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  Subjects -> MATHEMATICS (Total: 969 journals)
    - APPLIED MATHEMATICS (84 journals)
    - GEOMETRY AND TOPOLOGY (20 journals)
    - MATHEMATICS (714 journals)
    - MATHEMATICS (GENERAL) (43 journals)
    - NUMERICAL ANALYSIS (22 journals)
    - PROBABILITIES AND MATH STATISTICS (86 journals)

MATHEMATICS (714 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 538 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abakós     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Academic Voices : A Multidisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Accounting Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ACM Transactions on Computational Logic (TOCL)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Difference Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fixed Point Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Materials Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Pure and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Pure Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Air, Soil & Water Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
AKSIOMA Journal of Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Jabar : Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Algebra Colloquium     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Algorithmic Operations Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Algorithms     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Algorithms Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Mathematical Analysis     Open Access  
American Journal of Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Mathematical Monthly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
An International Journal of Optimization and Control: Theories & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Matematica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analysis Mathematica     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales Mathematicae Silesianae     Open Access  
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales UMCS, Mathematica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales Universitatis Paedagogicae Cracoviensis. Studia Mathematica     Open Access  
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Discrete Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University - Mathematics     Open Access  
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of West University of Timisoara - Mathematics     Open Access  
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ANZIAM Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Mathematics - A Journal of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Mathematics Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arab Journal of Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arabian Journal of Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archive of Numerical Software     Open Access  
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Armenian Journal of Mathematics     Open Access  
Arnold Mathematical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Satellites : The Journal of Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Algebra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian-European Journal of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mathematics Teacher, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Senior Mathematics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Automatic Documentation and Mathematical Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Axioms     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BIBECHANA     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BIT Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
BoEM - Boletim online de Educação Matemática     Open Access  
Boletim Cearense de Educação e História da Matemática     Open Access  
Boletim de Educação Matemática     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Matemática Mexicana     Hybrid Journal  
Bollettino dell'Unione Matematica Italiana     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Bruno Pini Mathematical Analysis Seminar     Open Access  
Buletinul Academiei de Stiinte a Republicii Moldova. Matematica     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin des Sciences Mathamatiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of Dnipropetrovsk University. Series : Communications in Mathematical Modeling and Differential Equations Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Symbolic Logic     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Australian Mathematical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Brazilian Mathematical Society, New Series     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of the Malaysian Mathematical Sciences Society     Hybrid Journal  
Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Carpathian Mathematical Publications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Catalysis in Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CHANCE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ChemSusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chinese Annals of Mathematics, Series B     Hybrid Journal  
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Mathematics     Open Access  
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Collectanea Mathematica     Hybrid Journal  
College Mathematics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combinatorics, Probability and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Commentarii Mathematici Helvetici     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Combinatorics and Optimization     Open Access  
Communications in Contemporary Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Communications in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications On Pure & Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Complex Analysis and its Synergies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Complex Variables and Elliptic Equations: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Complexus     Full-text available via subscription  
Composite Materials Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Compositio Mathematica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Comptes Rendus Mathematique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Computational Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computational Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computational Methods and Function Theory     Hybrid Journal  
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Concrete Operators     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Confluentes Mathematici     Hybrid Journal  
Contributions to Game Theory and Management     Open Access  
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal  
Cryptography and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Cuadernos de Investigación y Formación en Educación Matemática     Open Access  
Cubo. A Mathematical Journal     Open Access  
Current Research in Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Czechoslovak Mathematical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Demographic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Demonstratio Mathematica     Open Access  
Dependence Modeling     Open Access  
Design Journal : An International Journal for All Aspects of Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Developments in Clay Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Developments in Mineral Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Differentsial'nye Uravneniya     Open Access  
Discrete Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Discrete Mathematics & Theoretical Computer Science     Open Access  
Discrete Mathematics, Algorithms and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Discussiones Mathematicae - General Algebra and Applications     Open Access  
Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Diskretnaya Matematika     Full-text available via subscription  
Dnipropetrovsk University Mathematics Bulletin     Open Access  
Doklady Akademii Nauk     Open Access  
Doklady Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Duke Mathematical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Eco Matemático     Open Access  
Edited Series on Advances in Nonlinear Science and Complexity     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Combinatorics     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Differential Equations     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Graph Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover Energy for Sustainable Development
  [SJR: 1.448]   [H-I: 35]   [9 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0973-0826
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • Business as unusual: The implications of fossil divestment and green bonds
           for financial flows, economic growth and energy market
    • Authors: Solveig Glomsrød; Taoyuan Wei
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 44
      Author(s): Solveig Glomsrød, Taoyuan Wei
      Green bonds and fossil divestment has emerged as a bottom-up approach to climate action within the business community. Recent pledges by large banks and institutional investors have reached levels that have the potential to contribute markedly to a low carbon transition. We find that in a green finance scenario reflecting a reasonable upscaling of current level of pledges towards 2030, green finance leads to somewhat higher GDP while shifting income from capital owners to wage earners. Although effects differ among regions the green finance reduces global coal consumption to 2.5% below BAU in 2030, raising the share of non-fossil electricity from 42 to 46% at the global level. Over the period towards 2030, green finance avoids global CO2 emissions corresponding to total emissions of the European Union and Japan in a recent year.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T03:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2018)
       
  • An integrated energy performance-driven generative design methodology to
           foster modular lightweight steel framed dwellings in hot climates
    • Authors: Eugénio Rodrigues; Nelson Soares; Marco S. Fernandes; Adélio Rodrigues Gaspar; Álvaro Gomes; José J. Costa
      Pages: 21 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 44
      Author(s): Eugénio Rodrigues, Nelson Soares, Marco S. Fernandes, Adélio Rodrigues Gaspar, Álvaro Gomes, José J. Costa
      This paper presents a study on the application of lightweight steel framed (LSF) construction systems in hot climate. A generative design method created 6010 houses, with random geometry and random roof and exterior wall types with different insulation levels, and EnergyPlus was used to evaluate the energy consumption for air-conditioning of each building. The main goals were to determine which geometric variables correlate with the energy performance, and to provide some guidelines to foster efficient LSF buildings in hot climates. By correlating six geometry-based indexes with the energy consumption for each construction element type group, it was verified that roofs do not show significant correlation, while exterior walls presented weak to moderate positive correlation with the building volume, very weak to weak negative correlation with the relative compactness, no correlation with the shape coefficient, moderate to strong negative correlation with the window-to-floor, window-to-wall, and window-to-exterior surface ratios. The results also show that buildings with larger windows and greater level of insulation have better energy performance. No significant difference of energy performance was found between different LSF construction systems with equivalent thermal resistance.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T03:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2018)
       
  • A mixed computational and experimental approach to improved biogas burner
           flame port design
    • Authors: Thomas Decker; Marc Baumgardner; Jason Prapas; Thomas Bradley
      Pages: 37 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 44
      Author(s): Thomas Decker, Marc Baumgardner, Jason Prapas, Thomas Bradley
      Anaerobic digestion is a well-known and potentially beneficial process for rural communities in emerging markets, providing the opportunity to generate usable gaseous fuel from waste resources. With recent developments in low-cost digestion technology, communities across the world are gaining affordable access to the benefits of anaerobic digestion derived biogas. For example, biogas provides a more efficient and cleaner burning alternative to biomass (wood, charcoal, dung), effectively reducing harmful emissions and fuel consumption. This study sought to develop and test a design approach for optimizing flame port geometry for household biogas-fired burners. The approach consists of a multi-component simulation that incorporates three-dimensional CAD designs with simulated chemical kinetics and computational fluid dynamics. The simulated flame port designs included an array of circular and rectangular geometries using a widely available biogas burner. The three highest performing designs identified were manufactured and tested experimentally to validate model outputs and to compare against a baseline port geometry. In the experiment, each of the three designs suggested improved thermal efficiency relative to the baseline. A configuration of four millimeter circular ports resulted in a 7.17% improvement, raising an average thermal efficiency of 53.0% to 56.8%. The results indicated that hydraulic diameter, velocity and mixture density are relevant factors in port geometry design to improve the thermal efficiency of a biogas burner. Conversely, the emissions predictions made by the model were found to be unreliable and incongruent with laboratory experiments.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T03:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2018.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2018)
       
