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MATHEMATICS (651 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 538 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abakós     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Academic Voices : A Multidisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Accounting Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
ACM Transactions on Computational Logic (TOCL)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Difference Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fixed Point Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Materials Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Pure and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Pure Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Air, Soil & Water Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
AKSIOMA Journal of Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Algebra Colloquium     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Algorithmic Operations Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Algorithms     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Algorithms Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Mathematical Analysis     Open Access  
American Journal of Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Mathematical Monthly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
An International Journal of Optimization and Control: Theories & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Matematica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Analysis Mathematica     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales Mathematicae Silesianae     Open Access  
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales UMCS, Mathematica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales Universitatis Paedagogicae Cracoviensis. Studia Mathematica     Open Access  
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Discrete Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University - Mathematics     Open Access  
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of West University of Timisoara - Mathematics     Open Access  
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Mathematics - A Journal of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Mathematics Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arab Journal of Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arabian Journal of Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archive of Numerical Software     Open Access  
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arnold Mathematical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Satellites : The Journal of Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Algebra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian-European Journal of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mathematics Teacher, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Senior Mathematics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Automatic Documentation and Mathematical Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Axioms     Open Access  
Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BIBECHANA     Open Access  
BIT Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
BoEM - Boletim online de Educação Matemática     Open Access  
Boletim Cearense de Educação e História da Matemática     Open Access  
Boletim de Educação Matemática     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Matemática Mexicana     Hybrid Journal  
Bollettino dell'Unione Matematica Italiana     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Bruno Pini Mathematical Analysis Seminar     Open Access  
Buletinul Academiei de Stiinte a Republicii Moldova. Matematica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bulletin des Sciences Mathamatiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of Dnipropetrovsk University. Series : Communications in Mathematical Modeling and Differential Equations Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Brazilian Mathematical Society, New Series     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Malaysian Mathematical Sciences Society     Hybrid Journal  
Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Carpathian Mathematical Publications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Catalysis in Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
CHANCE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ChemSusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chinese Annals of Mathematics, Series B     Hybrid Journal  
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Mathematics     Open Access  
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Collectanea Mathematica     Hybrid Journal  
College Mathematics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Commentarii Mathematici Helvetici     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Contemporary Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Communications in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications On Pure & Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Complex Analysis and its Synergies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Complex Variables and Elliptic Equations: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Complexus     Full-text available via subscription  
Composite Materials Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Comptes Rendus Mathematique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Computational Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computational Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computational Methods and Function Theory     Hybrid Journal  
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Concrete Operators     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Confluentes Mathematici     Hybrid Journal  
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal  
Cryptography and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cuadernos de Investigación y Formación en Educación Matemática     Open Access  
Cubo. A Mathematical Journal     Open Access  
Czechoslovak Mathematical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Demographic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Demonstratio Mathematica     Open Access  
Dependence Modeling     Open Access  
Design Journal : An International Journal for All Aspects of Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Developments in Clay Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Developments in Mineral Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Discrete Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Discrete Mathematics & Theoretical Computer Science     Open Access  
Discrete Mathematics, Algorithms and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Doklady Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Duke Mathematical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Edited Series on Advances in Nonlinear Science and Complexity     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Graph Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Elemente der Mathematik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Energy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Enseñanza de las Ciencias : Revista de Investigación y Experiencias Didácticas     Open Access  
Ensino da Matemática em Debate     Open Access  
Entropy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ESAIM: Control Optimisation and Calculus of Variations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Combinatorics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Experimental Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Expositiones Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Mathematics and Informatics     Open Access  
Fasciculi Mathematici     Open Access  
Finite Fields and Their Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Fixed Point Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Formalized Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Foundations and Trends® in Econometrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover Energy for Sustainable Development
  [SJR: 1.448]   [H-I: 35]   [9 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0973-0826
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • A study on the rotational behaviour of a Savonius Wind turbine in low rise
           highways during different monsoons
    • Authors: Senthilvel Santhakumar; Ilamathi Palanivel; Krishnanand Venkatasubramanian
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 40
      Author(s): Senthilvel Santhakumar, Ilamathi Palanivel, Krishnanand Venkatasubramanian
      This work describes the behaviour of a vertical axis Savonius Wind Turbine (SWT) in Four-way lane highways during South-West and North-East monsoons. A vertical axis SWT was designed and fabricated using low-cost materials. Starting behaviour of the SWT was studied by measuring and calculating the starting torque coefficient. The proposed SWT's cut-in speed was achieved at a velocity of 3.5m/s. Experiments were carried out on a four-way lane highway through the placement of turbine at two different positions (middle and sides of the highway). Also, the experiments were repeated during different monsoons to understand the behaviour under different wind directions. Error analysis was performed on the data obtained by considering possible measurement errors and instrument accuracies. The obtained experimental data clearly illustrates that the SWT's nominal rotational speed varies at different monsoons, when located at the sides of the road. From the data analysis, it can be understood that the wind directions play a key role for harnessing maximum amount of energy in highway wind-energy generation. Maximum augmented rotational speed of around 64% was achieved by placing the SWT at the median of Four-way lane highways in different monsoons.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T07:47:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • Anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure, meat and bone meal, and crude
           glycerol under mesophilic conditions: Synergistic effect and kinetic
    • Authors: Fetra J. Andriamanohiarisoamanana; Aya Saikawa; Kumiko Tarukawa; Guangdou Qi; Zhifei Pan; Takaki Yamashiro; Masahiro Iwasaki; Ikko Ihara; Takehiro Nishida; Kazutaka Umetsu
      Pages: 11 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 40
      Author(s): Fetra J. Andriamanohiarisoamanana, Aya Saikawa, Kumiko Tarukawa, Guangdou Qi, Zhifei Pan, Takaki Yamashiro, Masahiro Iwasaki, Ikko Ihara, Takehiro Nishida, Kazutaka Umetsu
