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  Subjects -> MATHEMATICS (Total: 879 journals)
    - APPLIED MATHEMATICS (71 journals)
    - GEOMETRY AND TOPOLOGY (19 journals)
    - MATHEMATICS (651 journals)
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MATHEMATICS (651 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 538 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abakós     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Academic Voices : A Multidisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Accounting Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
ACM Transactions on Computational Logic (TOCL)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Difference Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fixed Point Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Materials Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Pure and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Pure Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Air, Soil & Water Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
AKSIOMA Journal of Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Algebra Colloquium     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Algorithmic Operations Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Algorithms     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Algorithms Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Mathematical Analysis     Open Access  
American Journal of Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Mathematical Monthly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
An International Journal of Optimization and Control: Theories & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Matematica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Analysis Mathematica     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales Mathematicae Silesianae     Open Access  
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales UMCS, Mathematica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales Universitatis Paedagogicae Cracoviensis. Studia Mathematica     Open Access  
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Discrete Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University - Mathematics     Open Access  
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of West University of Timisoara - Mathematics     Open Access  
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Mathematics - A Journal of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Mathematics Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arab Journal of Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arabian Journal of Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archive of Numerical Software     Open Access  
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arnold Mathematical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Satellites : The Journal of Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Algebra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian-European Journal of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mathematics Teacher, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Senior Mathematics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Automatic Documentation and Mathematical Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Axioms     Open Access  
Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BIBECHANA     Open Access  
BIT Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
BoEM - Boletim online de Educação Matemática     Open Access  
Boletim Cearense de Educação e História da Matemática     Open Access  
Boletim de Educação Matemática     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Matemática Mexicana     Hybrid Journal  
Bollettino dell'Unione Matematica Italiana     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Bruno Pini Mathematical Analysis Seminar     Open Access  
Buletinul Academiei de Stiinte a Republicii Moldova. Matematica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bulletin des Sciences Mathamatiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of Dnipropetrovsk University. Series : Communications in Mathematical Modeling and Differential Equations Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Brazilian Mathematical Society, New Series     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Malaysian Mathematical Sciences Society     Hybrid Journal  
Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Carpathian Mathematical Publications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Catalysis in Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
CHANCE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ChemSusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chinese Annals of Mathematics, Series B     Hybrid Journal  
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Mathematics     Open Access  
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Collectanea Mathematica     Hybrid Journal  
College Mathematics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Commentarii Mathematici Helvetici     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Contemporary Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Communications in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications On Pure & Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Complex Analysis and its Synergies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Complex Variables and Elliptic Equations: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Complexus     Full-text available via subscription  
Composite Materials Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Comptes Rendus Mathematique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Computational Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computational Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computational Methods and Function Theory     Hybrid Journal  
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Concrete Operators     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Confluentes Mathematici     Hybrid Journal  
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal  
Cryptography and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cuadernos de Investigación y Formación en Educación Matemática     Open Access  
Cubo. A Mathematical Journal     Open Access  
Czechoslovak Mathematical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Demographic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Demonstratio Mathematica     Open Access  
Dependence Modeling     Open Access  
Design Journal : An International Journal for All Aspects of Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Developments in Clay Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Developments in Mineral Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Discrete Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Discrete Mathematics & Theoretical Computer Science     Open Access  
Discrete Mathematics, Algorithms and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dnipropetrovsk University Mathematics Bulletin     Open Access  
Doklady Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Duke Mathematical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Edited Series on Advances in Nonlinear Science and Complexity     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Graph Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Elemente der Mathematik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Energy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Enseñanza de las Ciencias : Revista de Investigación y Experiencias Didácticas     Open Access  
Ensino da Matemática em Debate     Open Access  
Entropy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ESAIM: Control Optimisation and Calculus of Variations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Combinatorics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Experimental Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Expositiones Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Mathematics and Informatics     Open Access  
Fasciculi Mathematici     Open Access  
Finite Fields and Their Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Fixed Point Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Formalized Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover Composite Materials Series
  [9 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0927-0108
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Acknowledgements
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 12



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter I Structural materials
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 12



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter II Fibres and fibrous composites
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 12



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter III Deformation and failure of composites
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 12



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter IV Macro-and microcracks in non-homogeneous materials
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 12