  • Household cooking fuel use in rural and peri-urban Viet Nam: A multilevel
           longitudinal analysis of supply side factors
    • Authors: Sumeet Saksena; Chinh Cong Tran; Jefferson Fox
      Pages: 47 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 44
      Author(s): Sumeet Saksena, Chinh Cong Tran, Jefferson Fox
      We examined the role of supply and demand side factors in the choice of household cooking fuel using a multilevel modeling approach that included the effects of spatial autocorrelation. The use of wood was found to be significantly associated with all forest types - whether they were natural or plantations; whether they were owned by households or other entities. Land under perennial crops was also positively associated with wood use. In peri-urban communes wood usage decreased over the years. In rural communes wood use however increased. This may partly be due to the natural transition from crop residues to wood. We find some evidence that given Viet Nam's successful small-holder plantation programs there may be places where movement up the energy ladder from wood to cleaner fuels has slowed down. In the future household factors are likely to continue being the dominant drivers of fuel switching. However, our study indicates that external interventions aimed at improving community conditions such as access to markets and highways can also facilitate households moving up the energy ladder. Our findings are of much relevance to the newly proposed policy paradigm of “making the clean available” as opposed to “making the available clean”.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T03:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2018.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2018)
       
  • A framework for evaluating the current level of success of
           micro-hydropower schemes in remote communities of developing countries
    • Authors: M. Arnaiz; T.A. Cochrane; A. Calizaya; M. Shrestha
      Pages: 55 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 44
      Author(s): M. Arnaiz, T.A. Cochrane, A. Calizaya, M. Shrestha
      Micro-hydropower (MHP) schemes can be a good option to meet the energy demands of remote communities in developing countries, particularly in mountainous areas with good water supplies. Physical (i.e. head and flow) and economic requirements are essential for MHP scheme feasibility, but social, environmental and political factors can also be critical for the performance and longevity of the scheme after its installation. MHP scheme feasibility evaluation, thus, requires a holistic approach, where the socio-economic characteristics of the community, electricity policies and other geophysical parameters of the environment have to be considered. This study identified the most important criteria for evaluating the success of MHP schemes from the communities' point of view based on site visits and interviews with developers, operators and key community members of 35 schemes spanning Nepal, Bolivia, Cambodia and the Philippines. Proper regular operation, ongoing support by the community, and long term support from the government or local developer were key factors for MHP scheme success. The most recurrent failure reasons were maintenance difficulties, extreme weather events, and the arrival of the national grid. A framework to evaluate the current level of success of existing schemes was developed and applied for cross country comparison.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T03:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2018.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2018)
       
  • Benefits and challenges of expanding grid electricity in Africa: A review
           of rigorous evidence on household impacts in developing countries
    • Authors: Kristine Bos; Duncan Chaplin; Arif Mamun
      Pages: 64 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 44
      Author(s): Kristine Bos, Duncan Chaplin, Arif Mamun
      Electrification rates have risen dramatically in many developing countries, but most low-income African countries lag far behind. A growing number of donors are now targeting this issue, notably the United States–sponsored Power Africa initiative. In this paper we summarize research that can inform donors and governments working in this area. We cover challenges to and benefits of expanding grid electricity, prioritizing rigorous impact research in Africa when possible. The evidence we review suggests that potential benefits are large and spread across a variety of economic and noneconomic domains. However, expanding access cost-effectively and sustainably may pose a serious challenge. In particular, relative to the benefits, grid electrification involves substantial costs from building lines, improving capacity, and connecting households—costs that may be higher in Africa than in more densely populated regions of the world. Reducing customer connection costs would increase connection rates and could thus reduce the cost of building new lines per connection but might still not be cost-effective, especially in low-density rural areas.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T03:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2018)
       
  • Comfort, peak load and energy: Centralised control of water heaters for
           demand-driven prioritisation
    • Authors: M. Roux; M. Apperley; M.J. Booysen
      Pages: 78 - 86
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 44
      Author(s): M. Roux, M. Apperley, M.J. Booysen
      Recent advances in smart grid technology enable new approaches to address the problem of load control for domestic water heating. Since water heaters store energy, they are well-suited to load management. However, existing approaches have focused on the electrical supply side, ignoring the obvious link between the user and the grid: individual hot water consumption patterns. This paper proposes a load spreading approach in which water heaters compete for access to the heating medium. The proposed smart grid solution takes grid load limits, real-time temperature measurements, water usage patterns, individual user comfort, and heater meta-data into consideration. The scheduler only turns on the heaters with the highest level of need, but limits the number of on heaters to ensure that the grid load stays below a set limit for a set time. The method is evaluated by simulation against various heater set temperature levels, and for various load limits, and compared with ripple control and actual consumption measured in a field trial of 34 water heaters. The proposed algorithm reduces the load from 62 kW to 20, 30, 40, and 50 kW (vs. 106 kW for full ripple control). The resulting number of unwanted cold events is fewer than for ripple control, and only slightly more than no control, while reducing the total energy by 14% from a user-optimised natural experiment.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T03:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2018.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2018)
       
  • Can carbon pricing jointly promote climate change mitigation and human
           development in Peru'
    • Authors: Michael Jakob
      Pages: 87 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 44
      Author(s): Michael Jakob
      We assess whether carbon pricing in combination with targeted use of the associated revenues could jointly advance Peru's long-term climate change mitigation targets and short-term socio-economic development goals. Based on expert interviews and detailed document analysis, we draw parallels to extractive industries, where revenues that are earmarked for public investment have often been found to be used ineffectively. Based on these experiences, we identify five key areas that could help to establish carbon pricing as a cross-cutting issue in the context of sustainable development: First, emphasizing the co-benefits of carbon pricing. Second, reforming the power sector to increase the use of low-cost renewable sources. Third, assessing the equity aspects of such policies and designing appropriate compensation systems. Fourth, increasing the government's capacity to effectively carry out public investment. Fifth, using results-based payments to establish a shadow price on land-use emissions and build up institutions and trust.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T03:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2018.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2018)
       
  • User perceptions about the adoption and use of ethanol fuel and cookstoves
           in Maputo, Mozambique
    • Authors: Shakespear Mudombi; Anne Nyambane; Graham P von Maltitz; Alexandros Gasparatos; Francis X. Johnson; Manuel L. Chenene; Boris Attanassov
      Pages: 97 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 44
      Author(s): Shakespear Mudombi, Anne Nyambane, Graham P von Maltitz, Alexandros Gasparatos, Francis X. Johnson, Manuel L. Chenene, Boris Attanassov
      Ethanol has been proposed as a clean cooking fuel to reduce the use of charcoal in urban and peri-urban households in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This could have the twin benefits of reduced impacts on human health and deforestation. The aim of this study is to better understand the barriers to the uptake of ethanol stove technologies by eliciting users' perception, adoption, and use patterns of ethanol stoves. The study was undertaken in Maputo, a city that was the focus of the first large-scale commercial ethanol stove project in Africa. A mixed-methods approach was adopted using both quantitative (N = 341 household interviews) and qualitative methods (5 focus group discussions, expert interviews). Ethanol stoves are currently used by about 17% of the surveyed households, while approximately 12% had discontinued its use and 71% never used it. While a large proportion of ethanol users compared the stove favourably against charcoal in terms of cooking time, convenience, cleanliness, and easiness to use, ethanol use seems to have diminished compared to charcoal. Ethanol seems to have replaced other clean cooking technologies such as electricity or LPG rather than charcoal. High ethanol fuel prices combined with low fuel quality and accessibility, as well as stove malfunctions due to poor design influenced many ethanol stove adopters to quit it. For the effective uptake of ethanol, it will be necessary to address the factors that tend to discourage its use, particularly its high initial and operational cost, poor fuel quality, unreliable fuel supply, and poor stove design. Although clean cooking fuels might not be attractive to users due to affordability and failure to meet user preferences, awareness raising campaigns that target potential users should emphasise the associated health and safety benefits of clean cooking fuels.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T03:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2018.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2018)
       
  • Experimental measurements of Camelina sativa oil combustion
    • Authors: A.C. Mangra; I. Porumbel; F.G. Florean
      Pages: 109 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 44
      Author(s): A.C. Mangra, I. Porumbel, F.G. Florean
      Nowadays, a major preoccupation is the production and usage of fuels obtained from renewable and eco-friendly sources. Camelina sativa is well-suited to be a sustainable bio-fuel crop, as its seeds naturally have high oil content. However, the process of obtaining bio-kerosene from camelina oil by hydrotreatment is time consuming and expensive at this moment. Thus, the possibility of using straight camelina oil as fuel in terrestrial applications has been taken into consideration. For this purpose, combustion tests have been conducted on a burner. Tests at different burner functioning regimes have been carried out by varying both the pressure of the air used for fuel atomization, and the air flow delivered by the burner's fan. The influence of the variation of the fuel preheating temperature is also studied and presented. During the tests, the composition of the exhaust gas and temperature have been monitored and registered using two gas analysers. The results have been compared with those obtained when the burner was fuelled with pure kerosene.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T03:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2018.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2018)
       
