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MATHEMATICS (656 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 538 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abakós     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Academic Voices : A Multidisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Accounting Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
ACM Transactions on Computational Logic (TOCL)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Difference Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fixed Point Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Materials Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Pure and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Pure Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Air, Soil & Water Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
AKSIOMA Journal of Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Jabar : Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika     Open Access  
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Algebra Colloquium     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Algorithmic Operations Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Algorithms     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Algorithms Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Mathematical Analysis     Open Access  
American Journal of Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Mathematical Monthly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
An International Journal of Optimization and Control: Theories & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Matematica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Analysis Mathematica     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales Mathematicae Silesianae     Open Access  
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales UMCS, Mathematica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales Universitatis Paedagogicae Cracoviensis. Studia Mathematica     Open Access  
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Discrete Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University - Mathematics     Open Access  
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of West University of Timisoara - Mathematics     Open Access  
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Mathematics - A Journal of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Mathematics Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arab Journal of Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arabian Journal of Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archive of Numerical Software     Open Access  
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arnold Mathematical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Satellites : The Journal of Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Algebra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian-European Journal of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mathematics Teacher, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Senior Mathematics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Automatic Documentation and Mathematical Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Axioms     Open Access  
Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BIBECHANA     Open Access  
BIT Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
BoEM - Boletim online de Educação Matemática     Open Access  
Boletim Cearense de Educação e História da Matemática     Open Access  
Boletim de Educação Matemática     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Matemática Mexicana     Hybrid Journal  
Bollettino dell'Unione Matematica Italiana     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Bruno Pini Mathematical Analysis Seminar     Open Access  
Buletinul Academiei de Stiinte a Republicii Moldova. Matematica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bulletin des Sciences Mathamatiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of Dnipropetrovsk University. Series : Communications in Mathematical Modeling and Differential Equations Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Brazilian Mathematical Society, New Series     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Malaysian Mathematical Sciences Society     Hybrid Journal  
Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Carpathian Mathematical Publications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Catalysis in Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
CHANCE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ChemSusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chinese Annals of Mathematics, Series B     Hybrid Journal  
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Mathematics     Open Access  
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Collectanea Mathematica     Hybrid Journal  
College Mathematics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Commentarii Mathematici Helvetici     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Contemporary Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Communications in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications On Pure & Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Complex Analysis and its Synergies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Complex Variables and Elliptic Equations: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Complexus     Full-text available via subscription  
Composite Materials Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Comptes Rendus Mathematique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Computational Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computational Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computational Methods and Function Theory     Hybrid Journal  
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Concrete Operators     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Confluentes Mathematici     Hybrid Journal  
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal  
Cryptography and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cuadernos de Investigación y Formación en Educación Matemática     Open Access  
Cubo. A Mathematical Journal     Open Access  
Czechoslovak Mathematical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Demographic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Demonstratio Mathematica     Open Access  
Dependence Modeling     Open Access  
Design Journal : An International Journal for All Aspects of Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Developments in Clay Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Developments in Mineral Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Discrete Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Discrete Mathematics & Theoretical Computer Science     Open Access  
Discrete Mathematics, Algorithms and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dnipropetrovsk University Mathematics Bulletin     Open Access  
Doklady Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Duke Mathematical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Edited Series on Advances in Nonlinear Science and Complexity     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Graph Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Elemente der Mathematik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Energy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Enseñanza de las Ciencias : Revista de Investigación y Experiencias Didácticas     Open Access  
Ensino da Matemática em Debate     Open Access  
Entropy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ESAIM: Control Optimisation and Calculus of Variations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Combinatorics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Experimental Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Expositiones Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Mathematics and Informatics     Open Access  
Fasciculi Mathematici     Open Access  
Finite Fields and Their Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Fixed Point Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover Energy for Sustainable Development
  [SJR: 1.448]   [H-I: 35]   [9 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0973-0826
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3044 journals]
  • Designing auctions for renewable electricity support. Best practices from
           around the world
    • Authors: Pablo del Río
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 41
      Author(s): Pablo del Río
      Auctions have recently been regarded as a useful alternative to other support schemes for the setting of the remuneration of renewable electricity (RES-E) worldwide. However, whether auctions will fulfill the expectations depends on the choice of design elements. The aim of this article is to analyze the advantages and drawbacks of different design elements according to different criteria. We support our analysis with economic theory and identify best and worst practices in the design of RES-E auctions from around the world. Our findings show that a few design elements score better than the alternatives in some criteria, without scoring worse in others. These “best” practices include a schedule of auctions, volume disclosure, price ceilings, penalties, streamline of administrative procedures and provision of information to potential participants. Design elements usually involve trade-offs between criteria. Overall, these results suggest that the choice of a specific design element is not a win-win decision and depends on the priorities of the respective government.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T14:45:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.05.006
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
  • Fuelwood value chain analysis in Cassou and Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso:
           From production to consumption
    • Authors: Yohama Puentes-Rodriguez; Piritta Torssonen; Sabaheta Ramcilovik-Suominen; Sari Pitkänen
      Pages: 14 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 41
      Author(s): Yohama Puentes-Rodriguez, Piritta Torssonen, Sabaheta Ramcilovik-Suominen, Sari Pitkänen
      The majority of households in Burkina Faso, particularly in the rural areas, rely on fuelwood as their main source of energy for cooking and heating. This consumption trend is expected to continue and even increase in the coming years, driven mainly by the population growth. Although sustainable woodfuel management has been considered in the country, pressure on forest resources is continuously increasing, as a result of fuelwood production. In this study, the different processes within the fuelwood value chain (FWVC) were analyzed in the village of Cassou and Ouagadougou, with a survey directed to the FWVC actors (from harvesters to consumers). Social, economic and environmental aspects were considered in the analysis, as well as the legal dimension within the VC. From the analysis, two lines of formality were identified (i.e. formal and informal). Formality varied depending on the location and the process implying also a gender aspect; for instance, all harvesters and most of the collectors (mainly men) in Cassou belonged to associations (formal), while most of the transporters and traders (mainly women) in Ouagadougou were not part of any association (informal). Fuelwood price fluctuation was also affected by the formality since formal actors followed the official prices while informal ones established the prices freely. Informality also leads to uncontrolled exploitation of forest resources contributing to the forest decline. The present study provides a general overview of the situation in Cassou, a small village in Burkina Faso and suggests that other issues need to be considered to fully assess the sustainability of fuelwood VC in the country and to be able to create strategies and policies to e.g. decrease the negative impact on the environment. Therefore, it would be most needed to carry out a detailed analysis, involving formality, with all the actors – covering gender issues, processes and flows at a larger scale across different regions.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T14:45:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.07.008
