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  Subjects -> MATHEMATICS (Total: 909 journals)
    - APPLIED MATHEMATICS (75 journals)
    - GEOMETRY AND TOPOLOGY (20 journals)
    - MATHEMATICS (676 journals)
    - MATHEMATICS (GENERAL) (41 journals)
    - NUMERICAL ANALYSIS (19 journals)
    - PROBABILITIES AND MATH STATISTICS (78 journals)

MATHEMATICS (676 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 538 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abakós     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Academic Voices : A Multidisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Accounting Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
ACM Transactions on Computational Logic (TOCL)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Difference Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Fixed Point Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Materials Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Pure and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Pure Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Air, Soil & Water Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
AKSIOMA Journal of Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Jabar : Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika     Open Access  
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Algebra Colloquium     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Algorithmic Operations Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Algorithms     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Algorithms Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Mathematical Analysis     Open Access  
American Journal of Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Mathematical Monthly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
An International Journal of Optimization and Control: Theories & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Matematica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Analysis Mathematica     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales Mathematicae Silesianae     Open Access  
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales UMCS, Mathematica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales Universitatis Paedagogicae Cracoviensis. Studia Mathematica     Open Access  
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Discrete Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University - Mathematics     Open Access  
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of West University of Timisoara - Mathematics     Open Access  
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Mathematics - A Journal of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Mathematics Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Arab Journal of Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arabian Journal of Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archive of Numerical Software     Open Access  
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arnold Mathematical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Satellites : The Journal of Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Algebra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian-European Journal of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mathematics Teacher, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Senior Mathematics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Automatic Documentation and Mathematical Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Axioms     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BIBECHANA     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BIT Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
BoEM - Boletim online de Educação Matemática     Open Access  
Boletim Cearense de Educação e História da Matemática     Open Access  
Boletim de Educação Matemática     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Matemática Mexicana     Hybrid Journal  
Bollettino dell'Unione Matematica Italiana     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Bruno Pini Mathematical Analysis Seminar     Open Access  
Buletinul Academiei de Stiinte a Republicii Moldova. Matematica     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bulletin des Sciences Mathamatiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of Dnipropetrovsk University. Series : Communications in Mathematical Modeling and Differential Equations Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Brazilian Mathematical Society, New Series     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Malaysian Mathematical Sciences Society     Hybrid Journal  
Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Carpathian Mathematical Publications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Catalysis in Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CHANCE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ChemSusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chinese Annals of Mathematics, Series B     Hybrid Journal  
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Mathematics     Open Access  
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Collectanea Mathematica     Hybrid Journal  
College Mathematics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Commentarii Mathematici Helvetici     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Combinatorics and Optimization     Open Access  
Communications in Contemporary Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Communications in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications On Pure & Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Complex Analysis and its Synergies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Complex Variables and Elliptic Equations: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Complexus     Full-text available via subscription  
Composite Materials Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Comptes Rendus Mathematique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Computational Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computational Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computational Methods and Function Theory     Hybrid Journal  
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Concrete Operators     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Confluentes Mathematici     Hybrid Journal  
Contributions to Game Theory and Management     Open Access  
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal  
Cryptography and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cuadernos de Investigación y Formación en Educación Matemática     Open Access  
Cubo. A Mathematical Journal     Open Access  
Current Research in Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Czechoslovak Mathematical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Demographic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Demonstratio Mathematica     Open Access  
Dependence Modeling     Open Access  
Design Journal : An International Journal for All Aspects of Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Developments in Clay Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Developments in Mineral Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Differentsial'nye Uravneniya     Open Access  
Discrete Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Discrete Mathematics & Theoretical Computer Science     Open Access  
Discrete Mathematics, Algorithms and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Diskretnaya Matematika     Full-text available via subscription  
Dnipropetrovsk University Mathematics Bulletin     Open Access  
Doklady Akademii Nauk     Open Access  
Doklady Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Duke Mathematical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Eco Matemático     Open Access  
Edited Series on Advances in Nonlinear Science and Complexity     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Differential Equations     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Graph Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Elemente der Mathematik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Energy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Enseñanza de las Ciencias : Revista de Investigación y Experiencias Didácticas     Open Access  
Ensino da Matemática em Debate     Open Access  
Entropy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ESAIM: Control Optimisation and Calculus of Variations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Combinatorics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover Energy for Sustainable Development
  [SJR: 1.448]   [H-I: 35]   [9 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0973-0826
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3118 journals]
  • Pilot scale evaluation of fuel pellets production from garden waste
           biomass
    • Authors: Priyabrata Pradhan; Amit Arora; Sanjay M. Mahajani
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 43
      Author(s): Priyabrata Pradhan, Amit Arora, Sanjay M. Mahajani
      Pelletization of garden waste, without additional binder, was investigated to produce high quality fuel pellets for energy utilization. The influence of pelletization parameters viz. feedstock moisture content (5, 15, 25, and 35%), milling size (25.4 and 6.25mm) and die size (12 and 15mm) on pellet quality and pelletization process was studied. The results showed that the studied parameters had significant effect on pellet quality. A reduction in average durability value (95.0% to 92.5%) was observed when moisture content of garden waste increased from 5% to 15%. Appropriate regression models were also developed for each quality attribute by using multiple linear regressions. Eventually, a feedstock moisture content of 5±1%, milling size of 6.35mm and die size of 15mm were found to offer standard quality pellets with optimum throughput capacity. Scanning electron microscopy image analysis showed a closer agglomeration of biomass particles when feed materials were pelletized at low moisture content. The equilibrium moisture content due to adsorption for garden waste pellet was found to be 14.6% which was quite low as compared to other feedstocks. Furthermore, we deduced from the combustion test that garden waste pellets may be conveniently used in a residential cookstove. In a nutshell, pelletization of garden waste biomass has been demonstrated at pilot scale in this study.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T08:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2017)
       
  • Comparison of methodologies for cloud cover estimation in Brazil - A case
           study
    • Authors: Eduardo Weide Luiz; Fernando Ramos Martins; Rodrigo Santos Costa; Enio Bueno Pereira
      Pages: 15 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 43
      Author(s): Eduardo Weide Luiz, Fernando Ramos Martins, Rodrigo Santos Costa, Enio Bueno Pereira
      Clouds are the major modulator of the shortwave and longwave radiation components of the Earth's energy balance and, as such, help to regulate the planet's temperature. In the energy sector, clouds are a source of instability in the generation of energy using solar technologies. This study aims at comparing three approaches to get cloud cover information in the Southeastern region of Brazil during the period of approximately three months. The first method, assumed as reference, uses all-sky camera pictures for the cloud cover estimation. The other two methodologies use downward longwave radiation with surface meteorological data and geostationary satellite data. Both methods presented good agreement with the camera for clear sky and overcast conditions, with probabilities of detection of 92.8% and 80.7% for the longwave method and 93.3% and 87.6% for the satellite method, respectively. The major problem occurs with the broken-clouds sky scenario, with probabilities of detection above 38%, where each method has its own specificity, such as, longwave emissivity of the atmosphere, spatial resolution and view geometry. The long-wave method has the minor R correlation with the camera (87%) when compared with the satellite method (93%) and requires a daily normalization, which make it not usable for instantaneous measurements. Regarding the satellite method, the most important issue is the spatial resolution, which has the major impact on the broken-clouds sky scenarios. The cloud masking works properly for large clouds with, at least, the size comparable to the satellite image pixel. Furthermore, the method using the all-sky camera also needs to be improved, because it presented some deficiencies, like very bright areas around the sun, sometimes identified as clouds, leading to cloud cover overestimation.

      PubDate: 2017-12-17T17:54:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2017)
       
  • Observed site obstacle impacts on the energy performance of a large scale
           urban wind turbine using an electrical energy rose
    • Authors: Raymond Byrne; Neil J. Hewitt; Philip Griffiths; Paul MacArtain
      Pages: 23 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 43
      Author(s): Raymond Byrne, Neil J. Hewitt, Philip Griffiths, Paul MacArtain
      Large scale wind turbines deployed in “behind the meter” applications at medium and large scale industrial consumer sites can offset the purchase of retail electricity from the utility. However, unlike traditional onshore wind farm sites in elevated rural areas, such industrial sites tend to be at lower elevations and located in more urbanised areas with a higher likelihood of being in vicinity of manmade obstacles such as buildings. This research case study presents observed impacts of various site obstacle features, from local buildings to regional topography on the energy performance of an 850kW rated wind turbine operating in a peri-urban area. The study is based on the analysis of 10-minute SCADA data measured over multiple years. The analysis includes a novel wind turbine electrical energy rose (EER) approach to determine the directional variation of the wind turbine electrical energy output in relation to site features around the turbine location. The paper concludes that low broad buildings with heights of only 20% of the turbine hub height can have a significant energy reducing impact compared to taller narrow buildings and that hills ~8km from the turbine site have an energy reducing impact. The outcomes of the study should be of benefit to those involved in the pre-feasibility stages of deploying single large scale wind turbines at industrial sites in peri-urban areas.

