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  Subjects -> MATHEMATICS (Total: 1021 journals)
    - APPLIED MATHEMATICS (83 journals)
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    - MATHEMATICS (757 journals)
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MATHEMATICS (757 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 401 - 538 of 538 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of K-Theory     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Knot Theory and Its Ramifications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Kufa for Mathematics and Computer     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Logical and Algebraic Methods in Programming     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Manufacturing Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of mathematical and computational science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Mathematical and Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Mathematical Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mathematical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Mathematical Cryptology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mathematical Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Mathematical Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Mathematical Imaging and Vision     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mathematical Modelling and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mathematical Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Mathematical Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Mathematical Sciences and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mathematical Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Mathematics     Open Access  
Journal of Mathematics and Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Mathematics and the Arts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mathematics in Industry     Open Access  
Journal of Mathematics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Metallurgy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Modern Mathematics Frontier     Open Access  
Journal of Multidisciplinary Modeling and Optimization     Open Access  
Journal of Multivariate Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Natural Sciences and Mathematics Research     Open Access  
Journal of Nonlinear Analysis and Optimization : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nonlinear Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Numerical Cognition     Open Access  
Journal of Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Optimization     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Problem Solving     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Progressive Research in Mathematics     Open Access  
Journal of Pseudo-Differential Operators and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Quantitative Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Scientific Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Journal of Symbolic Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Australian Mathematical Society     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Egyptian Mathematical Society     Open Access  
Journal of the European Mathematical Society     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Indian Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Institute of Mathematics of Jussieu     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Nigerian Mathematical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Topology and Analysis     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Turbulence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Uncertainty Analysis and Applications     Open Access  
Journal of Universal Mathematics     Open Access  
Journal of Urban Regeneration & Renewal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Water and Land Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
JRAMathEdu : Journal of Research and Advances in Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
JURING (Journal for Research in Mathematics Learning)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmiah AdMathEdu     Open Access  
Jurnal Matematika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Matematika Integratif     Open Access  
Jurnal Matematika, Sains, Dan Teknologi     Open Access  
Jurnal Natural     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika Raflesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Pembelajaran Matematika Sekolah     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sains (JPS)     Open Access  
Jurnal Riset Pendidikan Matematika     Open Access  
Jurnal Sains Matematika dan Statistika     Open Access  
Jurnal Tadris Matematika     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi dan Sistem Komputer     Open Access  
Kreano, Jurnal Matematika Kreatif-Inovatif     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Le Matematiche     Open Access  
Learning and Teaching Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Lettera Matematica     Hybrid Journal  
Limits : Journal of Mathematics and Its Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Linear Algebra and its Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Linear and Multilinear Algebra     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Lithuanian Mathematical Journal     Hybrid Journal  
LMS Journal of Computation and Mathematics     Free  
Lobachevskii Journal of Mathematics     Open Access  
Logic and Analysis     Hybrid Journal  
Logic Journal of the IGPL     Hybrid Journal  
Logica Universalis     Hybrid Journal  
manuscripta mathematica     Hybrid Journal  
MaPan : Jurnal Matematika dan Pembelajaran     Open Access  
Marine Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Matemáticas, Educación y Sociedad     Open Access  
Matematicheskie Zametki     Full-text available via subscription  
Matematika     Open Access  
Matematychni Studii     Open Access  
Mathematica Eterna     Open Access  
Mathematica Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mathematica Slovaca     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical and Computational Forestry & Natural-Resource Sciences     Free  
Mathematical Communications     Open Access  
Mathematical Computation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mathematical Medicine and Biology: A Journal of the IMA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mathematical Methods of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mathematical Modelling and Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Mathematical Modelling of Natural Phenomena     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mathematical Notes     Hybrid Journal  
Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Programming Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mathematical Sciences     Open Access  
Mathematical Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Theory and Modeling     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Mathematical Thinking and Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mathematics and Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Mathematics Education Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mathematics Education Research Journal     Partially Free   (Followers: 17)
Mathematics in Science and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
Mathematics of Control, Signals, and Systems (MCSS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mathematics of Quantum and Nano Technologies     Open Access  
Mathématiques et sciences humaines     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Mathematische Annalen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mathematische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mathematische Semesterberichte     Hybrid Journal  