      Anaerobic digestion is a potential renewable energy, climate independent and robust technology, which is able to treat different kinds of organic wastes and by-products. This study investigated the anaerobic co-digestion of meat and bone meal (MBM) with dairy manure (DM) and crude glycerol (CG). Three sets of batch experiments were conducted at mesophilic condition; one set of anaerobic mono-digestion and two sets of anaerobic co-digestion. In experiment I, each substrate was mono-digested at inoculum to substrate ratio of 1. In experiment II, MBM and DM were co-digested at ratios of 1.0:1.0, 1.0:2.0, 1.0:1.0, and 2.0:1.0, while in experiment III CG was co-digested with MBM at ratios of 1.0:3.0, 1.0:1.0 and 3.0:1.0, at a fixed amount of DM. The results of anaerobic mono-digestion showed that CG produced the highest methane yield (0.48L/gVS) followed by MBM (0.41L/gVS) and DM (0.17L/gVS). In the anaerobic co-digestions, methane yield increased with the increase of MBM content, while it increased together with CG content. The kinetic studies showed that the physico-chemical characteristics of the co-digested substrates influenced hydrolysis rate constant and lag-phase, which increased with the increase of CG content. However, synergistic effect was decreased when MBM content was increased, whereas the opposite was observed to that with CG. Therefore, carbon to nitrogen ratio was an important parameter determining synergistic effect in anaerobic co-digestion, while the physico-chemical characteristics influenced the hydrolysis rate constant and lag-phase.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T17:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.05.008
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • Coal use for residential heating: Patterns, health implications and
           lessons learned
    • Authors: Aiymgul Kerimray; Luis Rojas-Solórzano; Mehdi Amouei Torkmahalleh; Philip K. Hopke; Brian P. Ó Gallachóir
      Pages: 19 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 40
      Author(s): Aiymgul Kerimray, Luis Rojas-Solórzano, Mehdi Amouei Torkmahalleh, Philip K. Hopke, Brian P. Ó Gallachóir
      Residential coal consumption has decreased significantly since 1990 in most developed and developing countries, due to fuel switching. However, there are still countries with a high proportion of households using coal for heating purposes, in some cases with increasing coal consumption trends. This review discusses the patterns of the coal use, associated emissions, the negative impacts on health, and the policies and interventions used to limit the negative effects of high residential coal use. The patterns of residential coal use in those selected countries that account for 86% of global residential coal consumption are reviewed. Interventions in these selected countries have been accessed. It appears that the World Health Organization (WHO) may substantially underestimate the health impacts in these countries, particularly with respect to the burden of disease from household air pollution from using solid fuel for cooking as the indicator of exposure. The alternative to the WHO approach uses International Energy Agency (IEA) data because it provides the energy consumption for each country by fuel type and all household end-uses in a consistent framework. National survey data on energy and emissions also provides better metrics of exposure. Most of the assessed studies in developed countries focused on ambient air pollution, while in developing countries indoor air pollution was given primary attention (except for Mongolia). The PM concentrations within households using coal in Ireland, Mongolia, and China were compared and substantial differences were found as a result of differences in ventilation, stove design, fuel quality and stove maintenance and operation. Policy measures such as the large stove switching programs in China and Mongolia were mostly successful, but did not fully reach desired targets because of several factors. One of these key factors was the variability of human behavior and its response to the policy stimuli. Important barriers to the transition to cleaner energy alternatives are relatively low coal prices coupled with its level of supply security. Health benefits, however, are generally higher than the abatement costs in the most polluted areas, and support from governments for cleaner energy, that includes a focus on health, can be feasible and effective if carefully designed and targeted.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T17:54:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.05.005
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • Study on methods to determine rotor equivalent wind speed to increase
           prediction accuracy of wind turbine performance under wake condition
    • Authors: Sanghyeon Jeon; Bumsuk Kim; Jongchul Huh
      Pages: 41 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 40
      Author(s): Sanghyeon Jeon, Bumsuk Kim, Jongchul Huh
      A downstream wind turbine located within the reach of the wake region of an upstream wind turbine experiences a decrease in power output due to wake effects. For this reason, when designing a wind farm, various engineering wake models are used to predict the power deficit and wind farm layout is designed in the optimal way to minimize the wake losses. Generally, in the process of calculating the loss of wind farm AEP, in most cases the single point-measured wind speed is used. However, this results in an error when predicting the loss of AEP under wake conditions. When predicting the AEP of a wind turbines affected by wakes, the rotor equivalent wind speed (REWS), which considers the effect of wake wind shear, should be applied. This research examined REWSpower converted from the power output of a wind turbine to demonstrate the need of rotor equivalent wind speed under upstream turbine's wake condition and furthermore suggested a method to calculate REWSspws using the nacelle-measured wind speed. By analyzing 48months collected data of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system from a wind farm, error percentages among REWSpower, REWSspws, and the nacelle-measured wind speed were compared.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T20:31:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • The lighting transition in rural Africa — From kerosene to
           battery-powered LED and the emerging disposal problem
    • Authors: Gunther Bensch; Jörg Peters; Maximiliane Sievert
      Pages: 13 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 39
      Author(s): Gunther Bensch, Jörg Peters, Maximiliane Sievert
      People without electricity access, numbering today more than 500 million in rural Africa alone, have been using dim and sooty kerosene lamps and candles for their lighting purposes for decades. In the present paper, current lighting usage patterns are systematically assessed using detailed new survey data from seven countries across Sub-Saharan Africa. The data makes evident that a transition has taken place in recent years, both unnoticed by and without external support from governmental or non-governmental organizations: the rural population without electricity in Africa has replaced kerosene lights and candles by simple, yet more efficient and cleaner LED lamps powered by non-rechargeable batteries. Nevertheless, we also show that the discharged batteries are generally disposed of inappropriately in latrines or the nature. The toxic content of many dry-cell batteries and their accumulation at local litter hotspots may have harmful repercussions on health and the environment. We conclude by suggesting that rapid action is needed to, first, install an effective monitoring system on batteries that enter the continent and, second, put in place an appropriate waste management system.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T17:25:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2017)
  • Experimental investigation of a modular wind tower in hot and dry regions
    • Authors: S. M.R.Khani; M.N. Bahadori; A.R. Dehghani-Sanij
      Pages: 21 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 39
      Author(s): S. M.R.Khani, M.N. Bahadori, A.R. Dehghani-Sanij
      Passive cooling systems such as wind towers or wind catchers can create thermal comfort for building residents in hot and dry regions. This paper introduces an experimental study of a modular design of wind tower called the modular wind tower with wetted surfaces. Air temperature, relative humidity (RH) and airflow velocity parameters were measured at different times and at points when the velocity of the ambient air was zero. The results show that the modular wind tower can decrease the air temperature by an average of 10°C and increase the relative humidity of airflow in a building by approximately 36% on average. Additionally, the wind tower can create the airflow velocity entering the building up to around 1.8m/s. Furthermore, the obtained data from the measurements illustrate that the conditions of indoor air improve to the thermal comfort conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T17:41:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2017)
  • How to measure national energy sustainability performance: An Icelandic
    • Authors: Ruth Shortall; Brynhildur Davidsdottir
      Pages: 29 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 39
      Author(s): Ruth Shortall, Brynhildur Davidsdottir