      PubDate: 2017-12-17T17:54:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2017)
       
  • Lighting and cooking fuel choices of households in Kisumu City, Kenya: A
           multidimensional energy poverty perspective
    • Authors: Tabitha Atieno Olang; Miguel Esteban; Alexandros Gasparatos
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 42
      Author(s): Tabitha Atieno Olang, Miguel Esteban, Alexandros Gasparatos
      The present study aims to contextualize populations without access to modern energy in order to formulate effective policy considerations on modern energy adoption and continuity of usage by target groups. This objective was achieved by illustrating the linkage between fuel choice and energy poverty in low income households in an urban context. It employs a cross-sectional energy stacking model to illustrate fuel choice and the multidimensional energy poverty (MEP) index to establish the severity of energy poverty in low income households in Kisumu City, Kenya. The study also incorporates pico-solar products (PSPs) users, as this disruptive technology entered the Kenyan solar market in recent years, targeting low income households using kerosene for lighting purposes. The study identifies energy appliance type and household cooking location as key determinants of household energy choice. Moreover, the main determinants for household energy choice in households facing higher levels of energy poverty were closely associated with access concerns, whereas determinants in households facing lower levels of energy poverty were more associated with usage concerns as they already had access to modern energy. It was also noted that preferences were related to attributes of the energy source both experienced by current users and perceived by current non-users. There was a substantial persistent use of kerosene as an alternative lighting source among current PSPs users. There is a general preference and desire to use modern energy sources across most households, irrespective of the severity of energy poverty. For meaningful improvement to be realized towards meeting the energy SDG by 2030, national and local energy policies should consider the energy technology adoption perception and behaviours of populations currently not having modern energy access. In conclusion, it is of great importance to put into context the specific characteristics of the households as well as user perspectives and how these characteristics and perspectives would affect continuity of usage of the modern energy source adopted.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T11:31:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2017)
       
  • Greenhouse gas and energy balance of Jatropha biofuel production systems
           of Burkina Faso
    • Authors: Sophia Baumert; Asia Khamzina; Paul L.G. Vlek
      Pages: 14 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 42
      Author(s): Sophia Baumert, Asia Khamzina, Paul L.G. Vlek
      Jatropha curcas has been introduced as a low-cost energy crop in Burkina Faso for the production of straight vegetable oil (SVO) and biodiesel. It is cultivated in different plantation systems including smallholder inter-plantings with annual crops, large-scale monoculture, afforestation on marginal land, in traditional hedge systems along contour stone walls, and in living fences. We performed Life Cycle Assessment of these Jatropha systems using empirical data on yields and carbon stocks, and accounting for changes in agro-ecosystem provisioning and regulating services that occurred after the land conversion to Jatropha. The study found that all J. curcas production pathways substantially reduced greenhouse gas emission (68–89%) and saved energy (65–90%) compared to diesel fuel. Highest values are achievable under the assumption that by-products (husks, seed cake, glycerin) are used for energy generation. The decentralized production of SVO supplied by feedstocks from intercropping and hedgerow systems seems to be most promising option. However, very low land-use efficiency (6.5–9.5 GJ ha−1 production) characterized Jatropha intercropping and monoculture plantations, rendering the plant a competitor to food crops and increasing the risk of conversion of savanna land to Jatropha cultivation. Jatropha plantings on marginal lands largely failed. High labor requirements constrain integration of Jatropha plantation systems within small farmholdings. Currently, the traditional hedge systems show the lowest land-use replacement potential and labor needs while providing multiple ecosystem services, but alone cannot satisfy rural energy needs. In order to reach energy supply targets without claiming more land and compromising other ecosystem services, the J. curcas plantation systems in Burkina Faso need to be made more efficient through plant breeding and improved agronomic management.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T11:31:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.09.007
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2017)
       
  • Consumer preference for labels in the purchase decisions of air
           conditioners in India
    • Authors: Manisha Jain; Anand B. Rao; Anand Patwardhan
      Pages: 24 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 42
      Author(s): Manisha Jain, Anand B. Rao, Anand Patwardhan
      Appliance labels provide consumers with information on energy usage of appliances and mandatory labeling is an important policy tool for promoting the adoption of efficient appliances. Following global practice, standards and labeling programs have been adopted in India for various appliances since 2006. This paper provides empirical support for this approach, by estimating the value placed by consumers in India on energy labels. The estimates of willingness to pay (WTP) for energy labels and higher efficiency as indicated on labels are obtained using a discrete choice experiment in purchase decisions of air conditioners. A mixed logit model is specified to estimate the parameters for chosen attributes of air conditioners. The results show that consumers place a positive value on the presence of labels. The preference for star rating levels is heterogeneous in the sample. The WTP for higher star rating is estimated which is a useful input in designing other energy efficiency programs in conjunction with the labeling program.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T11:31:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2017)
       
  • Solar microgrids in rural India: Consumers' willingness to pay for
           attributes of electricity
    • Authors: Sachiko Graber; Tara Narayanan; Jose Alfaro; Debajit Palit
      Pages: 32 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 42
      Author(s): Sachiko Graber, Tara Narayanan, Jose Alfaro, Debajit Palit
      This paper assesses consumer valuation of different attributes of electricity supply to elucidate the conflict between solar microgrids and the centralized utility grid in India, as well as to provide insight into supporting government policies and structures. The study contributes significantly to the understanding of the role of microgrids in complementing a centralized system and its value as a sustainable energy solution for development. Electricity reliability, power, price, and hours availability are studied through a choice experiment, a method uniquely able to disaggregate the willingness to pay for each attribute. Household surveys were carried out in 22 villages across 4 districts in the state and covering a total of 216 households. Results indicate that consumers value (in order of strength of preference) electricity power, reliability, and price. Further, despite 9.4h of electricity supply per day from the main grid, as compared to an average of only 7.2h from microgrids, the respondents exposed to both systems were almost twice as satisfied with the microgrid's reliability. Based on these findings, the study provides four policy recommendations for strengthening the rural electricity supply sector and enhancing electricity access in India.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T11:31:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2017)
       
  • Inequalities in LPG and electricity consumption in India: The role of
           caste, tribe, and religion
    • Authors: Vibhor Saxena; Prabir C. Bhattacharya
      Pages: 44 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 42
      Author(s): Vibhor Saxena, Prabir C. Bhattacharya
      This paper examines the role of caste, tribe, and religion in determining energy inequality in India. We provide evidence by using the National Sample Survey Organisation data from the 68th round (2011−12) of 87,753 households. We estimate the inequalities in access to Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) and electricity usage by the households belonging to the three major disadvantaged groups in India, viz., the scheduled castes, the scheduled tribes, and the Muslims. The results of our empirical analysis suggest that, after controlling for the determinants which impinge on the households' microeconomic demand and regional supply characteristics, the households belonging to the scheduled tribe and scheduled caste communities do have significantly poorer access to LPG and electricity usage as compared to the upper caste households. The decomposition analysis of average differences in the predicted outcomes shows that it is the scheduled caste and scheduled tribe households who would appear to face most discrimination. The Muslim households too face significant inequality in accessing LPG. Policy implications of the findings are considered.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T11:31:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.09.009
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2017)
       
  • Geography, community, household: Adoption of distributed solar power
           across India
    • Authors: Michaël Aklin; Chao-yo Cheng; Johannes Urpelainen
      Pages: 54 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 42
      Author(s): Michaël Aklin, Chao-yo Cheng, Johannes Urpelainen
      We investigate the determinants of distributed solar technology adoption at the village and household level in India. Using spatial data on insolation, census records, and original surveys, we show that remote and poor but large villages with abundant sunshine have led the wave of solar technology adoption as an alternative to grid electricity. At the household level, however, wealth and financial access are positively associated with solar technology adoption, a result that holds for both solar lanterns and home systems. Moreover, remote villages are more likely to see solar technology adoption when households have access to finance through banks. We also find that the use of household solar technology is strongly associated with a household's subjective satisfaction with domestic lighting. These results demonstrate that understanding solar technology adoption requires considering both community and household characteristics. They also underscore the importance of financial access as a precondition for using distributed solar power as an alternative to grid connectivity.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T11:31:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2017)
       