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter V Strength and fracture toughness
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 12



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter VI Creep and creep rupture
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 12



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter VII Fatigue and ballistic impact
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 12



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter VIII Compressive strength
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 12



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter IX Interfaces and wetting
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 12



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter X Diffusion through fibre/matrix interface
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 12



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter XI Hot pressing
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 12



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter XII Powder metallurgy methods
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 12



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter XIII Liquid infiltration
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 12



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter XIV Internal crystallization
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 12



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Bibliography
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 12



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • List of contributors
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 11



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter 1 Introduction to sheet metal forming
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 11

      This chapter is intended to provide a concise introduction to plastic flow theory and the mechanics of sheet metal forming. The influence of material properties on sheet metal “formability” is considered with specific reference to the properties that can be determined from a simple tensile test. The instabilities which limit different forming operations are described and the forming limit diagram introduced. Simple models are derived for some practical forming processes, and the forming conditions that result are described. A brief introduction to superplastic forming is given.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter 2 Thermoplastic composite sheet forming: Materials and
           manufacturing techniques
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 11

      This chapter provides an introduction to thermoplastic composite sheet forming and the raw material commonly used. First the relevant basics of polymer physics are introduced in order to provide a rudimentary background to the matrices' macroscopic properties and processing requirements, whereupon different reinforcement types and preimpregnated reinforcement forms are introduced. Second the thermal, rheological, and mechanical properties of common sheet forming raw materials and their composites are discussed and representative properties given. Finally a comprehensive yet brief overview of different composite sheet forming techniques, including blank consolidation processes, is presented.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter 3 Computer simulation of thermoforming
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 11

      This chapter provides a description of the application of the finite element method to the simulation of the thermoforming process. The objective of thermoforming simulation is the provision of a rational means of mold design and to also allow for the design of “optimal” final parts using the minimum amount of material. This can be achieved by comparing the simulated behavior using various materials and mold configurations with varying process conditions. This eliminates the need to perform inefficient and expensive “trial-and-error” procedures. A “state-of-the-art” review of the finite element method in the simulation of thermoforming is given. The review covers the details of the membrane and thick sheet finite element formulations as well as non-linear elastic (Ogden, Mooney-Rivlin) and visco-elastic (K-BKZ) material constitutive relationships. Some examples, giving comparisons between simulation results and experimental values are also included. Good agreement was obtained between the predicted and measured thickness distributions. The results also indicate that the choice of mateiral model (non-linear elastic versus visco-elastic) must be done carefully if reliable predictions of the thickness distribution are to be achieved. For straight thermoforming into shallow molds a non-linear elastic model is suitable. However, when deep drawn forming, complex mold geometry or plugassistance is involved, a visco-elastic model is required to obtain accurate predictions.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter 4 Thermoforming of continuous fibre/thermoplastic composite sheets
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 11

      Continuous fibre-reinforced thermoplastic polymers are a relatively young group of engineering materials compared with their thermosetting counterparts. However, due to their outstanding mechanical and thermal properties these materials are becoming increasingly attractive not only for aerospace and automotive applications. In order to produce defect-free components it is essential to gain a fundamental understanding of the effects of processing conditions on the structure and morphology of the resultant composite component. Only if the material's behaviour under the particular processing conditions is fully understood can the processing parameters be set in such a manner, that the desired microstructure and mechanical performance of the resulting component can be achieved. When forming continuous fibre-reinforced materials instabilities, such as wrinkles and buckles, may occur. In the example of the 2-D, 3-D and the diaphragm thermoforming technique it is demonstrated how the processing conditions can be optimised by individually investigating the parameters mainly governing the properties of the finished component ultimately enabling the production of defect-free parts.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter 5 Characterisation of shearing and frictional behaviour during
           sheet forming
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 11