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
  • Parameter analysis of thermoelectric generator/dc-dc converter system with
           maximum power point tracking
    • Authors: Ssennoga Twaha; Jie Zhu; Bo Li; Yuying Yan; Kuo Huang
      Pages: 49 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 41
      Author(s): Ssennoga Twaha, Jie Zhu, Bo Li, Yuying Yan, Kuo Huang
      The power generated from TEG is relatively unstable owing to temperature variations at its hot and cold side terminals. The dc-dc converters can provide more stable power output thereby improving the overall efficiency of TEG system. However, to facilitate better performance improvement, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm can be applied to extract maximum power from TEG system. Therefore, parameter analysis of a TEG/dc-dc converter system in different modes is being carried out. A TEG-dc-dc boost converter model is analysed in both MPPT and direct pulse width modulation (PWM) modes subjected to a variable load. To further study the capability of dc-dc converters to stabilise the TEG power output, increasing ramp and random hot side temperature is applied to the MPPT and direct PWM based modes so that the effect on output parameters i.e. voltage and power, can be analysed. It is noted that even for the random temperature input to the TEG, the output voltage resulting from the converter is almost constant. Therefore dc-dc converters are able to stabilise the power generated from TEG. It is also observed that dc-dc converter with MPPT based model is able to effectively extract the maximum power without having to adjust any component from the MPPT algorithm as it is the case with direct PWM based model. From the study, it has been established that proper selection of converter components is necessary to reduce converter losses as well interferences on the load connected to TEG-dc-dc converter system.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T14:45:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.08.005
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
  • Will technology advances alleviate climate change' Dual effects of
           technology change on aggregate carbon dioxide emissions
    • Authors: Mingquan Li; Qi Wang
      Pages: 61 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 41
      Author(s): Mingquan Li, Qi Wang
      The relationship between technology change and carbon dioxide emissions is complex. Existing research has emphasized technology progress in reducing carbon emission intensity but has ignored the impact of technology progress on economic growth, which leads to changes in carbon dioxide emissions. We argue that technology has relatively independent economic and environmental attributes. To provide evidence for this, we developed a method to distinguish the scale effect of technology change and its influence on economic scale from the intensity effect of technology change and its influence on carbon emission intensity. We applied this method to study the impact of technology change on carbon dioxide emissions in 95 countries between 1996 and 2007. We found that technology change indeed reduced aggregate carbon dioxide emissions, but the scale and intensity effects of technology change separately expressed positive and negative values. As a consequence, previous studies that only consider the intensity effect overestimate the impact of technology change on carbon dioxide emissions. Our findings yield important considerations for carbon dioxide emissions control in policy making.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T14:45:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
  • A review of injera baking technologies in Ethiopia: Challenges and gaps
    • Authors: Kamil Dino Adem; Demiss Alemu Ambie
      Pages: 69 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 41
      Author(s): Kamil Dino Adem, Demiss Alemu Ambie
      Most of the people living in the Third World cook/bake food using biomass as their primary energy sources. There are a number of efforts undertaken to improve the efficiency, lessen the indoor air pollution and reduce emission of a three-stone-open-fire stove by introducing improved cooking stoves. The major purpose of this review is to organize, and document research and development efforts, showing gaps for researchers and developers working in the area of improved biomass and other stoves more specifically for baking injera. The information in the review, which is mostly in chronological order, is obtained from governmental and non-governmental reports, patents and journals written in the area of injera baking stoves. The most important results of the review show that a number of efforts were undertaken to improve injera baking stoves, though there were no organized reviews earlier to show the efforts made by various institutions. The review also shows that other alternative energy sources for injera baking stoves have been used to address the problem of the majority of the people living in rural areas. In the end, the review indicated a research direction for the future in relation to the supply of alternative energy sources such as solar, biogas, gasifier and electric power for injera baking stoves.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T14:45:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
  • Factors associated with sustained use of improved solid fuel cookstoves: A
           case study from Kenya
    • Authors: Aschalew Tigabu
      Pages: 81 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 41
      Author(s): Aschalew Tigabu
      Improved solid fuel cookstoves have been a focus of development efforts to address health and environmental problems caused by traditional cooking practices in Kenya. However, a review of Kenya's experience in promoting improved solid fuel cookstoves shows that the focus has been on (increasing) production and dissemination of improved cookstoves, overlooking the fact that some of the disseminated cookstoves are used less regularly or even abandoned. This study examines factors that influence the usage rate of improved solid fuel cookstoves, drawing on a survey of cookstove users conducted in Kenya through a project implemented by the African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS) and The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI). The results show that sustained use of improved solid fuel cookstoves over time is significantly predicted by awareness creation activities and reputation of the new cookstoves among community members. These insights suggest that cookstove-disseminating organisations should pay attention to these two factors to ensure sustained use of improved solid fuel cookstoves in Kenya and perhaps other developing countries.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T15:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.08.008
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
  • Accuracy of energy-use surveys in predicting rural mini-grid
           user consumption
    • Authors: Courtney Blodgett; Peter Dauenhauer; Henry Louie; Lauren Kickham
      Pages: 88 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 41
      Author(s): Courtney Blodgett, Peter Dauenhauer, Henry Louie, Lauren Kickham
      Mini-grids for rural electrification in developing countries are growing in popularity but are not yet widely deployed. A key barrier of mini-grid proliferation is the uncertainty in predicting customer electricity consumption, which adds financial risk. Energy-use surveys deployed in the pre-feasibility stage that capture present and aspirational consumption are intended to reduce this uncertainty. However, the general reliability and accuracy of these surveys has not been demonstrated. This research compares survey-predicted electrical energy use to actual measured consumption of customers of eight mini-grids in rural Kenya. A follow-up audit compares the aspirational inventory of appliances to the realized inventory. The analysis shows that the ability to accurately estimate past consumption based on survey or audit data, even in a relatively short time-horizon is prone to appreciable error — a mean absolute error of 426Wh/day per customer on a mean consumption of 113Wh/day per customer. An alternative data-driven proxy village approach, which uses average customer consumption from each mini-grid to predict consumption at other mini-grids, was more accurate and reduced the mean absolute error to 75Wh/day per customer. Hourly load profiles were constructed to provide insight into potential causes of error and to suggest how the data provided in this work can be used in computer-aided mini-grid design programs.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T15:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
  • Closing the gap between lab and field cookstove tests: Benefits of
           multi-pot and sequencing cooking tasks through controlled burning cycles
    • Authors: Paulo Medina; V. Berrueta; M. Martínez; V. Ruiz; I. Ruiz-Mercado; O.R. Masera
      Pages: 106 - 111
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 41
      Author(s): Paulo Medina, V. Berrueta, M. Martínez, V. Ruiz, I. Ruiz-Mercado, O.R. Masera
      There is a critical need for developing wood-burning cookstoves lab tests that better reflect their field performance, and that can be used to complement existing standard tests. This is particularly true for Plancha-type cookstove stoves, widely disseminated in Latin America, where existing tests, like Water Boiling Test (WBT) and Controlled Cooking Test (CCT), are either not well suited to these stoves or do not capture the simultaneous and sequential arrangement of local cooking practices –i.e., multi-pot cooking, pre-heating of meals, and use of residual heat. In this paper, we developed a “controlled cooking cycle” or “controlled burning cycle” (CBC) test to study the benefits, in terms of fuelwood and pollutants emissions savings, of multi-pot cooking arising from the integration of cooking tasks. Tests were conducted on the Patsari stove, a plancha-type stove that has been widely disseminated in Mexico and in other regions of Central America. We first used CCTs to evaluate the comparative energy and emissions performance of the Patsari stove relative to a traditional U-shaped open fire (U-type) for the most common cooking practices carried out in the Purepecha Region of Michoacan. We also compared results from the CBC multi-pot cooking with results from simply conducting the cooking tasks in series. All the CCTs and CBCs were carried out in a simulated kitchen at GIRA facilities in Patzcuaro, Michoacan, Mexico with two local cooks who performed all the cooking tasks in the traditional/typical manner of the region. Results from CCTs showed Patsari benefits relative to the open fires, in terms of fuelwood consumption and CO and PM2.5 emissions savings, vary among cooking tasks and range from negligible to 63% depending on the parameter and the task. The sequential cooking and integration of these tasks in a CBC result in average savings of 65% for CO, 65% for PM2.5 and 35% for fuelwood relative to the U-type, and of between 30% and 44% savings with respect to simply conducting the cooking tasks in series in the same stove. The CBC fuelwood savings obtained here are comparable with field results from Kitchen Performance Tests (KPT) conducted regionally by other authors. The results confirm that multi-pot cooking and a smart sequential integration of tasks developed by local users are key to achieve the maximum benefits from plancha-type stoves, and need to be much better reflected in standard lab tests.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T15:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.08.009