  • Why do farmers abandon jatropha cultivation' The case of Chiapas,
           Mexico
    • Authors: Iria Soto; Carol Ellison; Marc Kenis; Brenda Diaz; Bart Muys; Erik Mathijs
      Pages: 77 - 86
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 42
      Author(s): Iria Soto, Carol Ellison, Marc Kenis, Brenda Diaz, Bart Muys, Erik Mathijs
      The biofuel crop Jatropha curcas has been promoted in developing countries as a means of improving the livelihoods of rural populations. In Mexico, despite the initially assumed economic, environmental, and social benefits of the crop, many farmers have abandoned jatropha cultivation. Here, we analyse the factors that influence farmers' decision to abandon jatropha cultivation by using a generalized linear modelling approach in combination with qualitative research methods. The deterioration in perception of jatropha profitability, the non-payment of expected subsidies and the wealth position of the household played a major role in determining abandonment. The perception of pest and disease damage, although stated by farmers as the second most frequent reason to disadopt, was not correlated with this decision in the generalized linear model. This research might help energy policy makers in identifying key elements to prevent failure of promotion programmes. The result of this study also may be useful for an international audience to reflect on the appropriateness of promoting a new crop at the farmer level before realistically evaluating the economic viability of its cultivation.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T22:36:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2017)
       
  • An investment risk assessment of microgrid utilities for rural
           electrification using the stochastic techno-economic microgrid model: A
           case study in Rwanda
    • Authors: Nathaniel J. Williams; Paulina Jaramillo; Jay Taneja
      Pages: 87 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 42
      Author(s): Nathaniel J. Williams, Paulina Jaramillo, Jay Taneja
      Access to electricity is a key enabler of social and economic development. However, 1.2 billion people still do not benefit from reliable electricity services. Microgrids have been proposed as a cost-effective means to accelerate access for communities located far from existing grid infrastructure. Scarcity of capital has been a barrier to both on-grid and off-grid electrification efforts and governments have sought private sector participation in an effort to close this gap. There is a lack of quantitative analysis to critically evaluate the key drivers of risk in microgrid utilities, or how different business models and technologies affect the potential for these projects to attract finance and scale up deployment. This paper introduces the Stochastic Techno-Economic Microgrid Model (STEMM), which enables assessment of the effect of technical design decisions as well as financial conditions on the financial viability of microgrid projects from an investment perspective. Using STEMM, this paper presents a risk analysis of the key uncertain variables affecting microgrid investments to both debt and equity investors using four technology scenarios as case studies in Rwanda. We find that major contributors to risk are fuel price volatility, uncertain electricity demand, and foreign exchange risk for investments in hard currency. Choice of technology strongly influences the risk profile of microgrids, with solar powered microgrids susceptible to demand uncertainty and diesel-based systems exposed to fuel price volatility. Hybrid solutions provide a middle ground with partial mitigation of both fuel price and demand risk. If electricity tariffs are linked to changes in fuel price, fuel price risk can be effectively passed to consumers.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T08:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.09.012
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2017)
       
  • Firewood: Cause or consequence' Underlying drivers of firewood
           production in the South of Chile
    • Authors: René Reyes; Harry Nelson; Hisham Zerriffi
      Pages: 97 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 42
      Author(s): René Reyes, Harry Nelson, Hisham Zerriffi
      Chile's native forests are one of the world's 25 priority conservation ecoregions due to their high levels of endemism and anthropogenic pressure. Seventy percent of these forests are in private lands, and firewood is the main use for native woods (93% of the total timber extracted from native forests). Yet, drivers of firewood production have not been adequately studied. In this research we analyzed if firewood is a primary production goal (the cause of extracting timber from native forest), or it is more a consequence of other processes. 275 surveys with landowners were used to perform a cross-sectional analysis in the Los Rios Region. We found that the decision to produce firewood is positively related to native forest cover (%) in the farm and the presence of forest plantations, and negatively related to the proportion of off-farm income (%). These variables affect the options facing landowners and help assess whether firewood is either a primary part of the productive system, or an outcome from other activities (by-product). The results show that firewood producers are not very responsive to firewood prices and only a small proportion of farms engage in commercial firewood production as their primary activity (landowners are not really interested in firewood production). Further, a growing firewood supply from forest plantations implies a lower pressure on native forests. This suggests that firewood production is less likely to be a driver of forest degradation than the literature points out, although the context of firewood production does identify areas where harvesting activities could be higher, e.g. where there are fewer off-farm income opportunities for landowners, who have lower schooling levels and do not hold formal land tenure, and where governmental interventions could be targeted to reduce excessive pressure on native forests.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T22:36:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.10.006
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2017)
       
  • Micro-loads electrification: Use of insulated shielding wires of a 500kV
           transmission line
    • Authors: Joan Sebastian Chaves; Maria Cristina Tavares
      Pages: 109 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 42
      Author(s): Joan Sebastian Chaves, Maria Cristina Tavares
      The main purpose of this article is to introduce a different method to electrify 0.5MVA micro-loads using energy loss confined in insulated shielding wires of a 500kV transmission line. The mathematical model of the system along with the series tuning reactor, necessary for voltage regulation, is described. Digital simulations are used to identify the maximum induced voltage in the insulated wire and the power extracted from the system. Finally, a transient analysis was presented showing that the modifications did not affect transmission line performance or reliability.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T22:36:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2017)
       
  • Cost reduction potential of parabolic trough based concentrating solar
           power plants in India
    • Authors: Chandan Sharma; Ashish K. Sharma; Subhash C. Mullick; Tara C. Kandpal
      Pages: 121 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 42
      Author(s): Chandan Sharma, Ashish K. Sharma, Subhash C. Mullick, Tara C. Kandpal
      In this paper, we estimate the cost reduction potential of parabolic trough based concentrated solar Power systems in India and consequently their implications for levelized cost of electricity. Using the past as well as envisaged global cumulative diffusion of CSP systems and the learning rates reported in the literature, the expected capital cost of parabolic trough based CSP systems in India has been estimated. Present capital cost of parabolic trough based CSP plant in India has been taken as US $2540/kW. Local manufacturing of CSP components and consequently reduced logistics is expected to reduce the capital cost by 14% and 8% respectively. A learning rate of 10% for the global cumulative diffusion in the base case scenario is expected to reduce capital cost to 49% of the present cost by the end of 2050. Present LCOE of US $151/MWh of CSP plant in India is expected to reduce to US $76/MWh by the end of 2050. Provision of 6hour thermal storage is expected to reduce LCOE of CSP plant in India by 18% as compared to LCOE of CSP plant without storage. Analysis for different learning rates (5%, 10% and 15%) for CSP plant and different discount rates (6%, 8% and 10%) has also been undertaken and results obtained are presented.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T22:36:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2017)
       
  • Laboratory experiments regarding the use of filtration and retained heat
           to reduce particulate matter emissions from biomass cooking
    • Authors: Dean K. Still; Samuel Bentson; Nicholas Murray; Jesse Andres; Zhang Yue; Nordica A. MacCarty
      Pages: 129 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 42
      Author(s): Dean K. Still, Samuel Bentson, Nicholas Murray, Jesse Andres, Zhang Yue, Nordica A. MacCarty
      There are a number of methods to help reduce the exposure to household air pollution associated with using biomass fuel for daily cooking and heating in nearly 40% of global households. These most commonly include use of cleaner fuels and cookstoves, increasing ventilation, and use of a chimney. This paper investigates two less-commonly considered methods, 1) reducing exposure through filtration and capture of PM2.5 and 2) avoiding emissions using retained heat for cooking. If cookstoves are operated inside an enclosure from which smoke is pulled by a fan through an inexpensive HEPA-type filter before exiting to the outside, the personal exposure levels, room concentrations, and external pollution might be reduced. To test this method, an enclosure was built from which a box fan pulled the air and PM2.5 through a filter, and four different filters were tested. The rate of PM2.5 production (mg/min) exiting the filter was monitored with gravimetric measurement under an emissions hood during the high and low power phases of the Water Boiling Test 4.2.3 conducted on a biomass rocket stove with forced draft. The average of seven baseline emissions tests with no filter was 7.5mg/min of PM2.5. The average of seven tests using the highest quality furnace filter (3M 2200) was reduced to 1.5mg/min and the difference was significant at 95% confidence. The use of retained heat to simmer also reduced emissions of PM2.5 to zero by burning the boil-phase-made-charcoal while 5l of water were simmered for 35min.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T08:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.09.011
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2017)
       
  • Social equity impacts in Japan's mega-solar siting process
    • Authors: Timothy Fraser; Andrew J. Chapman
      Pages: 136 - 151
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 42
      Author(s): Timothy Fraser, Andrew J. Chapman
      Japan's energy market has seen the siting and construction of over 2800 new mega-solar power plants since the introduction of the Feed-in Tariff policy in 2012 (Kitamoto, 2017). While scholars have highlighted the potential for community-engaged renewable power development with social benefits for local residents, many major mega-solar projects have instead resulted from industry-led initiatives in locations, largely avoiding community engagement. In this study, we draw from distributive energy justice perspectives to analyze social equity impacts of the mega-solar siting process. We employ qualitative content analysis on 29 survey responses from local officials around Japan's 200 largest mega-solar plants constructed since 2012 and contextualize results through 18 interviews with relevant actors in six case studies. We find that given the existence of the Feed-in Tariff and sufficient solar irradiation, the availability of underutilized land decreases community bargaining power compared to historical power plant siting agreements. This results in primarily land leasing benefits and municipal tax revenue with minimal additional social impacts, such as employment. We outline a model of causation for mega-solar social equity impacts, Japanese policy implications, and directions for future quantitative research.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T08:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2017)
       