      An introduction is given to the processes involved in the forming of thermoplastic composite and various shearing deformations are explained, including intra-ply shearing and inter-ply slip in unidirectional laminates, and the trellis mechanism in fabric materials. A consolidation rig was used to evaluated the influence of processing parameters such as pressure, temperature and time on the quality of consolidated laminates. Consolidation quality was also found to be heavily dependent on lay-up and whether or not the flow processes were restricted. Unidirectional restricted laminates were difficult to consolidate with best results achieved in low pressure regions. For (0/90) and quasi lay-ups laminate quality improved as the consolidation pressure increased with acceptable parts achieved at pressures of 500 kPa and over. Transverse flow measurements were used to obtain values of transverse flow viscosity for APC-2 material. A consolidation/shearing rig apparatus was used to carry out inter-ply slip experiments and to determine the effects of temperature, pressures and fibre orientation on the inter-layer shear stress, as a function of sliding velocity. The shearing rig is based on a computer-controlled motor-driven leadscrew. Normal pressure, increased beyond a low nominal value (
      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter 6 Grid strain analysis and its application in composite sheet
           forming
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 11

      Sheet forming operations are often complex and induce large strains in the deformed materials. Grid strain analysis (GSA) provides a means of quantifying those strains by measuring the dimensions of the deformed grids and comparing them with the original grids printed on the material surface. In GSA macroscopic deformation of a sheet may be evaluated without any need to know the constitutive information of the deforming material. However, with additional information on the constitutive behaviour, it may also be possible to know the stress magnitudes from the strain distribution. GSA is extremely useful in the sheet forming industry for identifying problem areas and the design of tooling. This chapter introduces the large strain analysis technique using a continuum approach and shows its application in fibre-reinforced thermoplastic sheets. It appears that for bi-directional composite sheets, the surface strains adequately describe the deformation behaviour of the entire sheet. The results also match very well with those obtained from the kinematic analysis of draping bi-directional woven fabric. Material thinning and thickening (or compressive instability) zones can be very well identified and predicted, if necessary. For multi-directional reinforcement, the results need to be analysed with more careful judgement. Some examples are given to demonstrate the problem identifying and blank shape optimisation capabilities of GSA.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter 7 Implicit finite element modelling of composites sheet forming
           processes
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 11

      This chapter discussed implicit finite element methods of simulating composite sheet forming problems. Each ply is assumed to behave as a transversely isotropic, incompressible Newtonian fluid at forming temperature. The presence of high volume fractions of continuous elastic reinforcing fibres in the molten polymer leads to the kinematic constraint of inextensibility in the fibre direction, and associated arbitrary tension stresses. A mixed penalty numerical formulation is constructured by discretizing the weak forms of the constraint and governing equations for creeping flow, using independent interpolation of the velocity and tension stress fields. Numerical solutions are given for two types of planar problems, plane stress which is used to simulate the problem of diaphragm forming a small indentation in the centre of a large composite sheet, and plane deformation which is used to simulate single-curvature forming situations. The plane stress analysis calculates the stress and deformation patterns which are responsible for shear-buckling under rapid forming conditions, by considering uniform radial velocity or pressure boundary conditions applied at the inner radius of an annular sheet. Experimental results are presented which correspond with the numerical predictions. For multi-ply lay-ups, each ply is analysed individually, and average stress predictions for the laminate are obtained on this basis. A detailed comparison between numerical stress predictions and experimental buckling patterns is presented for central identation of circular uni-directional, cross-ply and quasi-isotropic preforms. Parameters influencing the magnitude and location of peak tangential stresses include tangential fibre lengths and diaphragm/composite viscosity ratios. The effect of sheet width and shape on the instability patterns is investigated for quasi-isotropic laminates using both numerical and experimental techniques. The plane strain finite element model presented can model isothermal shearing and plane transverse flows encountered in forming composite laminates into single-curvature shapes. These flows are the dominant mechanisms in the forming of important industrial shapes such as J- and U-beams for aerospace applications. The finite element formulation uses a mixed penalty approach with independent interpolation of the velocity, pressure and fibre tension stress fields. Results are shown which agree well with available analytical studies for both single-ply and multi-ply deformations. Experimental characterizations of the inter-ply slip behaviour are used to develop a general-purpose contact-friction algorithm for forming situations. The results shown are an important step towards the development of a simulation tool for single-curvature composite forming.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter 8 Rheology of long fiber-reinforced composites in sheetforming
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 11