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
  • Fuel efficiency and air pollutant concentrations of wood-burning improved
           cookstoves in Malawi: Implications for scaling-up cookstove programs
    • Authors: Pamela Jagger; Joseph Pedit; Ashley Bittner; Laura Hamrick; Tione Phwandapwhanda; Charles Jumbe
      Pages: 112 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 41
      Author(s): Pamela Jagger, Joseph Pedit, Ashley Bittner, Laura Hamrick, Tione Phwandapwhanda, Charles Jumbe
      Developing countries are grappling with how to reduce household air pollution (HAP) from cooking with solid fuels and the traditional three stone fire (TSF). Laboratory studies have shown that improved cookstoves may offer reductions in fuel use, emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), yet there is limited evidence from “real-world” settings showing how improved stoves perform compared to the traditional TSF. Our study takes place in a semi-controlled setting in Malawi and was designed to quantify fuel efficiency improvements and air pollutant concentration reductions capabilities of two improved cookstoves. We perform a Water Boiling Test to compare the TSF with the locally produced clay stove known as the Chitetezo Mbaula (CM) and the Philips gasifying stove. We find that the CM uses 53% of the fuel used by the traditional TSF, and produces 59% of CO, and 50% of PM2.5 of the TSF. The Philips stove uses 31% of the fuel, and produces 38% of CO, and 22% of PM2.5 of the TSF. We consider the potential for the wide-scale adoption of these technologies given their relative costs and conclude that lower-cost, intermediate quality cookstoves are an important and realistic first step toward reducing HAP.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T15:44:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.08.007
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
  • A study on the rotational behaviour of a Savonius Wind turbine in low rise
           highways during different monsoons
    • Authors: Senthilvel Santhakumar; Ilamathi Palanivel; Krishnanand Venkatasubramanian
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 40
      Author(s): Senthilvel Santhakumar, Ilamathi Palanivel, Krishnanand Venkatasubramanian
      This work describes the behaviour of a vertical axis Savonius Wind Turbine (SWT) in Four-way lane highways during South-West and North-East monsoons. A vertical axis SWT was designed and fabricated using low-cost materials. Starting behaviour of the SWT was studied by measuring and calculating the starting torque coefficient. The proposed SWT's cut-in speed was achieved at a velocity of 3.5m/s. Experiments were carried out on a four-way lane highway through the placement of turbine at two different positions (middle and sides of the highway). Also, the experiments were repeated during different monsoons to understand the behaviour under different wind directions. Error analysis was performed on the data obtained by considering possible measurement errors and instrument accuracies. The obtained experimental data clearly illustrates that the SWT's nominal rotational speed varies at different monsoons, when located at the sides of the road. From the data analysis, it can be understood that the wind directions play a key role for harnessing maximum amount of energy in highway wind-energy generation. Maximum augmented rotational speed of around 64% was achieved by placing the SWT at the median of Four-way lane highways in different monsoons.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T07:47:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • Anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure, meat and bone meal, and crude
           glycerol under mesophilic conditions: Synergistic effect and kinetic
    • Authors: Fetra J. Andriamanohiarisoamanana; Aya Saikawa; Kumiko Tarukawa; Guangdou Qi; Zhifei Pan; Takaki Yamashiro; Masahiro Iwasaki; Ikko Ihara; Takehiro Nishida; Kazutaka Umetsu
      Pages: 11 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 40
      Author(s): Fetra J. Andriamanohiarisoamanana, Aya Saikawa, Kumiko Tarukawa, Guangdou Qi, Zhifei Pan, Takaki Yamashiro, Masahiro Iwasaki, Ikko Ihara, Takehiro Nishida, Kazutaka Umetsu
      Anaerobic digestion is a potential renewable energy, climate independent and robust technology, which is able to treat different kinds of organic wastes and by-products. This study investigated the anaerobic co-digestion of meat and bone meal (MBM) with dairy manure (DM) and crude glycerol (CG). Three sets of batch experiments were conducted at mesophilic condition; one set of anaerobic mono-digestion and two sets of anaerobic co-digestion. In experiment I, each substrate was mono-digested at inoculum to substrate ratio of 1. In experiment II, MBM and DM were co-digested at ratios of 1.0:1.0, 1.0:2.0, 1.0:1.0, and 2.0:1.0, while in experiment III CG was co-digested with MBM at ratios of 1.0:3.0, 1.0:1.0 and 3.0:1.0, at a fixed amount of DM. The results of anaerobic mono-digestion showed that CG produced the highest methane yield (0.48L/gVS) followed by MBM (0.41L/gVS) and DM (0.17L/gVS). In the anaerobic co-digestions, methane yield increased with the increase of MBM content, while it increased together with CG content. The kinetic studies showed that the physico-chemical characteristics of the co-digested substrates influenced hydrolysis rate constant and lag-phase, which increased with the increase of CG content. However, synergistic effect was decreased when MBM content was increased, whereas the opposite was observed to that with CG. Therefore, carbon to nitrogen ratio was an important parameter determining synergistic effect in anaerobic co-digestion, while the physico-chemical characteristics influenced the hydrolysis rate constant and lag-phase.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T17:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.05.008
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • Coal use for residential heating: Patterns, health implications and
           lessons learned
    • Authors: Aiymgul Kerimray; Luis Rojas-Solórzano; Mehdi Amouei Torkmahalleh; Philip K. Hopke; Brian P. Ó Gallachóir
      Pages: 19 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 40
      Author(s): Aiymgul Kerimray, Luis Rojas-Solórzano, Mehdi Amouei Torkmahalleh, Philip K. Hopke, Brian P. Ó Gallachóir
      Residential coal consumption has decreased significantly since 1990 in most developed and developing countries, due to fuel switching. However, there are still countries with a high proportion of households using coal for heating purposes, in some cases with increasing coal consumption trends. This review discusses the patterns of the coal use, associated emissions, the negative impacts on health, and the policies and interventions used to limit the negative effects of high residential coal use. The patterns of residential coal use in those selected countries that account for 86% of global residential coal consumption are reviewed. Interventions in these selected countries have been accessed. It appears that the World Health Organization (WHO) may substantially underestimate the health impacts in these countries, particularly with respect to the burden of disease from household air pollution from using solid fuel for cooking as the indicator of exposure. The alternative to the WHO approach uses International Energy Agency (IEA) data because it provides the energy consumption for each country by fuel type and all household end-uses in a consistent framework. National survey data on energy and emissions also provides better metrics of exposure. Most of the assessed studies in developed countries focused on ambient air pollution, while in developing countries indoor air pollution was given primary attention (except for Mongolia). The PM concentrations within households using coal in Ireland, Mongolia, and China were compared and substantial differences were found as a result of differences in ventilation, stove design, fuel quality and stove maintenance and operation. Policy measures such as the large stove switching programs in China and Mongolia were mostly successful, but did not fully reach desired targets because of several factors. One of these key factors was the variability of human behavior and its response to the policy stimuli. Important barriers to the transition to cleaner energy alternatives are relatively low coal prices coupled with its level of supply security. Health benefits, however, are generally higher than the abatement costs in the most polluted areas, and support from governments for cleaner energy, that includes a focus on health, can be feasible and effective if carefully designed and targeted.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T17:54:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.05.005
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • Study on methods to determine rotor equivalent wind speed to increase
           prediction accuracy of wind turbine performance under wake condition
    • Authors: Sanghyeon Jeon; Bumsuk Kim; Jongchul Huh
      Pages: 41 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 40
      Author(s): Sanghyeon Jeon, Bumsuk Kim, Jongchul Huh
      A downstream wind turbine located within the reach of the wake region of an upstream wind turbine experiences a decrease in power output due to wake effects. For this reason, when designing a wind farm, various engineering wake models are used to predict the power deficit and wind farm layout is designed in the optimal way to minimize the wake losses. Generally, in the process of calculating the loss of wind farm AEP, in most cases the single point-measured wind speed is used. However, this results in an error when predicting the loss of AEP under wake conditions. When predicting the AEP of a wind turbines affected by wakes, the rotor equivalent wind speed (REWS), which considers the effect of wake wind shear, should be applied. This research examined REWSpower converted from the power output of a wind turbine to demonstrate the need of rotor equivalent wind speed under upstream turbine's wake condition and furthermore suggested a method to calculate REWSspws using the nacelle-measured wind speed. By analyzing 48months collected data of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system from a wind farm, error percentages among REWSpower, REWSspws, and the nacelle-measured wind speed were compared.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T20:31:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • The energy usage and environmental impact assessment of spent coffee
