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  Subjects -> MATHEMATICS (Total: 1040 journals)
    - APPLIED MATHEMATICS (83 journals)
    - GEOMETRY AND TOPOLOGY (23 journals)
    - MATHEMATICS (770 journals)
    - MATHEMATICS (GENERAL) (43 journals)
    - NUMERICAL ANALYSIS (23 journals)
    - PROBABILITIES AND MATH STATISTICS (98 journals)

MATHEMATICS (770 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 401 - 538 of 538 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Humanistic Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Hyperbolic Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Industrial Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inequalities and Applications     Open Access  
Journal of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Integrable Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of K-Theory     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Knot Theory and Its Ramifications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Kufa for Mathematics and Computer     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Logical and Algebraic Methods in Programming     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Manufacturing Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of mathematical and computational science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Mathematical and Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Mathematical Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mathematical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Mathematical Cryptology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mathematical Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Mathematical Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Mathematical Imaging and Vision     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mathematical Modelling and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mathematical Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Mathematical Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Mathematical Sciences and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mathematical Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Mathematics     Open Access  
Journal of Mathematics and Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Mathematics and the Arts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mathematics in Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mathematics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Metallurgy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Modern Mathematics Frontier     Open Access  
Journal of Multidisciplinary Modeling and Optimization     Open Access  
Journal of Multivariate Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Natural Sciences and Mathematics Research     Open Access  
Journal of Nonlinear Analysis and Optimization : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nonlinear Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Numerical Cognition     Open Access  
Journal of Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Optimization     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Peridynamics and Nonlocal Modeling     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Problem Solving     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Progressive Research in Mathematics     Open Access  
Journal of Pseudo-Differential Operators and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Quantitative Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Scientific Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Journal of Symbolic Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Australian Mathematical Society     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Egyptian Mathematical Society     Open Access  
Journal of the European Mathematical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Indian Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Institute of Mathematics of Jussieu     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Nigerian Mathematical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Topology and Analysis     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Turbulence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Uncertainty Analysis and Applications     Open Access  
Journal of Universal Mathematics     Open Access  
Journal of Urban Regeneration & Renewal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Water and Land Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
JRAMathEdu : Journal of Research and Advances in Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
JURING (Journal for Research in Mathematics Learning)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmiah AdMathEdu     Open Access  
Jurnal Matematika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Matematika Integratif     Open Access  
Jurnal Matematika, Sains, Dan Teknologi     Open Access  
Jurnal Natural     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika Raflesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Pembelajaran Matematika Sekolah     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sains (JPS)     Open Access  
Jurnal Riset Pendidikan Matematika     Open Access  
Jurnal Sains Matematika dan Statistika     Open Access  
Jurnal Tadris Matematika     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi dan Sistem Komputer     Open Access  
Kreano, Jurnal Matematika Kreatif-Inovatif     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Le Matematiche     Open Access  
Learning and Teaching Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Lettera Matematica     Hybrid Journal  
Limits : Journal of Mathematics and Its Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Linear Algebra and its Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Linear and Multilinear Algebra     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Lithuanian Mathematical Journal     Hybrid Journal  
LMS Journal of Computation and Mathematics     Free  
Lobachevskii Journal of Mathematics     Open Access  
Logic and Analysis     Hybrid Journal  
Logic Journal of the IGPL     Hybrid Journal  
Logica Universalis     Hybrid Journal  
manuscripta mathematica     Hybrid Journal  
MaPan : Jurnal Matematika dan Pembelajaran     Open Access  
Marine Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Matemáticas, Educación y Sociedad     Open Access  
Matematicheskie Zametki     Full-text available via subscription  
Matematika     Open Access  
Matematychni Studii     Open Access  
Mathematica Eterna     Open Access  
Mathematica Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mathematica Slovaca     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical and Computational Forestry & Natural-Resource Sciences     Free  
Mathematical Communications     Open Access  
Mathematical Computation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mathematical Medicine and Biology: A Journal of the IMA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mathematical Methods of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mathematical Modelling and Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Mathematical Modelling of Natural Phenomena     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mathematical Notes     Hybrid Journal  
Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Programming Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mathematical Sciences     Open Access  
Mathematical Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Theory and Modeling     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Mathematical Thinking and Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mathematics and Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Mathematics Education Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mathematics Education Research Journal     Partially Free   (Followers: 17)
Mathematics in Science and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
Mathematics of Control, Signals, and Systems (MCSS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mathematics of Quantum and Nano Technologies     Open Access  
Mathématiques et sciences humaines     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Mathematische Annalen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mathematische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mathematische Semesterberichte     Hybrid Journal  
Mathematische Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
MATI : Mathematical Aspects of Topological Indeces     Open Access  
MATICS     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Matrix Science Mathematic     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Measurement Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Mediterranean Journal of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Memetic Computing     Hybrid Journal  
Mendel : Soft Computing Journal     Open Access  
Metaheuristics     Hybrid Journal  
Metals and Materials International     Hybrid Journal  
Metascience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Milan Journal of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Mitteilungen der DMV     Hybrid Journal  
MLQ- Mathematical Logic Quarterly     Hybrid Journal  
Monatshefte fur Mathematik     Hybrid Journal  
Moroccan Journal of Pure and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Moscow University Mathematics Bulletin     Hybrid Journal  
MSOR Connections     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Multiscale Modeling and Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
MUST : Journal of Mathematics Education, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nagoya Mathematical Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Nano Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Nanotechnologies in Russia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Natural Resource Modeling     Hybrid Journal  
New Mathematics and Natural Computation     Hybrid Journal  
Nonlinear Analysis : Modelling and Control     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nonlinear Analysis : Theory, Methods & Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Nonlinear Analysis: Hybrid Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Nonlinear Differential Equations and Applications NoDEA     Hybrid Journal  
Nonlinear Engineering     Open Access  
Nonlinear Oscillations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
North Carolina Journal of Mathematics and Statistics     Open Access  
North-Holland Mathematical Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
North-Holland Mathematics Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
North-Holland Series in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Note di Matematica     Open Access  
NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Numeracy : Advancing Education in Quantitative Literacy     Open Access  
Numerical Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Numerical Functional Analysis and Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Numerical Linear Algebra with Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Numerical Mathematics : Theory, Methods and Applications     Full-text available via subscription  
Numerische Mathematik     Hybrid Journal  
Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Modelling and Simulation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Operations Research Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Optimization Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Optimization Methods and Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Opuscula Mathematica     Open Access   (Followers: 108)
Order     Hybrid Journal  
ORiON     Open Access  
P-Adic Numbers, Ultrametric Analysis, and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
PAMM : Proceedings in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Free   (Followers: 1)
Parallel Processing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Peking Mathematical Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Periodica Mathematica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Perspectivas da Educação Matemática     Open Access  
Petroleum Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Philosophia Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
PNA. Revista de Investigación en Didáctica de la Matemática     Open Access  
Polar Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Positivity     Hybrid Journal  
Prague Bulletin of Mathematical Linguistics, The     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4     