      The development of sustainable energy systems is now firmly on the international agenda. Nations and their governments must strive to implement energy policies that facilitate sustainable development for society. Although Iceland is highly ranked by currently available energy indices, controversy has surrounded the development of previously undeveloped areas for power development and Iceland now finds itself at a crossroads regarding future energy developments. Well-designed indices for measuring the sustainability of energy systems can help policy-makers make the best choices for their national circumstances. However, often indicators and indices suffer from limitations and it may not be advisable to implement indicators designed for global comparisons at local, regional or even national scales. Nonetheless, indices such as those developed by the World Economic Council (WEC), World Economic Forum (WEF) for ranking countries and indicator sets such as the International Atomic Energy Agency's Energy (IAEA) Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development (EISD) may still be useful guides to decision-makers when designing their own national measurement tools provided the indicators fulfil certain criteria. Through interviews with key energy practitioners and decision-makers in energy development in Iceland and an extensive literature review, we identify the challenges faced in sustainable energy development in Iceland. We assess the suitability of indices proposed by organisations like the WEC, WEF and IAEA for reliably measuring the sustainability of energy development in individual countries like Iceland. We find that the indices and indicators evaluated suffer from commonly cited limitations including lack of methodological transparency, misalignment with sustainable development principles, inappropriate metrics, lack of clear targets, failure to capture socio-ecological impacts at different scales and failure to meet the interest of the target audience. Hence, they do not facilitate effective measurement of progress towards sustainable energy development for individual nations. Important issues relating to energy affordability and equity, environmental sustainability, efficiency, energy security and renewables are neglected by the indicators in all cases, although it should be said that the IAEA indicators are more comprehensive in their coverage of energy efficiency, renewables and environmental sustainability. In each case the indicators are at best only partially relevant to the Icelandic case, due to the country's unique energy mix, environment, economic structure and size and standard of living. By identifying their limitations and by examining them in light of criteria for good indicators as recommended by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), we contribute to the discussion on the value and validity of indicators, indices and frameworks. Knowing the potential pitfalls, we are in a better position to design a more effective measurement tool. We conclude that a more comprehensive, multi-level, context-specific measurement tool would be needed for measuring national energy sustainability in Iceland and would require methods that allow broad public participation.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T10:08:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2017)
  • Optimal ratio for anaerobic co-digestion of poultry droppings and
           lignocellulosic-rich substrates for enhanced biogas production
    • Authors: Md. Anisur Rahman; Henrik B. Møller; Chayan Kumer Saha; Md. Monjurul Alam; Radziah Wahid; Lu Feng
      Pages: 59 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 39
      Author(s): Md. Anisur Rahman, Henrik B. Møller, Chayan Kumer Saha, Md. Monjurul Alam, Radziah Wahid, Lu Feng
      The poultry industry is a progressive and prospective agro-based sector in Bangladesh. Poultry droppings (PD) make an excellent and abundant raw material for anaerobic co-digestion (AD) because of its high nitrogen content. Two sets of comparative assays were conducted on the anaerobic co-digestion of PD with two lignocellulosic co-substrates (LCSs), namely wheat straw (WS) and meadow grass (MG), under five different mixing ratios to optimize substrate composition and C:N ratio for enhanced biogas production. All digesters were run simultaneously under a mesophilic temperature of 35±1°C with an identical volatile solids (VS) concentration. The results showed that the co-digestion of PD with LCSs was significantly higher in terms of biogas yield and bio-methane potential (BMP) than those obtained by mono-digestion of PD and LCSs. Co-digestion of PD and MG produced a higher cumulative biogas production, biogas yield and BMP than from respectively PD and WS. The highest methane contents found were 330.1 and 340.1Nlkg−1 VS after digestion for 90days at a mixing ratio of, respectively, 70:30 (PD:WS) with a C:N ratio of 32.02 and a mixing ratio of 50:50 (PD:MG) with a C:N ratio of 31.52. The increases were 1.14 and 1.13 times those of the LCSs alone, respectively. Predicted optimum ratio for PD:LCSs and C:N ratios, maximum BMP and percentage volatile solids destruction (PVSD) were calculated by using software MINITAB-17 according to the best fit regression models for co-digestion of PD with LCSs.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T10:01:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2017)
  • Thermal study of domed roofs in a traditional bazaar (the case of old
           Ganj-Alikhan bazaar in Kerman, Iran)
    • Authors: E. Sedighi; M. Yaghoubi; S.M. Mousavi; Sh. Siahpour
      Pages: 67 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 39
      Author(s): E. Sedighi, M. Yaghoubi, S.M. Mousavi, Sh. Siahpour
      The impact of dome shaped roofs of various buildings on thermal comfort has been investigated by many researchers across the world. However, thus far, the advantage (or disadvantage) of multiple-domed roofs, which are most common in ancient bazaars of Iran, has not been evaluated. The subject of this article is to study the effect of shadows of multi-domed roofs on the receiving solar radiation on their surface temperature variation during a summer day. For studying, a numerical program for 3D geometry and quasi-steady state heat transfer is developed. The code is used to calculate and compare receiving solar radiation and temperature distribution on the dome roof as well as for flat roof in a hot summer day. Besides, effect of domes' orientation (north-south & east-west) and the ratio of height to radius of dome on the shadow area are determined during the day time. To validate the code, temperature distribution on the roof of numerical solution is compared with thermo-graphical pictures taken experimentally from Kerman's historical bazaar (for the same condition). The results show that despite the positive effect of using multiple-domed roofs on producing shadows, total heat transfer from roof is more in comparison with flat roofs. However, most part of the transferred heat is able to be convected out through the top opening of the dome.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T10:30:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2017)
  • Solar energy model and thermal performance of an electrochromic
           dome-covered house
    • Authors: Yaolin Lin; Wei Yang
      Pages: 82 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 39
      Author(s): Yaolin Lin, Wei Yang
      A dome-covered house can be considered as a sustainable building design example. It mimicks the optimal forms in the nature, and can help achieve reduction on the house heating energy need in cold winter. When the dome is made of electrochromic glazing, it can prevent large amount of solar energy from passing into the interior of the dome to prevent over-heating in summer. In this paper, a three-dimensional solar energy, thermal and air flow model is presented. The impact of different glazing types on the thermal environment inside the dome in summer and house heating load in winter is investigated. The use of electrochromic/low transmissivity glazing can result in the reduction of the absorption of solar radiation by the ground for up to 88.9%, as compared to the normal glazing and help to reduce the highest air temperature inside the dome from 41.8°C to as low as 25.6°C at 1:00PM on July 21st in Montreal at 45°N latitude, southern part of Canada, and from 34.6°C to 20.6°C in Yellowknife at 62.5°N latitude, northern part of Canada, under different control strategies, thus can create a comfortable thermal environment inside the dome.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T10:37:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2017)
  • Towards a multidimensional framework for measuring household energy
           access: Application to South Africa
    • Authors: Louise Tait
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 38
      Author(s): Louise Tait
      Debate continues around appropriate metrics to measure energy access for the poor. Whilst the underlying principles of energy access, for example affordability or safety, may be universal, the ways in which we define or measure these may vary across different regions. Much of the literature on metrics focuses on standardisation of measures that can have universal applicability. Whilst important for the international community, there is also a need to develop metrics that reflect contextual specificities to be useful to in-country stakeholders. This study has sought to develop a multi-dimensional framework of indicators, with the focus on how to operationalise these in contextually distinct ways that respond to local issues. A framework is developed representing four key dimensions: fuel use, affordability, safety and reliability. The paper offers methodological insights into the development of each and they are developed for the South African context. This illustrates the ways in which a particular context influences both how an indicator is conceptualised, as well as the choice of methods to operationalise it. Indicators aim to be responsive to, and informed by, localised factors such as the particular energy user and supply contexts, the policy environment and data availability.

      PubDate: 2017-03-12T21:40:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
  • Performance and impact evaluation of solar home lighting systems on the
           rural livelihood in Assam, India
    • Authors: Mayur Barman; Sadhan Mahapatra; Debajit Palit; Mrinal K Chaudhury
      Pages: 10 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 38
      Author(s): Mayur Barman, Sadhan Mahapatra, Debajit Palit, Mrinal K Chaudhury
      This study was carried out in four districts of Assam to assess the technical functionality of the solar home lighting systems (SHLS), service delivery model, institutional mechanism, maintenance and monitoring, user's awareness and its impacts on rural livelihood. The study found that only 28.9% of the systems are functional, 62.3% are found working with minor faults and 8.8% are either non-functional or having major faults. The average working durations per day for winter, summer and monsoon seasons are 2.2h, 3.5h and 2.3h respectively. The study observes noticeable benefits due to adoption of SHLS such as reduction in kerosene consumption, increase in children's study hours, extended working hours of small businesses and income generation through mobile phone charging. One of the key reasons for unsatisfactory technical performance of SHLS is because of poor service delivery model and inefficiency in existing institutional structure such as passive village energy committee and non-availability of service centres or local technicians for post-installation maintenance. The study observes that user perceptions on the system are positive. However, cost considerations seem to be the main obstacle for system adoption. This study concludes that availability of local technicians, effective village energy committees, demand driven system design and appropriate social awareness towards livelihood improvement options will improve the sustainability and economic viability of the SHLS.