           grounds biodiesel production by an in-situ transesterification process
    • Authors: Nattapong Tuntiwiwattanapun; Parnuwat Usapein; Chantra Tongcumpou
      Pages: 50 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 40
      Author(s): Nattapong Tuntiwiwattanapun, Parnuwat Usapein, Chantra Tongcumpou
      Spent coffee grounds (SCG) waste has been drawing attentions in the biodiesel industry due to the promising of oil content. However, SCG sources is very disperse and requires a transportation system. Moreover, a complexity of oil extraction steps using hazardous n-hexane can hinder the SCG biodiesel promotion. Therefore, an alternative approach using in-situ transesterification (in-situ TE), an n-hexane free process, was introduced for producing biodiesel at an on-site SCG source. Life cycle assessment was performed to compare the energy usage and environmental impacts between a conventional process, which requires transportation and n-hexane, and an on-site in-situ TE process. Producing SCG biodiesel using conventional process required 43% less energy and produced fewer environmental impacts than those of the on-site in-situ TE. Much of the difference was attributable to 73% of the energy in the in-situ TE being consumed in methanol recovery. Nevertheless, the in-situ TE process gained better scores in terms of respiratory organs and land occupation. A sensitivity analysis of energy usage on transportation distances and fuel consumption rates suggested that an on-site in-situ TE process could be viewed as more favorable once the transportation distance is greater than 180km with 7km/L of fuel consumption rate.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T07:12:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • Jatropha curcas crude oil as heat transfer fluid or thermal energy storage
           material for concentrating solar power plants
    • Authors: Eric Serge Kenda; Kokouvi Edem N’Tsoukpoe; Igor W.K. Ouédraogo; Yézouma Coulibaly; Xavier Py; Fabrice Marie Armel W. Ouédraogo
      Pages: 59 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 40
      Author(s): Eric Serge Kenda, Kokouvi Edem N’Tsoukpoe, Igor W.K. Ouédraogo, Yézouma Coulibaly, Xavier Py, Fabrice Marie Armel W. Ouédraogo
      Valorisation of local and low cost eco-materials has become an imperative for the sustainable development of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) in West Africa. In this study, Jatropha curcas crude oil is studied as alternative heat transfer fluid or thermal energy storage material, particularly as a thermal oil substitute. The thermal stability of Jatropha curcas crude oil was experimentally investigated. The crude oil was aged by through thermal treatments, using galvanised steel and 316L stainless steel reactor under steady-state and dynamic conditions up to 210°C. The change in physico-chemical parameters of Jatropha curcas crude oil, such as viscosity, flash point, acidity number, water content, iodine value, peroxide value and chemical composition was monitored. The results indicate a relative stability of the total acid number during the dynamic and pseudo-static tests both in galvanised steel and in 316L stainless steel reactors. The results also show that the measured viscosity at 40°C remains practically constant after tests in steady-state conditions. This is also the case of the total acidity number. The evolution of iron and zinc contents of the oil shows that the use of 316L stainless steel material highly limits the degradation process of Jatropha curcas crude oil. Therefore, the main benefits of Jatropha curcas crude oil are its sustainable character, wide availability, good energy storage density, low cost and absence of use conflict. The oil can, therefore, be considered a suitable candidate for thermal applications up to 210°C, such as small scale CSP plants.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T07:12:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • Practical constraints for photovoltaic appliances in rural areas of
           developing countries
    • Authors: Tania Berger
      Pages: 68 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 40
      Author(s): Tania Berger
      Photovoltaic stand-alone systems are largely regarded as a viable option for decentralized rural electrification in developing countries. However, literature review reveals lack of documented experiences with installed PV systems such as Solar home systems as well as general problems with system maintenance and battery up keeping. This paper presents results from monitoring 31 stand-alone PV systems in remote health posts of North Gondar Zone in Ethiopia from installation until system failure; several systematic factors were found to have contributed to failure: lack of clear responsibility for the systems due to regular job rotation among health workers and lack of upfront, gender sensitive training, lack of equipment for maintenance work, very slow and unreliable chain of information in case of system failure and costly double tracking of energy supply. Nonfunctioning PV systems were found to threaten the technology'’s reputation by word of mouth. The results gained in this research provide important lessons for future programs of rural electrification by means of PV systems: they stress the importance of awareness building amongst funding agencies as well as the imperative of intense and sensitive training for users, especially women, and advocate for considering living conditions of users in system design.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T14:45:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • Electricity billing systems and household electricity use behaviour in
           Ibadan, Nigeria
    • Authors: Damilola Felix Arawomo
      Pages: 77 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 40
      Author(s): Damilola Felix Arawomo
      This paper examined the behaviour of households regarding electric energy use in lighting, clothes washing, ironing, refrigerating, cooking and boiling of water in relation to electricity billing systems in Ibadan. The rational choice theory, augmented by sociological and psychological theories, forms the theoretical basis for this study. The purposive sampling method was used to select five LGAs in Ibadan, where 500 households were randomly selected. Cross tabulation technique was adopted to analyse the objectives. Regarding the use of electricity for lighting, the result showed that the metered electricity consumers have better energy saving behaviour than the unmetered consumers, while the postpaid meter users have more of energy wasting behaviour compared to the prepaid meter users. For washing clothes and ironing, the result showed that the unmetered customers have more energy wasting behaviour compared to metered customers. Also regarding the behaviour about the use of electricity for washing clothes and ironing, the postpaid users are more energy wasting. Lastly, while the unmetered electricity consumers are more energy wasting in the use of electric cooker, it is the metered consumers that have energy wasting behaviour in the use of refrigerators.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T07:12:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • Performance of electricity usage at residential college buildings in the
           University of Malaya campus
    • Authors: Adi Ainurzaman Jamaludin; Noor Zalina Mahmood; Zul Ilham
      Pages: 85 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 40
      Author(s): Adi Ainurzaman Jamaludin, Noor Zalina Mahmood, Zul Ilham
      A critical analysis of characteristic and building design was done through scaled drawing and observation from a site visit of twelve residential college buildings in the University of Malaya campus. The elements of passive mode were implemented as matrixes or criteria for the recent practice of bioclimatic design strategies. The performance of electricity usage was audited based on the Energy Efficiency Index (EEI) in kWh/m2/year unit of each residential college building for the duration of nine years. As a result, the average electricity usage varied from 24 to 120kWh/m2/year. The residential colleges that have appropriate practices of passive mode particularly internal courtyard and balconies that encourage daylighting and natural ventilation were found to achieve a desired efficient use of electricity, in the range of 24 to 34kWh/m2/year.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T07:12:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • Shea nut shell based catalysts for the production of ethanolic biodiesel
    • Authors: Aristide Dejean; Igor W.K. Ouédraogo; Sylvie Mouras; Jeremy Valette; Joel Blin
      Pages: 103 - 111
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 40
      Author(s): Aristide Dejean, Igor W.K. Ouédraogo, Sylvie Mouras, Jeremy Valette, Joel Blin
      This work focused on the synthesis of charcoal as carbonaceous catalyst support for the ethanol transesterification of vegetable oil to produce biodiesel. Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) nut shells (SNS) were used as raw material to prepare an activated carbon based catalyst by chemical activation with potassium hydroxide (KOH). A central composite design of the response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the interactive effect of the SNS-K catalyst synthesis parameters (pyrolysis temperature, residence time and KOH impregnation ratio) and its catalytic activity in sunflower ethanol transesterification. Experimental yields reached >90% ester content in the biodiesel, with a catalyst prepared under mild pyrolysis conditions. Results showed that the temperature of pyrolysis and the KOH ratio used to impregnate SNS are the most important factors influencing the SNS-K catalytic activity. Catalyst prepared between 400°C and 650°C, with 120min residence time and a biomass: KOH ratio of between 14% and 17.5% produced the highest ethyl ester content (96%) with an optimal catalyst prepared at 650°C, with 120min residence time and 14% KOH loading. SNS-K catalyst characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed potassium carbonate to be the main active potassium species responsible for catalytic activity. Recyclability tests showed that the catalyst can be reused after a thermal post treatment without catalytic activity loss. Thus, this new simple catalytic process allows biodiesel production under mild conditions, using local reactant (i.e. bioethanol, vegetable oils and char from local agricultural residues). This can be a realistic alternative process for a shift towards sustainable energy in sub-Saharan Africa.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T07:12:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.07.006
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • Assessing the potential supply of biomass cooking fuels in Kilimanjaro
           region using land use units and spatial Bayesian networks
    • Authors: Roger Bär; Andreas Heinimann; Albrecht Ehrensperger
      Pages: 112 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 40
      Author(s): Roger Bär, Andreas Heinimann, Albrecht Ehrensperger
