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MATHEMATICS (645 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 538 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abakós     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Academic Voices : A Multidisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Accounting Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
ACM Transactions on Computational Logic (TOCL)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Difference Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fixed Point Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Materials Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Pure and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Pure Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Air, Soil & Water Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
AKSIOMA Journal of Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Algebra Colloquium     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Algorithmic Operations Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Algorithms     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Algorithms Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Mathematical Analysis     Open Access  
American Journal of Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Mathematical Monthly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
An International Journal of Optimization and Control: Theories & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Matematica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analysis Mathematica     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales Mathematicae Silesianae     Open Access  
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales UMCS, Mathematica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales Universitatis Paedagogicae Cracoviensis. Studia Mathematica     Open Access  
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Discrete Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University - Mathematics     Open Access  
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of West University of Timisoara - Mathematics     Open Access  
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Mathematics - A Journal of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Mathematics Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arab Journal of Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arabian Journal of Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archive of Numerical Software     Open Access  
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arnold Mathematical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Satellites : The Journal of Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Algebra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian-European Journal of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mathematics Teacher, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Senior Mathematics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Automatic Documentation and Mathematical Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Axioms     Open Access  
Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BIBECHANA     Open Access  
BIT Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
BoEM - Boletim online de Educação Matemática     Open Access  
Boletim Cearense de Educação e História da Matemática     Open Access  
Boletim de Educação Matemática     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Matemática Mexicana     Hybrid Journal  
Bollettino dell'Unione Matematica Italiana     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Bruno Pini Mathematical Analysis Seminar     Open Access  
Buletinul Academiei de Stiinte a Republicii Moldova. Matematica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bulletin des Sciences Mathamatiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of Dnipropetrovsk University. Series : Communications in Mathematical Modeling and Differential Equations Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Brazilian Mathematical Society, New Series     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Malaysian Mathematical Sciences Society     Hybrid Journal  
Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Carpathian Mathematical Publications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Catalysis in Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
CHANCE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ChemSusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chinese Annals of Mathematics, Series B     Hybrid Journal  
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Mathematics     Open Access  
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Collectanea Mathematica     Hybrid Journal  
College Mathematics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Commentarii Mathematici Helvetici     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Contemporary Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Communications in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications On Pure & Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Complex Analysis and its Synergies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Complex Variables and Elliptic Equations: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Complexus     Full-text available via subscription  
Composite Materials Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Comptes Rendus Mathematique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Computational Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computational Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computational Methods and Function Theory     Hybrid Journal  
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Concrete Operators     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Confluentes Mathematici     Hybrid Journal  
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal  
Cryptography and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Cuadernos de Investigación y Formación en Educación Matemática     Open Access  
Cubo. A Mathematical Journal     Open Access  
Czechoslovak Mathematical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Demographic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Demonstratio Mathematica     Open Access  
Dependence Modeling     Open Access  
Design Journal : An International Journal for All Aspects of Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Developments in Clay Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Developments in Mineral Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Discrete Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Discrete Mathematics & Theoretical Computer Science     Open Access  
Discrete Mathematics, Algorithms and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Doklady Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Duke Mathematical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Edited Series on Advances in Nonlinear Science and Complexity     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Graph Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Elemente der Mathematik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Energy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Enseñanza de las Ciencias : Revista de Investigación y Experiencias Didácticas     Open Access  
Ensino da Matemática em Debate     Open Access  
Entropy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ESAIM: Control Optimisation and Calculus of Variations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Combinatorics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Experimental Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Expositiones Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Mathematics and Informatics     Open Access  
Fasciculi Mathematici     Open Access  
Finite Fields and Their Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Fixed Point Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Formalized Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Foundations and Trends® in Econometrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover Energy for Sustainable Development
  [SJR: 1.448]   [H-I: 35]   [9 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0973-0826
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Monitoring and autonomous control of Beijing Subway HVAC system for energy
    • Authors: Yongcai Wang; Haoran Feng; Xiangyu Xi
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 39
      Author(s): Yongcai Wang, Haoran Feng, Xiangyu Xi
      As the backbone of urban public transportation, subways are also major consumers of energy. More than 30% of the total energy is used to operate the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) subsystems. If it were possible to reduce energy consumption of HVAC subsystems a few percent, a significant quantity of electricity would be saved. From 2012 to 2013, we conducted field studies and developed autonomous control system for saving energy of HVAC systems in Beijing subway stations. The energy consumption features and the load signatures of the HVAC systems were investigated and we deployed comprehensive environment monitoring, passenger flow monitoring and run-time data logging subsystems to monitor and investigate the above features in several metro stations. The extracted features showed a broad space for optimizing current HVAC systems' operation to save energy. Based on the insights learned from the field studies, we spent four months to develop and deploy autonomous HVAC control systems in three metro stations. Up to now, the developed autonomous control systems have worked well and the energy logs showed that the autonomous control system helped the metro stations reduce energy in a range from 20% to 38% than the conventional control strategy. We introduce key insights learned for energy saving and some future research directions.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T17:25:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2017)
  • The lighting transition in rural Africa — From kerosene to
           battery-powered LED and the emerging disposal problem
    • Authors: Gunther Bensch; Jörg Peters; Maximiliane Sievert
      Pages: 13 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 39
      Author(s): Gunther Bensch, Jörg Peters, Maximiliane Sievert
      People without electricity access, numbering today more than 500 million in rural Africa alone, have been using dim and sooty kerosene lamps and candles for their lighting purposes for decades. In the present paper, current lighting usage patterns are systematically assessed using detailed new survey data from seven countries across Sub-Saharan Africa. The data makes evident that a transition has taken place in recent years, both unnoticed by and without external support from governmental or non-governmental organizations: the rural population without electricity in Africa has replaced kerosene lights and candles by simple, yet more efficient and cleaner LED lamps powered by non-rechargeable batteries. Nevertheless, we also show that the discharged batteries are generally disposed of inappropriately in latrines or the nature. The toxic content of many dry-cell batteries and their accumulation at local litter hotspots may have harmful repercussions on health and the environment. We conclude by suggesting that rapid action is needed to, first, install an effective monitoring system on batteries that enter the continent and, second, put in place an appropriate waste management system.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T17:25:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2017)
  • Experimental investigation of a modular wind tower in hot and dry regions
    • Authors: S. M.R.Khani; M.N. Bahadori; A.R. Dehghani-Sanij
      Pages: 21 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 39
      Author(s): S. M.R.Khani, M.N. Bahadori, A.R. Dehghani-Sanij
      Passive cooling systems such as wind towers or wind catchers can create thermal comfort for building residents in hot and dry regions. This paper introduces an experimental study of a modular design of wind tower called the modular wind tower with wetted surfaces. Air temperature, relative humidity (RH) and airflow velocity parameters were measured at different times and at points when the velocity of the ambient air was zero. The results show that the modular wind tower can decrease the air temperature by an average of 10°C and increase the relative humidity of airflow in a building by approximately 36% on average. Additionally, the wind tower can create the airflow velocity entering the building up to around 1.8m/s. Furthermore, the obtained data from the measurements illustrate that the conditions of indoor air improve to the thermal comfort conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T17:41:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2017)