Mathematische Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
MATI : Mathematical Aspects of Topological Indeces     Open Access  
MATICS     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Matrix Science Mathematic     Open Access  
Measurement Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Mediterranean Journal of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Memetic Computing     Hybrid Journal  
Mendel : Soft Computing Journal     Open Access  
Metals and Materials International     Hybrid Journal  
Metascience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Milan Journal of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Mitteilungen der DMV     Hybrid Journal  
MLQ- Mathematical Logic Quarterly     Hybrid Journal  
Monatshefte fur Mathematik     Hybrid Journal  
Moroccan Journal of Pure and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Moscow University Mathematics Bulletin     Hybrid Journal  
MSOR Connections     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Multiscale Modeling and Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
MUST : Journal of Mathematics Education, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nagoya Mathematical Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Nano Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Nanotechnologies in Russia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Natural Resource Modeling     Hybrid Journal  
New Mathematics and Natural Computation     Hybrid Journal  
Nonlinear Analysis : Modelling and Control     Open Access  
Nonlinear Analysis : Theory, Methods & Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Nonlinear Analysis: Hybrid Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Nonlinear Differential Equations and Applications NoDEA     Hybrid Journal  
Nonlinear Engineering     Open Access  
Nonlinear Oscillations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
North Carolina Journal of Mathematics and Statistics     Open Access  
North-Holland Mathematical Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
North-Holland Mathematics Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
North-Holland Series in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Note di Matematica     Open Access  
NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Numeracy : Advancing Education in Quantitative Literacy     Open Access  
Numerical Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Numerical Functional Analysis and Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Numerical Linear Algebra with Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Numerical Mathematics : Theory, Methods and Applications     Full-text available via subscription  
Numerische Mathematik     Hybrid Journal  
Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Modelling and Simulation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Operations Research Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Optimization Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Optimization Methods and Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Opuscula Mathematica     Open Access   (Followers: 108)
Order     Hybrid Journal  
ORiON     Open Access  
P-Adic Numbers, Ultrametric Analysis, and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
PAMM : Proceedings in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Free   (Followers: 1)
Parallel Processing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Periodica Mathematica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Perspectivas da Educação Matemática     Open Access  
Petroleum Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Philosophia Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
PNA. Revista de Investigación en Didáctica de la Matemática     Open Access  
Polar Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Positivity     Hybrid Journal  
Prague Bulletin of Mathematical Linguistics, The     Open Access  
Press Start     Open Access  
Prime Number     Full-text available via subscription  
PRIMS     Full-text available via subscription  
Probability in the Engineering and Informational Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Proceedings - Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society, Series B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering and Computational Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. Section B: Natural, Exact and Applied Sciences     Open Access  

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Polar Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.518
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 3  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1873-9652
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3185 journals]
  • Winter CO2 emission and its production rate in cold temperate soils of
           northern Japan: 222Rn as a proxy for the validation of CO2 diffusivity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Yongwon Kim, Shizuo Tsunogai, Noriyuki Tanaka In the context of a changing seasonal snow-covered period and extent in northern high latitude regions, winter CO2 emissions are vulnerable to drastic climate change, prompting rigorous evaluation of regional carbon budgets. The significance of winter CO2 contributions to the atmosphere in these regions has likewise been recognized. In this study, concentrations of CO2 and 222Rn were observed in the snowpack and underlying cold temperate soils of northern Japan during two winter seasons. Winter CO2 emissions, estimated alternately by snow density, 222Rn tracer (under steady and non-steady states), and chamber, were 56 ± 2, 42 ± 6, 44 ± 15, and 34 ± 3 gCO2-C/m2/season, respectively, suggesting that contribution from average winter CO2 emission corresponds to 25 % (range: 19-33 %) of annual emission. Winter CO2 emission is highly regulated by soil temperature at 5 cm, depending on snow depth. Winter CO2 emission transport is not suppressed through the snowpack to the atmosphere; rather it is stimulated when seasonal snow depth is over the 40-cm threshold in the soils. The higher soil CO2 production of 0.11 ± 0.02 gCO2-C/m3/h estimated by 222Rn transfer velocity reflects vigorous microbial activity in soils underlying winter snowpack. Therefore, 222Rn is an important proxy for the estimation of winter CO2 emission and diffusivity in snowpack, and of CO2 production rate and transfer velocity in the seasonal, snow-covered.
  • Relocation of Kiruna and Construction of the Markbygden Wind Farm and the
           Saami Rights
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Agnieszka Szpak The Saami are the indigenous peoples living in the northern Europe in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. Relocation of the Swedish town of Kiruna and construction of Markbygden, one of the largest wind farms in the world, in northern Sweden may serve as an example of the breaches of the Saami rights; in other words, Kiruna’s relocation and Markbygden construction will severely impact the Saami, their livelihood and culture. In the first case the relocated railway already cuts through reindeer pasture land, and in the second, the wind farm will limit the movements of reindeer herders and endanger the migration routes and possibility of grazing of reindeer. In this paper the author offers an international law perspective on the relocation of Kiruna and the construction of the Markbygden wind farm. The author examines legal instruments and international jurisprudence as well as the UN treaty monitoring bodies quasi-jurisprudence that are relevant for the Saami peoples. The purpose of the paper is to answer the research question whether relocating Kiruna and building the Markbygden wind farm violates the Saami rights as well as to point to the Swedish obligations in this regard. The thesis of this paper is that in both of the eponymous cases Saami rights are being violated.