      PubDate: 2017-03-12T21:40:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
  • Sustainable solar home systems model: Applying lessons from Bangladesh to
           Myanmar's rural poor
    • Authors: Alex Newcombe; Emmanuel Kofi Ackom
      Pages: 21 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 38
      Author(s): Alex Newcombe, Emmanuel Kofi Ackom
      Myanmar's rural population has very low access to electricity, mainly due to low disposal income and the remoteness of communities. This paper attempts to test the potential applicability of Grameen Shakti-Infrastructure Development Company Limited (IDCOL), which is a Bangladeshi public private partnership microfinance model, to rural Myanmar towards enhanced solar home systems (SHS) deployment. Rural poor are enabled by this microfinancing scheme to own SHSs in a few years for as low as US$6.40 per month. The objectives of this paper are to assess the experience of Grameen Shakti-IDCOL and other similar projects for invaluable lessons, identify barriers to sustainable electrification for Myanmar's rural poor and to apply these lessons learned to overcome barriers by developing policy recommendations for sustainable electrification for rural poor in Myanmar. Recommendations are provided suggesting the revision of some assumptions in the National Electrification Plan (NEP) and the creation of a microfinance-based public private partnership, with a polycentric structure, strong local presence and effective after sales service, to increase the deployment of SHSs to sustainably and economically supply modern energy to Myanmar's rural poor.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T21:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
  • Access to modern fuels and satisfaction with cooking arrangements: Survey
           evidence from rural India
    • Authors: Sandra Baquié; Johannes Urpelainen
      Pages: 34 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 38
      Author(s): Sandra Baquié, Johannes Urpelainen
      Subjective satisfaction is a central element of technology adoption, but scholars have not analyzed the determinants of households' satisfaction with their cooking arrangements. Drawing on an original survey of 8568 households across six Indian states, we uncover the predictors of such satisfaction. Households do not find firewood collection inconvenient, but they are dissatisfied if they have to travel long distance to purchase firewood. Among sub-components of subjective satisfaction, reduction in smoke, speed of cooking, and quality of meals dominate over others (difficulty, cost, and safety). Moreover, we identify access to LPG – a modern cooking fuel – as a strong and robust predictor of high subjective satisfaction, mostly through reduction in smoke and increase in speed of cooking. Rural households ascribe a lot of value to access modern cooking fuels that reduce indoor air pollution, and beneficiaries of interventions to improve such access would value it. Thus, efforts to reduce reliance on cooking with traditional biomass are not just paternalistic top-down interventions but contribute to significantly improve households' satisfaction with their cooking arrangements.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T21:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
  • Field study of the building physics properties of common building types in
           the Inner Himalayan valleys of Bhutan
    • Authors: Mark F. Jentsch; Christoph Kulle; Tobias Bode; Toni Pauer; Andrea Osburg; Tenzin; Karma Namgyel; Karma Euthra; Jamyang Dukjey; Karma Tenzin
      Pages: 48 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 38
      Author(s): Mark F. Jentsch, Christoph Kulle, Tobias Bode, Toni Pauer, Andrea Osburg, Tenzin, Karma Namgyel, Karma Euthra, Jamyang Dukjey, Karma Tenzin
      Traditionally, buildings in the Inner Himalayan valleys of Bhutan were constructed from rammed earth in the western regions and quarry stone in the central and eastern regions. Whilst basic architectural design elements have been retained, the construction methods have however changed over recent decades alongside expectations for indoor thermal comfort. Nevertheless, despite the need for space heating, thermal building performance remains largely unknown. Furthermore, no dedicated climate data is available for building performance assessments. This paper establishes such climatological information for the capital Thimphu and presents an investigation of building physics properties of traditional and contemporary building types. In a one month field study 10 buildings were surveyed, looking at building air tightness, indoor climate, wall U-values and water absorption of typical wall construction materials. The findings highlight comparably high wall U-values of 1.0 to 1.5W/m²K for both current and historic constructions. Furthermore, air tightness tests show that, due to poorly sealed joints between construction elements, windows and doors, many buildings have high infiltration rates, reaching up to 5 air changes per hour. However, the results also indicate an indoor climate moderating effect of more traditional earth construction techniques. Based on these survey findings basic improvements are being suggested.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T21:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
  • Multifractal analysis of electricity demand as a tool for spatial
    • Authors: G. Salvó; M.N. Piacquadio
      Pages: 67 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 38
      Author(s): G. Salvó, M.N. Piacquadio
      Electrical utilities need to plan their investments in substations and networks to meet future customer demand, by predicting the spatial load growth and its time trend. Several techniques are currently in use to do that, such as trending analysis or simulation methods. To study the electricity demand we used multifractal analysis. A fractal is an object whose irregularities are not smooth and have some self-similarity at different scales. If the fractal does not have strict self-similarity, we could break such fractality, if it really exists in the system, in a spectrum of sub fractals which have a self-similar structure, performing the so-called multifractal spectral analysis. Multifractal spectral analysis has been already applied to study the morphology and population growth of cities. Because electricity demand can be related to demographics of cities, it is possible to consider the hypothesis that multifractal spectral decomposition can be applied to analyze electricity demand. A variety of multifractal analyses were performed on real data from the customer demand of an electrical utility. The results show that the analyzed electricity demand is split into clear and interesting two-multifractal distribution with properties not found yet in the literature on the subject. This type of multifractal analysis could lead the way to improved spatial demand forecasting methods.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T21:55:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
  • Role of institutional entrepreneurship in the creation of regional solar
           PV energy markets: Contrasting developments in Gujarat and West Bengal
    • Authors: Suyash Jolly
      Pages: 77 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 38
      Author(s): Suyash Jolly
      With political initiatives, such as the National Solar Mission by Government of India, rapid development of grid connected solar PV energy in India has occurred in the recent times. However, an interesting puzzle is with respect to significant regional differences in Indian states despite similar levels of solar radiation, government support and regional level policy and regulatory initiatives in the states. The paper discusses the implementation of grid-connected solar PV energy in two Indian states – Gujarat and West Bengal – under the national-level program Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission by the government of India. The paper offers empirical insights into implementation barriers involved in regional sustainable energy initiatives by using insights from the institutional entrepreneurship literature. The study concludes by describing the reasons for successful implementation in Gujarat and less successful implementation in West Bengal by discussing regional similarities and differences of institutional entrepreneurship of three key actors: government officials within regional government, regional regulatory agencies and regional industry associations.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T21:55:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
  • A comparative analysis of long-term field test of monocrystalline and
           polycrystalline PV power generation in semi-arid climate conditions
    • Authors: Mohsen Mirzaei; Mostafa Zamani Mohiabadi
      Pages: 93 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 38
      Author(s): Mohsen Mirzaei, Mostafa Zamani Mohiabadi