  • How to measure national energy sustainability performance: An Icelandic
    • Authors: Ruth Shortall; Brynhildur Davidsdottir
      Pages: 29 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 39
      Author(s): Ruth Shortall, Brynhildur Davidsdottir
      The development of sustainable energy systems is now firmly on the international agenda. Nations and their governments must strive to implement energy policies that facilitate sustainable development for society. Although Iceland is highly ranked by currently available energy indices, controversy has surrounded the development of previously undeveloped areas for power development and Iceland now finds itself at a crossroads regarding future energy developments. Well-designed indices for measuring the sustainability of energy systems can help policy-makers make the best choices for their national circumstances. However, often indicators and indices suffer from limitations and it may not be advisable to implement indicators designed for global comparisons at local, regional or even national scales. Nonetheless, indices such as those developed by the World Economic Council (WEC), World Economic Forum (WEF) for ranking countries and indicator sets such as the International Atomic Energy Agency's Energy (IAEA) Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development (EISD) may still be useful guides to decision-makers when designing their own national measurement tools provided the indicators fulfil certain criteria. Through interviews with key energy practitioners and decision-makers in energy development in Iceland and an extensive literature review, we identify the challenges faced in sustainable energy development in Iceland. We assess the suitability of indices proposed by organisations like the WEC, WEF and IAEA for reliably measuring the sustainability of energy development in individual countries like Iceland. We find that the indices and indicators evaluated suffer from commonly cited limitations including lack of methodological transparency, misalignment with sustainable development principles, inappropriate metrics, lack of clear targets, failure to capture socio-ecological impacts at different scales and failure to meet the interest of the target audience. Hence, they do not facilitate effective measurement of progress towards sustainable energy development for individual nations. Important issues relating to energy affordability and equity, environmental sustainability, efficiency, energy security and renewables are neglected by the indicators in all cases, although it should be said that the IAEA indicators are more comprehensive in their coverage of energy efficiency, renewables and environmental sustainability. In each case the indicators are at best only partially relevant to the Icelandic case, due to the country's unique energy mix, environment, economic structure and size and standard of living. By identifying their limitations and by examining them in light of criteria for good indicators as recommended by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), we contribute to the discussion on the value and validity of indicators, indices and frameworks. Knowing the potential pitfalls, we are in a better position to design a more effective measurement tool. We conclude that a more comprehensive, multi-level, context-specific measurement tool would be needed for measuring national energy sustainability in Iceland and would require methods that allow broad public participation.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T10:08:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2017)
  • Quality of life for all: A sustainable development framework for India's
           climate policy reduces greenhouse gas emissions
    • Authors: Sujatha Byravan; Mohd. Sahil Ali; Murali Ramakrishnan Ananthakumar; Nihit Goyal; Amit Kanudia; Pooja Vijay Ramamurthi; Shweta Srinivasan; Anantha Lakshmi Paladugula
      Pages: 48 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 39
      Author(s): Sujatha Byravan, Mohd. Sahil Ali, Murali Ramakrishnan Ananthakumar, Nihit Goyal, Amit Kanudia, Pooja Vijay Ramamurthi, Shweta Srinivasan, Anantha Lakshmi Paladugula
      This study placed improving quality of life at the centre of India’s national climate policy and asked what happens to greenhouse gas emissions with such an approach. In the lead up to the Paris climate agreement in 2015, countries determined their contributions based on their priorities, contexts, and capabilities and prepared their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions. Following the agreement, these became each country’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC). Using bottom-up scenario analyses, the sectoral interventions modelled in this research demonstrate that it is possible to get close to achieving the country’s NDC targets while improving quality of life at the same time. A comparison of a Business-As-Usual (BAU) and a sustainable development (SD) pathway leading up to 2030 reveals that improvements in a range of sustainable development conditions are possible. These include reduction in air pollution, savings in water and land use, and savings in materials and resource requirements. These changes occur along with a nearly 30% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and a 25% reduction in primary energy compared with BAU. Emissions intensity in 2030 is reduced in the sustainable development pathway by 16% compared with that in 2012 and fossil-free sources are able to contribute to about a third of India’s electricity.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T10:01:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2017)
  • Optimal ratio for anaerobic co-digestion of poultry droppings and
           lignocellulosic-rich substrates for enhanced biogas production
    • Authors: Md. Anisur Rahman; Henrik B. Møller; Chayan Kumer Saha; Md. Monjurul Alam; Radziah Wahid; Lu Feng
      Pages: 59 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 39
      Author(s): Md. Anisur Rahman, Henrik B. Møller, Chayan Kumer Saha, Md. Monjurul Alam, Radziah Wahid, Lu Feng
      The poultry industry is a progressive and prospective agro-based sector in Bangladesh. Poultry droppings (PD) make an excellent and abundant raw material for anaerobic co-digestion (AD) because of its high nitrogen content. Two sets of comparative assays were conducted on the anaerobic co-digestion of PD with two lignocellulosic co-substrates (LCSs), namely wheat straw (WS) and meadow grass (MG), under five different mixing ratios to optimize substrate composition and C:N ratio for enhanced biogas production. All digesters were run simultaneously under a mesophilic temperature of 35±1°C with an identical volatile solids (VS) concentration. The results showed that the co-digestion of PD with LCSs was significantly higher in terms of biogas yield and bio-methane potential (BMP) than those obtained by mono-digestion of PD and LCSs. Co-digestion of PD and MG produced a higher cumulative biogas production, biogas yield and BMP than from respectively PD and WS. The highest methane contents found were 330.1 and 340.1Nlkg−1 VS after digestion for 90days at a mixing ratio of, respectively, 70:30 (PD:WS) with a C:N ratio of 32.02 and a mixing ratio of 50:50 (PD:MG) with a C:N ratio of 31.52. The increases were 1.14 and 1.13 times those of the LCSs alone, respectively. Predicted optimum ratio for PD:LCSs and C:N ratios, maximum BMP and percentage volatile solids destruction (PVSD) were calculated by using software MINITAB-17 according to the best fit regression models for co-digestion of PD with LCSs.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T10:01:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2017)
  • Thermal study of domed roofs in a traditional bazaar (the case of old
           Ganj-Alikhan bazaar in Kerman, Iran)
    • Authors: E. Sedighi; M. Yaghoubi; S.M. Mousavi; Sh. Siahpour
      Pages: 67 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 39
      Author(s): E. Sedighi, M. Yaghoubi, S.M. Mousavi, Sh. Siahpour
      The impact of dome shaped roofs of various buildings on thermal comfort has been investigated by many researchers across the world. However, thus far, the advantage (or disadvantage) of multiple-domed roofs, which are most common in ancient bazaars of Iran, has not been evaluated. The subject of this article is to study the effect of shadows of multi-domed roofs on the receiving solar radiation on their surface temperature variation during a summer day. For studying, a numerical program for 3D geometry and quasi-steady state heat transfer is developed. The code is used to calculate and compare receiving solar radiation and temperature distribution on the dome roof as well as for flat roof in a hot summer day. Besides, effect of domes' orientation (north-south & east-west) and the ratio of height to radius of dome on the shadow area are determined during the day time. To validate the code, temperature distribution on the roof of numerical solution is compared with thermo-graphical pictures taken experimentally from Kerman's historical bazaar (for the same condition). The results show that despite the positive effect of using multiple-domed roofs on producing shadows, total heat transfer from roof is more in comparison with flat roofs. However, most part of the transferred heat is able to be convected out through the top opening of the dome.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:30:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2017)
  • Towards a multidimensional framework for measuring household energy
           access: Application to South Africa
    • Authors: Louise Tait
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 38
      Author(s): Louise Tait
      Debate continues around appropriate metrics to measure energy access for the poor. Whilst the underlying principles of energy access, for example affordability or safety, may be universal, the ways in which we define or measure these may vary across different regions. Much of the literature on metrics focuses on standardisation of measures that can have universal applicability. Whilst important for the international community, there is also a need to develop metrics that reflect contextual specificities to be useful to in-country stakeholders. This study has sought to develop a multi-dimensional framework of indicators, with the focus on how to operationalise these in contextually distinct ways that respond to local issues. A framework is developed representing four key dimensions: fuel use, affordability, safety and reliability. The paper offers methodological insights into the development of each and they are developed for the South African context. This illustrates the ways in which a particular context influences both how an indicator is conceptualised, as well as the choice of methods to operationalise it. Indicators aim to be responsive to, and informed by, localised factors such as the particular energy user and supply contexts, the policy environment and data availability.

      PubDate: 2017-03-12T21:40:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
  • Performance and impact evaluation of solar home lighting systems on the
           rural livelihood in Assam, India
    • Authors: Mayur Barman; Sadhan Mahapatra; Debajit Palit; Mrinal K Chaudhury
      Pages: 10 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 38
      Author(s): Mayur Barman, Sadhan Mahapatra, Debajit Palit, Mrinal K Chaudhury
      This study was carried out in four districts of Assam to assess the technical functionality of the solar home lighting systems (SHLS), service delivery model, institutional mechanism, maintenance and monitoring, user's awareness and its impacts on rural livelihood. The study found that only 28.9% of the systems are functional, 62.3% are found working with minor faults and 8.8% are either non-functional or having major faults. The average working durations per day for winter, summer and monsoon seasons are 2.2h, 3.5h and 2.3h respectively. The study observes noticeable benefits due to adoption of SHLS such as reduction in kerosene consumption, increase in children's study hours, extended working hours of small businesses and income generation through mobile phone charging. One of the key reasons for unsatisfactory technical performance of SHLS is because of poor service delivery model and inefficiency in existing institutional structure such as passive village energy committee and non-availability of service centres or local technicians for post-installation maintenance. The study observes that user perceptions on the system are positive. However, cost considerations seem to be the main obstacle for system adoption. This study concludes that availability of local technicians, effective village energy committees, demand driven system design and appropriate social awareness towards livelihood improvement options will improve the sustainability and economic viability of the SHLS.