  • The conditions of the formation and existence of “Blue Ice Areas” in
           the ice flow transition region from the Antarctic ice sheet to the Amery
           Ice Shelf in the Larsemann Hills area
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 August 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Aleksey Markov, Sergey Polyakov, Bо Sun, Valeriy Lukin, Sergey Popov, Huigen Yang, Tijun Zhang, Xiangbin Cui, Jingxue Guo, Penghui Cui, Li'an Zhang, Jamin Greenbaum, Andrey Mirakin, Andrey Voyevodin, Alina Boronina, Anastasiya Sukhanova, Gennadiy Deshovykh, Aleksey Krekhov, Sergey Zarin, Aleksey Semyonov Understanding the trend and main causes of the formation and distribution of Blue ice areas (BIAs) in Antarctica may help the search for areas (BIAs) suitable for ice runways for heavy aircraft. Two districts were explored on the glacier within a 50 km radius around the Larsemann Hills. They were isolated as blue ice areas based on the analysis of satellite images. According to the results of surface studies, one of the areas (about 500x5,000 m in size), though initially identified as a BIA based on the analysis of satellite images, has a high density firn covered with sun crust. The second area is indeed a blue ice area of significant size (about 5,000x5,000 m). Similarities and differences have been determined in the formation conditions of the glacier surface in the two areas of assumed BIAs, and an analysis was carried out to identify dominant, necessary and “sufficient” reasons for the sustained existence of BIAs. An obvious link has been found between the distribution of BIAs and the morphology of the subglacial mountain relief and the ice dynamics.
  • Heavy metal pollution in Antarctica and its potential impacts on algae
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Polar Science, Volume 20, Part 1Author(s): Wan-Loy Chu, Nguk-Ling Dang, Yih-Yih Kok, Kok-Seng Ivan Yap, Siew-Moi Phang, Peter Convey Antarctica is not free from environmental pollutants although it is often perceived as the last pristine continent on Earth. Research stations represent one of the largest forms of anthropogenic activity and are the main source of locally derived contamination in Antarctica. Elevated levels of heavy metals such as copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) have been detected in Antarctica. Fuel combustion, accidental oil spills, waste incineration and sewage disposal are amongst the primary sources of heavy metal contaminants in Antarctica, besides natural sources such as animal excrements and volcanism. Studies on the impacts of heavy metals on biota in Antarctica have been focused mainly on invertebrates and cryptogams but not on algae. However, adverse impacts of heavy metals on sensitive algae may affect organisms at the higher trophic levels, and consequently disrupt Antarctic food chains. Heavy metals may be accumulated by algae and biomagnified through the food chain. The sensitivity and response of Antarctic algae to heavy metal toxicity have not been well studied. Robust toxicity protocols for the testing of the impacts of heavy metals on Antarctic algae need to be developed. This review aims to give an overview of the status of heavy metal pollution in Antarctica and its potential impacts on algae.
  • Arrhenian growth thermodynamics in a marine-derived tropical Fusarium
           equiseti and polar Pseudogymnoascus spp. in a liquid culture system
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Polar Science, Volume 20, Part 1Author(s): Natasha Tajuddin, Mohammed Rizman-Idid, Peter Convey, Siti Aisyah Alias We hypothesised that the activation energy (Ea) of growth in a marine-derived tropical strain of Fusarium equiseti and polar strains of Pseudogymnoascus spp. grown for 10 days in a liquid culture system comprised of seawater Mueller-Hinton Broth would differ across the same experimental culture temperature range. The specific growth rates (SGRs) obtained from these experiments were fitted into third-degree polynomial and Brière-2 temperature-dependent models to estimate optimum temperatures for growth (Topt) and maximum SGR (SGRmax) of the selected strains. Estimates of SGR values from the Brière-2 model were used to calculate the temperature coefficient (Q10) and Ea for growth in all three fungal strains across the experimental culture temperature range. Our findings indicated that F. equiseti is better adapted to utilising higher levels of thermal energy for growth than either Pseudogymnoascus strain, consistent with general definitions that classify the former as a mesophile and the latter as psychrophiles. A progressive increase in pH was recorded in the liquid culture system during the growth of F. equiseti and Pseudogymnoascus spp., suggesting that these strains could tolerate more alkaline conditions for growth until nutrient resources were exhausted, as has been noted in some other fungal studies.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Gene expression patterns of Glaciozyma antarctica PI12 in response to
           cold, and freeze stress
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Polar Science, Volume 20, Part 1Author(s): Joseph Soon Peng Koh, Clemente Michael Vui Ling Wong, Nazalan Najimudin, Nor Muhammad Mahadi Psychrophilic yeast, Glaciozyma antarctica PI12 was isolated from the sea ice in the Southern Ocean. Several recent studies have revealed some of the strategies employed by G. antarctica PI12 to grow and survive at low temperatures, but those information are still limited. Hence this project was carried out to sequence the whole transcriptome to generate additional information on the cold-adaptation strategies of G. antarctica PI12. The yeast grown optimally in Saccharomyces cerevisiae minimal medium at 12 °C was subsequently exposed to cold-shock at 0 °C and freeze-shock at −12 °C for 6 h and 24 h. RNA from those cells were extracted, sequenced, and analyzed. Interestingly, the results showed that G. antarctica PI12 remained metabolically active at −12 °C. Two hundred and five genes were differentially expressed in the cells. Among them, 107 genes were upregulated while 98 genes were downregulated. In the first 6 h after the cells were exposed to cold- and freeze-shocks, CCR4-NOT (carbon catabolite repressed 4 - negative on TATA-less) core subunit cdc36, DNA repair protein Rad8, Elongation factor 1-gamma, 26s proteosome subunit 45, and Homocitrate synthase genes were commonly upregulated to perform several immediate and important tasks to ensure the cells survived. Apart from that, there were also genes upregulated and downregulated uniquely at 6 h and 24 h to facilitate the cells to adjust to the new temperatures. After overcoming the stress of the cold- and freeze-shocks for 24 h, the cells acclimatized to those temperatures and became metabolically active again, and the cell cycles related genes were up-regulated.