  • Influence of cefazolin contamination on performance of two-stage and
           single stage anaerobic batch digesters
    • Authors: Suraju A. Lateef; Masahiro Iwasaki; Takaki Yamashiro; Kazutaka Umetsu
      Pages: 117 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 44
      Author(s): Suraju A. Lateef, Masahiro Iwasaki, Takaki Yamashiro, Kazutaka Umetsu
      Anaerobic digestion of animal waste is a well-established technology for on-farm waste management and energy generation. Animal wastes often contain toxic substances such as antibiotic, which have been shown to cause varying degrees of biogas inhibition in single stage (SS) digestion system. Currently, useful information on influence of antibiotic contamination of substrates, particularly cefazolin (CFZ), on two-stage (TS) digestion system is limited. The effect of CFZ antibiotic on performance of two-stage and single batch systems digesting mixture of manure and milk from dairy cow was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted at 55 °C in TS (5 and 15 days for first and second stages, respectively) and SS (20 days) digesters. Cefazolin was added at concentration of 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/l. Control experiments, with no addition of CFZ were also conducted. In TS system, all concentrations of CFZ exhibited complete or near complete inhibition of hydrogen production in the first stage, with methane reductions of 9.2–56.0% in the second stage as compared with control treatment. Corresponding biogas inhibitions for the system ranged from 7.3–29.1%. The inhibition resulted in reduction of energy recovery by 16.7–60.6%. For SS system, CFZ addition reduced 39.8–68.3% of methane production while total biogas inhibition ranged 24.0–39.0%. The inhibition also resulted in reduction of energy recovery by 39.7–68.3%. Evidently, lower biogas inhibitions and reduction in energy recovery were experienced in TS system as compared with SS system. The results thus suggest that TS system can be an alternative to conventional SS system for on-farm management of CFZ contaminated wastes.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T03:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2018.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2018)
       
  • Comparative Well-to-Tank energy use and greenhouse gas assessment of
           natural gas as a transportation fuel in Pakistan
    • Authors: Muhammad Imran Khan
      Pages: 38 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 43
      Author(s): Muhammad Imran Khan
      This study aims at performing the first comprehensive Well-to-Tank (WtT) energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission analysis of 10 different petroleum and natural gas fuels pathways, i.e., gasoline, diesel, CNG and LNG, in Pakistan. The GREET model, developed by the U.S. Argonne National Laboratory, was adopted as a tool for WtT calculation, and most of the data were replaced by Pakistani operating environment. Additional analysis was also performed for the refining process which was the most energy-intensive in the fuel life cycle. A process-level allocation method was used in calculating the refining energy use of individual petroleum products, which could reflect the detailed refining processes. The results indicate that petroleum fuel have WtT efficiencies in the range of 82–86% while WtT efficiencies of natural gas based fuels are in the range of 75–88%. The results reveals that WtT GHG emission associated with CNG produced from indigenous natural gas sources are 16% and 21% higher than the gasoline and diesel fuel produced from ingenious crude oil, respectively. As compared to other countries, the WtT GHG emissions results of Pakistani petroleum and natural gas based fuels are 10% and 29 higher than those of the Europe mainly due to higher methane emission.

      PubDate: 2018-01-28T12:00:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2018)
       
  • Study on performance enhancement and emission reduction of used
           fuel-injected motorcycles using bi-fuel gasoline-LPG
    • Authors: Khanh Nguyen Duc; Vinh Nguyen Duy
      Pages: 60 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 43
      Author(s): Khanh Nguyen Duc, Vinh Nguyen Duy
      The paper presents a simulation and experimental study on using bi-fuel gasoline - liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for currently used fuel-injected motorcycles in Vietnam. Consequently, an innovative fuel supply system was designed to make the original gasoline motorcycles can flexibly operate on either gasoline or LPG. In this research, simulation processes were conducted by using a dedicated software analysis tool to optimize the operation process of the fuel system in order to maintain its stability and efficiency based on the characteristics of each type of fuels. Meanwhile, the original fuel supply system of the test motorcycle will be modified in the experiment by developing the second Electronic Control Unit (ECU) to control LPG quantity supplied for the one. The results showed that the test motorcycle well operated on either gasoline or LPG on the new design. In addition, when running on LPG the specific fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of the test motorcycle were reduced significantly. The investigation suggests that the old generation of fuel-injected motorcycles can be run flexibly on bi-fuel in order to reduce the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions.

      PubDate: 2018-01-28T12:00:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2018)
       
  • Studying household decision-making context and cooking fuel transition in
           rural India
    • Authors: Yuwan Malakar
      Pages: 68 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 43
      Author(s): Yuwan Malakar
      This short communication piece questions whether unaffordability really matters for families to reject improved fuels. It presents the case of an Indian village where nearly every house has successfully introduced a TV, but only one house adopted LPG for cooking. Considering that the former is more expensive than the latter and whilst both are relatively new and energy-related technologies, the paper asks how and why people decided to adopt one extensively but not the other. Methodologically, the study employs a mixed method approach, collecting both quantitative and qualitative data. The findings suggest that the lack of sufficient income has little influence on people to adopt or reject improved fuels. The paper argues that it may not give us a clear picture if we research why people choose or reject one fuel over another. This paper demonstrates that to understand a household's fuel choice decision, it is essential to understand the broader decision-making context within which families operate and make all decisions.

      PubDate: 2018-01-28T12:00:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2018)
       
  • Uganda's power sector reform: There and back again'
    • Authors: Rene Meyer; Anton Eberhard; Katharine Gratwick
      Pages: 75 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 43
      Author(s): Rene Meyer, Anton Eberhard, Katharine Gratwick
      Uganda occupies a unique space in the history of power sector reform and private electricity investment in Africa. In this article, we describe the drivers for reform as well as the reform process, including the main institutions involved and the legislative and policy instruments that helped shape them. We then offer a brief history of independent power projects (IPPs) in Uganda and emerging Chinese-funded projects, exploring the nexus between the two. Like any other private investment, IPPs require a suitably enabling environment offering long-term investment certainty. Our primary objective is to assess the experience of Uganda's IPPs and consider what might help accelerate private investment in the country's electricity sector. Finally, we attempt to extract the policy lessons that may be learned from this fascinating story.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T03:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2018)
       
  • Battery energy storage systems as a way to integrate renewable energy in
           small isolated power systems
    • Authors: Hugo Branco; Rui Castro; A. Setas Lopes
      Pages: 90 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 43
      Author(s): Hugo Branco, Rui Castro, A. Setas Lopes
      Isolated power systems present high levels of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) curtailment as intermittency and isolation impose challenging difficulties regarding the integration of this energy into the electrical grid. The recent developments in electrical vehicles have decreased the kWh cost of lithium-ion batteries below a threshold value that was previously prohibitive for grid-scale applications. Therefore, the integration of RES considering the installation of a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) into an isolated power grid is an up-to-date research topic and is assessed in this paper. The BESS is inserted into the Unit Commitment and Economic Dispatch (UC + ED) platform and regarded as another dispatchable generator. To keeps the costs down, the BESS is mainly used to provide a portion of the spinning reserve needs and secondly to alleviate the load of the thermal generators, using the free modules. The BESS configurations that maximises the economic viability and minimises the RES curtailment are presented. The results suggest that the investment in this technology may be profitable and considerably decreases the levels of RES curtailment.