      PubDate: 2017-03-12T21:40:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
  • Sustainable solar home systems model: Applying lessons from Bangladesh to
           Myanmar's rural poor
    • Authors: Alex Newcombe; Emmanuel Kofi Ackom
      Pages: 21 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 38
      Author(s): Alex Newcombe, Emmanuel Kofi Ackom
      Myanmar's rural population has very low access to electricity, mainly due to low disposal income and the remoteness of communities. This paper attempts to test the potential applicability of Grameen Shakti-Infrastructure Development Company Limited (IDCOL), which is a Bangladeshi public private partnership microfinance model, to rural Myanmar towards enhanced solar home systems (SHS) deployment. Rural poor are enabled by this microfinancing scheme to own SHSs in a few years for as low as US$6.40 per month. The objectives of this paper are to assess the experience of Grameen Shakti-IDCOL and other similar projects for invaluable lessons, identify barriers to sustainable electrification for Myanmar's rural poor and to apply these lessons learned to overcome barriers by developing policy recommendations for sustainable electrification for rural poor in Myanmar. Recommendations are provided suggesting the revision of some assumptions in the National Electrification Plan (NEP) and the creation of a microfinance-based public private partnership, with a polycentric structure, strong local presence and effective after sales service, to increase the deployment of SHSs to sustainably and economically supply modern energy to Myanmar's rural poor.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T21:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
  • Access to modern fuels and satisfaction with cooking arrangements: Survey
           evidence from rural India
    • Authors: Sandra Baquié; Johannes Urpelainen
      Pages: 34 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 38
      Author(s): Sandra Baquié, Johannes Urpelainen
      Subjective satisfaction is a central element of technology adoption, but scholars have not analyzed the determinants of households' satisfaction with their cooking arrangements. Drawing on an original survey of 8568 households across six Indian states, we uncover the predictors of such satisfaction. Households do not find firewood collection inconvenient, but they are dissatisfied if they have to travel long distance to purchase firewood. Among sub-components of subjective satisfaction, reduction in smoke, speed of cooking, and quality of meals dominate over others (difficulty, cost, and safety). Moreover, we identify access to LPG – a modern cooking fuel – as a strong and robust predictor of high subjective satisfaction, mostly through reduction in smoke and increase in speed of cooking. Rural households ascribe a lot of value to access modern cooking fuels that reduce indoor air pollution, and beneficiaries of interventions to improve such access would value it. Thus, efforts to reduce reliance on cooking with traditional biomass are not just paternalistic top-down interventions but contribute to significantly improve households' satisfaction with their cooking arrangements.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T21:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
  • Field study of the building physics properties of common building types in
           the Inner Himalayan valleys of Bhutan
    • Authors: Mark F. Jentsch; Christoph Kulle; Tobias Bode; Toni Pauer; Andrea Osburg; Tenzin; Karma Namgyel; Karma Euthra; Jamyang Dukjey; Karma Tenzin
      Pages: 48 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 38
      Author(s): Mark F. Jentsch, Christoph Kulle, Tobias Bode, Toni Pauer, Andrea Osburg, Tenzin, Karma Namgyel, Karma Euthra, Jamyang Dukjey, Karma Tenzin
      Traditionally, buildings in the Inner Himalayan valleys of Bhutan were constructed from rammed earth in the western regions and quarry stone in the central and eastern regions. Whilst basic architectural design elements have been retained, the construction methods have however changed over recent decades alongside expectations for indoor thermal comfort. Nevertheless, despite the need for space heating, thermal building performance remains largely unknown. Furthermore, no dedicated climate data is available for building performance assessments. This paper establishes such climatological information for the capital Thimphu and presents an investigation of building physics properties of traditional and contemporary building types. In a one month field study 10 buildings were surveyed, looking at building air tightness, indoor climate, wall U-values and water absorption of typical wall construction materials. The findings highlight comparably high wall U-values of 1.0 to 1.5W/m²K for both current and historic constructions. Furthermore, air tightness tests show that, due to poorly sealed joints between construction elements, windows and doors, many buildings have high infiltration rates, reaching up to 5 air changes per hour. However, the results also indicate an indoor climate moderating effect of more traditional earth construction techniques. Based on these survey findings basic improvements are being suggested.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T21:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
  • Multifractal analysis of electricity demand as a tool for spatial
    • Authors: G. Salvó; M.N. Piacquadio
      Pages: 67 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 38
      Author(s): G. Salvó, M.N. Piacquadio
      Electrical utilities need to plan their investments in substations and networks to meet future customer demand, by predicting the spatial load growth and its time trend. Several techniques are currently in use to do that, such as trending analysis or simulation methods. To study the electricity demand we used multifractal analysis. A fractal is an object whose irregularities are not smooth and have some self-similarity at different scales. If the fractal does not have strict self-similarity, we could break such fractality, if it really exists in the system, in a spectrum of sub fractals which have a self-similar structure, performing the so-called multifractal spectral analysis. Multifractal spectral analysis has been already applied to study the morphology and population growth of cities. Because electricity demand can be related to demographics of cities, it is possible to consider the hypothesis that multifractal spectral decomposition can be applied to analyze electricity demand. A variety of multifractal analyses were performed on real data from the customer demand of an electrical utility. The results show that the analyzed electricity demand is split into clear and interesting two-multifractal distribution with properties not found yet in the literature on the subject. This type of multifractal analysis could lead the way to improved spatial demand forecasting methods.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T21:55:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
  • Role of institutional entrepreneurship in the creation of regional solar
           PV energy markets: Contrasting developments in Gujarat and West Bengal
    • Authors: Suyash Jolly
      Pages: 77 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 38
      Author(s): Suyash Jolly
      With political initiatives, such as the National Solar Mission by Government of India, rapid development of grid connected solar PV energy in India has occurred in the recent times. However, an interesting puzzle is with respect to significant regional differences in Indian states despite similar levels of solar radiation, government support and regional level policy and regulatory initiatives in the states. The paper discusses the implementation of grid-connected solar PV energy in two Indian states – Gujarat and West Bengal – under the national-level program Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission by the government of India. The paper offers empirical insights into implementation barriers involved in regional sustainable energy initiatives by using insights from the institutional entrepreneurship literature. The study concludes by describing the reasons for successful implementation in Gujarat and less successful implementation in West Bengal by discussing regional similarities and differences of institutional entrepreneurship of three key actors: government officials within regional government, regional regulatory agencies and regional industry associations.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T21:55:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
  • A comparative analysis of long-term field test of monocrystalline and
           polycrystalline PV power generation in semi-arid climate conditions
    • Authors: Mohsen Mirzaei; Mostafa Zamani Mohiabadi
      Pages: 93 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 38
      Author(s): Mohsen Mirzaei, Mostafa Zamani Mohiabadi
      Two different, commercially available photovoltaic modules, monocrystalline and polycrystalline, have been monitored outdoors in the semi-arid area of Iran, over a complete year. The values of power output, specific energy yield, normalized power output, efficiency and performance ratio of each module have been analyzed and linked to the climatic characteristics of the site. The result indicates that despite the similar behavior of both PV modules with instantaneous irradiance, the monthly behavior of the modules is different, which is due to different light absorbing and thermal characteristics of each panel. The monthly average module efficiency of monocrystalline module has a gradual decreasing trend in the months with a higher ambient temperature, while polycrystalline module shows an inverse behavior. The results of monthly performance ratio have also shown that the performance of monocrystalline module decreases with increasing monthly ambient temperature. Monitoring the gross performance of both PV modules shows that the monocrystalline module performed better both regarding maximum efficiency and overall specific energy yield, and was found to be more efficient at this site. This work offers are also useful as a comparison for investigating the productivity of solar plants in different areas with climatic characteristics similar to the semi-arid region of Iran.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T17:25:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
  • Why both gas and biomass are needed today to address the solid fuel
           cooking problem in India: A challenge to the biomass stove community
    • Authors: Kirk R. Smith
      Pages: 102 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 38
      Author(s): Kirk R. Smith

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T10:08:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
  • Semi-industrial drying of vegetables using an array of large solar air
    • Authors: Miguel Condorí; Gonzalo Duran; Ricardo Echazú; Fabiana Altobelli
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 37
      Author(s): Miguel Condorí, Gonzalo Duran, Ricardo Echazú, Fabiana Altobelli
      The design, structure, and evaluation of an indirect solar tunnel dryer are presented. This dryer corresponds to the air forced convection type. Two similar solar dryers were built and tested with vegetables on an industrial scale in Huacalera, northern Argentina, and operated by a cooperative of small agricultural producers. Each dryer consisted of a tunnel chamber of 450kg load capacity and a bank of 10 solar collectors of 92m2. The bank of large solar collectors allowed temperatures in the drying chamber above 50°C for 6h a day, mixing with ambient air to produce the correct temperature for drying vegetables. A maximum rank of outlet temperatures of 80–90°C and temperature differences of 50–60°C were obtained with minimum air flow of 0.06kg/s and without load. The dryers were operated with different vegetables, obtaining e.g. dried slicing onion with final moisture content 0.09 in approximately 16h of sun. The optimum point of the collector efficiency was determined with airflow of 0.4kg/s, however, lower than 0.23kg/s airflow is needed to obtain outlet temperatures above 50°C. A financial evaluation of the dryer was also performed as a clean energy project, reflecting that the investment return rate of the device is 13months. In this scenario NPV improves in a 438% compared with the conventional scenario and SNPV is suitable only in the case of solar dryer. Solar drying at semi-industrial scale is feasible with the proposed technology due to the gusts of wind and the day-night thermal amplitude of Huacalera.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T14:15:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • Review of offshore wind farm cost components
    • Authors: Angel G. Gonzalez-Rodriguez
      Pages: 10 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 37
      Author(s): Angel G. Gonzalez-Rodriguez