  • Clean cooking and the SDGs: Integrated analytical approaches to guide
           energy interventions for health and environment goals
    • Authors: Joshua Rosenthal; Ashlinn Quinn; Andrew P. Grieshop; Ajay Pillarisetti; Roger I. Glass
      Pages: 152 - 159
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 42
      Author(s): Joshua Rosenthal, Ashlinn Quinn, Andrew P. Grieshop, Ajay Pillarisetti, Roger I. Glass
      Development and implementation of clean cooking technology for households in low and middle income countries (LMICs) offer enormous promise to advance at least five Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): 3. Good health and well-being; 5. Gender equality; 7. Affordable and clean energy; 13. Climate action; 15. Life on land. Programs are being implemented around the world to introduce alternative cooking technologies, and we are well on the way to achieving the goal set by the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves to reach 100 million homes with cleaner and more efficient cooking methods by 2020. Despite evidence that household air pollution (HAP) from solid fuel combustion is responsible for 3–4 million early deaths per year, many cookstove programs are motivated and/or financed by climate change mitigation schemes and deploy alternative stoves that use solid fuels such as wood and charcoal. However, recent studies have demonstrated that improved biomass-burning stoves typically only incrementally improve air quality and yield modest or minimal health benefits. Likewise, their contributions to climate change mitigation and other SDGs may be limited. Evidence indicates that cleaner fuels, such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), ethanol and biogas, offer greater potential benefits not only to health, but also greater progress towards climate goals and other relevant SDGs. We present a modeled estimate of these potential gains for a diverse group of 40 LMICs. Our model suggests that cookstove programs using LPG stoves and fuel will yield greater reductions in both Disability Adjusted Life Years and Global Warming Commitment in these countries than those using improved biomass stoves. Cost and infrastructure requirements for clean fuels such as LPG are widely recognized constraints. In view of these constraints we present an analytical method to simultaneously consider health and climate needs at the national level for the same 40 countries in the context of estimated LPG expansion potentials. Comparative analyses integrating priorities across SDGs at the national and regional levels may guide more practical and effective household energy development choices going forward.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T08:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2017)
       
  • Energy densification of sugarcane leaves through torrefaction under
           minimized oxidative atmosphere
    • Authors: Angelique T. Conag; Jaye Earl R. Villahermosa; Luis K. Cabatingan; Alchris W. Go
      Pages: 160 - 169
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 42
      Author(s): Angelique T. Conag, Jaye Earl R. Villahermosa, Luis K. Cabatingan, Alchris W. Go
      Worldwide, the annual energy content of sugarcane leaves (SCL) amounts to 4.21EJ. However, its direct use as a solid fuel is hindered by its inherent characteristics, such as its low bulk density, low energy density, and hygroscopic nature. These characteristics of SCL could be improved through torrefaction. However, in addition to these characteristics, combustion and flow characteristics, expressed in their respective indices, should also meet their desired values as they have direct influence in the later performance of boilers and furnaces. Torrefaction of SCL at various temperatures (250–350°C) and times (0–75min) under minimized oxidative atmosphere was investigated in this study to improve its characteristics as solid fuel. The torrefaction performance was not only assessed through the mass and energy yields, but also changes in the combustion and flow indices. Torrefaction at 300°C & 45min led to the increase in fixed carbon to as much as 21g for every 100g of raw SCL being torrefied, which originally contains 18g of fixed carbon. Devolatilization during torrefaction not only involves the volatilization of the volatiles but also the formation of additional fixed carbon. The higher heating value (HHV) of SCL increased to as much as ~22MJ/kg after the torrefaction. The resulting SCL torrefied at 300°C for at least 45min was found to be suitable for industrial and domestic applications having fuel ratio (FR), combustibility index (CI), volatile ignitability (VI), Hausner ratio (HR), and Carr compressibility index (CCI) falling within prescribed values of 0.5–2.0, 12–23MJ/kg, >14MJ/kg, <1.34, and <25, respectively.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T08:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2017)
       
  • Designing auctions for renewable electricity support. Best practices from
           around the world
    • Authors: Pablo del Río
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 41
      Author(s): Pablo del Río
      Auctions have recently been regarded as a useful alternative to other support schemes for the setting of the remuneration of renewable electricity (RES-E) worldwide. However, whether auctions will fulfill the expectations depends on the choice of design elements. The aim of this article is to analyze the advantages and drawbacks of different design elements according to different criteria. We support our analysis with economic theory and identify best and worst practices in the design of RES-E auctions from around the world. Our findings show that a few design elements score better than the alternatives in some criteria, without scoring worse in others. These “best” practices include a schedule of auctions, volume disclosure, price ceilings, penalties, streamline of administrative procedures and provision of information to potential participants. Design elements usually involve trade-offs between criteria. Overall, these results suggest that the choice of a specific design element is not a win-win decision and depends on the priorities of the respective government.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T14:45:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.05.006
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
       
  • Fuelwood value chain analysis in Cassou and Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso:
           From production to consumption
    • Authors: Yohama Puentes-Rodriguez; Piritta Torssonen; Sabaheta Ramcilovik-Suominen; Sari Pitkänen
      Pages: 14 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 41
      Author(s): Yohama Puentes-Rodriguez, Piritta Torssonen, Sabaheta Ramcilovik-Suominen, Sari Pitkänen
      The majority of households in Burkina Faso, particularly in the rural areas, rely on fuelwood as their main source of energy for cooking and heating. This consumption trend is expected to continue and even increase in the coming years, driven mainly by the population growth. Although sustainable woodfuel management has been considered in the country, pressure on forest resources is continuously increasing, as a result of fuelwood production. In this study, the different processes within the fuelwood value chain (FWVC) were analyzed in the village of Cassou and Ouagadougou, with a survey directed to the FWVC actors (from harvesters to consumers). Social, economic and environmental aspects were considered in the analysis, as well as the legal dimension within the VC. From the analysis, two lines of formality were identified (i.e. formal and informal). Formality varied depending on the location and the process implying also a gender aspect; for instance, all harvesters and most of the collectors (mainly men) in Cassou belonged to associations (formal), while most of the transporters and traders (mainly women) in Ouagadougou were not part of any association (informal). Fuelwood price fluctuation was also affected by the formality since formal actors followed the official prices while informal ones established the prices freely. Informality also leads to uncontrolled exploitation of forest resources contributing to the forest decline. The present study provides a general overview of the situation in Cassou, a small village in Burkina Faso and suggests that other issues need to be considered to fully assess the sustainability of fuelwood VC in the country and to be able to create strategies and policies to e.g. decrease the negative impact on the environment. Therefore, it would be most needed to carry out a detailed analysis, involving formality, with all the actors – covering gender issues, processes and flows at a larger scale across different regions.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T14:45:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.07.008
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
       
  • Parameter analysis of thermoelectric generator/dc-dc converter system with
           maximum power point tracking
    • Authors: Ssennoga Twaha; Jie Zhu; Bo Li; Yuying Yan; Kuo Huang
      Pages: 49 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 41
      Author(s): Ssennoga Twaha, Jie Zhu, Bo Li, Yuying Yan, Kuo Huang
      The power generated from TEG is relatively unstable owing to temperature variations at its hot and cold side terminals. The dc-dc converters can provide more stable power output thereby improving the overall efficiency of TEG system. However, to facilitate better performance improvement, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm can be applied to extract maximum power from TEG system. Therefore, parameter analysis of a TEG/dc-dc converter system in different modes is being carried out. A TEG-dc-dc boost converter model is analysed in both MPPT and direct pulse width modulation (PWM) modes subjected to a variable load. To further study the capability of dc-dc converters to stabilise the TEG power output, increasing ramp and random hot side temperature is applied to the MPPT and direct PWM based modes so that the effect on output parameters i.e. voltage and power, can be analysed. It is noted that even for the random temperature input to the TEG, the output voltage resulting from the converter is almost constant. Therefore dc-dc converters are able to stabilise the power generated from TEG. It is also observed that dc-dc converter with MPPT based model is able to effectively extract the maximum power without having to adjust any component from the MPPT algorithm as it is the case with direct PWM based model. From the study, it has been established that proper selection of converter components is necessary to reduce converter losses as well interferences on the load connected to TEG-dc-dc converter system.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T14:45:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.08.005
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
       