      PubDate: 2018-01-28T12:00:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2018)
       
  • Modeling for the regional integration of electricity markets
    • Authors: Johan Manuel Redondo; Gerard Olivar; Danny Ibarra-Vega; Isaac Dyner
      Pages: 100 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 43
      Author(s): Johan Manuel Redondo, Gerard Olivar, Danny Ibarra-Vega, Isaac Dyner
      The regional integration of electricity markets has been established as desirable among the South American nations to meet demands through the possible consolidation of a unified competing market in the medium term (CAN, 2010). However, what remains to be defined are rules of the game with satisfactory benefits for all parties that have been demonstrated. In this paper we propose a model of power integration based on the Market Coupling scheme, which starts with the modeling of the national markets using the System Dynamics modeling methodology. As a result, the expected behavior of the system is obtained, except in the case of exports, in which, because of the assumption of an infinite transmission capacity between nations, it is seen to surpass the real values found in the market. The work presented in this document (based on two nations, Colombia and Ecuador) allows experimentation for the formulation of the rules of the game necessary in the regional integration of markets.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T03:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2018)
       
  • Are renewable energy subsidies in Nepal reaching the poor'
    • Authors: Dipendra Bhattarai; E. Somanathan; Mani Nepal
      Pages: 114 - 122
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 43
      Author(s): Dipendra Bhattarai, E. Somanathan, Mani Nepal
      The Government of Nepal has been providing subsidies to promote biogas technology since the 1970s and Solar Home Systems (SHS) since the 1990s. This study uses nationally representative survey data to examine the extent to which these subsidies benefitted the rural poor. We find that only 5% of households who are eligible for a biogas subsidy have adopted biogas; and only 2% of biogas adopters are below the poverty line, as compared to a poverty rate of 19% in the country. For SHS, 27% of the households eligible for subsidy have adopted the technology, and 25% of the adopters are below the poverty line. The SHS subsidy program is much more accessible to the poor as compared to the biogas subsidy program for two main reasons. First, Solar Home Systems are much cheaper than biogas plants, and so are more accessible to the poor after the subsidy, and second, the SHS subsidy is geographically targeted toward poor areas, while the biogas subsidy is not.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T03:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2018)
       
  • Are smallholder farmers willing to pay for a flexible balloon biogas
           digester' Evidence from a case study in Uganda
    • Authors: Moris Kabyanga; Bedru B. Balana; Johnny Mugisha; Peter N. Walekhwa; Jo Smith; Klaus Glenk
      Pages: 123 - 129
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 43
      Author(s): Moris Kabyanga, Bedru B. Balana, Johnny Mugisha, Peter N. Walekhwa, Jo Smith, Klaus Glenk
      Biogas technology, as a pro-poor renewable energy source, has been promoted in Uganda through the use of fixed dome and floating drum digester designs. However, these designs have proved to be too expensive for the average Ugandan household to afford. A cheaper flexible balloon digester has been proposed to increase uptake. However, there has been lack of evidence on household's willingness to pay (WTP) for the flexible balloon digester and the factors affecting adoption of this alternative design. Primary data were obtained from survey of experimental households and 144 ‘non-biogas’ households in central Uganda. A logistic regression model was used to estimate household's WTP and determine the factors that influence WTP. Results reveal that the majority of surveyed households showed their WTP, but an average household's maximum WTP (US$52) was ten times less than the actual cost of an imported flexible ballon digester unit (US$512). The results further indicate that household size, education level, gender and age of the household head, number of livestock owned, total land area owned and a household's perception on technology significantly influenced the WTP. Thus, government and NGOs interested in promoting this design should pay due attention on ensuring the availability of affordable flexible balloon digester from local sources. Otherwise, the focus should be on promoting either different biogas designs or alternative affordable renewable energy technologies rather than the flexible balloon digester.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T03:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2018.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2018)
       
  • Performance evaluation of a rooftop solar photovoltaic power plant in
           Northern India
    • Authors: Satish Kumar Yadav; Usha Bajpai
      Pages: 130 - 138
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 43
      Author(s): Satish Kumar Yadav, Usha Bajpai
      The rapid growth of electricity demand due to the increase in population has put the burden on the power stations of India to enhance their generation. With the serious drop in prices of solar photovoltaic (SPV) generated electricity and rising tariffs on conventional electricity have drawn attention to generate electricity through the solar photovoltaic plant. Therefore, it is important to assess accurately and precisely the annual and monthly yield of SPV plant to help in designing and installation of new plants. Performance analysis of a 5 kWp roof-top photovoltaic plant has carried out, and the effect of temperature analyzed. The annual average daily reference yield, array yield, and final yield found 5.23 kWh/kWp/day, 4.51 kWh/kWp/day and 3.99 kWh/kWp/day respectively. The annual average daily array efficiency, inverter efficiency and system efficiency found to be 11.34%, 88.38%, and 10.02% respectively. The annual average daily performance ratio and capacity utilization factor measured 76.97% and 16.39%. The annual energy yield of the plant recorded 7175.4 kWh. Results show that energy loss is maximum during May when the temperature is highest. The performance of the plant compared with PV plants installed all over in India and found comparable.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T03:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2018)
       
  • Achieving universal energy access and rural development through smart
           villages
    • Authors: T. van Gevelt; C. Canales Holzeis; S. Fennell; B. Heap; J. Holmes; M. Hurley Depret; B. Jones; M.T. Safdar
      Pages: 139 - 142
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 43
      Author(s): T. van Gevelt, C. Canales Holzeis, S. Fennell, B. Heap, J. Holmes, M. Hurley Depret, B. Jones, M.T. Safdar
      With just 12 years to go to 2030, progress in providing universal energy access and improving rural development outcomes in many rural areas has been too slow if the Sustainable Development Goals are to be met. Over a three-year period, the Smart Villages Initiative gathered evidence and views from over 1000 stakeholders from 70 countries to identify the framework conditions necessary for the provision of energy services to rural communities and to ensure that energy access translates into improved rural development outcomes. This short communication provides an overview of the key findings of this process and suggests a number of “bottom-up” insights and recommendations. These include taking an integrated approach to rural development, building markets to leverage the private sector, creating supportive, coherent and flexible policy frameworks at the national-level; and a re-think of financing mechanisms.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T03:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2018)
       
  • Biodiesel production in micro-reactors: A review
    • Authors: Appurva Tiwari; V.M. Rajesh; Sanjeev Yadav
      Pages: 143 - 161
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 43
      Author(s): Appurva Tiwari, V.M. Rajesh, Sanjeev Yadav
      In recent years, biodiesel, as a renewable and environment-friendly fuel has emerged as one of the most investigated bio-fuel with a goal to decrease our dependence on petroleum fuels and reduce environmental pollution. The current commercial technique of biodiesel production via transesterification is constrained by high operating cost and energy requirements, long residence time and limited conversion due to equilibrium limitations. On the other hand, the process intensification using the micro-reactor technology demonstrated an excellent performance ascribed to short diffusion distance and high surface area-to-volume ratio that can lead to high heat and mass transfer rates and improved mixing compared to the conventional reactors. This review provides an overview of the current status of biodiesel production in micro-reactors. It includes various types of micro-reactors used in the production of biodiesel, factors affecting the biodiesel production (i.e., temperature, residence time, alcohol to oil molar ratio, micro-channel size, inlet mixer type, internal geometries, co-solvent, catalyst type and concentration). This review also includes the factors affecting the liquid-liquid flow patterns and application of micro-reactor technology in the purification of biodiesel. Some of the critical observations from this review are, 1) inlet mixer type, channel size, and internal channel geometry (zig-zag, omega, and tesla shaped channels) have shown a significant effect on mixing in micro-channels. 2) In case of base-catalyzed transesterification, the biodiesel yield was found to increase up to the reaction temperature of 60–65 °C. 3) Homogeneous alkaline catalyst (NaOH, KOH, CH3ONa) was preferred for the feedstock with low free fatty acid content (<1 wt%). However, an acid catalyst with high concentration, a significant amount of methanol and long reaction time were required for high free fatty acid feedstock (>1 wt%). Therefore, the current research is more focused on the investigation of heterogeneous catalysts in micro-reactors to develop an ecologically friendly process for the production of biodiesel. 4) Also, the reaction temperature and inlet mixer type had shown a significant effect on liquid-liquid flow patterns. This review also addressed the following literature gaps; a numbering-up technique to increase the throughput; catalyst development for high free fatty acid feedstock; continuous production of biodiesel in micro-reactors with in-line purification step to meet the energy demand and quality standards.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T03:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2018)
       