      This chapter introduces the reader to sheet forming philosophy, processing methods, and the materials applied to produce thermoformed components. Rheological properties that must be understood are introduced first for unfilled polymer metls by discussing viscosity and relaxation phenomena in shear and elongational flows. With this foundation we present the same properties for filled viscous fluids and we show the sometimes surprising results such as shear thickening. Filler aspect ratio affects shear and elongation phenomena; this presentation shows these effects and lists the theories developed to account for the filler/matrix interactions. Following the background material, the section on rheological measurement techniques discusses standard techniques for unfilled materials (rotational and capillary flow viscometers) and their limited use with filled polymers. The presented nonconventional apparatus (linear, squeeze flow and elongational viscometers) reveal the scale issues involved in measuring rheological properties of thermoforming systems. The chapter concludes by considering why the rheological properties are important and how to use them in sheet forming. Mechanisms that affect forming flows (resin percolation, transverse squeezing flow, axial intra-ply shear deformation, inter-ply shear deformation extensional flow) show the complexity of the process. Finally, we deliberate the outlook for application of thermoforming and improvement of the knowledge base of system behavior.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter 9 Bending of continuous fibre-reinforced thermoplastic sheets
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 11

      This chapter is primarily concerned with the rheological behaviour of continuous fibre-reinforced thermoplastic (CFRT) materials in shear. The analysis presented in this chapter centres around a novel piece of testing equipment which establishes veebending as a means of determining both the longitudinal and transverse shear viscosities of such materials. In the analysis presented here, no distinction is drawn between the constituents of the composite. Instead an idealised continuum model subject to the kinematic constraints of incompressibility and fibre inextensibility has been adopted. The first part of the chapter deals, with various concepts related to the deformation and related flow mechanisms which predominate in CFRT material. This is followed by the development of an idealised material model for an incompressible viscous fluid reinforced with a single family of inextensible fibres. The analytical model leads to a strainghtforward interpretation of the effects of forming speed and geometry on the bending, stresses expected in a real sheet during forming. An experimental programme is then outlined which details the forming rates and temperatures over which the vee-bending experiments are conducted. The results of these tests are discussed in two parts. Firstly, the quality of the samples is assessed with regards to fibre instability and the spring-back/forward phenomenon. The second part of the discussion centres around the interpretation of the material's longitudinal shear behaviour. A further modification to the bending mechanism is then introduced which allows the tests to be carried out at constant shear rates. This is then followed by the development of a method for predicting both the longitudinal and transverse shear viscosities of CFRTs. The experimentally obtained viscosity ratios from these final tests are compared to a number of alternative models which relate the longitudinal and transverse viscosities to the fibre volume fraction and the viscosity of the matrix.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter 10 Thermoforming processes for knitted-fabric-reinforced
           thermoplastics: New manufacturing techniques for load-bearing, anisotropic
           implants
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 11

      In this chapter the application of specific thermoforming techniques for knitted carbon-fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composite materials to medical implants is described. In the first part of this chapter, the properties of the fiber architecture in knitted-fabric-reinforced composites and their influence on the mechanical properties are outlined in order to provide a basic understanding of the potential of knitted fabrics as reinforcement as well as their medical and engineering applications. Therefore, the influence of fiber orientation distribution, matrix and interphase properties on the mechanical behavior is discussed in detail. In a second part, a new net-shape bulk forming techniques is described in which the coherence of a knitted fabric was used to manufacture a typical load-bearing implant, in this case an osteosynthesis plate, using a single-step technique and, thereby, reinforcing the countersunk holes of the osteosynthesis plate which are the mechanically critical load induction and joining areas. The effect of a knittedfiber architecture on the mechanical properties and the homoelasticity of the plate, is compared to the behavior of a laminated and a stainless steel plate. In a third part, the forming behavior of knitted-fabric-reinforced organo-sheets is described for the application in diaphragm deep drawing. The influence of multiaxial drawability and coherence of knitted fabrics as well as of flow conditions on the structure-properties relations in the deep drawn part are discussed. In general, this chapter should be seen as an introduction in thermoforming techniques for knitted-fabric-reinforced thermoplastics with regard to structure-properties relations and failure characteristics.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter 11 The forming of thermoset composites
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 11