  • Will technology advances alleviate climate change' Dual effects of
           technology change on aggregate carbon dioxide emissions
    • Authors: Mingquan Li; Qi Wang
      Pages: 61 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 41
      Author(s): Mingquan Li, Qi Wang
      The relationship between technology change and carbon dioxide emissions is complex. Existing research has emphasized technology progress in reducing carbon emission intensity but has ignored the impact of technology progress on economic growth, which leads to changes in carbon dioxide emissions. We argue that technology has relatively independent economic and environmental attributes. To provide evidence for this, we developed a method to distinguish the scale effect of technology change and its influence on economic scale from the intensity effect of technology change and its influence on carbon emission intensity. We applied this method to study the impact of technology change on carbon dioxide emissions in 95 countries between 1996 and 2007. We found that technology change indeed reduced aggregate carbon dioxide emissions, but the scale and intensity effects of technology change separately expressed positive and negative values. As a consequence, previous studies that only consider the intensity effect overestimate the impact of technology change on carbon dioxide emissions. Our findings yield important considerations for carbon dioxide emissions control in policy making.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T14:45:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
       
  • A review of injera baking technologies in Ethiopia: Challenges and gaps
    • Authors: Kamil Dino Adem; Demiss Alemu Ambie
      Pages: 69 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 41
      Author(s): Kamil Dino Adem, Demiss Alemu Ambie
      Most of the people living in the Third World cook/bake food using biomass as their primary energy sources. There are a number of efforts undertaken to improve the efficiency, lessen the indoor air pollution and reduce emission of a three-stone-open-fire stove by introducing improved cooking stoves. The major purpose of this review is to organize, and document research and development efforts, showing gaps for researchers and developers working in the area of improved biomass and other stoves more specifically for baking injera. The information in the review, which is mostly in chronological order, is obtained from governmental and non-governmental reports, patents and journals written in the area of injera baking stoves. The most important results of the review show that a number of efforts were undertaken to improve injera baking stoves, though there were no organized reviews earlier to show the efforts made by various institutions. The review also shows that other alternative energy sources for injera baking stoves have been used to address the problem of the majority of the people living in rural areas. In the end, the review indicated a research direction for the future in relation to the supply of alternative energy sources such as solar, biogas, gasifier and electric power for injera baking stoves.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T14:45:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
       
  • Factors associated with sustained use of improved solid fuel cookstoves: A
           case study from Kenya
    • Authors: Aschalew Tigabu
      Pages: 81 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 41
      Author(s): Aschalew Tigabu
      Improved solid fuel cookstoves have been a focus of development efforts to address health and environmental problems caused by traditional cooking practices in Kenya. However, a review of Kenya's experience in promoting improved solid fuel cookstoves shows that the focus has been on (increasing) production and dissemination of improved cookstoves, overlooking the fact that some of the disseminated cookstoves are used less regularly or even abandoned. This study examines factors that influence the usage rate of improved solid fuel cookstoves, drawing on a survey of cookstove users conducted in Kenya through a project implemented by the African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS) and The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI). The results show that sustained use of improved solid fuel cookstoves over time is significantly predicted by awareness creation activities and reputation of the new cookstoves among community members. These insights suggest that cookstove-disseminating organisations should pay attention to these two factors to ensure sustained use of improved solid fuel cookstoves in Kenya and perhaps other developing countries.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T15:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.08.008
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
       
  • Accuracy of energy-use surveys in predicting rural mini-grid
           user consumption
    • Authors: Courtney Blodgett; Peter Dauenhauer; Henry Louie; Lauren Kickham
      Pages: 88 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 41
      Author(s): Courtney Blodgett, Peter Dauenhauer, Henry Louie, Lauren Kickham
      Mini-grids for rural electrification in developing countries are growing in popularity but are not yet widely deployed. A key barrier of mini-grid proliferation is the uncertainty in predicting customer electricity consumption, which adds financial risk. Energy-use surveys deployed in the pre-feasibility stage that capture present and aspirational consumption are intended to reduce this uncertainty. However, the general reliability and accuracy of these surveys has not been demonstrated. This research compares survey-predicted electrical energy use to actual measured consumption of customers of eight mini-grids in rural Kenya. A follow-up audit compares the aspirational inventory of appliances to the realized inventory. The analysis shows that the ability to accurately estimate past consumption based on survey or audit data, even in a relatively short time-horizon is prone to appreciable error — a mean absolute error of 426Wh/day per customer on a mean consumption of 113Wh/day per customer. An alternative data-driven proxy village approach, which uses average customer consumption from each mini-grid to predict consumption at other mini-grids, was more accurate and reduced the mean absolute error to 75Wh/day per customer. Hourly load profiles were constructed to provide insight into potential causes of error and to suggest how the data provided in this work can be used in computer-aided mini-grid design programs.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T15:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
       
  • Closing the gap between lab and field cookstove tests: Benefits of
           multi-pot and sequencing cooking tasks through controlled burning cycles
    • Authors: Paulo Medina; V. Berrueta; M. Martínez; V. Ruiz; I. Ruiz-Mercado; O.R. Masera
      Pages: 106 - 111
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 41
      Author(s): Paulo Medina, V. Berrueta, M. Martínez, V. Ruiz, I. Ruiz-Mercado, O.R. Masera
      There is a critical need for developing wood-burning cookstoves lab tests that better reflect their field performance, and that can be used to complement existing standard tests. This is particularly true for Plancha-type cookstove stoves, widely disseminated in Latin America, where existing tests, like Water Boiling Test (WBT) and Controlled Cooking Test (CCT), are either not well suited to these stoves or do not capture the simultaneous and sequential arrangement of local cooking practices –i.e., multi-pot cooking, pre-heating of meals, and use of residual heat. In this paper, we developed a “controlled cooking cycle” or “controlled burning cycle” (CBC) test to study the benefits, in terms of fuelwood and pollutants emissions savings, of multi-pot cooking arising from the integration of cooking tasks. Tests were conducted on the Patsari stove, a plancha-type stove that has been widely disseminated in Mexico and in other regions of Central America. We first used CCTs to evaluate the comparative energy and emissions performance of the Patsari stove relative to a traditional U-shaped open fire (U-type) for the most common cooking practices carried out in the Purepecha Region of Michoacan. We also compared results from the CBC multi-pot cooking with results from simply conducting the cooking tasks in series. All the CCTs and CBCs were carried out in a simulated kitchen at GIRA facilities in Patzcuaro, Michoacan, Mexico with two local cooks who performed all the cooking tasks in the traditional/typical manner of the region. Results from CCTs showed Patsari benefits relative to the open fires, in terms of fuelwood consumption and CO and PM2.5 emissions savings, vary among cooking tasks and range from negligible to 63% depending on the parameter and the task. The sequential cooking and integration of these tasks in a CBC result in average savings of 65% for CO, 65% for PM2.5 and 35% for fuelwood relative to the U-type, and of between 30% and 44% savings with respect to simply conducting the cooking tasks in series in the same stove. The CBC fuelwood savings obtained here are comparable with field results from Kitchen Performance Tests (KPT) conducted regionally by other authors. The results confirm that multi-pot cooking and a smart sequential integration of tasks developed by local users are key to achieve the maximum benefits from plancha-type stoves, and need to be much better reflected in standard lab tests.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T15:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.08.009
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
       
  • Fuel efficiency and air pollutant concentrations of wood-burning improved
           cookstoves in Malawi: Implications for scaling-up cookstove programs
    • Authors: Pamela Jagger; Joseph Pedit; Ashley Bittner; Laura Hamrick; Tione Phwandapwhanda; Charles Jumbe
      Pages: 112 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 41
      Author(s): Pamela Jagger, Joseph Pedit, Ashley Bittner, Laura Hamrick, Tione Phwandapwhanda, Charles Jumbe
      Developing countries are grappling with how to reduce household air pollution (HAP) from cooking with solid fuels and the traditional three stone fire (TSF). Laboratory studies have shown that improved cookstoves may offer reductions in fuel use, emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), yet there is limited evidence from “real-world” settings showing how improved stoves perform compared to the traditional TSF. Our study takes place in a semi-controlled setting in Malawi and was designed to quantify fuel efficiency improvements and air pollutant concentration reductions capabilities of two improved cookstoves. We perform a Water Boiling Test to compare the TSF with the locally produced clay stove known as the Chitetezo Mbaula (CM) and the Philips gasifying stove. We find that the CM uses 53% of the fuel used by the traditional TSF, and produces 59% of CO, and 50% of PM2.5 of the TSF. The Philips stove uses 31% of the fuel, and produces 38% of CO, and 22% of PM2.5 of the TSF. We consider the potential for the wide-scale adoption of these technologies given their relative costs and conclude that lower-cost, intermediate quality cookstoves are an important and realistic first step toward reducing HAP.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T15:44:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.08.007
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
       