      Two different, commercially available photovoltaic modules, monocrystalline and polycrystalline, have been monitored outdoors in the semi-arid area of Iran, over a complete year. The values of power output, specific energy yield, normalized power output, efficiency and performance ratio of each module have been analyzed and linked to the climatic characteristics of the site. The result indicates that despite the similar behavior of both PV modules with instantaneous irradiance, the monthly behavior of the modules is different, which is due to different light absorbing and thermal characteristics of each panel. The monthly average module efficiency of monocrystalline module has a gradual decreasing trend in the months with a higher ambient temperature, while polycrystalline module shows an inverse behavior. The results of monthly performance ratio have also shown that the performance of monocrystalline module decreases with increasing monthly ambient temperature. Monitoring the gross performance of both PV modules shows that the monocrystalline module performed better both regarding maximum efficiency and overall specific energy yield, and was found to be more efficient at this site. This work offers are also useful as a comparison for investigating the productivity of solar plants in different areas with climatic characteristics similar to the semi-arid region of Iran.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T17:25:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
  • Why both gas and biomass are needed today to address the solid fuel
           cooking problem in India: A challenge to the biomass stove community
    • Authors: Kirk R. Smith
      Pages: 102 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 38
      Author(s): Kirk R. Smith

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T10:08:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
  • Semi-industrial drying of vegetables using an array of large solar air
    • Authors: Miguel Condorí; Gonzalo Duran; Ricardo Echazú; Fabiana Altobelli
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 37
      Author(s): Miguel Condorí, Gonzalo Duran, Ricardo Echazú, Fabiana Altobelli
      The design, structure, and evaluation of an indirect solar tunnel dryer are presented. This dryer corresponds to the air forced convection type. Two similar solar dryers were built and tested with vegetables on an industrial scale in Huacalera, northern Argentina, and operated by a cooperative of small agricultural producers. Each dryer consisted of a tunnel chamber of 450kg load capacity and a bank of 10 solar collectors of 92m2. The bank of large solar collectors allowed temperatures in the drying chamber above 50°C for 6h a day, mixing with ambient air to produce the correct temperature for drying vegetables. A maximum rank of outlet temperatures of 80–90°C and temperature differences of 50–60°C were obtained with minimum air flow of 0.06kg/s and without load. The dryers were operated with different vegetables, obtaining e.g. dried slicing onion with final moisture content 0.09 in approximately 16h of sun. The optimum point of the collector efficiency was determined with airflow of 0.4kg/s, however, lower than 0.23kg/s airflow is needed to obtain outlet temperatures above 50°C. A financial evaluation of the dryer was also performed as a clean energy project, reflecting that the investment return rate of the device is 13months. In this scenario NPV improves in a 438% compared with the conventional scenario and SNPV is suitable only in the case of solar dryer. Solar drying at semi-industrial scale is feasible with the proposed technology due to the gusts of wind and the day-night thermal amplitude of Huacalera.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T14:15:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • Review of offshore wind farm cost components
    • Authors: Angel G. Gonzalez-Rodriguez
      Pages: 10 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 37
      Author(s): Angel G. Gonzalez-Rodriguez
      This paper reviews the data available in the bibliography relative to most important economical factors in an offshore wind farm, including the acquisition/installation of wind turbines and foundations, electrical infrastructure, design and project management, and operation/maintenance. These data are necessary to carry out any profitability analysis, or optimization procedure. In order to establish a common reference, prices have been translated into a unique currency and taken to the present year. Taking into account these considerations, the paper presents an estimation of the different costs as a function of the farm size. Finally, the main cost drivers affecting the capital and operating expenditures are presented and discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T14:15:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • Alloy Corrosion Considerations in Low-Cost, Clean Biomass Cookstoves for
           the Developing World
    • Authors: Michael P. Brady; Kelly Banta; John Mizia; Nathan Lorenz; Donovan N. Leonard; Yukinori Yamamoto; Morgan DeFoort; James R. Keiser
      Pages: 20 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 37
      Author(s): Michael P. Brady, Kelly Banta, John Mizia, Nathan Lorenz, Donovan N. Leonard, Yukinori Yamamoto, Morgan DeFoort, James R. Keiser
      Nearly 40% of the world cooks on open fires or inefficient biomass-fueled cookstoves. The resulting smoke is a health hazard, contributing to an estimated 4 million premature deaths per year, as well as a major source of black carbon emissions. One solution is the introduction of improved, clean-burning biomass cookstoves. One of the most challenging components is the combustor, which must operate at high temperatures (often ≥600°C) in the presence of highly corrosive species released from biomass fuel combustion, yet be sufficiently low cost to permit widespread adoption. The present work reports the development of accelerated corrosion test screening protocols employing highly corrosive salt and water vapor species, specifically designed to evaluate alloys for clean biomass cookstove combustors, and corrosion findings for a range of commercial and developmental alloys. A new Fe-Cr-Si base alloy that offers promise for improved corrosion resistance at lower cost than state-of the art FeCrAl and stainless steel alloys is also reported.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T14:15:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • Rural energy access through solar home systems: Use patterns and
           opportunities for improvement
    • Authors: Ognen Stojanovski; Mark Thurber; Frank Wolak
      Pages: 33 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 37
      Author(s): Ognen Stojanovski, Mark Thurber, Frank Wolak
      Solar photovoltaic (PV) products are touted as a leading solution to long-term electrification and development problems in rural parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. Yet there is little available data on the interactions between solar products and other household energy sources (which solar PVs are often assumed to simply displace) or the extent to which actual use patterns match up with the uses presumed by manufacturers and development agencies. This paper probes those questions through a survey that tracked approximately 500 early adopters of solar home systems in two off-grid markets in Africa. We find that these products were associated with large reductions in the use of kerosene and the charging of mobile phones outside the home. To a lesser extent, the use of small disposable batteries also decreased. However, solar home systems were, for the most part, not used to power radios, TVs, or flashlights. We also did not observe adopter households using these solar products to support income-generating activities.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T05:05:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • Can coal-derived DME reduce the dependence on solid cooking fuels in
    • Authors: Johannes Grové; Paul A. Lant; Chris R. Greig; Simon Smart
      Pages: 51 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 37
      Author(s): Johannes Grové, Paul A. Lant, Chris R. Greig, Simon Smart
      The Indian government is currently promoting and subsidising the replacement of solid cooking fuels with cleaner-burning liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). India is however a growing importer of LPG, the cost of which strongly linked to the prevailing oil price, which makes this program vulnerable to oil price shocks. Dimethyl ether (DME) is a synthetic fuel which may be blended with LPG and, if produced from domestic Indian feedstocks, one way of potentially reducing this vulnerability. A techno-economic analysis of the use of low grade Indian coal for this purpose is described in this paper, and the coal rich state of Jharkhand, where more than 18% of households used coal as a cooking fuel in 2011, was chosen as a study area. Here it was found that, due to higher cooking energy efficiency, the production and use of the DME (together with an associated electricity export) could result in 35% less coal being consumed when compared with a scenario where coal is used for cooking and to generate an equivalent amount of electricity. This analysis further shows that producing DME through this means would likely require oil prices in excess of $72 per barrel to be cost competitive with imported LPG.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T19:38:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • Recovery of fibers and biomethane from banana peduncles biomass through
           anaerobic digestion
    • Authors: Florent Awedem Wobiwo; Virginie Korangi Alleluya; Thomas Happi Emaga; Maurice Boda; Elie Fokou; Sebastien Gillet; Magali Deleu; Patrick A. Gerin
      Pages: 60 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 37