  • Electricity generation from a biomass cookstove with MPPT power management
           and passive liquid cooling
    • Authors: M.J. Deasy; S.M. O'Shaughnessy; L. Archer; A.J. Robinson
      Pages: 162 - 172
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 43
      Author(s): M.J. Deasy, S.M. O'Shaughnessy, L. Archer, A.J. Robinson
      An electrical power generator for use with biomass cooking stoves has been developed. The design is intended for users in developing countries who lack regular access to electricity. Electricity is generated based on the thermoelectric effect. A bespoke heat collector captures heat from the combustion chamber of the cooking stove and transfers it to a single thermoelectric generator (TEG) module. To maintain a sufficiently high temperature difference across the TEG, heat is dissipated using a passive single phase liquid thermosiphon system. This cooling system eliminates the requirement for mechanical components such as fans or pumps, which are unreliable and draw significant electrical power. In a controlled laboratory setting, a maximum power of 5.8 W has been produced from a single TEG installed into a low cost ceramic cooking stove currently disseminated in large numbers in Malawi, Africa. The TEG power is controlled using a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) conditioning circuit with an estimated efficiency of ~70%. The circuit provides a stable 5 V output via a USB connector for charging mobile phones, lights, power banks and other devices. Experiments have shown that the device is capable of performing for extended periods without significant reduction in performance. The magnitude of the power generated by this passive cooling system is observed to be comparable to that delivered by similar TEG-stove systems driven by active cooling. An average power generation of over 4 W was achieved which, including circuit efficiency, provided ~10 W·h of useful electrical energy over a 4 h burning interval, which is sufficient for charging low powered electrical appliances. Five prototypes fitted with data measurement and acquisition were deployed to families in rural Malawi in order to evaluate real-life performance of the technology. Initial field-trial results have advocated the viability of the TEG-stove technology for charging low powered electronic devices typically used in developing countries such as Malawi.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T03:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2018.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2018)
       
  • A review and identification of persistent and emerging prepaid electricity
           meter trends
    • Authors: Njabulo Kambule; Kowiyou Yessoufou; Nnamdi Nwulu
      Pages: 173 - 185
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 43
      Author(s): Njabulo Kambule, Kowiyou Yessoufou, Nnamdi Nwulu
      The expanding prepaid electricity meter market is globally characterised by innovation and change. In this article we track persistent and emerging trends in the prepaid electricity market for households. To do this, we review important literature noting the benefits and challenges of prepaid meters overtime. We find two forms of trends – namely the persistent and emerging trend – that currently characterise the prepaid meter related literature and market. The persistent trend in literature and the market is the proclivity to echo the savings on electricity and improved budgeting as important benefits for prepaid metered households. However, a fundamental emerging trend is also identified, wherein it is shown that the past decade there has been an intensifying interest of scholarly literature challenging the notion of prepaid meters and its effect thereof, particularly among indigent households. We therefore primarily recommend that there be a development of prepaid electricity meter regulatory mechanisms geared towards protecting vulnerable households.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T03:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2018.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2018)
       
  • Comparison of load profiles in a mini-grid: Assessment of performance
           metrics using measured and interview-based data
    • Authors: Elias Hartvigsson; Erik O. Ahlgren
      Pages: 186 - 195
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 43
      Author(s): Elias Hartvigsson, Erik O. Ahlgren
      Mini-grids are seen as an important option for increasing access to electricity in non-electrified rural areas where grid-extension is unfeasible. Appropriately dimensioning and constructing mini-grids requires knowledge of electricity usage. There is currently a lack of measured load profiles from mini-grids and the most common method for estimating electricity usage is through appliance data collected via interviews. Thus, this paper compares and investigates the differences between measured daily load profiles and daily load profiles created from appliance data collected through interviews and how the two methods impact the dimensioning and operation of a mini-grid. This is done by comparing load profiles for an entire mini-grid, a household and SME customers with large loads. The paper reports differing results from the two methodologies. Generally, the results show that the interview-based load profiles fail to provide an accurate overall estimate. The calculated performance metrics for the two methods also shows large differences. The interview-based load profiles mainly fail to provide accurate estimates of energy and the energy related (capacity factor and load factor) performance metrics. Accordingly, the implications for mini-grid operators and developers could be significant. The interview-based load profiles indicate the mini-grid system to be considerably less technically and economically desirable than measurements show. Suggestions for how the interview process can be improved are presented.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T03:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2018.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2018)
       
  • Low pressure biomethane gas adsorption by activated carbon
    • Authors: Sirichai Koonaphapdeelert; James Moran; Pruk Aggarangsi; Asira Bunkham
      Pages: 196 - 202
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 43
      Author(s): Sirichai Koonaphapdeelert, James Moran, Pruk Aggarangsi, Asira Bunkham
      The objective of this research is to study the adsorption of biomethane gas by several different absorbents. The ultimate goal was to create a cost effective and safe fuel tank for use in domestic cooking applications in rural Thailand. Biomethane is a cleaned and upgraded fuel derived from biogas. It contains a minimum of 80% methane (v/v) with the remainder composed mostly of carbon dioxide. Specifically, the effects of pressure and temperature on the biomethane adsorption capacity of five different absorbents in a 28 l tank were studied. The pressure ranged between 3 and 9 MPa while the temperature range was 15–25 °C. The results showed that the adsorbent, Activated Carbon 3, had the highest biomethane adsorption capability. At higher pressures, greater biomethane adsorption was observed with the highest adsorption value of 164.3 ± 0.5 g/l obtained at 9 MPa. Temperature had a smaller effect with higher temperatures producing less adsorption. At 9 MPa, as the temperature increased from 15 to 25 °C, the adsorbed biomethane decreased by 8%. The degradation in performance of the adsorbent was investigated and found to be negligible over 500 filling/emptying cycles. The selective adsorption of methane over the other biomethane constituents was investigated and also found to be negligible over 500 cycles. The Langmuir adsorption model was applied to estimate the maximum absorption capacity of each absorbent.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T03:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2018.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2018)
       
  • Electricity access and rural development: Review of complex socio-economic
           dynamics and causal diagrams for more appropriate energy modelling
    • Authors: Fabio Riva; Helene Ahlborg; Elias Hartvigsson; Shonali Pachauri; Emanuela Colombo
      Pages: 203 - 223
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 43
      Author(s): Fabio Riva, Helene Ahlborg, Elias Hartvigsson, Shonali Pachauri, Emanuela Colombo
      The causal relationships between electrification and development of poor, rural communities are complex and contextual. The existing literature focuses mainly on the impact of rural electrification and electricity use on local socio-economic development, while the reverse feedbacks of various social and economic changes on electricity demand and supply have not been fully characterized. Most electricity access impact assessments assume linear, one-way effects and linear growth in electricity demand. However, the projections rarely match the reality, creating challenges for rural utilities. From a modelling perspective, the lack of attention to dynamic complexities of the electricity-development nexus prevents the appropriate modelling of electricity demand over time and, hence, informed planning for and sizing of power plants. With the goal to improve modelling of the electricity-development nexus, we undertake a comprehensive review and extensive analysis of the peer-reviewed literature on electricity access and its impact on rural socio-economic development, and vice versa. We characterize and describe the nexus between electricity access and development through graphical causal diagrams that allow us to capture, visualise and discuss the complexity and feedback loops. Based on this, we suggest guidelines for developing appropriate models able to include and simulate such complexities. Our analysis confirms that electricity use is interconnected through complex causal relations with multiple dimensions of socio-economic development, viz. income generating activities, market production and revenues, household economy, local health and population, education, and habits and social networks. The causal diagrams can be seen as a first step of the conceptualization phase of model building, which aims at describing and understanding the structure of a system. The presence of multiple uncertain parameters and complex diffusion mechanisms that describe the complex system under analysis suggests that systems-dynamic simulations can allow modelling such complex and dynamic relations, as well as dealing with the high uncertainties at stake, especially when coupled with stochastic approaches.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T03:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2018.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2018)
       