  • Management of wood resources: A dilemma between conservation and
           livelihoods in a rural district in the Aral region
    • Authors: Kayo Matsui; Yerlan Akhapov; Maira Kussainova; Shinya Funakawa
      Pages: 121 - 127
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 41
      Author(s): Kayo Matsui, Yerlan Akhapov, Maira Kussainova, Shinya Funakawa
      This study focused on black saxaul (Haloxylon aphyllum) and tamarisk (Tamarix hispida), which are economically and environmentally important trees in one of the most arid parts of the Aral region. Black saxaul is the main local fuelwood species. However, its extraction was banned after it became critically endangered in the 1990s. Planting this species is now regarded as essential for rehabilitating the Aralkum Desert in light of the Aral Sea crisis. Tamarisk is another fuelwood species that supports local livelihoods. We administered questionnaires among residents in Karateren district and conducted interviews with some residents and with policymakers responsible for regulating forest management. The findings revealed a significantly higher preference for black saxaul than for tamarisk among residents, with a high potential demand for the former. Moreover, some residents observed a decrease in tamarisk biomass, which could accelerate as a result of constant population growth in the study district. We recommend conducting an assessment of logging sites and establishing a feedback system involving local communities to develop risk management that can address future shortages in wood supplies and over logging. Political decision making should also consider the uneven preferences of residents of this region for fuelwood species.

      PubDate: 2017-09-20T16:09:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.08.010
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
       
  • A general architecture for electric power management of small scale NCRE
           converters: Design methodology and validation
    • Authors: Franco Hernández; Luciano E. Chiang; Patricio Corbalán
      Pages: 128 - 138
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 41
      Author(s): Franco Hernández, Luciano E. Chiang, Patricio Corbalán
      A design methodology, its validation and evaluation, for optimal electric energy power management NCRE (NonConventional Renewable Energy) converters used for battery charging is presented, targeting small-scale units (i.e. <10kW). It is a general-purpose solution that has been tested with different prime movers: river turbine, tidal turbine, wind turbine, and wave energy converter. There are two critical components in the configuration: the electric generator, and the buck converter or MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracker). The design of these two components must give careful consideration to the behavior of the primary energy source as well as battery charging requirements. The topology selected for the generator is an axial flux generator with permanent magnets, because it allows matching the low optimal speed of the primary energy converters without the use of speed multipliers such as gears and pulleys. The programmable buck converter topology is selected because it can be used both as a voltage or current source, and hence it works well with battery charging,which is a primary application for small-scaleoff-gridNCRE converters. Cost-effectiveness of the solution is achieved by the simple design methods, low cost components and materials, and simple manufacturing methods.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T21:38:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
       
  • A new nozzle design methodology for high efficiency crossflow hydro
           turbines
    • Authors: R.C. Adhikari; D.H. Wood
      Pages: 139 - 148
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 41
      Author(s): R.C. Adhikari, D.H. Wood
      Small-scale hydropower systems are mainly used in remote locations for generating electricity where reasonable hydropower resources are available. Many small-scale systems employ crossflow turbines due to their simplicity in design and manufacture, low cost, sturdy construction and longer life-span. However, compared to most advanced and efficient designs, such as Pelton and Francis turbines, they suffer from a lower maximum efficiency. In a crossflow turbine, the nozzle increases the velocity of the flow and directs it at a suitable angle to the runner whose axis is tangential to the flow. The runner extracts the angular momentum of the flow. Therefore, the runner entry flow is critical for the turbine efficiency. However, it is not yet known clearly how the entry flow affects the runner performance and how the best nozzle can be designed. This study presents a new nozzle design method so that high efficiency crossflow turbines can be designed. An analytical model is formulated to convert the head into kinetic energy at the entry and obtain a suitable flow angle. Three-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations were conducted on a 7kW turbine with a measured maximum efficiency of 69% and a 0.53kW turbine with a maximum efficiency of 88%. The predictive capability of the computational model was assessed by comparing the computational and experimental results for the power over a range of operating conditions on both turbines. By redesigning only the nozzle of the 7kW turbine by the new method, the maximum efficiency increased from 69% to 87%. Thus the nozzle design has a significant influence on turbine performance, and we conclude that the conversion of head into kinetic energy and matching of the nozzle flow with the runner design are fundamental in turbine design.

      PubDate: 2017-10-26T10:03:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
       
  • “Socially neglected effect” in the implementation of energy
           technologies to mitigate climate change: Sustainable building program in
           social housing
    • Authors: Felicitas Hernandez-Roman; Claudia Sheinbaum-Pardo; Andrea Calderon-Irazoque
      Pages: 149 - 156
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 41
      Author(s): Felicitas Hernandez-Roman, Claudia Sheinbaum-Pardo, Andrea Calderon-Irazoque
      The residential sector is the third largest energy-consuming sector in Mexico and an important contributor to energy related carbon dioxide emissions after transport and industry. The objective of this study is to evaluate the implementation and social acceptance of energy efficient technologies and renewable technologies in the so called sustainable social housing program in Mexico City, and compare the real reduction of CO2 emissions to the theoretical potential. To do so, two estimations are developed: 1) the technical and economic CO2 emission reduction potential of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies in new social housing in Mexico City, and 2) the real avoided emissions based on social acceptance of technologies obtained by housing surveys and physical revision of performance status of implemented technologies. We found that due to lack of information and training to households an important part of dwellers ended up rejecting mitigation technologies developing what we called the socially neglected effect of mitigation technologies. These results were used to estimate three scenarios for year 2025: baseline, mitigation and neglected effect. Due to the neglected effect a reduction of 25% with respect to the baseline scenario was obtained instead of 45% of emission reduction in year 2025. In the case of efficient lighting and refrigerators, where Minimum Energy Efficient Standards are in place the socially neglected effect disappears once the replacement of old to new technologies takes place. This result shows that minimum energy performance standards are the main mitigation policy to eliminate socially neglected effect in the long run. Obligatory standards for installation of solar water heaters can be developed as well, although it is important to develop additional follow-up policies for adequate installation of these technologies.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T21:38:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
       
  • Orientation modeling of high-rise buildings for optimizing
           exposure/transfer of insolation, case study of Sulaimani, Iraq
    • Authors: Shazad Jamal Jalal; Rawand Khasraw Bani
      Pages: 157 - 164
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 41
      Author(s): Shazad Jamal Jalal, Rawand Khasraw Bani
      This research aims at finding the optimal orientation regarding exposure and transfer of insolation energy in high-rise residential buildings for space conditioning in Sulaimani city, Iraq. A hypothetical high-rise residential building will be studied that has 18 possible orientations and four apartments per floor. Annual Insolation Value (AIV) for each 5° orientation is calculated based on the sun path diagram, linear interpolation and published direct insolation data by NASA. These values were used to calculate AIV for each floor. Different glazing areas, cross section types and glass panes were examined to determine their effect on the fraction of AIV transferred inside the envelope. The results showed that the orientation 70°–160°, 160°–250°, 250°–340° and 70°–340° is the optimal orientation for the four apartments collectively per floor and a whole building. It was also found that the square shaped floor plan of W/L ratio 1:1 has an optimal shape concerning AIV. The common cross section used in the city transferred 20.0% of the AIV inside the building for all orientations. The accumulative annual fraction transferred is negative, which implies excess or shortage of insolation energy based on Heating and Cooling Degree Days. Because of direct proportional relationship, the orientation optimization was not sensitive to variation in both window-wall ratio (WWR) of 20, 25, 30 and 35% and for CMU and brick wall materials. Increasing WWR by 5%, tends to increase the amount of solar heat transfer by 3%. It was found that the heat transfer ratio between conduction through the wall material to radiation through the glazing panes was 1:5.7. The number of glass panes projected the highest effect on the fraction of AIV transferred inside from 20.0% for two panes to 32.5% for one. The results of examining case studies in Sulaimani showed that their orientations deviate notably (except one complex) from the optimal case. Also none of the case studies used the optimal 1:1 ratio which resulted in high increase in the AIV value per each project separately.