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Polar Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.518
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1873-9652
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3182 journals]
  • Contrasting chemotactic escape responses of the common Antarctic gastropod
           Margarella antarctica to four species of sympatric sea stars
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 October 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Julie B. Schram, Charles D. Amsler, James B. McClintockABSTRACTEscape responses of marine gastropods from sea star predators have long been established in laboratory studies. The degree of the response, which may include shell elevation and rotation and/or rapid flight, can vary with sea star taxa, providing insights into the degree to which a particular sea star species represents an in situ predatory threat. Little is known of such predator-prey interactions among benthic macroinvertebrates along the western Antarctic Peninsula. The present laboratory study employed video analysis to measure chemotactic escape responses (mean speed of flight following contact with the tip of a sea star’s arm) in the common Antarctic topshell snail Margarella antarctica to the sea stars Neosmilaster georgianus, Remaster sp., Granaster nutrex, and Odontaster validus. Identical assays in response to contact with the thalli of the macroalga Gigartina skottsbergii provided a control. Significant flight responses to contact with two of the four sea star taxa were detected [N. georginanus (6.2 cm min-1), Remaster spp. (4.4 cm min-1)]. There was no significant difference between gastropod speed in response to contact with the control macroalga (1.9 cm min-1) and to the sea stars G. nutrex (3.1 cm min-1) and O. validus (1.1 cm min-1). Measured patterns of sea star-induced gastropod flight responses are discussed in the context of natural diets and feeding modes of the sea stars.
       