  • Photosynthetic response and DNA mutation of tropical, temperate and polar
           Chlorella under short-term UVR stress
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Polar Science, Volume 20, Part 1Author(s): J.W.S. Lai, P.E. Lim, C.Y. Wong, S.M. Phang, J. Beardall Changes in photosynthetic efficiency of Photosystem II can be used as an early stress indicator in phototrophs. In this study, chlorophyll fluorescence, measured by a Pulse-Amplitude Modulated Fluorometer (PAM), was used to determine the photosynthetic performance of tropical, temperate, Antarctic and Arctic Chlorella in response to short-term acute ultraviolet radiation (UVR) stress, with measurements of maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), photosynthetic efficiency (α), maximum electron transport rate (rETRm) and photoadaptive index (Ek). Three light treatments were conducted over a continuous, five-hour duration: (i) control subjected only to photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), (ii) PAR + UVA (UVA) and (iii) PAR + UVA + UVB (UVR). Tropical Chlorella showed better adaptive ability to UVA stress compared to strains from temperate and polar regions. UVB stress caused significant photosynthetic dysfunction in all samples, with polar strains showing a lower inhibition (about 40%) compared to the tropical strain (about 98%). Photosynthetic responses in Chlorella towards UVR are possibly origin dependent. DNA mutation induced by both UVA and UVR treatments was revealed by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Out of sixty RAPD primers tested, two primers: S33 (polymorphism degree 44.83%) and S90 (polymorphism degree 38.71%) were chosen as potential primers to conduct genomic study of UV stress in microalgae.
  • Protective mechanisms and responses of micro-fungi towards
           ultraviolet-induced cellular damage
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Polar Science, Volume 20, Part 1Author(s): Hao Jie Wong, Nuradilla Mohamad-Fauzi, Mohammed Rizman-Idid, Peter Convey, Siti Aisyah Alias Fungi are microbes that play vital roles in nutrient cycling in the natural environment and in symbiotic interactions with plants and other microbes. They thrive successfully even when challenged by various abiotic and biotic stress factors in the natural environment. Their growth, conidia production, survival, germination, pathogenicity, virulence and bioactive compound production can be strongly influenced by exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation. Different adaptive mechanisms are used to protect the cells and to maintain DNA integrity, enabling survival of exposure to solar ultraviolet irradiation in natural environments. Counter to these abilities, failure to protect cells against damage induced by ultraviolet radiation can compromise genetic integrity and survival, and alter species composition within the fungal community. We reviewed a large body of work on the biological and environmental factors that influence the protective mechanisms employed by micro-fungi in response to exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation, thereby increasing understanding of adaptive responses in micro-fungi.
  • A comparative study of phycobilliprotein production in two strains of
           Pseudanabaena isolated from Arctic and tropical regions in relation to
           different light wavelengths and photoperiods
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Polar Science, Volume 20, Part 1Author(s): Zoya Khan, W.O. Wan Maznah, M.S.M. Faradina Merican, Peter Convey, Nazalan Najimudin, Siti Aisyah Alias Phycobiliproteins, which include phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin, are the group of coloured accessory photosynthetic pigments present in cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Pseudanabaena is a genus of microscopic cyanobacteria, cosmopolitan in distribution and known to be rich in phycoerythrins. Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic organisms, thus, one of the factors that influences their metabolism is the quality and quantity of incident light. In order to determine the production of phycobiliproteins (mainly phycocyanin and phycoerythrin) in this genus, the quantity of these pigments was investigated in two different strains of Pseudanabaena, P. catenata USMAC16 isolated from an Arctic location (Svalbard) and P. amphigranulata USMAC18 from a tropical location (Tasik Harapan, USM, Malaysia). The aims of this study were twofold. First, to determine the influence of different light wavelengths (white, green and red) and exposure duration (photoperiod of 12–24 h (h)) on phycocyanin and phycoerythrin production in the two strains. Second, to compare the production of phycobiliprotein between the two strains. Highest phycocyanin production was obtained under red light, while phycoerythrin production was highest under green light. Highest production was achieved with photoperiod 24:00 h L:D (L: light, D: dark) in the polar strain and 12:12 h L: D in the tropical strain. P. catenata (Arctic strain) was a good producer of phycoerythrin when grown under green light.