      In East Africa, charcoal and firewood will remain the main sources of energy for cooking for the next two to three decades. Corresponding energy policies are needed that set proper priorities and improve the sustainability of the biomass energy sector. In this paper, we assess the supply potentials of wood-based and non-woody biomass fuels in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania, and formulate recommendations to support sustainable biomass energy strategies in East Africa. We differentiate between tree types of potentials: the supply potential, the access potential, and the production potential. In order to calculate these potentials, we use a spatial Bayesian network that specifically enables accounting for uncertainties in the data and model. The main results show: (1) that agroforestry and small-scale mixed farming are the land use types with the highest potentials, (2) that firewood, charcoal, and biogas have substantial potential, whereas crop residue briquettes and Jatropha oil have only minor potentials, and (3) that such estimates can be subject to substantial uncertainties. Based on these results, we recommend that biomass energy strategies in East Africa consider the specific assets and limiting factors of the various fuel types and land use types in order to improve the supply of sustainable biomass cooking fuels.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T07:12:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.05.007
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • An ecosystem services perspective for classifying and valuing the
           environmental impacts of geothermal power projects
    • Authors: David Cook; Brynhildur Davíðsdóttir; Daði Már Kristófersson
      Pages: 126 - 138
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 40
      Author(s): David Cook, Brynhildur Davíðsdóttir, Daði Már Kristófersson
      An ecosystem services perspective can provide a useful means of understanding, in human well-being terms, the type, scale and value of environmental impacts deriving from the deployment of renewable energy technologies. This paper provides the first thematic review of the ecosystem service impacts commonly associated with developing geothermal areas for power projects. In this study, the typical ecosystem service impacts of geothermal power projects are classified using the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES) typology. Next, in order to develop a guide for future practitioners, an analysis is conducted of the most suitable valuation methods for the respective ecosystem service impacts. A pluralist approach is advised to aide decision-making, involving the use of monetary and non-monetary information. A number of non-market valuation studies may be required to estimate the total economic value of affected geothermal ecosystems, likely including the contingent valuation and travel cost methods. The more intangible ecosystem services associated with geothermal areas, such as artistic inspiration and landscape aesthetics, are best valued using non-monetary approaches, including deliberative methods. Finally, in recognition of the importance of having a strong physical basis underpinning non-market valuation techniques, this paper critically assesses the merits of the most appropriate data sources for future environmental economists working in a geothermal context. A literature review reveals that neither Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) nor Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) studies in a geothermal context have embedded an ecosystem service perspective into their processes. EIA are closest to fulfilling the needs of environmental economists, encompassing the majority of ecosystem service impacts, yet further methodological progress is recommended to ensure that all project stakeholders are given voice and arbitrage in the data-gathering process.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T07:12:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.07.007
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • The lighting transition in rural Africa — From kerosene to
           battery-powered LED and the emerging disposal problem
    • Authors: Gunther Bensch; Jörg Peters; Maximiliane Sievert
      Pages: 13 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 39
      Author(s): Gunther Bensch, Jörg Peters, Maximiliane Sievert
      People without electricity access, numbering today more than 500 million in rural Africa alone, have been using dim and sooty kerosene lamps and candles for their lighting purposes for decades. In the present paper, current lighting usage patterns are systematically assessed using detailed new survey data from seven countries across Sub-Saharan Africa. The data makes evident that a transition has taken place in recent years, both unnoticed by and without external support from governmental or non-governmental organizations: the rural population without electricity in Africa has replaced kerosene lights and candles by simple, yet more efficient and cleaner LED lamps powered by non-rechargeable batteries. Nevertheless, we also show that the discharged batteries are generally disposed of inappropriately in latrines or the nature. The toxic content of many dry-cell batteries and their accumulation at local litter hotspots may have harmful repercussions on health and the environment. We conclude by suggesting that rapid action is needed to, first, install an effective monitoring system on batteries that enter the continent and, second, put in place an appropriate waste management system.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T17:25:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2017)
  • Experimental investigation of a modular wind tower in hot and dry regions
    • Authors: S. M.R.Khani; M.N. Bahadori; A.R. Dehghani-Sanij
      Pages: 21 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 39
      Author(s): S. M.R.Khani, M.N. Bahadori, A.R. Dehghani-Sanij
      Passive cooling systems such as wind towers or wind catchers can create thermal comfort for building residents in hot and dry regions. This paper introduces an experimental study of a modular design of wind tower called the modular wind tower with wetted surfaces. Air temperature, relative humidity (RH) and airflow velocity parameters were measured at different times and at points when the velocity of the ambient air was zero. The results show that the modular wind tower can decrease the air temperature by an average of 10°C and increase the relative humidity of airflow in a building by approximately 36% on average. Additionally, the wind tower can create the airflow velocity entering the building up to around 1.8m/s. Furthermore, the obtained data from the measurements illustrate that the conditions of indoor air improve to the thermal comfort conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T17:41:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2017)
  • How to measure national energy sustainability performance: An Icelandic
    • Authors: Ruth Shortall; Brynhildur Davidsdottir
      Pages: 29 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 39
      Author(s): Ruth Shortall, Brynhildur Davidsdottir
      The development of sustainable energy systems is now firmly on the international agenda. Nations and their governments must strive to implement energy policies that facilitate sustainable development for society. Although Iceland is highly ranked by currently available energy indices, controversy has surrounded the development of previously undeveloped areas for power development and Iceland now finds itself at a crossroads regarding future energy developments. Well-designed indices for measuring the sustainability of energy systems can help policy-makers make the best choices for their national circumstances. However, often indicators and indices suffer from limitations and it may not be advisable to implement indicators designed for global comparisons at local, regional or even national scales. Nonetheless, indices such as those developed by the World Economic Council (WEC), World Economic Forum (WEF) for ranking countries and indicator sets such as the International Atomic Energy Agency's Energy (IAEA) Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development (EISD) may still be useful guides to decision-makers when designing their own national measurement tools provided the indicators fulfil certain criteria. Through interviews with key energy practitioners and decision-makers in energy development in Iceland and an extensive literature review, we identify the challenges faced in sustainable energy development in Iceland. We assess the suitability of indices proposed by organisations like the WEC, WEF and IAEA for reliably measuring the sustainability of energy development in individual countries like Iceland. We find that the indices and indicators evaluated suffer from commonly cited limitations including lack of methodological transparency, misalignment with sustainable development principles, inappropriate metrics, lack of clear targets, failure to capture socio-ecological impacts at different scales and failure to meet the interest of the target audience. Hence, they do not facilitate effective measurement of progress towards sustainable energy development for individual nations. Important issues relating to energy affordability and equity, environmental sustainability, efficiency, energy security and renewables are neglected by the indicators in all cases, although it should be said that the IAEA indicators are more comprehensive in their coverage of energy efficiency, renewables and environmental sustainability. In each case the indicators are at best only partially relevant to the Icelandic case, due to the country's unique energy mix, environment, economic structure and size and standard of living. By identifying their limitations and by examining them in light of criteria for good indicators as recommended by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), we contribute to the discussion on the value and validity of indicators, indices and frameworks. Knowing the potential pitfalls, we are in a better position to design a more effective measurement tool. We conclude that a more comprehensive, multi-level, context-specific measurement tool would be needed for measuring national energy sustainability in Iceland and would require methods that allow broad public participation.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T10:08:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2017)
  • Optimal ratio for anaerobic co-digestion of poultry droppings and
           lignocellulosic-rich substrates for enhanced biogas production
    • Authors: Md. Anisur Rahman; Henrik B. Møller; Chayan Kumer Saha; Md. Monjurul Alam; Radziah Wahid; Lu Feng
      Pages: 59 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 39
      Author(s): Md. Anisur Rahman, Henrik B. Møller, Chayan Kumer Saha, Md. Monjurul Alam, Radziah Wahid, Lu Feng