      Author(s): Florent Awedem Wobiwo, Virginie Korangi Alleluya, Thomas Happi Emaga, Maurice Boda, Elie Fokou, Sebastien Gillet, Magali Deleu, Patrick A. Gerin
      Banana crop produces large quantities of post-harvest biomass wastes. Some of them are a potential resource of raw materials such as natural fibers, which can be used as reinforcement for composite materials. The recovery of fibers, after bioconversion of the more digestible soft tissues to biogas was assessed for peduncles of three banana varieties (Grande Naine (GN), Pelipita (PPT) and CRBP969). Fibers were sieved out from the digestate. Biogas was monitored manometrically and with gas chromatography. PPT peduncle produced both the highest fibers recovery (0.2g_DM_fiber/g_DM_initial_substrate) and methane production (260ml_CH4/g_COD_initial_substrate) after 74days of anaerobic digestion. This variety was the most suitable candidate to combine both fiber recovery and biomethane production through anaerobic digestion. GN peduncle fibers degraded in less than 20days. This variety was more convenient for biomethane production (around 210ml_CH4/g_COD_initial_substrate). The amount and the quality of recovered fibers strongly depended both on the duration of anaerobic digestion and the banana variety. This work showed that anaerobic digestion was an effective bioprocess alternative to mechanical decortication and biological retting processes for fiber extraction from banana peduncles biomass.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T19:38:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • Thermo-environmental life cycle assessment of hydrogen production by
           autothermal reforming of bioethanol
    • Authors: Zouhour Khila; Ines Baccar; Intidhar Jemel; Noureddine Hajjaji
      Pages: 66 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 37
      Author(s): Zouhour Khila, Ines Baccar, Intidhar Jemel, Noureddine Hajjaji
      This paper proposes a methodology devoted to finding and selecting more accurate conditions for sustainable hydrogen production via autothermal reforming of bioethanol. This methodology implies entire hydrogen production process design and simulation, energetic, exergetic and environmental life cycle assessment analysis studies and parametric (intuitive and design of experiment based methods) investigations. A base-case process operating under conditions recommended by simple investigation of chemical reactions was thoroughly studied. The results show that this base case process suffers from low performance. This is because the energetic, exergetic and environmental performances are comparatively lower than similar findings previously reported by other researchers for other reformates. The parametric investigation indicates that the process performances could be ensured by a proper and rational combination of the reactor temperature and the steam-to-carbon ratio. A key outcome of this research lies in establishing of second order mathematical models. These models can rapidly estimate the process performances (energetic, exergetic and environmental) based on temperature and the steam-to-carbon ratio. This paper recommends a reforming a temperature of 800°C and a steam-to-carbon ratio of 4 as the accurate conditions for autothermal reforming of bioethanol. Such conditions ensure not only the lowest consumption of energy to generate a given amount of hydrogen but also the best environmental performance of the entire system.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T19:38:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • Performance analysis of thermoelectric generator using dc-dc converter
           with incremental conductance based maximum power point tracking
    • Authors: Ssennoga Twaha; Jie Zhu; Yuying Yan; Bo Li; Kuo Huang
      Pages: 86 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 37
      Author(s): Ssennoga Twaha, Jie Zhu, Yuying Yan, Bo Li, Kuo Huang
      Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are used for converting heat into electricity. One of the challenges behind TEG is that the power generated is unstable and therefore needs proper power conditioning mechanism before it is supplied to the load. Moreover, it is necessary to track the maximum power point (MPP) so that maximum power is always extracted from TEG devices. The objective of this work is to analyse the performance of dc-dc converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) enabled by incremental conductance (IC) method. The results of the IC based MPPT approach have been compared with those of perturb and observe (P&O) based MPPT from a previous researcher. The results indicate that the IC based MPPT approach is able to track the MPP but with relatively lower efficiencies than the P&O based MPPT method. The matching efficiency within a temperature range of 200°C–300°C is in the range of 99.92%–99.95% for P&O and 99.46%–99.97% for IC method. However IC based MPPT method has higher voltage gain and converter efficiency than the P&O based MPPT method. Therefore, dc-dc converters are able to improve the steady state performance of TEG system as well as boosting the voltage to the desired level, hence improving the overall performance of TEG system.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T19:38:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • Towards a low-carbon electric power system in Mexico
    • Authors: Genice Grande-Acosta; Jorge Islas-Samperio
      Pages: 99 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 37
      Author(s): Genice Grande-Acosta, Jorge Islas-Samperio
      The energy sector is one of the largest sources of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in Mexico and the World due to the intensive use of fossil fuels. This article is developed on and examines from an environmental and economical approach an alternative scenario towards a Mexican Low Carbon Electric Power System, by analyzing 36 GHG mitigation options on the electric demand side, namely −23 for an energy-efficient use and 4 for distributed generation, across the residential, commercial, public, industrial and energy sectors and, 9 options of electric power generation with Renewable Energy Sources (RES) on the electric power supply side. Our results reveal that, regarding the GHG baseline, towards 2020, this alternative scenario minimizes 33% of the GHG emissions, and towards 2035 these emissions are dramatically minimized at 79%. Furthermore, results also show that there is a possibility to reach a GHG peak in the electric power industry in very few years with this alternative scenario. Moreover, it is found that this alternative scenario will entail no cost in the analyzed period; on the contrary, it creates a global economic benefit of over 8000 MUSD, where 74% is related to the application of the mitigation options in the electric demand sectors and the remaining 26% comes from RES technologies in the electric power supply. Results show that the implementation of this alternative scenario requires an incremental investment of almost than 2 Billion USD/year within the analysis period. Lastly, it is shown that national goals for the electric power sector that have been recently established in the General Climate Change Law, the Energy Transition Law as well as the proposed Intended Nationally Determined Contribution in the Paris COP21 Agreements are feasible for achievement in this alternative scenario.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T19:38:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • Dis-adoption of Household Biogas technologies in Central Uganda
    • Authors: Florence Lwiza; Johnny Mugisha; Peter N. Walekhwa; Jo Smith; Bedru Balana
      Pages: 124 - 132
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 37
      Author(s): Florence Lwiza, Johnny Mugisha, Peter N. Walekhwa, Jo Smith, Bedru Balana
      The study analyses dis-adoption of biogas technologies in Central Uganda. Biogas technology makes use of livestock waste, crop material and food waste to produce a flammable gas that can be used for cooking and lighting. Use of biogas technology has multiple benefits for the households since it reduces the need for fuelwood for cooking and also produces bio-slurry which is a valuable fertilizer. Despite efforts by Government and Non-Governmental Organizations to promote the biogas technology, the rate of its adoption of biogas technology was found to be low, estimated at 25.8% of its potential. A review of literature showed that the households that dis-adopted biogas technology, did so within a period of 4years after its installation, yet the lifespan of using it is estimated at 25years. There was need to examine the factors contributing to dis-adoption. Using cross sectional data collected from Luwero and Mpigi districts found in Central Uganda, a probit model was estimated. The findings showed that an increase in the family size, the number of cattle, number of pigs and the age of the household head reduced the likelihood of biogas technology dis-adoption. Other factors that contributed to dis-adoption included the failure to sustain cattle and pig production that are necessary for feedstock supply, reduced availability of family labor the and inability of the households to repair biogas digesters after malfunctioning. Based on the findings, it was concluded that long term use of biogas technology required improved management practices on the farm so as to sustain livestock production. It is also recommended that quality standards and socio-cultural factors be considered in the design of biogas digesters and end use devices.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T20:13:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2017.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • Ecuador's climate targets: A credible entry point to a low-carbon