  • Ecophysiology of photosynthesis of Vaucheria sp. mats in a
           Svalbard tidal flat
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Polar Science, Volume 21Author(s): Jana Kvíderová, Claude-Eric Souquieres, Josef Elster The photosynthetic performance of a Vaucheria sp. community in the Adventfjorden tidal flats near Longyearbyen, Svalbard, the Arctic was evaluated in a series of in situ and ex situ measurements based on variable chlorophyll fluorescence and gasometric approaches. The in situ measurement did not indicate any possible drivers from the selected environmental parameters (temperature, PAR, UVR, emersion period duration) of photosynthetic activity. Two ecotypes, spikes or loose filaments, observed in the field were related to emersion and immersion periods during the tidal cycle. Ex situ long-term monitoring identified PAR as the main controlling factor of photosynthesis. No limitation of photosynthetic activity due to temperatures or light was detected. The detailed ex situ photosynthesis measurements of Vaucheria sp. samples pre-acclimated to different irradiances did not reveal any decrease of photosynthesis in high light. Irradiance affected only the photosynthesis rate, but not the photosynthesis efficiency. The Vaucheria sp. was acclimated to the prevailing low-light conditions but was able to tolerate high-light conditions on sunny days of the late Artic summer.
       
  • Taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity of fungi along primary
           successional and elevational gradients near Mount Robson, British Columbia
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Polar Science, Volume 21Author(s): Shunsuke Matsuoka, Yuhei Ogisu, Sayaka Sakoh, Satoru Hobara, Takashi Osono The taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity of fungi associated with dead leaves of alpine and subalpine plants were quantified along primary successional and elevational gradients in Mount Robson Provincial Park, British Columbia, Canada, to test the sensitivity of fungal diversity, functioning, and community assembly to environmental changes in a cold region. A total of 330 fungal operational taxonomic units were detected by metabarcoding of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA, and among them saprotrophs were the dominant functional guild. Terrain age at the glacier foreland and plant taxa of dead leaves significantly affected taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity indices. The increase in values of standardized effective size of the mean nearest taxon distance as a phylogenetic diversity index of fungal communities suggested a shift from phylogenetic clustering to phylogenetic overdispersion in fungal communities after the glacier retreat. The elevation, which ranged from 874 m to 1668 m above sea level, did not affect the taxonomic, functional, or phylogenetic fungal diversity. Studying phylogenetic and functional diversity as aspects of fungal diversity provided useful insights into novel assembly and functional patterns of fungi in a cold region that could not be detected only by observing taxonomic diversity.
       
  • Effects of climate dataset type on tree-ring analysis: A case study for
           Siberian forests
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Polar Science, Volume 21Author(s): Shunsuke Tei, Shin Nagai, Atsuko Sugimoto Tree-ring width indices (RWI) are widely used as long-term indicators of past forest ecosystem response to climate change. Due to their larger spatial scales, gridded climate data have been preferred over station data. However, it is not clear how climate dataset type affects correlations between climate variables (e.g., temperature and precipitation) and RWI. To answer this question, RWI was compared to both gridded and station climate datasets over the Siberian forests. Correlation patterns between RWI and seasonal climate variables were mostly similar regardless of dataset. However, some dependence on climate dataset was observed for summer temperatures and previous autumn-winter precipitation. The extent of dataset impacts depends on the similarity of climate variables between datasets, which was related to the distance between the nearest climate station to each RWI site/climate grid point. On the other hand, dataset effects primarily impact statistical significance, and opposite correlations between RWI and climate variables have not been observed for different climate datasets. Therefore, the impacts of climate dataset type on RWI to estimate the forest ecosystem response to climate change are not major, emphasizing the relevance of previous RWI studies that used gridded climate datasets.
       