      The poultry industry is a progressive and prospective agro-based sector in Bangladesh. Poultry droppings (PD) make an excellent and abundant raw material for anaerobic co-digestion (AD) because of its high nitrogen content. Two sets of comparative assays were conducted on the anaerobic co-digestion of PD with two lignocellulosic co-substrates (LCSs), namely wheat straw (WS) and meadow grass (MG), under five different mixing ratios to optimize substrate composition and C:N ratio for enhanced biogas production. All digesters were run simultaneously under a mesophilic temperature of 35±1°C with an identical volatile solids (VS) concentration. The results showed that the co-digestion of PD with LCSs was significantly higher in terms of biogas yield and bio-methane potential (BMP) than those obtained by mono-digestion of PD and LCSs. Co-digestion of PD and MG produced a higher cumulative biogas production, biogas yield and BMP than from respectively PD and WS. The highest methane contents found were 330.1 and 340.1Nlkg−1 VS after digestion for 90days at a mixing ratio of, respectively, 70:30 (PD:WS) with a C:N ratio of 32.02 and a mixing ratio of 50:50 (PD:MG) with a C:N ratio of 31.52. The increases were 1.14 and 1.13 times those of the LCSs alone, respectively. Predicted optimum ratio for PD:LCSs and C:N ratios, maximum BMP and percentage volatile solids destruction (PVSD) were calculated by using software MINITAB-17 according to the best fit regression models for co-digestion of PD with LCSs.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T10:01:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2017)
  • Thermal study of domed roofs in a traditional bazaar (the case of old
           Ganj-Alikhan bazaar in Kerman, Iran)
    • Authors: E. Sedighi; M. Yaghoubi; S.M. Mousavi; Sh. Siahpour
      Pages: 67 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 39
      Author(s): E. Sedighi, M. Yaghoubi, S.M. Mousavi, Sh. Siahpour
      The impact of dome shaped roofs of various buildings on thermal comfort has been investigated by many researchers across the world. However, thus far, the advantage (or disadvantage) of multiple-domed roofs, which are most common in ancient bazaars of Iran, has not been evaluated. The subject of this article is to study the effect of shadows of multi-domed roofs on the receiving solar radiation on their surface temperature variation during a summer day. For studying, a numerical program for 3D geometry and quasi-steady state heat transfer is developed. The code is used to calculate and compare receiving solar radiation and temperature distribution on the dome roof as well as for flat roof in a hot summer day. Besides, effect of domes' orientation (north-south & east-west) and the ratio of height to radius of dome on the shadow area are determined during the day time. To validate the code, temperature distribution on the roof of numerical solution is compared with thermo-graphical pictures taken experimentally from Kerman's historical bazaar (for the same condition). The results show that despite the positive effect of using multiple-domed roofs on producing shadows, total heat transfer from roof is more in comparison with flat roofs. However, most part of the transferred heat is able to be convected out through the top opening of the dome.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:30:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2017)
  • Solar energy model and thermal performance of an electrochromic
           dome-covered house
    • Authors: Yaolin Lin; Wei Yang
      Pages: 82 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 39
      Author(s): Yaolin Lin, Wei Yang
      A dome-covered house can be considered as a sustainable building design example. It mimicks the optimal forms in the nature, and can help achieve reduction on the house heating energy need in cold winter. When the dome is made of electrochromic glazing, it can prevent large amount of solar energy from passing into the interior of the dome to prevent over-heating in summer. In this paper, a three-dimensional solar energy, thermal and air flow model is presented. The impact of different glazing types on the thermal environment inside the dome in summer and house heating load in winter is investigated. The use of electrochromic/low transmissivity glazing can result in the reduction of the absorption of solar radiation by the ground for up to 88.9%, as compared to the normal glazing and help to reduce the highest air temperature inside the dome from 41.8°C to as low as 25.6°C at 1:00PM on July 21st in Montreal at 45°N latitude, southern part of Canada, and from 34.6°C to 20.6°C in Yellowknife at 62.5°N latitude, northern part of Canada, under different control strategies, thus can create a comfortable thermal environment inside the dome.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T10:37:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2017)
  • Towards a multidimensional framework for measuring household energy
           access: Application to South Africa
    • Authors: Louise Tait
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 38
      Author(s): Louise Tait
      Debate continues around appropriate metrics to measure energy access for the poor. Whilst the underlying principles of energy access, for example affordability or safety, may be universal, the ways in which we define or measure these may vary across different regions. Much of the literature on metrics focuses on standardisation of measures that can have universal applicability. Whilst important for the international community, there is also a need to develop metrics that reflect contextual specificities to be useful to in-country stakeholders. This study has sought to develop a multi-dimensional framework of indicators, with the focus on how to operationalise these in contextually distinct ways that respond to local issues. A framework is developed representing four key dimensions: fuel use, affordability, safety and reliability. The paper offers methodological insights into the development of each and they are developed for the South African context. This illustrates the ways in which a particular context influences both how an indicator is conceptualised, as well as the choice of methods to operationalise it. Indicators aim to be responsive to, and informed by, localised factors such as the particular energy user and supply contexts, the policy environment and data availability.

      PubDate: 2017-03-12T21:40:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
  • Performance and impact evaluation of solar home lighting systems on the
           rural livelihood in Assam, India
    • Authors: Mayur Barman; Sadhan Mahapatra; Debajit Palit; Mrinal K Chaudhury
      Pages: 10 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 38
      Author(s): Mayur Barman, Sadhan Mahapatra, Debajit Palit, Mrinal K Chaudhury
      This study was carried out in four districts of Assam to assess the technical functionality of the solar home lighting systems (SHLS), service delivery model, institutional mechanism, maintenance and monitoring, user's awareness and its impacts on rural livelihood. The study found that only 28.9% of the systems are functional, 62.3% are found working with minor faults and 8.8% are either non-functional or having major faults. The average working durations per day for winter, summer and monsoon seasons are 2.2h, 3.5h and 2.3h respectively. The study observes noticeable benefits due to adoption of SHLS such as reduction in kerosene consumption, increase in children's study hours, extended working hours of small businesses and income generation through mobile phone charging. One of the key reasons for unsatisfactory technical performance of SHLS is because of poor service delivery model and inefficiency in existing institutional structure such as passive village energy committee and non-availability of service centres or local technicians for post-installation maintenance. The study observes that user perceptions on the system are positive. However, cost considerations seem to be the main obstacle for system adoption. This study concludes that availability of local technicians, effective village energy committees, demand driven system design and appropriate social awareness towards livelihood improvement options will improve the sustainability and economic viability of the SHLS.

      PubDate: 2017-03-12T21:40:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
  • Sustainable solar home systems model: Applying lessons from Bangladesh to
           Myanmar's rural poor
    • Authors: Alex Newcombe; Emmanuel Kofi Ackom
      Pages: 21 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 38
      Author(s): Alex Newcombe, Emmanuel Kofi Ackom
      Myanmar's rural population has very low access to electricity, mainly due to low disposal income and the remoteness of communities. This paper attempts to test the potential applicability of Grameen Shakti-Infrastructure Development Company Limited (IDCOL), which is a Bangladeshi public private partnership microfinance model, to rural Myanmar towards enhanced solar home systems (SHS) deployment. Rural poor are enabled by this microfinancing scheme to own SHSs in a few years for as low as US$6.40 per month. The objectives of this paper are to assess the experience of Grameen Shakti-IDCOL and other similar projects for invaluable lessons, identify barriers to sustainable electrification for Myanmar's rural poor and to apply these lessons learned to overcome barriers by developing policy recommendations for sustainable electrification for rural poor in Myanmar. Recommendations are provided suggesting the revision of some assumptions in the National Electrification Plan (NEP) and the creation of a microfinance-based public private partnership, with a polycentric structure, strong local presence and effective after sales service, to increase the deployment of SHSs to sustainably and economically supply modern energy to Myanmar's rural poor.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T21:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
  • Access to modern fuels and satisfaction with cooking arrangements: Survey
           evidence from rural India
    • Authors: Sandra Baquié; Johannes Urpelainen
      Pages: 34 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 38
      Author(s): Sandra Baquié, Johannes Urpelainen
      Subjective satisfaction is a central element of technology adoption, but scholars have not analyzed the determinants of households' satisfaction with their cooking arrangements. Drawing on an original survey of 8568 households across six Indian states, we uncover the predictors of such satisfaction. Households do not find firewood collection inconvenient, but they are dissatisfied if they have to travel long distance to purchase firewood. Among sub-components of subjective satisfaction, reduction in smoke, speed of cooking, and quality of meals dominate over others (difficulty, cost, and safety). Moreover, we identify access to LPG – a modern cooking fuel – as a strong and robust predictor of high subjective satisfaction, mostly through reduction in smoke and increase in speed of cooking. Rural households ascribe a lot of value to access modern cooking fuels that reduce indoor air pollution, and beneficiaries of interventions to improve such access would value it. Thus, efforts to reduce reliance on cooking with traditional biomass are not just paternalistic top-down interventions but contribute to significantly improve households' satisfaction with their cooking arrangements.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T21:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
  • Field study of the building physics properties of common building types in
           the Inner Himalayan valleys of Bhutan
    • Authors: Mark F. Jentsch; Christoph Kulle; Tobias Bode; Toni Pauer; Andrea Osburg; Tenzin; Karma Namgyel; Karma Euthra; Jamyang Dukjey; Karma Tenzin