    • Authors: Michael Jakob
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 39
      Author(s): Michael Jakob
      Long-term credibility is a central pillar of climate policy. This paper assesses whether Ecuador's recently adopted climate targets, policies to decarbonize the power sector, and measures to reduce deforestation constitute a credible basis for a transformation towards a low-carbon economy. Based on the literature on the design of credible climate policy and expert interviews, we argue that even though Ecuador's existing policies may reduce emissions in the short term, they do not yet constitute an entry point for a long-term strategy of economic transformation. We then outline politically and institutionally feasible mitigation measures, which we evaluate from a dynamic policy sequencing perspective according to their potential to prepare the ground for more stringent measures to reduce emission in the future. These measures include inter alia reform of driving restrictions, public transport, vehicle efficiency standards, support for electric cars, and results-based payments to reduce land use emission. Such reforms will need to be phased in gradually and embedded in a broad fiscal reform package. To counter potential adverse distributional effects of higher energy prices, low-income groups could be protected by lowering other taxes, scaling up investment in education, and block-pricing schemes. Furthermore, increased participation of key stakeholders would likely reduce public opposition against energy- and climate-related policies, such as fossil fuel subsidy reform.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T10:46:10Z
  • The role of government in industrial energy conservation in China: Lessons
           from the iron and steel industry
    • Authors: Fang Zhang; Keman Huang
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 39
      Author(s): Fang Zhang, Keman Huang
      This paper tracks the energy use and changes to China's energy-efficiency regulatory framework governing the iron and steel industry for the last thirty years. The detailed institutional analysis identifies both abating and augmenting effects of the regulatory framework changes on the energy intensity changes. The paper then assesses the impacts of various other factors on the energy intensity of China's iron and steel industry by using time-series data on the sector level. The quantitative analysis shows that technology progress, specifically the production process transition from high-energy intensive open-hearth furnace (OHF) to more energy efficient basic-oxygen furnace (BOF), is the biggest contributor to energy intensity reductions in China's iron and steel industry in the last thirty years, even after controlling for regulatory change and policy incentives. The ownership reform resulting from changes in the regulatory framework change contributed to energy intensity reductions in China's iron and steel industry, while fast market expansion resulting from market liberalization and regulation decentralization served as a principal barrier for energy efficiency improvements. Government policies, represented by financial subsidies from governments, correspond with energy intensity reductions in key large and medium sized enterprises, but interestingly, seem to be ineffective at producing energy intensity reductions for the industry as a whole. As other research indicated, rising coal prices also contributed to energy intensity reductions in China's iron and steel industry. Finally, the paper concludes that, to further incentivize energy intensity reductions, the Chinese government should consider correcting the negative impacts of the regulatory framework change, as well as transferring production processes to the highly energy efficient electric-arc furnace (EAF) and extending policy regulations to wider enterprise groups.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T10:46:10Z
  • 3-D printing solar photovoltaic racking in developing world
    • Authors: Ben Wittbrodt; Joshua M. Pearce
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 36
      Author(s): Ben Wittbrodt, Joshua M. Pearce
      The purpose of this paper is to provide a technical and economic evaluation of the value of the RepRap as an entry-level 3-D printer in the developing world and provide a cost effective solar photovoltaic (PV) racking solution to better serve the developing world and aid in the acceleration of their economic and socioeconomic growth. A customizable open-source PV racking concept is designed, prototyped for three types of modules, constructed into systems, and outdoor tested under extreme conditions for one year. An economic analysis is provided along with a technical evaluation of the system, which found the proposed racking system can be successfully printed with RepRap 3-D printers and saves between 85% and 92% from commercially available alternatives depending on the plastic used for printing. In addition, the plastic parts proved able to withstand some of the harshest outdoor conditions and due to the free and open-source nature of the designs, it allows the system to be adapted to custom applications in any region in the world more easily than any commercial alternatives. The results indicate that the 3-D printable X-wire solar photovoltiac racking system has the potential to aid in the acceleration of solar deployment in the developing world by providing a low cost PV racking solution.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T23:03:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 36 (2016)
  • An integrated model for designing a solar community heating system with
           borehole thermal storage
    • Authors: Farzin M. Rad; Alan S. Fung; Marc A. Rosen
      Pages: 6 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 36
      Author(s): Farzin M. Rad, Alan S. Fung, Marc A. Rosen
      Borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) is found to be a favorable method for storing a large amount of thermal energy, and suitable for seasonal solar thermal storage, especially for large communities. Drake Landing Solar Community (DLSC), built in 2006, is the first such solar community in Canada. DLSC has achieved a 97% solar fraction after five years of operation. Although the DLSC project has been a success technically, the cost of the system is not attractive. In this study, an alternative design approach for a similar community is presented. The primary goal is to develop a system that not only achieves similar or better performance but also costs less. TRNSYS 17, along with a novel custom BTES component, is used for the system design and simulation. With the alternative design, the annual community thermal load of 2350 GJ is mostly met by solar thermal collectors via BTES and after five years of operation a 96%solar fraction is predicted. The simulation results are compared with published results for DLSC. It is estimated that the proposed system offers a 19% saving in initial cost in addition to reductions of BTES area of 38% and solar panel area of 25%.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T23:03:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 36 (2016)
  • An analysis of the effects of residential uninterpretable power supply
           systems on Pakistan's power sector
    • Authors: Naveed Arshad; Usman Ali
      Pages: 16 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 36
      Author(s): Naveed Arshad, Usman Ali
      For the past many years Pakistan is facing electricity shortfall. The gap between demand and supply of electricity is as much as 6000MW during the peak summer months. This has resulted into scheduled power cuts that range between 6–12h in a day. To reduce the effect of these power cuts or load shedding, consumers have installed alternate energy sources such as Fossil Fuel Generators and Uninterpretable Power Supply Systems (UPSs). While Fossil Fuel Generators use energy sources such as oil and natural gas, the UPSs are charged from the electricity grid that is already under stress. Some sources estimate the UPSs penetration to as much as 40% in Pakistan. With this penetration rate the UPSs are a solution for individual consumers but it exacerbates the problem at the National scale. Moreover, the low quality of UPSs further strains the electricity system. In this paper presents a study to investigate the effects of UPSs in Pakistan's electricity system. By carrying out measurements of sample UPSs we estimated the amount of electricity the UPSs consume in Pakistan's electricity market. Our results show that depending on the number of power cut hours, the UPSs consume between 2%–7% of electricity at any given time. We further provide ways and measures to reduce the UPS charging load on the overall electricity system.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T23:03:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 36 (2016)
  • Livelihood diversification: The role of charcoal production in southern
    • Authors: Harriet Elizabeth Smith; Malcolm D Hudson; Kate Schreckenberg