      This paper reviews the data available in the bibliography relative to most important economical factors in an offshore wind farm, including the acquisition/installation of wind turbines and foundations, electrical infrastructure, design and project management, and operation/maintenance. These data are necessary to carry out any profitability analysis, or optimization procedure. In order to establish a common reference, prices have been translated into a unique currency and taken to the present year. Taking into account these considerations, the paper presents an estimation of the different costs as a function of the farm size. Finally, the main cost drivers affecting the capital and operating expenditures are presented and discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T14:15:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • Alloy Corrosion Considerations in Low-Cost, Clean Biomass Cookstoves for
           the Developing World
    • Authors: Michael P. Brady; Kelly Banta; John Mizia; Nathan Lorenz; Donovan N. Leonard; Yukinori Yamamoto; Morgan DeFoort; James R. Keiser
      Pages: 20 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 37
      Author(s): Michael P. Brady, Kelly Banta, John Mizia, Nathan Lorenz, Donovan N. Leonard, Yukinori Yamamoto, Morgan DeFoort, James R. Keiser
      Nearly 40% of the world cooks on open fires or inefficient biomass-fueled cookstoves. The resulting smoke is a health hazard, contributing to an estimated 4 million premature deaths per year, as well as a major source of black carbon emissions. One solution is the introduction of improved, clean-burning biomass cookstoves. One of the most challenging components is the combustor, which must operate at high temperatures (often ≥600°C) in the presence of highly corrosive species released from biomass fuel combustion, yet be sufficiently low cost to permit widespread adoption. The present work reports the development of accelerated corrosion test screening protocols employing highly corrosive salt and water vapor species, specifically designed to evaluate alloys for clean biomass cookstove combustors, and corrosion findings for a range of commercial and developmental alloys. A new Fe-Cr-Si base alloy that offers promise for improved corrosion resistance at lower cost than state-of the art FeCrAl and stainless steel alloys is also reported.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T14:15:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • Rural energy access through solar home systems: Use patterns and
           opportunities for improvement
    • Authors: Ognen Stojanovski; Mark Thurber; Frank Wolak
      Pages: 33 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 37
      Author(s): Ognen Stojanovski, Mark Thurber, Frank Wolak
      Solar photovoltaic (PV) products are touted as a leading solution to long-term electrification and development problems in rural parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. Yet there is little available data on the interactions between solar products and other household energy sources (which solar PVs are often assumed to simply displace) or the extent to which actual use patterns match up with the uses presumed by manufacturers and development agencies. This paper probes those questions through a survey that tracked approximately 500 early adopters of solar home systems in two off-grid markets in Africa. We find that these products were associated with large reductions in the use of kerosene and the charging of mobile phones outside the home. To a lesser extent, the use of small disposable batteries also decreased. However, solar home systems were, for the most part, not used to power radios, TVs, or flashlights. We also did not observe adopter households using these solar products to support income-generating activities.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T05:05:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • Can coal-derived DME reduce the dependence on solid cooking fuels in
    • Authors: Johannes Grové; Paul A. Lant; Chris R. Greig; Simon Smart
      Pages: 51 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 37
      Author(s): Johannes Grové, Paul A. Lant, Chris R. Greig, Simon Smart
      The Indian government is currently promoting and subsidising the replacement of solid cooking fuels with cleaner-burning liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). India is however a growing importer of LPG, the cost of which strongly linked to the prevailing oil price, which makes this program vulnerable to oil price shocks. Dimethyl ether (DME) is a synthetic fuel which may be blended with LPG and, if produced from domestic Indian feedstocks, one way of potentially reducing this vulnerability. A techno-economic analysis of the use of low grade Indian coal for this purpose is described in this paper, and the coal rich state of Jharkhand, where more than 18% of households used coal as a cooking fuel in 2011, was chosen as a study area. Here it was found that, due to higher cooking energy efficiency, the production and use of the DME (together with an associated electricity export) could result in 35% less coal being consumed when compared with a scenario where coal is used for cooking and to generate an equivalent amount of electricity. This analysis further shows that producing DME through this means would likely require oil prices in excess of $72 per barrel to be cost competitive with imported LPG.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T19:38:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • Recovery of fibers and biomethane from banana peduncles biomass through
           anaerobic digestion
    • Authors: Florent Awedem Wobiwo; Virginie Korangi Alleluya; Thomas Happi Emaga; Maurice Boda; Elie Fokou; Sebastien Gillet; Magali Deleu; Patrick A. Gerin
      Pages: 60 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 37
      Author(s): Florent Awedem Wobiwo, Virginie Korangi Alleluya, Thomas Happi Emaga, Maurice Boda, Elie Fokou, Sebastien Gillet, Magali Deleu, Patrick A. Gerin
      Banana crop produces large quantities of post-harvest biomass wastes. Some of them are a potential resource of raw materials such as natural fibers, which can be used as reinforcement for composite materials. The recovery of fibers, after bioconversion of the more digestible soft tissues to biogas was assessed for peduncles of three banana varieties (Grande Naine (GN), Pelipita (PPT) and CRBP969). Fibers were sieved out from the digestate. Biogas was monitored manometrically and with gas chromatography. PPT peduncle produced both the highest fibers recovery (0.2g_DM_fiber/g_DM_initial_substrate) and methane production (260ml_CH4/g_COD_initial_substrate) after 74days of anaerobic digestion. This variety was the most suitable candidate to combine both fiber recovery and biomethane production through anaerobic digestion. GN peduncle fibers degraded in less than 20days. This variety was more convenient for biomethane production (around 210ml_CH4/g_COD_initial_substrate). The amount and the quality of recovered fibers strongly depended both on the duration of anaerobic digestion and the banana variety. This work showed that anaerobic digestion was an effective bioprocess alternative to mechanical decortication and biological retting processes for fiber extraction from banana peduncles biomass.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T19:38:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • Thermo-environmental life cycle assessment of hydrogen production by
           autothermal reforming of bioethanol
    • Authors: Zouhour Khila; Ines Baccar; Intidhar Jemel; Noureddine Hajjaji
      Pages: 66 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 37
      Author(s): Zouhour Khila, Ines Baccar, Intidhar Jemel, Noureddine Hajjaji
      This paper proposes a methodology devoted to finding and selecting more accurate conditions for sustainable hydrogen production via autothermal reforming of bioethanol. This methodology implies entire hydrogen production process design and simulation, energetic, exergetic and environmental life cycle assessment analysis studies and parametric (intuitive and design of experiment based methods) investigations. A base-case process operating under conditions recommended by simple investigation of chemical reactions was thoroughly studied. The results show that this base case process suffers from low performance. This is because the energetic, exergetic and environmental performances are comparatively lower than similar findings previously reported by other researchers for other reformates. The parametric investigation indicates that the process performances could be ensured by a proper and rational combination of the reactor temperature and the steam-to-carbon ratio. A key outcome of this research lies in establishing of second order mathematical models. These models can rapidly estimate the process performances (energetic, exergetic and environmental) based on temperature and the steam-to-carbon ratio. This paper recommends a reforming a temperature of 800°C and a steam-to-carbon ratio of 4 as the accurate conditions for autothermal reforming of bioethanol. Such conditions ensure not only the lowest consumption of energy to generate a given amount of hydrogen but also the best environmental performance of the entire system.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T19:38:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • Performance analysis of a grid connected photovoltaic system in
           northeastern Brazil
    • Authors: Lutero Carmo de Lima; Leonardo de Araújo Ferreira; Francisco Hedler Barreto de Lima Morais
      Pages: 79 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 37
      Author(s): Lutero Carmo de Lima, Leonardo de Araújo Ferreira, Francisco Hedler Barreto de Lima Morais
      This article presents the performance analysis of a 2.2kWp photovoltaic system installed at the State University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil (latitude 3.40°S, longitude 38.33°W and 31m above sea level). The system was monitored from June 2013 to May 2014. In the measured period the annual energy yield was 1685.5kWh/kWp. The average daily reference, array and final yields of the system were 5.6kWh/kWp, 4.9kWh/kWp and 4.6kWh/kWp, respectively. The annual average daily array and system losses were 1.05kWh/kWp and the annual average array, system and inverter efficiencies were 13.3%, 12.6% and 94.6%, respectively. The performance ratio and capacity factor were 82.9% and 19.2%, respectively. These numbers highlight the relatively good performance of PV systems installed in the northeast region of Brazil.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T19:38:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • Performance analysis of thermoelectric generator using dc-dc converter
           with incremental conductance based maximum power point tracking
    • Authors: Ssennoga Twaha; Jie Zhu; Yuying Yan; Bo Li; Kuo Huang
      Pages: 86 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 37
      Author(s): Ssennoga Twaha, Jie Zhu, Yuying Yan, Bo Li, Kuo Huang
      Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are used for converting heat into electricity. One of the challenges behind TEG is that the power generated is unstable and therefore needs proper power conditioning mechanism before it is supplied to the load. Moreover, it is necessary to track the maximum power point (MPP) so that maximum power is always extracted from TEG devices. The objective of this work is to analyse the performance of dc-dc converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) enabled by incremental conductance (IC) method. The results of the IC based MPPT approach have been compared with those of perturb and observe (P&O) based MPPT from a previous researcher. The results indicate that the IC based MPPT approach is able to track the MPP but with relatively lower efficiencies than the P&O based MPPT method. The matching efficiency within a temperature range of 200°C–300°C is in the range of 99.92%–99.95% for P&O and 99.46%–99.97% for IC method. However IC based MPPT method has higher voltage gain and converter efficiency than the P&O based MPPT method. Therefore, dc-dc converters are able to improve the steady state performance of TEG system as well as boosting the voltage to the desired level, hence improving the overall performance of TEG system.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T19:38:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • Towards a low-carbon electric power system in Mexico
    • Authors: Genice Grande-Acosta; Jorge Islas-Samperio
      Pages: 99 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 37
      Author(s): Genice Grande-Acosta, Jorge Islas-Samperio
      The energy sector is one of the largest sources of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in Mexico and the World due to the intensive use of fossil fuels. This article is developed on and examines from an environmental and economical approach an alternative scenario towards a Mexican Low Carbon Electric Power System, by analyzing 36 GHG mitigation options on the electric demand side, namely −23 for an energy-efficient use and 4 for distributed generation, across the residential, commercial, public, industrial and energy sectors and, 9 options of electric power generation with Renewable Energy Sources (RES) on the electric power supply side. Our results reveal that, regarding the GHG baseline, towards 2020, this alternative scenario minimizes 33% of the GHG emissions, and towards 2035 these emissions are dramatically minimized at 79%. Furthermore, results also show that there is a possibility to reach a GHG peak in the electric power industry in very few years with this alternative scenario. Moreover, it is found that this alternative scenario will entail no cost in the analyzed period; on the contrary, it creates a global economic benefit of over 8000 MUSD, where 74% is related to the application of the mitigation options in the electric demand sectors and the remaining 26% comes from RES technologies in the electric power supply. Results show that the implementation of this alternative scenario requires an incremental investment of almost than 2 Billion USD/year within the analysis period. Lastly, it is shown that national goals for the electric power sector that have been recently established in the General Climate Change Law, the Energy Transition Law as well as the proposed Intended Nationally Determined Contribution in the Paris COP21 Agreements are feasible for achievement in this alternative scenario.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T19:38:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • Renewable energy's impact on rural development in northwestern Romania