      Pages: 48 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 38
      Author(s): Mark F. Jentsch, Christoph Kulle, Tobias Bode, Toni Pauer, Andrea Osburg, Tenzin, Karma Namgyel, Karma Euthra, Jamyang Dukjey, Karma Tenzin
      Traditionally, buildings in the Inner Himalayan valleys of Bhutan were constructed from rammed earth in the western regions and quarry stone in the central and eastern regions. Whilst basic architectural design elements have been retained, the construction methods have however changed over recent decades alongside expectations for indoor thermal comfort. Nevertheless, despite the need for space heating, thermal building performance remains largely unknown. Furthermore, no dedicated climate data is available for building performance assessments. This paper establishes such climatological information for the capital Thimphu and presents an investigation of building physics properties of traditional and contemporary building types. In a one month field study 10 buildings were surveyed, looking at building air tightness, indoor climate, wall U-values and water absorption of typical wall construction materials. The findings highlight comparably high wall U-values of 1.0 to 1.5W/m²K for both current and historic constructions. Furthermore, air tightness tests show that, due to poorly sealed joints between construction elements, windows and doors, many buildings have high infiltration rates, reaching up to 5 air changes per hour. However, the results also indicate an indoor climate moderating effect of more traditional earth construction techniques. Based on these survey findings basic improvements are being suggested.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T21:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
  • Multifractal analysis of electricity demand as a tool for spatial
    • Authors: G. Salvó; M.N. Piacquadio
      Pages: 67 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 38
      Author(s): G. Salvó, M.N. Piacquadio
      Electrical utilities need to plan their investments in substations and networks to meet future customer demand, by predicting the spatial load growth and its time trend. Several techniques are currently in use to do that, such as trending analysis or simulation methods. To study the electricity demand we used multifractal analysis. A fractal is an object whose irregularities are not smooth and have some self-similarity at different scales. If the fractal does not have strict self-similarity, we could break such fractality, if it really exists in the system, in a spectrum of sub fractals which have a self-similar structure, performing the so-called multifractal spectral analysis. Multifractal spectral analysis has been already applied to study the morphology and population growth of cities. Because electricity demand can be related to demographics of cities, it is possible to consider the hypothesis that multifractal spectral decomposition can be applied to analyze electricity demand. A variety of multifractal analyses were performed on real data from the customer demand of an electrical utility. The results show that the analyzed electricity demand is split into clear and interesting two-multifractal distribution with properties not found yet in the literature on the subject. This type of multifractal analysis could lead the way to improved spatial demand forecasting methods.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T21:55:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
  • Role of institutional entrepreneurship in the creation of regional solar
           PV energy markets: Contrasting developments in Gujarat and West Bengal
    • Authors: Suyash Jolly
      Pages: 77 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 38
      Author(s): Suyash Jolly
      With political initiatives, such as the National Solar Mission by Government of India, rapid development of grid connected solar PV energy in India has occurred in the recent times. However, an interesting puzzle is with respect to significant regional differences in Indian states despite similar levels of solar radiation, government support and regional level policy and regulatory initiatives in the states. The paper discusses the implementation of grid-connected solar PV energy in two Indian states – Gujarat and West Bengal – under the national-level program Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission by the government of India. The paper offers empirical insights into implementation barriers involved in regional sustainable energy initiatives by using insights from the institutional entrepreneurship literature. The study concludes by describing the reasons for successful implementation in Gujarat and less successful implementation in West Bengal by discussing regional similarities and differences of institutional entrepreneurship of three key actors: government officials within regional government, regional regulatory agencies and regional industry associations.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T21:55:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
  • A comparative analysis of long-term field test of monocrystalline and
           polycrystalline PV power generation in semi-arid climate conditions
    • Authors: Mohsen Mirzaei; Mostafa Zamani Mohiabadi
      Pages: 93 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 38
      Author(s): Mohsen Mirzaei, Mostafa Zamani Mohiabadi
      Two different, commercially available photovoltaic modules, monocrystalline and polycrystalline, have been monitored outdoors in the semi-arid area of Iran, over a complete year. The values of power output, specific energy yield, normalized power output, efficiency and performance ratio of each module have been analyzed and linked to the climatic characteristics of the site. The result indicates that despite the similar behavior of both PV modules with instantaneous irradiance, the monthly behavior of the modules is different, which is due to different light absorbing and thermal characteristics of each panel. The monthly average module efficiency of monocrystalline module has a gradual decreasing trend in the months with a higher ambient temperature, while polycrystalline module shows an inverse behavior. The results of monthly performance ratio have also shown that the performance of monocrystalline module decreases with increasing monthly ambient temperature. Monitoring the gross performance of both PV modules shows that the monocrystalline module performed better both regarding maximum efficiency and overall specific energy yield, and was found to be more efficient at this site. This work offers are also useful as a comparison for investigating the productivity of solar plants in different areas with climatic characteristics similar to the semi-arid region of Iran.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T17:25:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
  • Why both gas and biomass are needed today to address the solid fuel
           cooking problem in India: A challenge to the biomass stove community
    • Authors: Kirk R. Smith
      Pages: 102 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 38
      Author(s): Kirk R. Smith

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T10:08:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
  • Semi-industrial drying of vegetables using an array of large solar air
    • Authors: Miguel Condorí; Gonzalo Duran; Ricardo Echazú; Fabiana Altobelli
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 37
      Author(s): Miguel Condorí, Gonzalo Duran, Ricardo Echazú, Fabiana Altobelli
      The design, structure, and evaluation of an indirect solar tunnel dryer are presented. This dryer corresponds to the air forced convection type. Two similar solar dryers were built and tested with vegetables on an industrial scale in Huacalera, northern Argentina, and operated by a cooperative of small agricultural producers. Each dryer consisted of a tunnel chamber of 450kg load capacity and a bank of 10 solar collectors of 92m2. The bank of large solar collectors allowed temperatures in the drying chamber above 50°C for 6h a day, mixing with ambient air to produce the correct temperature for drying vegetables. A maximum rank of outlet temperatures of 80–90°C and temperature differences of 50–60°C were obtained with minimum air flow of 0.06kg/s and without load. The dryers were operated with different vegetables, obtaining e.g. dried slicing onion with final moisture content 0.09 in approximately 16h of sun. The optimum point of the collector efficiency was determined with airflow of 0.4kg/s, however, lower than 0.23kg/s airflow is needed to obtain outlet temperatures above 50°C. A financial evaluation of the dryer was also performed as a clean energy project, reflecting that the investment return rate of the device is 13months. In this scenario NPV improves in a 438% compared with the conventional scenario and SNPV is suitable only in the case of solar dryer. Solar drying at semi-industrial scale is feasible with the proposed technology due to the gusts of wind and the day-night thermal amplitude of Huacalera.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T14:15:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • Review of offshore wind farm cost components
    • Authors: Angel G. Gonzalez-Rodriguez
      Pages: 10 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 37
      Author(s): Angel G. Gonzalez-Rodriguez
      This paper reviews the data available in the bibliography relative to most important economical factors in an offshore wind farm, including the acquisition/installation of wind turbines and foundations, electrical infrastructure, design and project management, and operation/maintenance. These data are necessary to carry out any profitability analysis, or optimization procedure. In order to establish a common reference, prices have been translated into a unique currency and taken to the present year. Taking into account these considerations, the paper presents an estimation of the different costs as a function of the farm size. Finally, the main cost drivers affecting the capital and operating expenditures are presented and discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T14:15:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • Alloy Corrosion Considerations in Low-Cost, Clean Biomass Cookstoves for
           the Developing World
    • Authors: Michael P. Brady; Kelly Banta; John Mizia; Nathan Lorenz; Donovan N. Leonard; Yukinori Yamamoto; Morgan DeFoort; James R. Keiser
      Pages: 20 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 37
      Author(s): Michael P. Brady, Kelly Banta, John Mizia, Nathan Lorenz, Donovan N. Leonard, Yukinori Yamamoto, Morgan DeFoort, James R. Keiser
      Nearly 40% of the world cooks on open fires or inefficient biomass-fueled cookstoves. The resulting smoke is a health hazard, contributing to an estimated 4 million premature deaths per year, as well as a major source of black carbon emissions. One solution is the introduction of improved, clean-burning biomass cookstoves. One of the most challenging components is the combustor, which must operate at high temperatures (often ≥600°C) in the presence of highly corrosive species released from biomass fuel combustion, yet be sufficiently low cost to permit widespread adoption. The present work reports the development of accelerated corrosion test screening protocols employing highly corrosive salt and water vapor species, specifically designed to evaluate alloys for clean biomass cookstove combustors, and corrosion findings for a range of commercial and developmental alloys. A new Fe-Cr-Si base alloy that offers promise for improved corrosion resistance at lower cost than state-of the art FeCrAl and stainless steel alloys is also reported.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T14:15:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • Rural energy access through solar home systems: Use patterns and