  • Indigenous peoples and extractive industry encounters: Benefit-sharing
           agreements in Russian Arctic
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Polar Science, Volume 21Author(s): Liubov Sulyandziga This article reviewed the regulatory framework of benefit-sharing agreements between indigenous communities and resource companies operating in different Arctic regions of Russia. Different regional legislation frameworks, path-dependent practices and company policies have resulted in a broad-spectrum of negotiated arrangements. This study shows that indigenous opinions are often ignored in areas where resource extraction is prioritized. In Russia's illiberal context, indigenous communities receive significant opposition from extractive companies, whose capacity and expertise in the negotiation process are far more extensive. Extractive industries in the Russian Arctic that are inspired by new possibilities involving developing natural resources are ill-prepared to engage in benefit-sharing commitments. This paper concludes that, in the context of the Russian North, agreements involving oil and gas companies downplay the uneven landscape in which indigenous rights are largely ignored.
       
  • Post-Soviet population dynamics in the Russian Extreme North: A case of
           Chukotka
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Polar Science, Volume 21Author(s): Kazuhiro Kumo, Tamara Litvinenko The main purposes of the paper is a study of the situation that emerged in the peripheral regions as a result of the state policy of the Soviet period, using the example of the demographic trends in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug as one of the most distal Russian territories with respect to the center of Russia. The paper describes the migration flows in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug as a whole, while the fifth section traces the processes of weakening and full closing of each separate settlement. Although the sharp decline in population in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug was often mentioned in various materials, few specific research has been conducted with the main aim of studying this problem. As is well known, most of the USSR population lived in the European part of the country. At the same time, managing new territories was conducted in a planned manner toward Siberian regions, despite being situated far from large European markets. Presumably, these were attempts to obtain an effective return through the policy with ignoring economic principles. The resulting negative “return” of such state policy of regional management is shown by the present study.
       
  • European cooperation: How important country is Poland to ensure the Arctic
           governance'
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Polar Science, Volume 21Author(s): Danilo Vicente García Cáceres Although the Arctic remains one of the most vulnerable ecosystems around the world, its governance faces today its greatest challenges, and it is the "European cooperation", which requires not only the common agreement of the member states, but also a good lobby for the influence of the world powers. First of all, an agreement among the member states of the European Union strengthens the identity of each member state and its own visions of governance in order to arrive at this new stage of integral collective governance. Secondly, the influence of third states, such as the United States, Russia and China in its global geopolitical relations with each of the member states of the European Union, poses a threat to full collective governance. In this moment we need to focus on the importance of international geopolitical relations aiming at full cooperation in the European Union which will enable collective governance of Arctic. In this regard, the analysis goes on to take the example of Poland and its articulating role for European cooperation in the prevention and precaution of conflicts with other states and thus work together towards Arctic governance. Would Poland contribute to the requirements of European cooperation to ensure the more effective Arctic governance'
       