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T16:47:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
       
  • A study on the rotational behaviour of a Savonius Wind turbine in low rise
           highways during different monsoons
    • Authors: Senthilvel Santhakumar; Ilamathi Palanivel; Krishnanand Venkatasubramanian
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 40
      Author(s): Senthilvel Santhakumar, Ilamathi Palanivel, Krishnanand Venkatasubramanian
      This work describes the behaviour of a vertical axis Savonius Wind Turbine (SWT) in Four-way lane highways during South-West and North-East monsoons. A vertical axis SWT was designed and fabricated using low-cost materials. Starting behaviour of the SWT was studied by measuring and calculating the starting torque coefficient. The proposed SWT's cut-in speed was achieved at a velocity of 3.5m/s. Experiments were carried out on a four-way lane highway through the placement of turbine at two different positions (middle and sides of the highway). Also, the experiments were repeated during different monsoons to understand the behaviour under different wind directions. Error analysis was performed on the data obtained by considering possible measurement errors and instrument accuracies. The obtained experimental data clearly illustrates that the SWT's nominal rotational speed varies at different monsoons, when located at the sides of the road. From the data analysis, it can be understood that the wind directions play a key role for harnessing maximum amount of energy in highway wind-energy generation. Maximum augmented rotational speed of around 64% was achieved by placing the SWT at the median of Four-way lane highways in different monsoons.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T07:47:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
       
  • Anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure, meat and bone meal, and crude
           glycerol under mesophilic conditions: Synergistic effect and kinetic
           studies
    • Authors: Fetra J. Andriamanohiarisoamanana; Aya Saikawa; Kumiko Tarukawa; Guangdou Qi; Zhifei Pan; Takaki Yamashiro; Masahiro Iwasaki; Ikko Ihara; Takehiro Nishida; Kazutaka Umetsu
      Pages: 11 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 40
      Author(s): Fetra J. Andriamanohiarisoamanana, Aya Saikawa, Kumiko Tarukawa, Guangdou Qi, Zhifei Pan, Takaki Yamashiro, Masahiro Iwasaki, Ikko Ihara, Takehiro Nishida, Kazutaka Umetsu
      Anaerobic digestion is a potential renewable energy, climate independent and robust technology, which is able to treat different kinds of organic wastes and by-products. This study investigated the anaerobic co-digestion of meat and bone meal (MBM) with dairy manure (DM) and crude glycerol (CG). Three sets of batch experiments were conducted at mesophilic condition; one set of anaerobic mono-digestion and two sets of anaerobic co-digestion. In experiment I, each substrate was mono-digested at inoculum to substrate ratio of 1. In experiment II, MBM and DM were co-digested at ratios of 1.0:1.0, 1.0:2.0, 1.0:1.0, and 2.0:1.0, while in experiment III CG was co-digested with MBM at ratios of 1.0:3.0, 1.0:1.0 and 3.0:1.0, at a fixed amount of DM. The results of anaerobic mono-digestion showed that CG produced the highest methane yield (0.48L/gVS) followed by MBM (0.41L/gVS) and DM (0.17L/gVS). In the anaerobic co-digestions, methane yield increased with the increase of MBM content, while it increased together with CG content. The kinetic studies showed that the physico-chemical characteristics of the co-digested substrates influenced hydrolysis rate constant and lag-phase, which increased with the increase of CG content. However, synergistic effect was decreased when MBM content was increased, whereas the opposite was observed to that with CG. Therefore, carbon to nitrogen ratio was an important parameter determining synergistic effect in anaerobic co-digestion, while the physico-chemical characteristics influenced the hydrolysis rate constant and lag-phase.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T17:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.05.008
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
       
  • Study on methods to determine rotor equivalent wind speed to increase
           prediction accuracy of wind turbine performance under wake condition
    • Authors: Sanghyeon Jeon; Bumsuk Kim; Jongchul Huh
      Pages: 41 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 40
      Author(s): Sanghyeon Jeon, Bumsuk Kim, Jongchul Huh
      A downstream wind turbine located within the reach of the wake region of an upstream wind turbine experiences a decrease in power output due to wake effects. For this reason, when designing a wind farm, various engineering wake models are used to predict the power deficit and wind farm layout is designed in the optimal way to minimize the wake losses. Generally, in the process of calculating the loss of wind farm AEP, in most cases the single point-measured wind speed is used. However, this results in an error when predicting the loss of AEP under wake conditions. When predicting the AEP of a wind turbines affected by wakes, the rotor equivalent wind speed (REWS), which considers the effect of wake wind shear, should be applied. This research examined REWSpower converted from the power output of a wind turbine to demonstrate the need of rotor equivalent wind speed under upstream turbine's wake condition and furthermore suggested a method to calculate REWSspws using the nacelle-measured wind speed. By analyzing 48months collected data of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system from a wind farm, error percentages among REWSpower, REWSspws, and the nacelle-measured wind speed were compared.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T20:31:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
       
  • The energy usage and environmental impact assessment of spent coffee
           grounds biodiesel production by an in-situ transesterification process
    • Authors: Nattapong Tuntiwiwattanapun; Parnuwat Usapein; Chantra Tongcumpou
      Pages: 50 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 40
      Author(s): Nattapong Tuntiwiwattanapun, Parnuwat Usapein, Chantra Tongcumpou
      Spent coffee grounds (SCG) waste has been drawing attentions in the biodiesel industry due to the promising of oil content. However, SCG sources is very disperse and requires a transportation system. Moreover, a complexity of oil extraction steps using hazardous n-hexane can hinder the SCG biodiesel promotion. Therefore, an alternative approach using in-situ transesterification (in-situ TE), an n-hexane free process, was introduced for producing biodiesel at an on-site SCG source. Life cycle assessment was performed to compare the energy usage and environmental impacts between a conventional process, which requires transportation and n-hexane, and an on-site in-situ TE process. Producing SCG biodiesel using conventional process required 43% less energy and produced fewer environmental impacts than those of the on-site in-situ TE. Much of the difference was attributable to 73% of the energy in the in-situ TE being consumed in methanol recovery. Nevertheless, the in-situ TE process gained better scores in terms of respiratory organs and land occupation. A sensitivity analysis of energy usage on transportation distances and fuel consumption rates suggested that an on-site in-situ TE process could be viewed as more favorable once the transportation distance is greater than 180km with 7km/L of fuel consumption rate.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T07:12:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
       
  • Jatropha curcas crude oil as heat transfer fluid or thermal energy storage
           material for concentrating solar power plants
    • Authors: Eric Serge Kenda; Kokouvi Edem N’Tsoukpoe; Igor W.K. Ouédraogo; Yézouma Coulibaly; Xavier Py; Fabrice Marie Armel W. Ouédraogo
      Pages: 59 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 40
      Author(s): Eric Serge Kenda, Kokouvi Edem N’Tsoukpoe, Igor W.K. Ouédraogo, Yézouma Coulibaly, Xavier Py, Fabrice Marie Armel W. Ouédraogo
      Valorisation of local and low cost eco-materials has become an imperative for the sustainable development of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) in West Africa. In this study, Jatropha curcas crude oil is studied as alternative heat transfer fluid or thermal energy storage material, particularly as a thermal oil substitute. The thermal stability of Jatropha curcas crude oil was experimentally investigated. The crude oil was aged by through thermal treatments, using galvanised steel and 316L stainless steel reactor under steady-state and dynamic conditions up to 210°C. The change in physico-chemical parameters of Jatropha curcas crude oil, such as viscosity, flash point, acidity number, water content, iodine value, peroxide value and chemical composition was monitored. The results indicate a relative stability of the total acid number during the dynamic and pseudo-static tests both in galvanised steel and in 316L stainless steel reactors. The results also show that the measured viscosity at 40°C remains practically constant after tests in steady-state conditions. This is also the case of the total acidity number. The evolution of iron and zinc contents of the oil shows that the use of 316L stainless steel material highly limits the degradation process of Jatropha curcas crude oil. Therefore, the main benefits of Jatropha curcas crude oil are its sustainable character, wide availability, good energy storage density, low cost and absence of use conflict. The oil can, therefore, be considered a suitable candidate for thermal applications up to 210°C, such as small scale CSP plants.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T07:12:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
       
  • Practical constraints for photovoltaic appliances in rural areas of
           developing countries
    • Authors: Tania Berger
      Pages: 68 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 40
      Author(s): Tania Berger
      Photovoltaic stand-alone systems are largely regarded as a viable option for decentralized rural electrification in developing countries. However, literature review reveals lack of documented experiences with installed PV systems such as Solar home systems as well as general problems with system maintenance and battery up keeping. This paper presents results from monitoring 31 stand-alone PV systems in remote health posts of North Gondar Zone in Ethiopia from installation until system failure; several systematic factors were found to have contributed to failure: lack of clear responsibility for the systems due to regular job rotation among health workers and lack of upfront, gender sensitive training, lack of equipment for maintenance work, very slow and unreliable chain of information in case of system failure and costly double tracking of energy supply. Nonfunctioning PV systems were found to threaten the technology'’s reputation by word of mouth. The results gained in this research provide important lessons for future programs of rural electrification by means of PV systems: they stress the importance of awareness building amongst funding agencies as well as the imperative of intense and sensitive training for users, especially women, and advocate for considering living conditions of users in system design.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T14:45:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
       