           opportunities for improvement
    • Authors: Ognen Stojanovski; Mark Thurber; Frank Wolak
      Pages: 33 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 37
      Author(s): Ognen Stojanovski, Mark Thurber, Frank Wolak
      Solar photovoltaic (PV) products are touted as a leading solution to long-term electrification and development problems in rural parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. Yet there is little available data on the interactions between solar products and other household energy sources (which solar PVs are often assumed to simply displace) or the extent to which actual use patterns match up with the uses presumed by manufacturers and development agencies. This paper probes those questions through a survey that tracked approximately 500 early adopters of solar home systems in two off-grid markets in Africa. We find that these products were associated with large reductions in the use of kerosene and the charging of mobile phones outside the home. To a lesser extent, the use of small disposable batteries also decreased. However, solar home systems were, for the most part, not used to power radios, TVs, or flashlights. We also did not observe adopter households using these solar products to support income-generating activities.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T05:05:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • Can coal-derived DME reduce the dependence on solid cooking fuels in
    • Authors: Johannes Grové; Paul A. Lant; Chris R. Greig; Simon Smart
      Pages: 51 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 37
      Author(s): Johannes Grové, Paul A. Lant, Chris R. Greig, Simon Smart
      The Indian government is currently promoting and subsidising the replacement of solid cooking fuels with cleaner-burning liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). India is however a growing importer of LPG, the cost of which strongly linked to the prevailing oil price, which makes this program vulnerable to oil price shocks. Dimethyl ether (DME) is a synthetic fuel which may be blended with LPG and, if produced from domestic Indian feedstocks, one way of potentially reducing this vulnerability. A techno-economic analysis of the use of low grade Indian coal for this purpose is described in this paper, and the coal rich state of Jharkhand, where more than 18% of households used coal as a cooking fuel in 2011, was chosen as a study area. Here it was found that, due to higher cooking energy efficiency, the production and use of the DME (together with an associated electricity export) could result in 35% less coal being consumed when compared with a scenario where coal is used for cooking and to generate an equivalent amount of electricity. This analysis further shows that producing DME through this means would likely require oil prices in excess of $72 per barrel to be cost competitive with imported LPG.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T19:38:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • Recovery of fibers and biomethane from banana peduncles biomass through
           anaerobic digestion
    • Authors: Florent Awedem Wobiwo; Virginie Korangi Alleluya; Thomas Happi Emaga; Maurice Boda; Elie Fokou; Sebastien Gillet; Magali Deleu; Patrick A. Gerin
      Pages: 60 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 37
      Author(s): Florent Awedem Wobiwo, Virginie Korangi Alleluya, Thomas Happi Emaga, Maurice Boda, Elie Fokou, Sebastien Gillet, Magali Deleu, Patrick A. Gerin
      Banana crop produces large quantities of post-harvest biomass wastes. Some of them are a potential resource of raw materials such as natural fibers, which can be used as reinforcement for composite materials. The recovery of fibers, after bioconversion of the more digestible soft tissues to biogas was assessed for peduncles of three banana varieties (Grande Naine (GN), Pelipita (PPT) and CRBP969). Fibers were sieved out from the digestate. Biogas was monitored manometrically and with gas chromatography. PPT peduncle produced both the highest fibers recovery (0.2g_DM_fiber/g_DM_initial_substrate) and methane production (260ml_CH4/g_COD_initial_substrate) after 74days of anaerobic digestion. This variety was the most suitable candidate to combine both fiber recovery and biomethane production through anaerobic digestion. GN peduncle fibers degraded in less than 20days. This variety was more convenient for biomethane production (around 210ml_CH4/g_COD_initial_substrate). The amount and the quality of recovered fibers strongly depended both on the duration of anaerobic digestion and the banana variety. This work showed that anaerobic digestion was an effective bioprocess alternative to mechanical decortication and biological retting processes for fiber extraction from banana peduncles biomass.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T19:38:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • Thermo-environmental life cycle assessment of hydrogen production by
           autothermal reforming of bioethanol
    • Authors: Zouhour Khila; Ines Baccar; Intidhar Jemel; Noureddine Hajjaji
      Pages: 66 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 37
      Author(s): Zouhour Khila, Ines Baccar, Intidhar Jemel, Noureddine Hajjaji
      This paper proposes a methodology devoted to finding and selecting more accurate conditions for sustainable hydrogen production via autothermal reforming of bioethanol. This methodology implies entire hydrogen production process design and simulation, energetic, exergetic and environmental life cycle assessment analysis studies and parametric (intuitive and design of experiment based methods) investigations. A base-case process operating under conditions recommended by simple investigation of chemical reactions was thoroughly studied. The results show that this base case process suffers from low performance. This is because the energetic, exergetic and environmental performances are comparatively lower than similar findings previously reported by other researchers for other reformates. The parametric investigation indicates that the process performances could be ensured by a proper and rational combination of the reactor temperature and the steam-to-carbon ratio. A key outcome of this research lies in establishing of second order mathematical models. These models can rapidly estimate the process performances (energetic, exergetic and environmental) based on temperature and the steam-to-carbon ratio. This paper recommends a reforming a temperature of 800°C and a steam-to-carbon ratio of 4 as the accurate conditions for autothermal reforming of bioethanol. Such conditions ensure not only the lowest consumption of energy to generate a given amount of hydrogen but also the best environmental performance of the entire system.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T19:38:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • Ecuador's climate targets: A credible entry point to a low-carbon
    • Authors: Michael Jakob
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 39
      Author(s): Michael Jakob
      Long-term credibility is a central pillar of climate policy. This paper assesses whether Ecuador's recently adopted climate targets, policies to decarbonize the power sector, and measures to reduce deforestation constitute a credible basis for a transformation towards a low-carbon economy. Based on the literature on the design of credible climate policy and expert interviews, we argue that even though Ecuador's existing policies may reduce emissions in the short term, they do not yet constitute an entry point for a long-term strategy of economic transformation. We then outline politically and institutionally feasible mitigation measures, which we evaluate from a dynamic policy sequencing perspective according to their potential to prepare the ground for more stringent measures to reduce emission in the future. These measures include inter alia reform of driving restrictions, public transport, vehicle efficiency standards, support for electric cars, and results-based payments to reduce land use emission. Such reforms will need to be phased in gradually and embedded in a broad fiscal reform package. To counter potential adverse distributional effects of higher energy prices, low-income groups could be protected by lowering other taxes, scaling up investment in education, and block-pricing schemes. Furthermore, increased participation of key stakeholders would likely reduce public opposition against energy- and climate-related policies, such as fossil fuel subsidy reform.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T10:46:10Z
  • The role of government in industrial energy conservation in China: Lessons
           from the iron and steel industry
    • Authors: Fang Zhang; Keman Huang
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 39
      Author(s): Fang Zhang, Keman Huang
      This paper tracks the energy use and changes to China's energy-efficiency regulatory framework governing the iron and steel industry for the last thirty years. The detailed institutional analysis identifies both abating and augmenting effects of the regulatory framework changes on the energy intensity changes. The paper then assesses the impacts of various other factors on the energy intensity of China's iron and steel industry by using time-series data on the sector level. The quantitative analysis shows that technology progress, specifically the production process transition from high-energy intensive open-hearth furnace (OHF) to more energy efficient basic-oxygen furnace (BOF), is the biggest contributor to energy intensity reductions in China's iron and steel industry in the last thirty years, even after controlling for regulatory change and policy incentives. The ownership reform resulting from changes in the regulatory framework change contributed to energy intensity reductions in China's iron and steel industry, while fast market expansion resulting from market liberalization and regulation decentralization served as a principal barrier for energy efficiency improvements. Government policies, represented by financial subsidies from governments, correspond with energy intensity reductions in key large and medium sized enterprises, but interestingly, seem to be ineffective at producing energy intensity reductions for the industry as a whole. As other research indicated, rising coal prices also contributed to energy intensity reductions in China's iron and steel industry. Finally, the paper concludes that, to further incentivize energy intensity reductions, the Chinese government should consider correcting the negative impacts of the regulatory framework change, as well as transferring production processes to the highly energy efficient electric-arc furnace (EAF) and extending policy regulations to wider enterprise groups.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T10:46:10Z
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