  • Indoor air pollution from biomass cookstoves in rural Senegal
    • Authors: Candela de la Sota; Julio Lumbreras; Noemí Pérez; Marina Ealo; Moustapha Kane; Issakha Youm; Mar Viana
      Pages: 224 - 234
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 43
      Author(s): Candela de la Sota, Julio Lumbreras, Noemí Pérez, Marina Ealo, Moustapha Kane, Issakha Youm, Mar Viana
      Although indoor air pollution from the use of biomass fuels is a serious health problem in Senegal, little effort has been made in this country to evaluate indoor air quality impacts from biomass combustion with traditional stoves and indoor air quality improvements derived from the use of improved cookstoves. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural village of Senegal to determine indoor air pollution during cooking and non-cooking periods. PM2.5 and CO concentration levels were determined, along with two far less studied pollutants in cookstove studies, ultrafine particles and black carbon, using portable monitors. A total of 22 households were selected, 12 using the traditional stove and 10 using a locally produced rocket stove. Rocket stoves, the most extended type of improved stove used in sub-Saharan Africa, contributed to a significant reduction of total fine and ultrafine (UFP) particles and carbon monoxide (CO) (75,4%, 30,5% and 54,3%, respectively, p < 0.05) with regard to the traditional stoves, but increased black carbon (BC) concentrations (36,1%, p < 0.05). This proves that the climate and health-relevant properties of stoves do not always scale together and highlights that both dimensions should be always considered. Findings evidence that, in addition to a switch in the emission source (i.e. cookstove and/or fuel), successful strategies focused on the improvement of household air quality in Senegal should contemplate ventilation practices and construction materials.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T03:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2018)
       
  • Reflective mirrors effect on the performance of the hybrid PV/thermal
           water collector
    • Authors: Omer Khalil Ahmed; Shaimaa Mohammed Bawa
      Pages: 235 - 246
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 43
      Author(s): Omer Khalil Ahmed, Shaimaa Mohammed Bawa
      Hybrid PV/Thermal collector is the collector which produced electricity and hot water or hot air at the same time and working as solar cells and solar heaters. This system has been designed to increase the electrical efficiency of the solar cells by withdrawing heat from the solar cells. The present study has been carried out in Kirkuk city (latitude 35.46 and longitude 44.39), water was used as a mean to gain heat from the solar cell by passing it in a thermal exchanger, placed at the lower part of the solar cell, two proto types built to compare the thermal and electrical performance of the hybrid solar collector, the study includes making experiments for the months of (February, March, and April 2017, with a different volume flow rates, three variable designed had been studied, which includes the effect of the reflectance mirrors, glass cover and the slope angle of the lower reflector on the performance of hybrid PV/thermal water collector. The existence of the reflectance mirrors lead to increase the temperature of the solar cell, therefore, its value was (92.7 °C) when using lower and upper mirrors with a glass cover, and (76.1 °C) when using only a lower mirror, and (71.35 °C) without reflecting mirrors. The cell surface decreased to (52.75 °C) of the uncooled solar cell. The existence of the reflectors increases the total values of the thermal and electrical efficiencies. The daily total efficiency in average was a result due to use two reflectors was (81.03%), this means a positive effect on the total efficiency, and the effects of the glass cover on the total efficiency is big, the daily average of the total efficiency with and without glass cover was (58.95%) and (49.97%) respectively, these results are accorded with the results of the previous articles.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T03:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2018)
       
  • Pilot scale evaluation of fuel pellets production from garden waste
           biomass
    • Authors: Priyabrata Pradhan; Amit Arora; Sanjay M. Mahajani
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 43
      Author(s): Priyabrata Pradhan, Amit Arora, Sanjay M. Mahajani
      Pelletization of garden waste, without additional binder, was investigated to produce high quality fuel pellets for energy utilization. The influence of pelletization parameters viz. feedstock moisture content (5, 15, 25, and 35%), milling size (25.4 and 6.25mm) and die size (12 and 15mm) on pellet quality and pelletization process was studied. The results showed that the studied parameters had significant effect on pellet quality. A reduction in average durability value (95.0% to 92.5%) was observed when moisture content of garden waste increased from 5% to 15%. Appropriate regression models were also developed for each quality attribute by using multiple linear regressions. Eventually, a feedstock moisture content of 5±1%, milling size of 6.35mm and die size of 15mm were found to offer standard quality pellets with optimum throughput capacity. Scanning electron microscopy image analysis showed a closer agglomeration of biomass particles when feed materials were pelletized at low moisture content. The equilibrium moisture content due to adsorption for garden waste pellet was found to be 14.6% which was quite low as compared to other feedstocks. Furthermore, we deduced from the combustion test that garden waste pellets may be conveniently used in a residential cookstove. In a nutshell, pelletization of garden waste biomass has been demonstrated at pilot scale in this study.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T08:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2017)
       
  • Comparison of methodologies for cloud cover estimation in Brazil - A case
           study
    • Authors: Eduardo Weide Luiz; Fernando Ramos Martins; Rodrigo Santos Costa; Enio Bueno Pereira
      Pages: 15 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 43
      Author(s): Eduardo Weide Luiz, Fernando Ramos Martins, Rodrigo Santos Costa, Enio Bueno Pereira
      Clouds are the major modulator of the shortwave and longwave radiation components of the Earth's energy balance and, as such, help to regulate the planet's temperature. In the energy sector, clouds are a source of instability in the generation of energy using solar technologies. This study aims at comparing three approaches to get cloud cover information in the Southeastern region of Brazil during the period of approximately three months. The first method, assumed as reference, uses all-sky camera pictures for the cloud cover estimation. The other two methodologies use downward longwave radiation with surface meteorological data and geostationary satellite data. Both methods presented good agreement with the camera for clear sky and overcast conditions, with probabilities of detection of 92.8% and 80.7% for the longwave method and 93.3% and 87.6% for the satellite method, respectively. The major problem occurs with the broken-clouds sky scenario, with probabilities of detection above 38%, where each method has its own specificity, such as, longwave emissivity of the atmosphere, spatial resolution and view geometry. The long-wave method has the minor R correlation with the camera (87%) when compared with the satellite method (93%) and requires a daily normalization, which make it not usable for instantaneous measurements. Regarding the satellite method, the most important issue is the spatial resolution, which has the major impact on the broken-clouds sky scenarios. The cloud masking works properly for large clouds with, at least, the size comparable to the satellite image pixel. Furthermore, the method using the all-sky camera also needs to be improved, because it presented some deficiencies, like very bright areas around the sun, sometimes identified as clouds, leading to cloud cover overestimation.

      PubDate: 2017-12-17T17:54:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2017)
       
  • Observed site obstacle impacts on the energy performance of a large scale
           urban wind turbine using an electrical energy rose
    • Authors: Raymond Byrne; Neil J. Hewitt; Philip Griffiths; Paul MacArtain
      Pages: 23 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 43
      Author(s): Raymond Byrne, Neil J. Hewitt, Philip Griffiths, Paul MacArtain
      Large scale wind turbines deployed in “behind the meter” applications at medium and large scale industrial consumer sites can offset the purchase of retail electricity from the utility. However, unlike traditional onshore wind farm sites in elevated rural areas, such industrial sites tend to be at lower elevations and located in more urbanised areas with a higher likelihood of being in vicinity of manmade obstacles such as buildings. This research case study presents observed impacts of various site obstacle features, from local buildings to regional topography on the energy performance of an 850kW rated wind turbine operating in a peri-urban area. The study is based on the analysis of 10-minute SCADA data measured over multiple years. The analysis includes a novel wind turbine electrical energy rose (EER) approach to determine the directional variation of the wind turbine electrical energy output in relation to site features around the turbine location. The paper concludes that low broad buildings with heights of only 20% of the turbine hub height can have a significant energy reducing impact compared to taller narrow buildings and that hills ~8km from the turbine site have an energy reducing impact. The outcomes of the study should be of benefit to those involved in the pre-feasibility stages of deploying single large scale wind turbines at industrial sites in peri-urban areas.