  • Operational history and development plans for the use of AUVs and UAVs to
           map sea ice topography
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): P. Wadhams, B. Krogh In order to improve the capabilities of AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicles) when operating in the Arctic, and under sea ice in particular, there are a number of recommendations that are essential for a successful operation. These recommendations not only deal with features of the AUV itself, but also with positioning under the ice, artificial intelligence for under-ice behaviour, the optimal sensor package for mapping the underside of sea ice, launch and recovery techniques and the operational scenario as a whole. We review these recommendations, and draw attention to a new technology which is central to improved AUV operation, the Stand-Alone USBL (Ultra-Short BaseLine, a method of underwater acoustic positioning) Positioning Buoy, which will enable insertion, tracking and retrieval of AUVs to be more rapid and secure, and enable in-mission low bandwidth communication. Both large and small AUVs have been used successfully to map the 3D structure of the ice underside, but always in an experimental context. The challenge now is to determine the best way forward to improve the quantity and quality of data gathering, and to turn the under-ice AUV into a reliable vehicle for routine use.
  • Site selection of the Turkish Antarctic Research station using Analytic
           Hierarchy Process
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 July 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): H.H. Yavaşoğlu, H. Karaman, B. Özsoy, S. Bilgi, B. Tutak, AG Gülnerman Gengeç, Ö Oktar, S. Yirmibeşoğlu Determination of the location of a research station in Antarctica is a very important issue, and necessary for countries to have sustainable Antarctic Scientific Program and expeditions. The suitable site selection is affected by long-term scientific work plan, its realization costs, and field experience on the continent. For this purpose, using a well-structured evaluation method is indispensable to handle decision uncertainties. This study focuses on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method with using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to detect the optimum probable location for an Antarctic research station. During the study, three main criteria groups and their sub-criteria were taken into account: spatial condition, accessibility, and international legal regime. The comparisons obtained from AHP method including GIS and surveys were used to find potentially suitable areas to demonstrate fitness-for-use of the allocation results. Finally, the suitability map was produced to identify the potential locations for the future Turkish Research Station by considering the climatic effects, environmental constraints, enabling logistics, cost and scientific interest. This study would help the decision-makers to take final steps for determining the potential Turkish Antarctic Station.
  • Weather conditions and warm air masses during active fire-periods in
           boreal forests
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 July 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Hiroshi Hayasaka, Koji Yamazaki, Daisuke Naito Weather conditions for concurrent widespread fires in boreal forests were examined by various weather maps and temperature charts. The four study regions in boreal forests are three in East Siberia and one in Alaska. We applied preliminary analysis method for Sakha proposed by the authors to show the effectiveness of our approach. More than 12 very active fire-periods were identified from satellite hotspot data. Analysis results clearly showed fires during all active fire-periods became very active as warm air masses from south approached four study regions. These movements of warm air masses were mainly related to the meandering of large westerlies. To explain the large increase of daily hotspots (fires) during active fire-periods, a preliminary wind analysis was carried out. Strong wind conditions occurred when warm and dry air masses were approaching, stagnating, and passing over Southern Sakha under various weather conditions at lower air. During the top fire-period in Southern Sakha, wind velocity at lower air (925 hPa) changed from about 1 to 8 m/s while number of hotspot increased from around 1000 to 9000.
  • Special issue on 7th Malaysian International Seminar on Antarctica
           (MISA7): “Connectivity between Polar and Equatorial Climate and
           Biosphere: from the Poles to the Tropics’’
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Azizan Bin Hj Abu Samah, Siti Aisah Binti Hj Alias, Lim Phaik Eem, Stephen Brian Ponting, Sheeba Nettukandy Chenoli, Sanjay ChaturvediABSTRACTThe Malaysian International Seminar on Antarctica (MISA) is a series of the biennial event, which gathers researchers from various countries across the globe to share findings and experiences in polar research and also provides a platform for our scientists to strengthen existing and forge new collaborations. MISA also provides opportunities for local researchers and students who are interested in pursuing their career in polar sciences especially global sciences. The theme of MISA7 is “Connectivity between Polar and Equatorial Climate and Biosphere: from the Poles to the Tropics”. The theme is in line with the rationale that the Poles are an integral part of the global Earth system and as the origin of important climatic, biological, and physical processes that can influence the tropics. Conversely, processes in the tropics could also influence the polar region. This connectivity issue becomes critical in the Anthropocene Era where climate change and anthropogenic activities have significant impacts on the environment. This crucial topic requires attention and collaboration between various disciplines and field of research. The link between polar process and tropics may reveal results that may provide an early warning precursor of important global changes that may affect both regions. This Special Issue of Polar Science is a collection of selected papers delivered at this seminar.
  • Endogenous community development in Greenland: A perspective on creative
           transformation and the perception of future
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 June 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Naotaka Hayashi, Matthew Walls The purpose of this paper is to explore research frameworks for understanding the relationship between northern communities and environmental change, which present an alternative to the currently prevailing concept of resilience. We contribute to a growing literature that identifies a chief problem with resilience thinking— that despite much discussion of modification and flexibility, its application often takes for granted that a community presented with an environmental disturbance will bounce back to an equilibrium. In the context of Greenland and northern communities as a whole, we find need for a framework that better accounts for the complexity of environmental change and dynamic social processes of response, and one that is less conservative in its sense of persistence. With specific emphasis on Tsurumi Kazuko's Endogenous Development Theory, we show how individuals and communities embark on arduous and creative processes of subject formation in order to recover, develop and challenge existing social systems. We explore resonance between Tsurumi's work on human-environment relationships in post-industrial Japan and the current context of Arctic communities responding to ecological and political consequences of climate change. We focus on the entangled nature of community ties to the environment, to others, to self, and to cultural modes of perception. In so doing, we demonstrate research pathways that focus on how residents build hope for future and how a vision for future spreads among a community to actualize an alternative way of life.