    • Authors: Sorin Cebotari; Marius Cristea; Ciprian Moldovan; Florin Zubascu
      Pages: 110 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 37
      Author(s): Sorin Cebotari, Marius Cristea, Ciprian Moldovan, Florin Zubascu
      Romania has increased its production of electricity from renewable sources by relying on projects situated in rural areas. This paper explores the impact of renewable energy projects on rural development in north-western Romania. The critical review of the literature has revealed that most studies stress the positive effects renewable energy projects can have on employment, demographics, revenues to the local budgets, and agriculture in the host communities. We observed, however, that none of those studies had a quantitative approach and they do not study in a comparative manner these effects. This paper takes a step further and compares the evolution of the four variables for villages with and without implemented renewable energy projects. We compared the evolution of employment, demographics, revenues and processed agriculture land from 2010 to 2014. For the two groups of villages, the data shows no difference between villages with and without implemented renewable energy projects.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T19:38:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • Dis-adoption of Household Biogas technologies in Central Uganda
    • Authors: Florence Lwiza; Johnny Mugisha; Peter N. Walekhwa; Jo Smith; Bedru Balana
      Pages: 124 - 132
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 37
      Author(s): Florence Lwiza, Johnny Mugisha, Peter N. Walekhwa, Jo Smith, Bedru Balana
      The study analyses dis-adoption of biogas technologies in Central Uganda. Biogas technology makes use of livestock waste, crop material and food waste to produce a flammable gas that can be used for cooking and lighting. Use of biogas technology has multiple benefits for the households since it reduces the need for fuelwood for cooking and also produces bio-slurry which is a valuable fertilizer. Despite efforts by Government and Non-Governmental Organizations to promote the biogas technology, the rate of its adoption of biogas technology was found to be low, estimated at 25.8% of its potential. A review of literature showed that the households that dis-adopted biogas technology, did so within a period of 4years after its installation, yet the lifespan of using it is estimated at 25years. There was need to examine the factors contributing to dis-adoption. Using cross sectional data collected from Luwero and Mpigi districts found in Central Uganda, a probit model was estimated. The findings showed that an increase in the family size, the number of cattle, number of pigs and the age of the household head reduced the likelihood of biogas technology dis-adoption. Other factors that contributed to dis-adoption included the failure to sustain cattle and pig production that are necessary for feedstock supply, reduced availability of family labor the and inability of the households to repair biogas digesters after malfunctioning. Based on the findings, it was concluded that long term use of biogas technology required improved management practices on the farm so as to sustain livestock production. It is also recommended that quality standards and socio-cultural factors be considered in the design of biogas digesters and end use devices.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T20:13:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • 3-D printing solar photovoltaic racking in developing world
    • Authors: Ben Wittbrodt; Joshua M. Pearce
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 36
      Author(s): Ben Wittbrodt, Joshua M. Pearce
      The purpose of this paper is to provide a technical and economic evaluation of the value of the RepRap as an entry-level 3-D printer in the developing world and provide a cost effective solar photovoltaic (PV) racking solution to better serve the developing world and aid in the acceleration of their economic and socioeconomic growth. A customizable open-source PV racking concept is designed, prototyped for three types of modules, constructed into systems, and outdoor tested under extreme conditions for one year. An economic analysis is provided along with a technical evaluation of the system, which found the proposed racking system can be successfully printed with RepRap 3-D printers and saves between 85% and 92% from commercially available alternatives depending on the plastic used for printing. In addition, the plastic parts proved able to withstand some of the harshest outdoor conditions and due to the free and open-source nature of the designs, it allows the system to be adapted to custom applications in any region in the world more easily than any commercial alternatives. The results indicate that the 3-D printable X-wire solar photovoltiac racking system has the potential to aid in the acceleration of solar deployment in the developing world by providing a low cost PV racking solution.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T23:03:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 36 (2016)
  • An integrated model for designing a solar community heating system with
           borehole thermal storage
    • Authors: Farzin M. Rad; Alan S. Fung; Marc A. Rosen
      Pages: 6 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 36
      Author(s): Farzin M. Rad, Alan S. Fung, Marc A. Rosen
      Borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) is found to be a favorable method for storing a large amount of thermal energy, and suitable for seasonal solar thermal storage, especially for large communities. Drake Landing Solar Community (DLSC), built in 2006, is the first such solar community in Canada. DLSC has achieved a 97% solar fraction after five years of operation. Although the DLSC project has been a success technically, the cost of the system is not attractive. In this study, an alternative design approach for a similar community is presented. The primary goal is to develop a system that not only achieves similar or better performance but also costs less. TRNSYS 17, along with a novel custom BTES component, is used for the system design and simulation. With the alternative design, the annual community thermal load of 2350 GJ is mostly met by solar thermal collectors via BTES and after five years of operation a 96%solar fraction is predicted. The simulation results are compared with published results for DLSC. It is estimated that the proposed system offers a 19% saving in initial cost in addition to reductions of BTES area of 38% and solar panel area of 25%.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T23:03:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 36 (2016)
  • An analysis of the effects of residential uninterpretable power supply
           systems on Pakistan's power sector
    • Authors: Naveed Arshad; Usman Ali
      Pages: 16 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 36
      Author(s): Naveed Arshad, Usman Ali
      For the past many years Pakistan is facing electricity shortfall. The gap between demand and supply of electricity is as much as 6000MW during the peak summer months. This has resulted into scheduled power cuts that range between 6–12h in a day. To reduce the effect of these power cuts or load shedding, consumers have installed alternate energy sources such as Fossil Fuel Generators and Uninterpretable Power Supply Systems (UPSs). While Fossil Fuel Generators use energy sources such as oil and natural gas, the UPSs are charged from the electricity grid that is already under stress. Some sources estimate the UPSs penetration to as much as 40% in Pakistan. With this penetration rate the UPSs are a solution for individual consumers but it exacerbates the problem at the National scale. Moreover, the low quality of UPSs further strains the electricity system. In this paper presents a study to investigate the effects of UPSs in Pakistan's electricity system. By carrying out measurements of sample UPSs we estimated the amount of electricity the UPSs consume in Pakistan's electricity market. Our results show that depending on the number of power cut hours, the UPSs consume between 2%–7% of electricity at any given time. We further provide ways and measures to reduce the UPS charging load on the overall electricity system.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T23:03:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 36 (2016)
  • Livelihood diversification: The role of charcoal production in southern
    • Authors: Harriet Elizabeth Smith; Malcolm D Hudson; Kate Schreckenberg
      Pages: 22 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 36
      Author(s): Harriet Elizabeth Smith, Malcolm D Hudson, Kate Schreckenberg
      Growing urban populations in Sub-Saharan Africa are increasing demand for charcoal. This paper presents a detailed case study of three communities supplying charcoal to Zomba, a medium-sized city in Southern Malawi. Using the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework to structure our analysis, we examine individuals' motivations for producing charcoal, assess the seasonality of charcoal production, how livelihood outcomes vary between men and women, and identify sources of vulnerability for charcoal producer livelihoods. Drawing on data from four focus group exercises in each community and a total of 42 semi-structured interviews, we identify direct (e.g. financial) and indirect (e.g. strengthening of social networks, improved access to goods and services, opportunities for livelihood diversification) benefits that contribute to reducing producers' vulnerability to financial insecurity and improve their livelihoods. Irrespective of the benefits obtained and the actions (e.g. prioritising charcoal production over farming) of producers, participants did not perceive charcoal production as a desirable activity because the work was illegal, stigmatised hard and dangerous. Producers' primary motivations for engaging in production were to provide income to meet one-off purchases of expensive items, respond to an income shock, or to meet recurrent seasonal needs. Under certain conditions women were more dependent on income from charcoal production than men, as they had fewer alternative income generating options available to them. There was no reported management of charcoal resources in the study area, therefore the environmental sustainability of charcoal production and its associated benefits are uncertain. Malawi's current de facto charcoal ban leads to enforcement activities that exacerbate livelihood risks and increase producers' vulnerability to income insecurity.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T23:03:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 36 (2016)
  • Reflections on experience with the global network on energy for
           sustainable development as a South–South global knowledge network
    • Authors: James A. Haselip; Thomas Hebo Larsen; Emmanuel K. Ackom; Gordon A. Mackenzie; John M. Christensen
      Pages: 37 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 36
      Author(s): James A. Haselip, Thomas Hebo Larsen, Emmanuel K. Ackom, Gordon A. Mackenzie, John M. Christensen
      The Global Network on Energy for Sustainable Development (GNESD) was an initiative launched at the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development to support the agenda for increased access to clean energy, as a key contribution to sustainable development. In addition to understanding how the Network was established, how it sustained its relations and organised its activities across borders, we contribute to the debate on global networks by introducing the concept of ‘outcomes’, as a means to understand the extent to which, and how, the Network was able to influence change within the participating countries. We conclude from the analysis that although there are numerous observable and verifiable outcomes, these were achieved in a rather unsystematic manner especially during the early years, and in a more structured and targeted manner during the last 5years of the Network. To a great extent this reflects the output-focus that was prevalent within UNEP, and other similar organisations, at the time the Network was established. It also reflects the well-known structural challenge faced by many epistemic communities, where the extent of their influence reflects the extent to which they are embedded within evolving power structures. Finally, we offer a number of specific recommendations for future networks, based on the GNESD experience.

