zhang B.C. Guo
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Developments in Clay Science, Volume 7
      Author(s): J. Huang, Z.H. Tang, X.H. Zhang, B.C. Guo
      Naturally occurring nanotubular halloysite exhibits a number of interesting characteristics, which make it a promising candidate for fabricating polymer-based nanocomposites for engineering and functional applications. The main attractive features of halloysite include its high mechanical strength/modulus, special lumen structure, essential noncytotoxicity and ability to regulate crystallization and enhance thermal stability. In this chapter, the processing methods, interfacial modifications and multiple effects of halloysite for halloysite polymer nanocomposites are discussed. The structural benefits of halloysite and distinctions of halloysite polymer nanocomposites are also highlighted.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:40Z
       
  • Chapter 23 Halloysite for Adsorption and Pollution Remediation
    • Authors: Matusik
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Developments in Clay Science, Volume 7
      Author(s): J. Matusik
      The disordered aluminium silicate structure, with numerous adsorption centres and a unique nanotubular morphology, makes halloysite a promising adsorbent. The continuous increase of interest in halloysite use for remediation results from a constant development of nanotechnology and research into naturally occurring nanomaterials. This clay mineral is especially attractive due to its low cost of production compared to other mineral and nonmineral adsorbents. Moreover, its chemical properties make it inert for the environment. The halloysite structure is susceptible for modification involving multistep intercalation, interlayer grafting reactions or both. The appropriate selection of introduced organic molecules enables to design and synthesize halloysite-based hybrids with adsorption functionalities targeted towards individual contaminants (eg, polar/apolar or positively/negatively charged). This chapter summarizes the studies showing the use of pure and modified halloysite for the removal of selected inorganic and organic pollutants.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:40Z
       
  • Chapter 24 Imogolite Polymer Nanocomposites
    • Authors: Higaki Takahara
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Developments in Clay Science, Volume 7
      Author(s): W. Ma, Y. Higaki, A. Takahara
      Imogolite is a naturally occurring aluminosilicate nanotube consisting of a single-walled with a composition of (OH)3Al2O3SiOH, with Al–OH and Si–OH groups distributed on the external and internal surfaces of the tube wall, respectively. The recent progress in surface modification of imogolite utilizing specific interaction between Al–OH and phosphonic acid is reported in this chapter, and the preparation procedures of novel imogolite-based polymer nanocomposites are introduced.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:40Z
       
  • Chapter 28 Epilogue
    • Authors: Bergaya Thill; Yuan
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Developments in Clay Science, Volume 7
      Author(s): F. Bergaya, A. Thill, P. Yuan


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:40Z
       
 
 
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