  • The role of the polar vortex strength during winter in Arctic ozone
           depletion from late winter to spring
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Vladimir V. Zuev, Ekaterina Savelieva The polar ozone destruction occurs as a result of the chemical processes and catalytic cycles with the participation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in the presence of weak solar radiation inside the polar vortex from late winter to spring. However, in some years, ozone depletion was not observed under strong polar vortex conditions (in the presence of PSCs). Based on the ERA-Interim reanalysis data and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) satellite data, we show that the polar vortex strength in early winter plays an important role in polar ozone depletion. If the short-term weakening or splitting of the polar vortex, occurring with PSC melting, happened during the winter, then, in most cases, ozone destruction during the subsequent period from late winter to spring was not observed even under conditions of the strong polar vortex containing PSCs.
  • Strong and stable relationships between tree-ring parameters and
           forest-level carbon fluxes in a Siberian larch forest
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Shunsuke Tei, Atsuko Sugimoto, Ayumi Kotani, Takeshi Ohta, Tomoki Morozumi, Soma Saito, Shuhei Hashiguchi, Trofim Maximov The tree-ring width index (RWI) and satellite-derived vegetation indices, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), are used as long-term indicators of the past forest carbon uptake. However, fundamental questions remain with respect to what is represented by the RWI and NDVI at the ecosystem level. To address this question, we compared tree-ring parameters (RWI and the carbon isotope ratio: δ13C) and NDVI products with forest ecosystem CO2 fluxes estimated using the eddy covariance method, at a larch forest in eastern Siberia. The RWI and tree-ring δ13C correlated well with the ecosystem gross primary production (GPP), and their temporal stabilities were high during 2004–2014. However, the NDVI products did not show any temporally stable relationship with the GPP. This could be ascribed to significant changes in the understory vegetation in this forest, i.e., from dense cowberry to shrubs and moisture-tolerant grasses, because of an excessively moist environment during 2007–2008. Changes in the understory vegetation could be reflected by the NDVI products but not by the GPP. Our results indicate that it is more feasible to study forest carbon uptake using tree-ring parameters than using satellite-derived vegetation indices in such larch-dominated forest ecosystems in eastern Siberia.
  • Safe places: Increasing Finnish waterfowl resilience through human-made
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Tero Mustonen, Harri Kontkanen Loss of boreal wetlands in Finland has negative consequences for waders, ducks and local socio-ecological systems. These changes result from over 70-years of human-made alterations to land and waterscapes. Climate change and associated extreme events are expected to be further drivers of negative change. In order to build resilience and seek answers to these challenges, a five-year monitoring of Linnunsuo, a 120-ha human-made wetland was conducted. Wood sandpiper (Tringa glareola) and Northern pintail (Anas acuta) were the indicator species. Analysis of co-management complemented the review. Results indicate that the creation of well-designed wetlands has the potential to increase resilience of these socio-ecological systems. They are cost-effective and can be replicated across the boreal region to address the need of habitat loss and climate impacts.
  • Distribution and sources of rare earth elements in sediments of the
           Chukchi and East Siberian Seas
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): A.S. Astakhov, V.V. Sattarova, Shi Xuefa, Hu Limin, K.I. Aksentov, A.V. Alatortsev, O.N. Kolesnik, A.A. Mariash Using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), the distribution of rare-earth elements (REE) at the surface and Holocene sediments of the Chukchi and East Siberian Seas was studied in two cores of up to 8.5 ka in age. The total REE concentration of the surface sediments of the Chukchi Sea varied from 62 mg kg−1 to 169 mg kg−1. The NASC-normalized REE patterns were relatively similar to each other and are characterized by a slight enrichment in the middle lanthanides. The total REE concentrations in surface sediments from the East Siberian Sea ranged from 123 mg kg−1 to 200 mg kg−1. The normalized patterns showed a strong predominance of light REE, in particular, La and Ce. The main concentrators of REE are the sand and silt fractions of the sediment. The East Siberian Sea is characterized by REE association with elements contained in heavy stable clastic minerals (Zr, Nb, Hf, Th, and Ti). REE in this region are derived from the erosion of the mainland coast and the New Siberian Islands ice complex, as well as from river discharge, primarily from the Lena River, the basin of which comprises ancient crystalline shield and magmatic rocks enriched in light REE. The sediments in the eastern and southern Chukchi Sea have low REE contents, indicating that the terrigenous flux supplying the Chukchi Sea is through the Bering Strait.