      PubDate: 2017-12-17T17:54:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2017)
       
  • Lighting and cooking fuel choices of households in Kisumu City, Kenya: A
           multidimensional energy poverty perspective
    • Authors: Tabitha Atieno Olang; Miguel Esteban; Alexandros Gasparatos
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 42
      Author(s): Tabitha Atieno Olang, Miguel Esteban, Alexandros Gasparatos
      The present study aims to contextualize populations without access to modern energy in order to formulate effective policy considerations on modern energy adoption and continuity of usage by target groups. This objective was achieved by illustrating the linkage between fuel choice and energy poverty in low income households in an urban context. It employs a cross-sectional energy stacking model to illustrate fuel choice and the multidimensional energy poverty (MEP) index to establish the severity of energy poverty in low income households in Kisumu City, Kenya. The study also incorporates pico-solar products (PSPs) users, as this disruptive technology entered the Kenyan solar market in recent years, targeting low income households using kerosene for lighting purposes. The study identifies energy appliance type and household cooking location as key determinants of household energy choice. Moreover, the main determinants for household energy choice in households facing higher levels of energy poverty were closely associated with access concerns, whereas determinants in households facing lower levels of energy poverty were more associated with usage concerns as they already had access to modern energy. It was also noted that preferences were related to attributes of the energy source both experienced by current users and perceived by current non-users. There was a substantial persistent use of kerosene as an alternative lighting source among current PSPs users. There is a general preference and desire to use modern energy sources across most households, irrespective of the severity of energy poverty. For meaningful improvement to be realized towards meeting the energy SDG by 2030, national and local energy policies should consider the energy technology adoption perception and behaviours of populations currently not having modern energy access. In conclusion, it is of great importance to put into context the specific characteristics of the households as well as user perspectives and how these characteristics and perspectives would affect continuity of usage of the modern energy source adopted.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T11:31:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2017)
       
  • Greenhouse gas and energy balance of Jatropha biofuel production systems
           of Burkina Faso
    • Authors: Sophia Baumert; Asia Khamzina; Paul L.G. Vlek
      Pages: 14 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 42
      Author(s): Sophia Baumert, Asia Khamzina, Paul L.G. Vlek
      Jatropha curcas has been introduced as a low-cost energy crop in Burkina Faso for the production of straight vegetable oil (SVO) and biodiesel. It is cultivated in different plantation systems including smallholder inter-plantings with annual crops, large-scale monoculture, afforestation on marginal land, in traditional hedge systems along contour stone walls, and in living fences. We performed Life Cycle Assessment of these Jatropha systems using empirical data on yields and carbon stocks, and accounting for changes in agro-ecosystem provisioning and regulating services that occurred after the land conversion to Jatropha. The study found that all J. curcas production pathways substantially reduced greenhouse gas emission (68–89%) and saved energy (65–90%) compared to diesel fuel. Highest values are achievable under the assumption that by-products (husks, seed cake, glycerin) are used for energy generation. The decentralized production of SVO supplied by feedstocks from intercropping and hedgerow systems seems to be most promising option. However, very low land-use efficiency (6.5–9.5 GJ ha−1 production) characterized Jatropha intercropping and monoculture plantations, rendering the plant a competitor to food crops and increasing the risk of conversion of savanna land to Jatropha cultivation. Jatropha plantings on marginal lands largely failed. High labor requirements constrain integration of Jatropha plantation systems within small farmholdings. Currently, the traditional hedge systems show the lowest land-use replacement potential and labor needs while providing multiple ecosystem services, but alone cannot satisfy rural energy needs. In order to reach energy supply targets without claiming more land and compromising other ecosystem services, the J. curcas plantation systems in Burkina Faso need to be made more efficient through plant breeding and improved agronomic management.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T11:31:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.09.007
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2017)
       
  • Consumer preference for labels in the purchase decisions of air
           conditioners in India
    • Authors: Manisha Jain; Anand B. Rao; Anand Patwardhan
      Pages: 24 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 42
      Author(s): Manisha Jain, Anand B. Rao, Anand Patwardhan
      Appliance labels provide consumers with information on energy usage of appliances and mandatory labeling is an important policy tool for promoting the adoption of efficient appliances. Following global practice, standards and labeling programs have been adopted in India for various appliances since 2006. This paper provides empirical support for this approach, by estimating the value placed by consumers in India on energy labels. The estimates of willingness to pay (WTP) for energy labels and higher efficiency as indicated on labels are obtained using a discrete choice experiment in purchase decisions of air conditioners. A mixed logit model is specified to estimate the parameters for chosen attributes of air conditioners. The results show that consumers place a positive value on the presence of labels. The preference for star rating levels is heterogeneous in the sample. The WTP for higher star rating is estimated which is a useful input in designing other energy efficiency programs in conjunction with the labeling program.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T11:31:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2017)
       
  • Solar microgrids in rural India: Consumers' willingness to pay for
           attributes of electricity
    • Authors: Sachiko Graber; Tara Narayanan; Jose Alfaro; Debajit Palit
      Pages: 32 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 42
      Author(s): Sachiko Graber, Tara Narayanan, Jose Alfaro, Debajit Palit
      This paper assesses consumer valuation of different attributes of electricity supply to elucidate the conflict between solar microgrids and the centralized utility grid in India, as well as to provide insight into supporting government policies and structures. The study contributes significantly to the understanding of the role of microgrids in complementing a centralized system and its value as a sustainable energy solution for development. Electricity reliability, power, price, and hours availability are studied through a choice experiment, a method uniquely able to disaggregate the willingness to pay for each attribute. Household surveys were carried out in 22 villages across 4 districts in the state and covering a total of 216 households. Results indicate that consumers value (in order of strength of preference) electricity power, reliability, and price. Further, despite 9.4h of electricity supply per day from the main grid, as compared to an average of only 7.2h from microgrids, the respondents exposed to both systems were almost twice as satisfied with the microgrid's reliability. Based on these findings, the study provides four policy recommendations for strengthening the rural electricity supply sector and enhancing electricity access in India.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T11:31:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2017)
       
  • Inequalities in LPG and electricity consumption in India: The role of
           caste, tribe, and religion
    • Authors: Vibhor Saxena; Prabir C. Bhattacharya
      Pages: 44 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 42
      Author(s): Vibhor Saxena, Prabir C. Bhattacharya
      This paper examines the role of caste, tribe, and religion in determining energy inequality in India. We provide evidence by using the National Sample Survey Organisation data from the 68th round (2011−12) of 87,753 households. We estimate the inequalities in access to Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) and electricity usage by the households belonging to the three major disadvantaged groups in India, viz., the scheduled castes, the scheduled tribes, and the Muslims. The results of our empirical analysis suggest that, after controlling for the determinants which impinge on the households' microeconomic demand and regional supply characteristics, the households belonging to the scheduled tribe and scheduled caste communities do have significantly poorer access to LPG and electricity usage as compared to the upper caste households. The decomposition analysis of average differences in the predicted outcomes shows that it is the scheduled caste and scheduled tribe households who would appear to face most discrimination. The Muslim households too face significant inequality in accessing LPG. Policy implications of the findings are considered.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T11:31:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.09.009
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2017)
       
  • Geography, community, household: Adoption of distributed solar power
           across India
    • Authors: Michaël Aklin; Chao-yo Cheng; Johannes Urpelainen
      Pages: 54 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 42
      Author(s): Michaël Aklin, Chao-yo Cheng, Johannes Urpelainen
      We investigate the determinants of distributed solar technology adoption at the village and household level in India. Using spatial data on insolation, census records, and original surveys, we show that remote and poor but large villages with abundant sunshine have led the wave of solar technology adoption as an alternative to grid electricity. At the household level, however, wealth and financial access are positively associated with solar technology adoption, a result that holds for both solar lanterns and home systems. Moreover, remote villages are more likely to see solar technology adoption when households have access to finance through banks. We also find that the use of household solar technology is strongly associated with a household's subjective satisfaction with domestic lighting. These results demonstrate that understanding solar technology adoption requires considering both community and household characteristics. They also underscore the importance of financial access as a precondition for using distributed solar power as an alternative to grid connectivity.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T11:31:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2017)
       
  • Why do farmers abandon jatropha cultivation' The case of Chiapas,
           Mexico
    • Authors: Iria Soto; Carol Ellison; Marc Kenis; Brenda Diaz; Bart Muys; Erik Mathijs
      Pages: 77 - 86
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 42
      Author(s): Iria Soto, Carol Ellison, Marc Kenis, Brenda Diaz, Bart Muys, Erik Mathijs
      The biofuel crop Jatropha curcas has been promoted in developing countries as a means of improving the livelihoods of rural populations. In Mexico, despite the initially assumed economic, environmental, and social benefits of the crop, many farmers have abandoned jatropha cultivation. Here, we analyse the factors that influence farmers' decision to abandon jatropha cultivation by using a generalized linear modelling approach in combination with qualitative research methods. The deterioration in perception of jatropha profitability, the non-payment of expected subsidies and the wealth position of the household played a major role in determining abandonment. The perception of pest and disease damage, although stated by farmers as the second most frequent reason to disadopt, was not correlated with this decision in the generalized linear model. This research might help energy policy makers in identifying key elements to prevent failure of promotion programmes. The result of this study also may be useful for an international audience to reflect on the appropriateness of promoting a new crop at the farmer level before realistically evaluating the economic viability of its cultivation.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T22:36:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2017)
       