      PubDate: 2016-12-12T14:10:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 36 (2016)
  • Performance characterisation of a commercial-scale wind turbine operating
           in an urban environment, using real data
    • Authors: Ciaran Cooney; Raymond Byrne; William Lyons; Fergal O'Rourke
      Pages: 44 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 36
      Author(s): Ciaran Cooney, Raymond Byrne, William Lyons, Fergal O'Rourke
      Burgeoning demand for additional energy sources to supplement existing fossil fuel supplies has increased the requirement for efficient and cost-effective renewable energy. Wind energy is among the most prominent renewable sources and wind turbine technology has seen growth in recent years. Urban-sited wind turbines are a significant feature of this growth, with small-scale and roof-mounted turbines receiving attention in the literature. A detailed analysis of the performance of a commercial-scale wind turbine operating in an urban environment is critically important for furthering understanding of the viability of this technology in a non-traditional environment. This study provides a performance characterisation of an 850kW-rated wind turbine situated on-campus at Dundalk Institute of Technology, Ireland, with measurements having been obtained over the course of one year. Characterisation of the wind conditions recorded at the wind turbine site has enabled development of a Weibull distribution model with shape and scale factors of 1.9151 and 6.9665 respectively. The power curve of the turbine in operation is presented for comparison with manufacturer specifications and utilised along with the wind speed data to calculate the wind turbine's annual energy output (AEO) for the year. Importantly, these findings can be used to assist with future wind energy developments in assessing the technical and economic viability using the approach outlined in this work.

      PubDate: 2016-12-12T14:10:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 36 (2016)
  • Optimal CO2 abatement pathway with induced technological progress for
           chinese coal-fired power industry
    • Authors: Aijun Li; Mingming Hu; Chenchen Sun; Zheng Li
      Pages: 55 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 36
      Author(s): Aijun Li, Mingming Hu, Chenchen Sun, Zheng Li
      This study attempts to analyze the integrated effects of carbon pricing in Chinese coal-fired power industry in two studied cases: with and without induced technological progress. Then several CO2 abatement pathways with different levels of carbon pricing are synthetically assessed for Chinese coal-fired power industry by extending a hybrid energy-economic model. Two types of autonomous technological progress such as industrial technology upgrading and autonomous energy efficiency improvement have been exogenously set for all economic sectors. One type of induced technological progress such as direct carbon removals is assumed to be introduced in coal-fired power industry, and its market share is endogenously calculated. Especially, oxy-fuel CCS technology is considered as a potential commercialized option for direct carbon removals. Then with different levels of carbon price setting for the newly increased CO2 emissions from coal-fired power industry, energy-economic indicators such as electricity cost, generation efficiency, economic growth, and CO2 emissions are comparatively analyzed for the choice of CO2 abatement pathway. Simulated results reveal that the upward trend of CO2 emissions cannot be changed within midterm if without induced technological progress. However, if with induced technological progress when carbon pricing is high enough, CO2 emissions could stop the upward trend, and even become decreasing accompanied by certain macroeconomic losses. When oxy-fuel CCS technology is introduced by charging for the newly increased CO2 emissions at 100 RMB2002 Yuan/t CO2, the induced CO2 abatement pathway of Chinese coal-fired power industry could be regard as optimal.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T09:53:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 36 (2016)
  • Performance and emissions characteristics of a lighting cone for charcoal
    • Authors: Kathleen Lask; Ashok Gadgil
      Pages: 64 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 36
      Author(s): Kathleen Lask, Ashok Gadgil
      A lighting cone is a simple metal cone placed on the charcoal bed during ignition to increase draft. Many traditional charcoal-burning stoves are difficult to light due to poor draft through the fuel bed, so lighting cones are used as an inexpensive accessory to help with charcoal ignition. The goal of this work was to determine the validity of using a lighting cone to decrease the ignition time of traditional Haitian charcoal stoves, and evaluate its impact on stove emissions and fuel consumption during the typically inefficient and slow ignition phase. We found that the lighting cone successfully reduced ignition time by over 50%. Due to a more efficient, shorter ignition stage, charcoal consumption during ignition was reduced by over 40% and carbon monoxide was reduced by over 50%. This suggests that lighting cones are a viable and beneficial accessory for aiding ignition in shallow-bed charcoal stoves.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T09:53:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 36 (2016)
  • Probe-based measurements of moisture in dung fuel for emissions
    • Authors: Sneha Gautam; Rufus Edwards; Ankit Yadav; Robert Weltman; Ajay Pillarsetti; Narendra K. Arora; Kirk R. Smith
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 35
      Author(s): Sneha Gautam, Rufus Edwards, Ankit Yadav, Robert Weltman, Ajay Pillarsetti, Narendra K. Arora, Kirk R. Smith
      Measurement of the moisture content of biomass fuels is critical for the measurement of emission factors and accounting for differences in stove performance results from standardized tests such as the water boiling test. Moisture probe measurements have been used systematically for the assessment of moisture content of woody fuels, as it is more convenient than laboratory-based oven-drying methods because multiple measurements can be rapidly performed on-site as the fuel for the cooking task is selected for use. Current protocols, however, state that the probes used to measure moisture content in wood cannot be used with dung, crop residues, or other non-wood fuels. The averages from 5 replicate moisture probe measurements on each of 35 cow and buffalo dung patties from Haryana, India, were compared to oven drying moisture measurement at 103±2°C. Dung patties were selected ranging in moisture content from 5% to 65% on a dry basis based on probe measurements with 5 unique patties in each 10% increment. The results showed good linearity between moisture probe ≤55% and oven drying methods (r 2 =0.76). Results were then used to adjust uncontrolled measurements of dung moisture taken prior to cooking for 17 homes in 4 villages in rural Haryana, India, which demonstrate that the commonly used moisture probe, when calibrated against oven-based methods, can be used to assess moisture content of dung patties over the range of dung moisture typically found and used in villages for cooking purposes.