  • Getting necessary historical data out of deep freeze
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Elizabeth Griffin The changes which are brought about by natural evolution often have very long time-constants, and the data which are needed to capture and measure them can therefore span many decades, sometimes centuries. Most of the natural sciences have caches of analogue historical data that would add significantly to our understanding of the evolution of the objects in question, if only the information in those data were readily accessible in modern electronic formats. Unfortunately, many of those analogue data are in precarious physical condition and only very few have been digitized. We review briefly the global situation regarding the status of those “data at risk”, and suggest strategies that will ensure the preservation of the information that they contain, making it readily and easily accessible in the public domain for use in specific scientific research, disaster risk assessment, or citizen science projects.
  • Frozen narratives: How media present security in the Arctic
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 May 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Barbora Padrtova The current academic discourse on the concept of regional security is characterized by several theoretical approaches and schools. For the purpose of this article, the modified securitization theory (Copenhagen School) is applied as it expands the security agenda beyond the classical military sector to politics, environment, economy and society. The theory further contests traditional approaches to security by focusing on other referent objects than the state (e.g. environment, industry, ethnic groups). At the same time, the state does not constitute the only securitizing actor. While there is a general agreement that there are numerous challenging issues in the Arctic, including the consequences of climate change, oil and gas extraction, mining and fisheries, there is only a limited awareness of securitized issues within the region. In order to understand why issues related to the environment, economy and regional politics are becoming securitized in the Arctic, there is a need for knowledge about securitization processes. In this article, I examine securitization in the Arctic (case study focused on the United States) by identifying narratives presented by the media as one of the key securitizing actors. The analysis provides a typology of four different narratives, applied by the five most influential media outlets in the United States.
  • Large-and-Sparse-particle Clouds (LSC): Clouds which are subvisible for
           space-borne lidar and observable for space-borne cloud radar
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Suginori Iwasaki, Takafumi Seguchi, Hajime Okamoto, Kaori Sato, Shuichiro Katagiri, Masatomo Fujiwara, Takashi Shibata, Kazuhisa Tsuboki, Takashi Ono, Takuji Sugidachi Large-and-Sparse-particle Clouds (LSC), characterized by large particle size (radius > 50 μm) and small number concentration (
  • The October 14, 1908 MW 6.6 earthquake in the Barents and Kara sea region
           of the arctic: Relocation based on instrumental data
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Alexey N. Morozov, Natalya V. Vaganova, Yana V. KonechnayaA magnitude Mw (ISC) = 6.6 earthquake on October 14, 1908 in the Barents-Kara Sea region was the strongest in this region for the entire observation period. We performed earthquake relocation based on our compilation of all available seismological bulletins of the time that included data from the ISC-GEM (International Seismological Centre–Global Earthquake Model) project, the EuroSeismos project, the Geophysical Survey of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Russian State Library. The relocation was performed using a modified generalized beamforming method based on the BARENTS travel time model. The epicenter was located in the estuarial part of the Franz Victoria Graben at the continent-ocean transition zone. According to our justification, an earthquake of such magnitude could well have occurred in the area of Franz Victoria Graben.
  • Microbial hydrolytic enzymes: In silico studies between polar and
           tropical regions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Muhammad Asyraf Abd Latip, Azzmer Azzar Abdul Hamid, Noor Faizul Hadry Nordin Enzyme is important as biocatalyst for industrial and biotechnological applications. Cold active enzymes have showed many advantages compare to mesophilic enzymes. Their cold active and thermolabile characteristics have shown potential benefits in many industries. In silico characterization of hydrolytic enzymes originated from polar and tropical regions was conducted. Amino acid sequences and molecular structures of mesophilic and psychrophilic bacterial enzyme homologues were compared thoroughly. Amino acid sequences from these two homologs do not showed any extraordinary differences. Overall, protein folds were highly similar when psychrophilic homologies were matched with mesophilic homologies. Active site residues located in catalytic domain of both psychrophilic and mesophilic enzymes were highly conserved. Thus, the hydrolytic mechanisms of these cold active enzymes still remain similar to mesophilic enzymes. However, the differences were indicated between these two enzymes at the substrate-binding sites. Cold active enzymes showed unique loop conformations and smaller side chains at the entrances. These characteristics provided larger active site of the enzymes. Larger entrance of active site was expected to stipulate substrates binding and products exiting with lower energy consumption. This part of the enzymes indicated one of the important features of cold active enzyme to work efficiently at lower temperature. Based on this in silico study, cold active enzymes have much more advantages compared to the mesophilic enzymes that made them valuable to be further researched and applied at industrial level.
  • The influence of Malaysia's involvement in Antarctica on the awareness of
           Antarctica and its values amongst Malaysian citizens in state capital
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Hong Ching Goh, Nur Fathin Amira Wahab, Siti Aisyah Alias, Kamila Yusof, Anna Tutsilawati Md Komaruddin Values are the core of human when it comes to decision making. In the context of Antarctica, the study of Antarctic values helps to direct the future development in policy formulation related to the continent. The research on value perception in Malaysia has been quite recent and is focusing on young citizens in secondary schools and within the university campus. This paper aims to share the results of research conducted nationwide among the working adults in the state capital cities. Specifically, it aims to identify the influence of Malaysia's scientific involvement on the awareness and values perceived by the urban citizens in Malaysia. Data was collected using a questionnaire survey in all the state capital cities. The analysis results reveal that, the scientific research and publicity of these scientific activities in Antarctica in local media has a significant influence on the awareness and values perceived among the respondents. These include scientific and environmental values. The authors conclude that the recommendations to strengthen the existing awareness programs by focusing on the target audience and to setup media and information centre and coordinating body must be backed by enhancing the existing science communication quality and incorporating the element at all programs.