      Forming has the potential to replace the time-consuming and labor-intensive hand lay-up processes as a cost-effective alternate for the manufacturing of a variety of thermoset composite products. In this chapter, diaphragm forming of thermoset composites is reviewed, with the emphasis on kinematics and forming limit analysis. The unique properties of the composites lead to kinematic constraints so that the conformance of laminates to complex geometries would ideally be achieved by viscous shearing mechanism, among which the two most important such modes are in-plane shear, where adjacent fibers slide past one another, and inter-ply shear where plies slide relative to each other. General methods to calculate the ideal shear strains required to form a given part are obtained by applying the theory of differential geometry. A three-point bending test is employed to understand the constitutive laws governing the deformation. The nonlinear elastic behavior of the diaphragm materials is modeled by using the established biaxial stress theory of rubbers. The balance between the mechanisms that cause and prevent wrinkling leads to the preliminary forming limit diagrams, which would allow us to predict the occurrence of undesirable modes such as laminate wrinkling. The chapter concludes with some innovative development of the diaphragm forming process at MIT.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter 12 Roll forming of sheet materials
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 11

      Roll forming is one of the most versatile forming processes, capable of producing a wide range cross-sections from sheet materials by passing a strip of material through successive pairs of rolls. The scope of this secondary deformation process can even be further advanced with the addition of suitable auxiliary operations. The first part of this chapter gives a brief introduction to the process itself in the context of metallic sheets and explains the basic concepts of roll forming. The latter part shows the possibility of roll forming continuous fibre-reinforced thermoplastic (FRTP) sheets and identifies the important parameters influencing the success of the process. The inlet temperature of the strip, the cooling rate and the fibra architecture appear to have the most significant effects on the product quality in relation to fibre buckling, product curvature and material spring-back or spring-forward. The in-situ measurement of membrane strains in the product, while roll forming FRTP sheets, shows a distribution similar to that obtained in metallic sheets. The deformation zones under various roll stations appear to be generally larger in the case of composite sheets; however, the effects of different geometric parameters again seem to follow the trend obtained with metallic sheets.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Composite Materials Series
    • Abstract: 1993
      Publication year: 1993
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 8



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Foreword
    • Abstract: 1993
      Publication year: 1993
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 8



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter 1 The Tribology of Composite Materials: A Preface
    • Abstract: 1993
      Publication year: 1993
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 8

      An effective and economical means of rationalising tribological behaviour is available through the application of the two-term non-interactive model. It defines two regimes, with different sizes, of friction and hence energy dissipation in contacts. By the same token it defines two regimes of damage and hence wear. The value, or not, of this approximation is considered in the context of composite systems. The important additional theorem is the incorporation and comparison of the relative scales of the phases, in the composite component, with the scales of the dimensions of the primary energy-dissipation zones initially introduced into the two-term non-interacting model. Sometimes the model is directly applicable and on other occasions, it is not. In the latter case special considerations are required and the model is not directly applicable. It is this circumstance which sets aside composite tribology from the tribology of nominally homogeneous systems.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter 2 Friction and Wear of Self-Reinforced Thermoplastics
    • Abstract: 1993
      Publication year: 1993
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 8

      Semicrystalline thermoplastics can be self-reinforced by oriented crystallisation, whereby improved tribological and mechanical properties are achieved. The effects of self-reinforcement on the tribological properties of polymeric materials are discussed with particular emphasis on influences of tribological systems and operating parameters. Self-reinforced polymers are interesting subjects for some fundamental experiments on tribology. The property of self-reinforcement, reinforcing materials without changing their adhesive property, enables the investigation of the correlation between the mechanical and tribological properties. In addition, the effects of self-reinforcement on the tribological properties are compared with those of fillers. Finally, with help of SEM graphs of worn surfaces, the change of wear mechanisms caused by the self-reinforcement and its influence on the wear resistance of polymeric materials are studied. The discussion of the effects of time–temperature equivalence gives some new aspects of wear calculation. Based on the results of the investigation some suggestions are made for the development of high-performance materials for tribological application.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter 3 Reciprocating Dry Friction and Wear of Short Fibre Reinforced
           Polymer Composites
    • Abstract: 1993
      Publication year: 1993
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 8