  • An investment risk assessment of microgrid utilities for rural
           electrification using the stochastic techno-economic microgrid model: A
           case study in Rwanda
    • Authors: Nathaniel J. Williams; Paulina Jaramillo; Jay Taneja
      Pages: 87 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 42
      Author(s): Nathaniel J. Williams, Paulina Jaramillo, Jay Taneja
      Access to electricity is a key enabler of social and economic development. However, 1.2 billion people still do not benefit from reliable electricity services. Microgrids have been proposed as a cost-effective means to accelerate access for communities located far from existing grid infrastructure. Scarcity of capital has been a barrier to both on-grid and off-grid electrification efforts and governments have sought private sector participation in an effort to close this gap. There is a lack of quantitative analysis to critically evaluate the key drivers of risk in microgrid utilities, or how different business models and technologies affect the potential for these projects to attract finance and scale up deployment. This paper introduces the Stochastic Techno-Economic Microgrid Model (STEMM), which enables assessment of the effect of technical design decisions as well as financial conditions on the financial viability of microgrid projects from an investment perspective. Using STEMM, this paper presents a risk analysis of the key uncertain variables affecting microgrid investments to both debt and equity investors using four technology scenarios as case studies in Rwanda. We find that major contributors to risk are fuel price volatility, uncertain electricity demand, and foreign exchange risk for investments in hard currency. Choice of technology strongly influences the risk profile of microgrids, with solar powered microgrids susceptible to demand uncertainty and diesel-based systems exposed to fuel price volatility. Hybrid solutions provide a middle ground with partial mitigation of both fuel price and demand risk. If electricity tariffs are linked to changes in fuel price, fuel price risk can be effectively passed to consumers.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T08:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.09.012
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2017)
       
  • Firewood: Cause or consequence' Underlying drivers of firewood
           production in the South of Chile
    • Authors: René Reyes; Harry Nelson; Hisham Zerriffi
      Pages: 97 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 42
      Author(s): René Reyes, Harry Nelson, Hisham Zerriffi
      Chile's native forests are one of the world's 25 priority conservation ecoregions due to their high levels of endemism and anthropogenic pressure. Seventy percent of these forests are in private lands, and firewood is the main use for native woods (93% of the total timber extracted from native forests). Yet, drivers of firewood production have not been adequately studied. In this research we analyzed if firewood is a primary production goal (the cause of extracting timber from native forest), or it is more a consequence of other processes. 275 surveys with landowners were used to perform a cross-sectional analysis in the Los Rios Region. We found that the decision to produce firewood is positively related to native forest cover (%) in the farm and the presence of forest plantations, and negatively related to the proportion of off-farm income (%). These variables affect the options facing landowners and help assess whether firewood is either a primary part of the productive system, or an outcome from other activities (by-product). The results show that firewood producers are not very responsive to firewood prices and only a small proportion of farms engage in commercial firewood production as their primary activity (landowners are not really interested in firewood production). Further, a growing firewood supply from forest plantations implies a lower pressure on native forests. This suggests that firewood production is less likely to be a driver of forest degradation than the literature points out, although the context of firewood production does identify areas where harvesting activities could be higher, e.g. where there are fewer off-farm income opportunities for landowners, who have lower schooling levels and do not hold formal land tenure, and where governmental interventions could be targeted to reduce excessive pressure on native forests.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T22:36:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.10.006
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2017)
       
  • Micro-loads electrification: Use of insulated shielding wires of a 500kV
           transmission line
    • Authors: Joan Sebastian Chaves; Maria Cristina Tavares
      Pages: 109 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 42
      Author(s): Joan Sebastian Chaves, Maria Cristina Tavares
      The main purpose of this article is to introduce a different method to electrify 0.5MVA micro-loads using energy loss confined in insulated shielding wires of a 500kV transmission line. The mathematical model of the system along with the series tuning reactor, necessary for voltage regulation, is described. Digital simulations are used to identify the maximum induced voltage in the insulated wire and the power extracted from the system. Finally, a transient analysis was presented showing that the modifications did not affect transmission line performance or reliability.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T22:36:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2017)
       
  • Cost reduction potential of parabolic trough based concentrating solar
           power plants in India
    • Authors: Chandan Sharma; Ashish K. Sharma; Subhash C. Mullick; Tara C. Kandpal
      Pages: 121 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 42
      Author(s): Chandan Sharma, Ashish K. Sharma, Subhash C. Mullick, Tara C. Kandpal
      In this paper, we estimate the cost reduction potential of parabolic trough based concentrated solar Power systems in India and consequently their implications for levelized cost of electricity. Using the past as well as envisaged global cumulative diffusion of CSP systems and the learning rates reported in the literature, the expected capital cost of parabolic trough based CSP systems in India has been estimated. Present capital cost of parabolic trough based CSP plant in India has been taken as US $2540/kW. Local manufacturing of CSP components and consequently reduced logistics is expected to reduce the capital cost by 14% and 8% respectively. A learning rate of 10% for the global cumulative diffusion in the base case scenario is expected to reduce capital cost to 49% of the present cost by the end of 2050. Present LCOE of US $151/MWh of CSP plant in India is expected to reduce to US $76/MWh by the end of 2050. Provision of 6hour thermal storage is expected to reduce LCOE of CSP plant in India by 18% as compared to LCOE of CSP plant without storage. Analysis for different learning rates (5%, 10% and 15%) for CSP plant and different discount rates (6%, 8% and 10%) has also been undertaken and results obtained are presented.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T22:36:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2017)
       
  • Laboratory experiments regarding the use of filtration and retained heat
           to reduce particulate matter emissions from biomass cooking
    • Authors: Dean K. Still; Samuel Bentson; Nicholas Murray; Jesse Andres; Zhang Yue; Nordica A. MacCarty
      Pages: 129 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 42
      Author(s): Dean K. Still, Samuel Bentson, Nicholas Murray, Jesse Andres, Zhang Yue, Nordica A. MacCarty
      There are a number of methods to help reduce the exposure to household air pollution associated with using biomass fuel for daily cooking and heating in nearly 40% of global households. These most commonly include use of cleaner fuels and cookstoves, increasing ventilation, and use of a chimney. This paper investigates two less-commonly considered methods, 1) reducing exposure through filtration and capture of PM2.5 and 2) avoiding emissions using retained heat for cooking. If cookstoves are operated inside an enclosure from which smoke is pulled by a fan through an inexpensive HEPA-type filter before exiting to the outside, the personal exposure levels, room concentrations, and external pollution might be reduced. To test this method, an enclosure was built from which a box fan pulled the air and PM2.5 through a filter, and four different filters were tested. The rate of PM2.5 production (mg/min) exiting the filter was monitored with gravimetric measurement under an emissions hood during the high and low power phases of the Water Boiling Test 4.2.3 conducted on a biomass rocket stove with forced draft. The average of seven baseline emissions tests with no filter was 7.5mg/min of PM2.5. The average of seven tests using the highest quality furnace filter (3M 2200) was reduced to 1.5mg/min and the difference was significant at 95% confidence. The use of retained heat to simmer also reduced emissions of PM2.5 to zero by burning the boil-phase-made-charcoal while 5l of water were simmered for 35min.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T08:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.09.011
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2017)
       
  • Social equity impacts in Japan's mega-solar siting process
    • Authors: Timothy Fraser; Andrew J. Chapman
      Pages: 136 - 151
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 42
      Author(s): Timothy Fraser, Andrew J. Chapman
      Japan's energy market has seen the siting and construction of over 2800 new mega-solar power plants since the introduction of the Feed-in Tariff policy in 2012 (Kitamoto, 2017). While scholars have highlighted the potential for community-engaged renewable power development with social benefits for local residents, many major mega-solar projects have instead resulted from industry-led initiatives in locations, largely avoiding community engagement. In this study, we draw from distributive energy justice perspectives to analyze social equity impacts of the mega-solar siting process. We employ qualitative content analysis on 29 survey responses from local officials around Japan's 200 largest mega-solar plants constructed since 2012 and contextualize results through 18 interviews with relevant actors in six case studies. We find that given the existence of the Feed-in Tariff and sufficient solar irradiation, the availability of underutilized land decreases community bargaining power compared to historical power plant siting agreements. This results in primarily land leasing benefits and municipal tax revenue with minimal additional social impacts, such as employment. We outline a model of causation for mega-solar social equity impacts, Japanese policy implications, and directions for future quantitative research.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T08:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2017)
       
 
 
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