      PubDate: 2016-10-02T16:08:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 35 (2016)
  • Evaluation of airflow and thermal comfort in buildings ventilated with
           wind catchers: Simulation of conditions in Yazd City, Iran
    • Authors: S.H. Hosseini; E. Shokry; A.J. Ahmadian Hosseini; G. Ahmadi; J.K. Calautit
      Pages: 7 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 35
      Author(s): S.H. Hosseini, E. Shokry, A.J. Ahmadian Hosseini, G. Ahmadi, J.K. Calautit
      The usage of passive cooling systems such as wind catchers can reduce the energy usage in buildings and provide natural ventilation and comfort to its occupants, particularly in hot and dry regions of Iran and neighboring countries where it was traditionally used. The purpose of this study was to investigate the airflow and thermal comfort in six different designs of wind catchers using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. Simulations of airflow in the wind catcher and the building were done under steady state and turbulent flow regime with boundary conditions based on typical conditions found in Yazd city, Iran. Several commonly used turbulence models were evaluated to assess the accuracy of the simulation. First, the proposed CFD model was validated through comparison of wind tunnel data available in the literature, and then the model was used for design purposes. It was found that the k − ω turbulence model can accurately predict the airflow velocity in the range of parameters studied. The design and performance of wind catcher were evaluated based on the thermal comfort levels using the Center for the Built Environment (CBE) thermal comfort tool and numerical data. Width and height of the wind catcher were varied in the simulations and optimal values were determined. It was found that varying the width of the wind catcher had the greatest impact on the airflow speed and distribution inside the room. Reducing the width from 2.5m to 2m showed that airflow velocity in the middle area was increased up to 34%. While reducing the width from 2m to 1.5m showed an entirely different flow pattern inside the building and also increase airflow speed in the middle area up to 50%. The addition of curved wall at the bottom of the inlet channel showed that it could increase the airflow speed of the inflow stream, however, it also caused the airflow to be directed towards the lower levels of the room and very large rotating flows in the upper levels. Finally, the results showed that the wind catcher may be optimized for improving comfort for various climates using the tools presented in this work.

      PubDate: 2016-10-23T18:16:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 35 (2016)
  • Household energy access and expenditure in developing countries: Evidence
           from India, 1987–2010
    • Authors: Meir Alkon; S.P. Harish; Johannes Urpelainen
      Pages: 25 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 35
      Author(s): Meir Alkon, S.P. Harish, Johannes Urpelainen
      Although most studies of energy poverty focus on whether or not households have access to modern fuels, expenditure is also an important issue, as households in developing countries spend a significant proportion of their total expenditures on energy. Using nationally representative household data from India, 1987–2010, this article describes and explains trends in household energy expenditure. While monthly household spending on energy has increased in many Indian states, this change is not driven by increased household affluence. Statistical analysis shows that when modern fuels (LPG for cooking, electricity for lighting and appliances) are available, households are willing and able to spend on energy. Indian households that have seen improved access to LPG and electricity have also seen much higher energy expenditures, whereas increased household incomes do not explain greater spending on household energy. For policymakers, the key lesson is that programs to improve access to modern fuels allow both wealthy and poor households to spend money on valuable energy services.

      PubDate: 2016-10-23T18:16:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 35 (2016)
  • Sustained usage of bioethanol cookstoves shown in an urban Nigerian city
           via new SUMs algorithm
    • Authors: Amanda Northcross; Matt Shupler; Donee Alexander; John Olamijulo; Temitope Ibigbami; Godson Ana; Oladosu Ojengbede; Christopher O. Olopade
      Pages: 35 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 35
      Author(s): Amanda Northcross, Matt Shupler, Donee Alexander, John Olamijulo, Temitope Ibigbami, Godson Ana, Oladosu Ojengbede, Christopher O. Olopade
      An unbiased assessment of cooking patterns during a cookstove intervention can provide strong evidence for sustained usage of a cookstove among the target population. A bioethanol cookstove was used as an intervention within a randomized controlled trial being conducted in Ibadan, Nigeria to assess the ability of a clean stove to improve birth outcomes. Sustained usage of the intervention was quantified using a newly developed method of analyzing cooking patterns based on time integrated temperature data from Stove Use Monitors (SUMs) installed on household cookstoves. The method accounts for household level variations in ambient temperatures. We report a significant decline of traditional kerosene stove usage, 84% of women in the Bioethanol arm giving away their kerosene stove before the conclusion of the study (56% within the first month of enrollment), suggesting the bioethanol stove replaced the kerosene stove. This is the first study to objectively evaluate a liquid-to-liquid fuel substitution.

      PubDate: 2016-10-23T18:16:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 35 (2016)
  • Do onshore and offshore wind farm development patterns differ?
    • Authors: Peter Enevoldsen; Scott Victor Valentine
      Pages: 41 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 35
      Author(s): Peter Enevoldsen, Scott Victor Valentine
      When developers are building wind farms offshore or onshore, are there notable characteristics that differentiate these projects? If so, what does this tell us about the nature of wind power development patterns? This study makes use of industry data from 44 wind farms, including 11 offshore wind farms, 19 onshore wind farms located in farmland and 14 wind farms located in forested areas with a total capacity of 1190MW installed actual wind farms to test four hypotheses based on preconceptions identified in a literature review. Testing the validity of these preconceptions is important because if policymakers are to design policy to facilitate specific development patterns in a given nation, they need to be clear on what is working in the market. Our data suggest that, contrary to popular belief, offshore wind farms do not produce more energy per installed MW when compared to onshore wind farms. However, our data confirm that offshore wind farms produce more energy than onshore wind farms. We contend that this has less to do with superior wind quality in offshore sites than with scale differences. It appears that developers construct far larger offshore wind farms in order to presumably counteract the proportionally higher development costs associated with marine environments. One other remarkable finding associated with this study is that onshore wind turbines that are located in forested areas might be capable of matching the power production of offshore wind farms without incurring the additional costs associated with offshore projects.

      PubDate: 2016-10-23T18:16:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 35 (2016)
  • How do developing country constraints affect renewable energy
    • Authors: Cle-Anne Gabriel; Jodyanne Kirkwood; Sara Walton; Elizabeth L Rose
      Pages: 52 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 35
      Author(s): Cle-Anne Gabriel, Jodyanne Kirkwood, Sara Walton, Elizabeth L Rose
      Renewable energy entrepreneurs in developing countries are selling and facilitating the uptake of a new technology and new ideas in an already difficult environment. We explore entrepreneurs' perceptions of the constraints they face while operating their businesses. We used two stages of analysis — primary data from individual entrepreneurs and country level secondary data. The primary data included in-depth interviews with entrepreneurs, as well as their self-ranking of constraints via a questionnaire. Findings emphasised the importance of government/regulatory and local market constraints. To contextualise these findings, we compared the individual-level findings to country-level conditions to assess whether they have any bearing on the entrepreneurs' perceptions of constraints. Country conditions may influence the entrepreneurs' perceptions of the demand for their products and/or services, and their opportunity and ability to supply these to customers. These may be influencing whether and how the entrepreneurs perceive and respond to opportunities to carry on with their renewable energy businesses.

      PubDate: 2016-10-23T18:16:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 35 (2016)
  • Analysis of energy access and impact of modern energy sources in
           unelectrified villages in Uttar Pradesh
    • Authors: Philip Sandwell; Clementine Chambon; Amit Saraogi; Apolline Chabenat; Marek Mazur; Ned Ekins-Daukes; Jenny Nelson
      Pages: 67 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 35
      Author(s): Philip Sandwell, Clementine Chambon, Amit Saraogi, Apolline Chabenat, Marek Mazur, Ned Ekins-Daukes, Jenny Nelson
      Bringing access to modern energy sources to the poorest in society is a key goal of many policymakers, businesses and charities, but in order to be a success projects and schemes must be founded on accurate data. We undertook a survey of energy demand and usage patterns in households in unelectrified villages in Uttar Pradesh, India to assess access to and utilisation of energy sources for lighting and cooking. The times of usage were recorded and analysed and the effect on usage patterns of transitioning from traditional to modern energy sources is assessed. We quantify the cost and greenhouse gas emissions of current energy use in order to provide a benchmark of potential mitigation through the use of renewable energy technologies: a typical household with kerosene lamps only for lighting spends INR 3243 (US$50.67) and emits 381 kgCO2eq per year; households with modern cooking energy spend 17% more through increased usage, but emit 28% less greenhouse gases compared to those with traditional stoves only. Cell phone ownership was found to be 50% amongst adults. We use demographic and utilisation data to construct an hourly demand profile of basic electricity demand extrapolated to each month of the year, and present an example of aspirational demand assess the impact of desirable appliances. A Monte Carlo simulation is used to highlight the daily and seasonal variation in total energy and power demand. A hybrid system, with solar power and battery storage meeting daytime demand and higher-capacity diesel- or biomass-powered generation meeting the remainder during evening peaks and winter months, would satisfy demand most effectively.