      Most of the evaluations of friction and wear properties of materials are done under the conditions of continuous sliding movements, while some major applications are based on reciprocating mechanisms. Some theoretical assumptions and experimental results suggest that the continually reversing load which acts on the material during the reciprocating friction, could influence its wear rate and its friction coefficient. The tribology of polyetheretherketone (PEEK), of carbon fibre reinforced PEEK (PEEK D450HF30) and of glass fibre reinforced PTFE (PTFE LUB904) is evaluated under dry reciprocating movement. A new high-speed reciprocating test rig had been designed and a numerical model simulating the mechanical stresses which affect the pin during reciprocating friction, was developed and used to analyze the tribological behaviour of the three materials. The friction coefficient of PEEK is studied under different reciprocating conditions. Various friction processes affecting this material are identified. The PEEK D450HF30 and the PTFE LUB904 are shown to have better friction properties than the PEEK. The wear rate of PEEK is higher under reciprocating than under continuous movement. This more severe wear is due to the existence of a mixed abrasive/adhesive contact condition. The wear of PEEK D450HF30 is caused by fibre fracture and pull-out on a ground counterface and mainly by adhesion when sliding on a smooth opposite part. The interface temperature highly influences the wear rate of this composite. The wear rate of the PTFE LUB904 is caused by one of its glass fibres abrading the steel counterface. For both composites, the type of movement has mainly a qualitative influence on the wear resistance.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter 4 Short-Fibre Reinforced, High-Temperature Resistant Polymers for
           a Wide Field of Tribological Applications
    • Abstract: 1993
      Publication year: 1993
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 8

      This chapter presents numerous tribological data about high-temperature resistant polymers reinforced by short fibres and internally lubricated by various solid lubricants. Most formulation of tribologically used grades have been found empirically. To get a better understanding of such complex material systems some scientific approaches are introduced. Beside today's most common testing techniques and evaluating methods the wear and friction influencing parameters and phenomenons are discussed. Simple composite systems are investigated in order to get information about the filler's effect on the wear performance. A look is taken to the self-reinforcing effect of the matrix microstructure. The effect of solid lubricants is demonstrated and is discussed in more detail with PTFE. Therefore, some unique ESCA analysis are presented which show the development of the transfer film during the running in phase. It is demonstrated that not only the steel counterpart surface is modified but also the polymer composite surface undergoes some changes. And an attempt of a qualitative interpretation is undertaken. Furthermore, the effect of various fibre reinforcements is discussed for a couple of model systems like LCP + GF or CF, GF and CF reinforced PEN or PC + GF. And a model to predict the wear behaviour of such fibrous systems is presented. It is demonstrated that the most effective wear reducing volume fraction of short fibre content is about 15%. Finally, some recent investigations on more complex systems based on PAEK, PI, PBI matrices are discussed. These systems offer high wear resistance and low friction up to application temperatures of more than 200°C.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
  • Chapter 5 Recent Developments in Tribology of Fibre Reinforced Composites
           with Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Matrices
    • Abstract: 1993
      Publication year: 1993
      Source:Composite Materials Series, Volume 8

      In the first part of this chapter, various types of advanced polymeric composites are discussed. The rest of the chapter is devoted to the tribology of such advanced composites. The tribology of two types of polymeric composites, those with thermoplastics and thermosets, are separately discussed. The literature on the progress of such composites in recent years will be reviewed and discussed in separate sections in relation to the four wear modes, i.e. adhesive, abrasive, fretting-fatigue and erosive. Systematic step by step addition of solid lubricant and reinforcement of a polymer matrix could lead to an optimal combination of friction and wear characteristics. The influence of the various operating factors is also critically examined. The wear mechanisms of fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites are discussed in detail. The influence of various additives (powdery and reinforcing) and contents on the abrasive wear performance is also discussed. The wear and appropriate mechanical-property correlations are also examined. In the case of advanced thermosetting composites tribology, carbon, graphite, glass and aramide fibre composites with unidirectional and multidirectional reinforcement are discussed. Various operational factors, environmental conditions and types of fibre–matrix combination ultimately determine the actual performance of the composite.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:30:28Z
       
 
 
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