  • Surface radiation balance and weather conditions on a non-glaciated
           coastal area in the Antarctic region
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 April 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Jacyra Soares, Marco Alves, Flávia Noronha Dutra Ribeiro, Georgia Codato Meteorological measurements were performed on the non-glaciated coastal area of the Ferraz Station, the Brazilian Antarctic Station, at King George Island. Near the Station there are different topographic attributes, such as sea, glacier and hill, in addition to the intermittent presence of snow. The local atmospheric characteristics depend on wind direction, which is related in small scale to the local features and in large scale to the synoptic systems acting over the region. Westerly winds were the most frequent, with relatively lower speed and higher temperature and humidity values compared to the also frequent easterly winds, related to the coolest and driest winds. The average monthly barometric pressure and wind speed were higher during winter, associated with the presence of high-pressure systems. The radiation balance, measured for the first time in Ferraz Station, evidenced the presence of clouds throughout the year, especially during summer months, associated with the frequent synoptic systems of the region. During nighttimes (daytimes) and in winter (summer) months, the surface lost (gained) energy mainly by net longwave (shortwave) radiation. Reflected shortwave radiation was higher during spring months because of the its relatively higher albedo values combined with the already increased magnitude of the incident shortwave radiation.
  • Hunting tools and prestige in Northern Athabascan culture: Types,
           distribution, usage, and prestige of Athabascan daggers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Hiroya Noguchi, Shiaki Kondo Y-shaped copper or iron daggers found in Alaska and Yukon are generally attributed to the Northern Athabascan cultures. This study reveals their detailed distribution, types, and usage. Additionally, we discuss the relation between daggers as hunting tools and prestige goods. We conclude that Athabascan daggers were not only practical hunting tools, but also were prestige goods. This idea can partly resolve the proposed contradiction of the Northern Athabascan's archaeological context that supports native copper as a practical technology and the regional ethnohistory that strongly emphasizes connection with prestige.
  • Observation of nitrate deficit along transects across the Canada Basin
           after major sea-ice loss
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Yanpei Zhuang, Hongliang Li, Haiyan Jin, Jianfang Chen, Shengquan Gao, Youcheng Bai, Zhongqiang Ji, Yangjie Li Nutrient data were collected along similar cross-basin transects in the Canada Basin (75°–85°N) in 2005–2008, to evaluate the long-term change in the nitrate deficit. The results revealed a subsurface N* minimum (
  • Spatiotemporal variations of below-ground monoterpene concentrations in an
           upland black spruce stand in interior Alaska
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Tomoaki Morishita, Takafumi Miyama, Kyotaro Noguchi, Yojiro Matsuura, Yongwon Kim Monoterpenes play important roles in atmospheric chemistry and g lobal warming, and their sources and sinks have been investigated. However, there is no information about monoterpene concentrations in black spruce (Picea mariana) forest soil. Here, we investigated seasonal and spatial variations of monoterpene concentrations in soil of an upland black spruce stand in interior Alaska. The site comprised three plots with different tree biomasses, organic layer depths, and vegetation types (mosses and lichens). At each plot, monoterpene concentrations in air in the atmosphere, the soil, and the organic layer under various vegetation types (including leaf litter) were determined. Nine monoterpenes were identified: α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, 3-carene, sabinene, myrcene, p-cymene, limonene, and β-phellandrene. The total monoterpene concentration in the atmosphere was
  • Year-round observations of sea-ice drift and near-inertial internal waves
           in the Northwind Abyssal Plain, Arctic Ocean
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Yusuke Kawaguchi, Motoyo Itoh, Yasushi Fukamachi, Erika Moriya, Jonaotaro Onodera, Takashi Kikuchi, Naomi Harada In this study, intra-annual variation of near-inertial internal wave (NIW) in the Arctic Ocean is examined using year-round mooring in the Northwind Abyssal Plain. Our emphasis is on dynamical responses of NIW to local sea-ice variables such as concentration, draft, and drift. We obtained those using a coupling system of ice profiling sonar (IPS) and an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) deployed at the top of the mooring. According to the wavelet spectrum, the inertial oscillation of ice drift becomes considerably strong during periods of ice formation and decay. Results show that the NIW amplitude in the upper part of the water column responds more sensitively to the sea-ice inertial oscillation than to the mean component of ice drift heading to the northwest. We also conducted an experiment with a mixed-layer slab model using the IPS-ADCP measured ice speed to examine the NIW generation responding to the ice-to-ocean stress. Experiment results suggest that the mixed-layer inertial oscillation is amplified in the early time of ice formation, through the ice-water resonance process. It is then concluded that the mixed-layer inertial current driven by ice drift is the primary driver of the enhanced NIW generation.
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