      Pages: 22 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 36
      Author(s): Harriet Elizabeth Smith, Malcolm D Hudson, Kate Schreckenberg
      Growing urban populations in Sub-Saharan Africa are increasing demand for charcoal. This paper presents a detailed case study of three communities supplying charcoal to Zomba, a medium-sized city in Southern Malawi. Using the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework to structure our analysis, we examine individuals' motivations for producing charcoal, assess the seasonality of charcoal production, how livelihood outcomes vary between men and women, and identify sources of vulnerability for charcoal producer livelihoods. Drawing on data from four focus group exercises in each community and a total of 42 semi-structured interviews, we identify direct (e.g. financial) and indirect (e.g. strengthening of social networks, improved access to goods and services, opportunities for livelihood diversification) benefits that contribute to reducing producers' vulnerability to financial insecurity and improve their livelihoods. Irrespective of the benefits obtained and the actions (e.g. prioritising charcoal production over farming) of producers, participants did not perceive charcoal production as a desirable activity because the work was illegal, stigmatised hard and dangerous. Producers' primary motivations for engaging in production were to provide income to meet one-off purchases of expensive items, respond to an income shock, or to meet recurrent seasonal needs. Under certain conditions women were more dependent on income from charcoal production than men, as they had fewer alternative income generating options available to them. There was no reported management of charcoal resources in the study area, therefore the environmental sustainability of charcoal production and its associated benefits are uncertain. Malawi's current de facto charcoal ban leads to enforcement activities that exacerbate livelihood risks and increase producers' vulnerability to income insecurity.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T23:03:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 36 (2016)
  • Reflections on experience with the global network on energy for
           sustainable development as a South–South global knowledge network
    • Authors: James A. Haselip; Thomas Hebo Larsen; Emmanuel K. Ackom; Gordon A. Mackenzie; John M. Christensen
      Pages: 37 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 36
      Author(s): James A. Haselip, Thomas Hebo Larsen, Emmanuel K. Ackom, Gordon A. Mackenzie, John M. Christensen
      The Global Network on Energy for Sustainable Development (GNESD) was an initiative launched at the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development to support the agenda for increased access to clean energy, as a key contribution to sustainable development. In addition to understanding how the Network was established, how it sustained its relations and organised its activities across borders, we contribute to the debate on global networks by introducing the concept of ‘outcomes’, as a means to understand the extent to which, and how, the Network was able to influence change within the participating countries. We conclude from the analysis that although there are numerous observable and verifiable outcomes, these were achieved in a rather unsystematic manner especially during the early years, and in a more structured and targeted manner during the last 5years of the Network. To a great extent this reflects the output-focus that was prevalent within UNEP, and other similar organisations, at the time the Network was established. It also reflects the well-known structural challenge faced by many epistemic communities, where the extent of their influence reflects the extent to which they are embedded within evolving power structures. Finally, we offer a number of specific recommendations for future networks, based on the GNESD experience.

      PubDate: 2016-12-12T14:10:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 36 (2016)
  • Performance characterisation of a commercial-scale wind turbine operating
           in an urban environment, using real data
    • Authors: Ciaran Cooney; Raymond Byrne; William Lyons; Fergal O'Rourke
      Pages: 44 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 36
      Author(s): Ciaran Cooney, Raymond Byrne, William Lyons, Fergal O'Rourke
      Burgeoning demand for additional energy sources to supplement existing fossil fuel supplies has increased the requirement for efficient and cost-effective renewable energy. Wind energy is among the most prominent renewable sources and wind turbine technology has seen growth in recent years. Urban-sited wind turbines are a significant feature of this growth, with small-scale and roof-mounted turbines receiving attention in the literature. A detailed analysis of the performance of a commercial-scale wind turbine operating in an urban environment is critically important for furthering understanding of the viability of this technology in a non-traditional environment. This study provides a performance characterisation of an 850kW-rated wind turbine situated on-campus at Dundalk Institute of Technology, Ireland, with measurements having been obtained over the course of one year. Characterisation of the wind conditions recorded at the wind turbine site has enabled development of a Weibull distribution model with shape and scale factors of 1.9151 and 6.9665 respectively. The power curve of the turbine in operation is presented for comparison with manufacturer specifications and utilised along with the wind speed data to calculate the wind turbine's annual energy output (AEO) for the year. Importantly, these findings can be used to assist with future wind energy developments in assessing the technical and economic viability using the approach outlined in this work.

      PubDate: 2016-12-12T14:10:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 36 (2016)
  • Optimal CO2 abatement pathway with induced technological progress for
           chinese coal-fired power industry
    • Authors: Aijun Li; Mingming Hu; Chenchen Sun; Zheng Li
      Pages: 55 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 36
      Author(s): Aijun Li, Mingming Hu, Chenchen Sun, Zheng Li
      This study attempts to analyze the integrated effects of carbon pricing in Chinese coal-fired power industry in two studied cases: with and without induced technological progress. Then several CO2 abatement pathways with different levels of carbon pricing are synthetically assessed for Chinese coal-fired power industry by extending a hybrid energy-economic model. Two types of autonomous technological progress such as industrial technology upgrading and autonomous energy efficiency improvement have been exogenously set for all economic sectors. One type of induced technological progress such as direct carbon removals is assumed to be introduced in coal-fired power industry, and its market share is endogenously calculated. Especially, oxy-fuel CCS technology is considered as a potential commercialized option for direct carbon removals. Then with different levels of carbon price setting for the newly increased CO2 emissions from coal-fired power industry, energy-economic indicators such as electricity cost, generation efficiency, economic growth, and CO2 emissions are comparatively analyzed for the choice of CO2 abatement pathway. Simulated results reveal that the upward trend of CO2 emissions cannot be changed within midterm if without induced technological progress. However, if with induced technological progress when carbon pricing is high enough, CO2 emissions could stop the upward trend, and even become decreasing accompanied by certain macroeconomic losses. When oxy-fuel CCS technology is introduced by charging for the newly increased CO2 emissions at 100 RMB2002 Yuan/t CO2, the induced CO2 abatement pathway of Chinese coal-fired power industry could be regard as optimal.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T09:53:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 36 (2016)
  • Performance and emissions characteristics of a lighting cone for charcoal
    • Authors: Kathleen Lask; Ashok Gadgil
      Pages: 64 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 36
      Author(s): Kathleen Lask, Ashok Gadgil
      A lighting cone is a simple metal cone placed on the charcoal bed during ignition to increase draft. Many traditional charcoal-burning stoves are difficult to light due to poor draft through the fuel bed, so lighting cones are used as an inexpensive accessory to help with charcoal ignition. The goal of this work was to determine the validity of using a lighting cone to decrease the ignition time of traditional Haitian charcoal stoves, and evaluate its impact on stove emissions and fuel consumption during the typically inefficient and slow ignition phase. We found that the lighting cone successfully reduced ignition time by over 50%. Due to a more efficient, shorter ignition stage, charcoal consumption during ignition was reduced by over 40% and carbon monoxide was reduced by over 50%. This suggests that lighting cones are a viable and beneficial accessory for aiding ignition in shallow-bed charcoal stoves.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T09:53:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 36 (2016)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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