      PubDate: 2016-10-30T22:27:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 35 (2016)
  • Towards daylight inclusive bye-law: Daylight as an energy saving route for
           affordable housing in India
    • Authors: Ronita Bardhan; Ramit Debnath
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 34
      Author(s): Ronita Bardhan, Ramit Debnath
      Building sector in India consumes about 33% of total electrical energy use, out of which 25% is accounted by the residential sector. This can be effectively reduced by utilizing daylighting as an essential component of building design strategy. Indian building codes lack specific daylight-inclusive design guidelines, which can provide policy support in reducing the energy consumption. In this study, energy sustainability through daylighting is studied with respect to daylight performance of a middle income, residential apartment in the city of Mumbai. Useful Daylight Illuminance (UDI) is used as the performance metric. The effect of built components like window-to-wall ratio (WWR) and orientation on the UDI ranges was studied. Occupancy behavior was modelled using an UDI threshold of 500lx, and an energy management matrix (EMM) was derived. It has been found that at south-east orientation and at 20% WWR, the base-case building would save up to 26% lighting energy. Finally, a methodological framework for developing a policy toolbox using EMM was proposed as a route towards designing daylight inclusive building bye-law.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T06:02:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.06.005
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2016)
  • Local rice parboiling and its energy dynamics in Ghana
    • Authors: E.M. Kwofie; M. Ngadi; A. Mainoo
      Pages: 10 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 34
      Author(s): E.M. Kwofie, M. Ngadi, A. Mainoo
      The study presents baseline data on local rice parboiling process and its energy supply, use and impacts in three communities in the Northern region of Ghana. The process as practiced is rudimentary and time-consuming requiring several hours of soaking and wood collection. Parboiling energy is supplied solely from wood which accounts for 11.9% of the total rice processing cost. The average specific soaking energy per batch of 11 and 40 were estimated to be 16.5 and 8.4MJ/kg, respectively while that of steaming were 18.3 and 10.3MJ/kg, respectively. Energy consumption was mostly influenced by the amount of paddy processed and the steaming duration. These results imply that specific energy use in these communities are at least 7 times higher than the average parboiling energy reports in the literature and considerably reduces the income of parboilers. The use of improved stove, utilization of rice husk as an energy source and higher processing capacity are recommended interventions for reducing energy use and cost, mitigating the environmental and health impacts as well as improving rice productivity.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T06:02:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.06.007
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2016)
  • Optimal resource integration in a decentralized renewable energy system:
           Assessment of the existing system and simulation for its expansion
    • Authors: Toru Kobayakawa; Tara C. Kandpal
      Pages: 20 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 34
      Author(s): Toru Kobayakawa, Tara C. Kandpal
      Micro-grids are actively employed for rural electrification along with integrated renewable energy systems in developing countries. For determining their optimal configurations, it is often challenging in obtaining accurate input data, particularly prospective electricity loads and local renewable resource availability. In this study, the configuration of the off-grid 120kWp PV system in West Bengal, India is reassessed by using the optimization software, HOMER. With an assumption that excess biomass resources would be available as a result of successful introduction of fuel-saving devices such as solar cookers, a PV–biomass–battery system, which consists of 30kW PV array and 20kW biomass gasification-based power plant (BGPP), turns out to be the most economically feasible option. Compared with the actual system, the net present cost (NPC) and cost of electricity (COE) are significantly lowered. Furthermore, in order to verify effectiveness of “phased approach” for developing the off-grid renewable energy system, which has been proposed in the authors' previous study, the system expansion process is simulated by HOMER according to three different load growth scenarios. It is found from the simulation that adjustment of the system size becomes possible with more accurate load estimation at the time of expansion, which may lead to lower operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and COE. As a result of the increased level of tariff revenue from additional consumers, the expansion process would provide an opportunity for enhancing community welfare and financial viability of the project.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T06:02:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.06.006
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2016)
  • Effects of load estimation error on small-scale off-grid photovoltaic
           system design, cost and reliability
    • Authors: Henry Louie; Peter Dauenhauer
      Pages: 30 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 34
      Author(s): Henry Louie, Peter Dauenhauer
      The proliferation of off-grid photovoltaic (PV) systems is rapidly increasing in the least developed countries. The sizing of system components—primarily PV panels and batteries—is critically influenced by the expected daily load. However, accurately estimating incipient electrical load of rural consumers is fraught with challenges. Load estimation error is propagated through the design phase, potentially resulting in a system that is unduly expensive or fails to meet reliability targets. This article investigates the effects of daily load estimation error on system design, cost and reliability. Load and insolation data from seven off-grid systems in Malawi were collected. The systems were redesigned using three different intuitive design approaches considering different levels of load estimation error, ranging from ±90% of the actual measured load. The cost of each design is estimated from in-country prices. The reliability of each design is determined from an hourly simulation using the measured data. The results show that PV array and battery sizing scale proportionately with load estimation error and that the cost of load over-estimation is approximately US$1.92 to US$6.02 per watthour, whereas under-estimation can precipitously degrade reliability. A cost-versus-reliability analysis shows that for the Malawi systems, on average 46% of the PV and battery costs are used to improve the simulated hourly reliability from 99% to 100%. Moreover, the results point to the challenges with intuitive design approaches, showing that consideration of average load alone can lead to over- or under-designed systems.

      PubDate: 2016-09-13T18:50:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2016)
  • Mathematical modeling and performance investigation of mixed-mode and
           indirect solar dryers for natural rubber sheet drying
    • Authors: Racha Dejchanchaiwong; Auk Arkasuwan; Anil Kumar; Perapong Tekasakul
      Pages: 44 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 34
      Author(s): Racha Dejchanchaiwong, Auk Arkasuwan, Anil Kumar, Perapong Tekasakul
      Smallholder rubber producers typically dry rubber in the open air, a process that takes about seven days, allowing the rubber to deteriorate and thus decreasing the price obtained by the producers. Solar dryers decrease the drying time by 2–3days, thereby yielding a higher quality product. In this study, performances of mixed-mode and indirect solar drying systems have been investigated for 30 natural rubber sheets. Drying efficiency of the mixed-mode dyer is 15.4% which is higher than the indirect solar dryer (13.3%). The moisture contents of rubber sheets are reduced from 32.3 to 2.0% and 29.4 to 8.0% on a wet basis for mixed-mode and indirect solar drying, respectively, in 4days. Hii et al. model is the combination of the Page and Two-term drying model. This model is found to best describe the natural rubber sheet drying behavior in both mixed-mode and indirect solar dryers. Coefficient of determination and root mean square error for mixed-mode and indirect solar drying of natural rubber are 0.998 & 0.0096 and 0.996 & 0.0109, respectively. Performance of the mixed-mode dryer is superior to the indirect solar dryer. Therefore, mixed-mode solar dryers are recommended for natural rubber sheet drying to smallholders.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T19:21:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2016)
  • Uncertainty analysis and design guidelines of biomass cookstove thermal
           efficiency studies
    • Authors: Cameron M. Quist; Rory B. Jones; Matthew R. Jones; Randy S. Lewis
      Pages: 54 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 34
      Author(s): Cameron M. Quist, Rory B. Jones, Matthew R. Jones, Randy S. Lewis
      Many individuals in developing areas use biomass cookstoves for cooking although there are many inherent health hazards. Judging which improved cookstove to use and distinguishing the best one for a given cooking style to mitigate these hazards is challenging. Thermal efficiency (η th ) is one assessment parameter of cookstoves that is often used. To compare η th between cookstoves or to assess the effects of a design change on η th , it is important to understand how the uncertainty in η th depends on measurements, input data (equipment uncertainties, literature values, etc.), and test conditions. In this work, measurement and input data uncertainties are quantified with a propagation of uncertainty analysis for a basic brick channel cookstove used in many Peruvian households. This method can be used in any study by using reasonable uncertainty values for that study. Results showed that the four main parameters contributing to 93% of the η th uncertainty were the lower heating values (LHV) of wood and char, the moisture content, and the change in temperature of the water in the pot. Reducing the uncertainty of LHV of unprocessed fuels is the most difficult. If such fuels are used, reporting the LHV value and its associated uncertainty is highly valuable.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T19:21:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2016)
  • Mechanized harvesting of bamboo plantations for energy production:
           Preliminary tests with a cut-and-shred harvester
    • Authors: Saulo Philipe Sebastião Guerra; Guilherme Oguri; Humberto de Jesus Eufrade; Raoni Xavier de Melo; Raffaele Spinelli
      Pages: 62 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 34
      Author(s): Saulo Philipe Sebastião Guerra, Guilherme Oguri, Humberto de Jesus Eufrade, Raoni Xavier de Melo, Raffaele Spinelli
      Bamboo plantations can help expanding biomass production to marginal lands, while requiring limited chemical and labour inputs. However, the development of a modern industrial bamboo energy chain requires an adequate level of mechanization. The study presents the preliminary test of a new single-pass cut-and-shred harvester, designed for application to a powerful farm tractor. The machine is especially suited to negotiating disorganized crops, which offer challenging conditions for the more efficient forager-based harvesters. The results show that productivity may exceed 6 fresh th−1, which is close to the assumed theoretical limit for this machine type. Fuel use is over 3l fresh t−1, while harvesting cost varies around 33 €t−1. Fuel use and harvesting cost are still relatively high, but they are likely to decrease as operators gain experience with the new system, and as the system itself is further improved. In any case, cost reduction is only one of the benefits accrued by mechanization, which also plays a major role in improving worker safety and overall supply chain efficiency.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T19:21:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2016)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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