  • Electricity billing systems and household electricity use behaviour in
           Ibadan, Nigeria
    • Authors: Damilola Felix Arawomo
      Pages: 77 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 40
      Author(s): Damilola Felix Arawomo
      This paper examined the behaviour of households regarding electric energy use in lighting, clothes washing, ironing, refrigerating, cooking and boiling of water in relation to electricity billing systems in Ibadan. The rational choice theory, augmented by sociological and psychological theories, forms the theoretical basis for this study. The purposive sampling method was used to select five LGAs in Ibadan, where 500 households were randomly selected. Cross tabulation technique was adopted to analyse the objectives. Regarding the use of electricity for lighting, the result showed that the metered electricity consumers have better energy saving behaviour than the unmetered consumers, while the postpaid meter users have more of energy wasting behaviour compared to the prepaid meter users. For washing clothes and ironing, the result showed that the unmetered customers have more energy wasting behaviour compared to metered customers. Also regarding the behaviour about the use of electricity for washing clothes and ironing, the postpaid users are more energy wasting. Lastly, while the unmetered electricity consumers are more energy wasting in the use of electric cooker, it is the metered consumers that have energy wasting behaviour in the use of refrigerators.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T07:12:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
       
  • Performance of electricity usage at residential college buildings in the
           University of Malaya campus
    • Authors: Adi Ainurzaman Jamaludin; Noor Zalina Mahmood; Zul Ilham
      Pages: 85 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 40
      Author(s): Adi Ainurzaman Jamaludin, Noor Zalina Mahmood, Zul Ilham
      A critical analysis of characteristic and building design was done through scaled drawing and observation from a site visit of twelve residential college buildings in the University of Malaya campus. The elements of passive mode were implemented as matrixes or criteria for the recent practice of bioclimatic design strategies. The performance of electricity usage was audited based on the Energy Efficiency Index (EEI) in kWh/m2/year unit of each residential college building for the duration of nine years. As a result, the average electricity usage varied from 24 to 120kWh/m2/year. The residential colleges that have appropriate practices of passive mode particularly internal courtyard and balconies that encourage daylighting and natural ventilation were found to achieve a desired efficient use of electricity, in the range of 24 to 34kWh/m2/year.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T07:12:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
       
  • Shea nut shell based catalysts for the production of ethanolic biodiesel
    • Authors: Aristide Dejean; Igor W.K. Ouédraogo; Sylvie Mouras; Jeremy Valette; Joel Blin
      Pages: 103 - 111
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 40
      Author(s): Aristide Dejean, Igor W.K. Ouédraogo, Sylvie Mouras, Jeremy Valette, Joel Blin
      This work focused on the synthesis of charcoal as carbonaceous catalyst support for the ethanol transesterification of vegetable oil to produce biodiesel. Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) nut shells (SNS) were used as raw material to prepare an activated carbon based catalyst by chemical activation with potassium hydroxide (KOH). A central composite design of the response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the interactive effect of the SNS-K catalyst synthesis parameters (pyrolysis temperature, residence time and KOH impregnation ratio) and its catalytic activity in sunflower ethanol transesterification. Experimental yields reached >90% ester content in the biodiesel, with a catalyst prepared under mild pyrolysis conditions. Results showed that the temperature of pyrolysis and the KOH ratio used to impregnate SNS are the most important factors influencing the SNS-K catalytic activity. Catalyst prepared between 400°C and 650°C, with 120min residence time and a biomass: KOH ratio of between 14% and 17.5% produced the highest ethyl ester content (96%) with an optimal catalyst prepared at 650°C, with 120min residence time and 14% KOH loading. SNS-K catalyst characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed potassium carbonate to be the main active potassium species responsible for catalytic activity. Recyclability tests showed that the catalyst can be reused after a thermal post treatment without catalytic activity loss. Thus, this new simple catalytic process allows biodiesel production under mild conditions, using local reactant (i.e. bioethanol, vegetable oils and char from local agricultural residues). This can be a realistic alternative process for a shift towards sustainable energy in sub-Saharan Africa.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T07:12:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.07.006
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
       
  • Assessing the potential supply of biomass cooking fuels in Kilimanjaro
           region using land use units and spatial Bayesian networks
    • Authors: Roger Bär; Andreas Heinimann; Albrecht Ehrensperger
      Pages: 112 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 40
      Author(s): Roger Bär, Andreas Heinimann, Albrecht Ehrensperger
      In East Africa, charcoal and firewood will remain the main sources of energy for cooking for the next two to three decades. Corresponding energy policies are needed that set proper priorities and improve the sustainability of the biomass energy sector. In this paper, we assess the supply potentials of wood-based and non-woody biomass fuels in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania, and formulate recommendations to support sustainable biomass energy strategies in East Africa. We differentiate between tree types of potentials: the supply potential, the access potential, and the production potential. In order to calculate these potentials, we use a spatial Bayesian network that specifically enables accounting for uncertainties in the data and model. The main results show: (1) that agroforestry and small-scale mixed farming are the land use types with the highest potentials, (2) that firewood, charcoal, and biogas have substantial potential, whereas crop residue briquettes and Jatropha oil have only minor potentials, and (3) that such estimates can be subject to substantial uncertainties. Based on these results, we recommend that biomass energy strategies in East Africa consider the specific assets and limiting factors of the various fuel types and land use types in order to improve the supply of sustainable biomass cooking fuels.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T07:12:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.05.007
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
       
  • An ecosystem services perspective for classifying and valuing the
           environmental impacts of geothermal power projects
    • Authors: David Cook; Brynhildur Davíðsdóttir; Daði Már Kristófersson
      Pages: 126 - 138
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 40
      Author(s): David Cook, Brynhildur Davíðsdóttir, Daði Már Kristófersson
      An ecosystem services perspective can provide a useful means of understanding, in human well-being terms, the type, scale and value of environmental impacts deriving from the deployment of renewable energy technologies. This paper provides the first thematic review of the ecosystem service impacts commonly associated with developing geothermal areas for power projects. In this study, the typical ecosystem service impacts of geothermal power projects are classified using the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES) typology. Next, in order to develop a guide for future practitioners, an analysis is conducted of the most suitable valuation methods for the respective ecosystem service impacts. A pluralist approach is advised to aide decision-making, involving the use of monetary and non-monetary information. A number of non-market valuation studies may be required to estimate the total economic value of affected geothermal ecosystems, likely including the contingent valuation and travel cost methods. The more intangible ecosystem services associated with geothermal areas, such as artistic inspiration and landscape aesthetics, are best valued using non-monetary approaches, including deliberative methods. Finally, in recognition of the importance of having a strong physical basis underpinning non-market valuation techniques, this paper critically assesses the merits of the most appropriate data sources for future environmental economists working in a geothermal context. A literature review reveals that neither Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) nor Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) studies in a geothermal context have embedded an ecosystem service perspective into their processes. EIA are closest to fulfilling the needs of environmental economists, encompassing the majority of ecosystem service impacts, yet further methodological progress is recommended to ensure that all project stakeholders are given voice and arbitrage in the data-gathering process.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T07:12:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.07.007
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
       
  • Factors affecting genetic and seed yield variability of Jatropha curcas
           (L.) across the globe: A review
    • Authors: Ang Dawa Lama; Tero Klemola; Irma Saloniemi; Pekka Niemelä; Timo Vuorisalo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development
      Author(s): Ang Dawa Lama, Tero Klemola, Irma Saloniemi, Pekka Niemelä, Timo Vuorisalo
      Jatropha curcas L. is considered a promising candidate plant for biofuel production. However, data on its seed yield seem to vary greatly in different parts of the globe. Some studies indicate that low genetic diversity might be an important factor causing seed yield variation. In addition to genetic factors, abiotic factors such as rainfall or agronomic practices (e.g. planting density) may influence seed yield. Our study focused on reviewing current data on genetic diversity and other factors behind seed yield variability of J. curcas in different parts of its range, including areas both in its native and non-native range. Genetic and seed yield data were collected from published and unpublished documents available online. Our review shows that genetic diversity is significantly higher within its native range than in areas where the species has been introduced. Genetic diversity had a significant positive correlation with the mean annual seed yield. Seed yield varied greatly across the globe. Global mean (±SE) seed yield was 2218±148kgha−1 y−1. Age of the plants had positive linear effects, whereas annual rainfall and plant density had quadratic effects on seed yield at global scale. The reported low genetic diversity in the non-native range of J. curcas may be explained by a low number of common ancestors and the resulting founder effect. The large variability in seed yields across the globe is probably caused by differences in plant age, varying agronomic practices, site specific climates, soil fertility and genetic factors. Although in a large proportion of Jatropha plantations worldwide the threshold level for economically feasible seed yield (2500kgha−1 y−1 or more) may not be achieved, other benefits provided by Jatropha (e.g. carbon sequestration, erosion control) may support its cultivation even on arid or semi-arid sites.

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T16:47:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.09.002
       
 
 
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