  • Comparative simulations of the evolution of the Greenland ice sheet under
           simplified Paris Agreement scenarios with the models SICOPOLIS and ISSM
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Polar Science, Volume 21Author(s): Martin Rückamp, Ralf Greve, Angelika Humbert Projections of the contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to sea level rise comprise uncertainties that arise from the imposed climate forcing and from the underlying mathematical and numerical description used by ice flow models. Here, we present a comparative modelling study with the models SICOPOLIS, using the shallow ice approximation (SIA) on a structured grid, and ISSM, using a higher-order (HO) approximation of the Stokes equation on an unstructured grid. Starting from a paleoclimatic spin-up produced by SICOPOLIS, the models are forced with two different, simplified warming scenarios based on RCP2.6 projections from climate models, which are in line with the limit of global warming negotiated for the Paris Agreement. ISSM/HO produces lower flow speeds at the glacier termini, but more acceleration in narrow outlet glaciers compared to SICOPOLIS/SIA. This leads to a larger elevation reduction for ISSM/HO, and thus a positive feedback on the surface mass balance (with that of ISSM/HO becoming ∼50 Gt a−1 more negative). Across the two models and scenarios, the projected mass loss by 2300 is ∼62–88 mm sea level equivalent.
       
  • The urgency of Arctic change
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Polar Science, Volume 21Author(s): James Overland, Edward Dunlea, Jason E. Box, Robert Corell, Martin Forsius, Vladimir Kattsov, Morten Skovgård Olsen, Janet Pawlak, Lars-Otto Reiersen, Muyin Wang This article provides a synthesis of the latest observational trends and projections for the future of the Arctic. First, the Arctic is already changing rapidly as a result of climate change. Contemporary warm Arctic temperatures and large sea ice deficits (75% volume loss) demonstrate climate states outside of previous experience. Modeled changes of the Arctic cryosphere demonstrate that even limiting global temperature increases to near 2 °C will leave the Arctic a much different environment by mid-century with less snow and sea ice, melted permafrost, altered ecosystems, and a projected annual mean Arctic temperature increase of +4 °C. Second, even under ambitious emission reduction scenarios, high-latitude land ice melt, including Greenland, are foreseen to continue due to internal lags, leading to accelerating global sea level rise throughout the century. Third, future Arctic changes may in turn impact lower latitudes through tundra greenhouse gas release and shifts in ocean and atmospheric circulation. Arctic-specific radiative and heat storage feedbacks may become an obstacle to achieving a stabilized global climate. In light of these trends, the precautionary principle calls for early adaptation and mitigation actions.
       
  • Memorial message for Dr. Rikie
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Polar Science, Volume 21Author(s):
       
  • The influence of boreal forest dynamics on the current state of permafrost
           in Central Yakutia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): A.N. Fedorov, P.Y. Konstantinov, N.F. Vasilyev, A.A. Shestakova Boreal forests exert a strong influence on the permafrost dynamics protecting the landscapes under climate warming conditions. This paper discusses the influence of various vegetation types on permafrost temperature and active layer thickness, as well as changes in these parameters through successional stages of forest vegetation in Central Yakutia. Data from monitoring sites were used to examine the variability of permafrost conditions in different landscape types. Forest removal leads, on average, to an increase in ground temperature by 1 °С and an increase in active layer thickness by 0.8–1 m, which may cause the melting of ground ice and surface subsidence. The recovery of the forest reduces the ground temperature and decreases the active layer thickness that’s stabilizes the permafrost.
       
  • Antarctic stations as workplaces: Adjustment of winter-over crew members
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Cyril Jaksic, Gary Steel, Emma Stewart, Kevin Moore The living conditions at Antarctic stations can be challenging for support personnel. It has been; suggested that the experience of isolation and confinement can contribute to the emergence of the; winter-over syndrome. The present study adopts a Person-Environment fit approach to investigate; individual adjustment to the social constraints of an Isolated and Confined Environment (ICE). The; study gathered monthly data from 14 participants from five different stations, run by different National Antarctic Programmes. Results revealed that a lack of privacy generated by the confinement is associated with sleep disturbance. In addition, a high level of loneliness, experienced as a result of the; isolation, is positively related to cognitive impairment and negatively related to job satisfaction and; positive/negative mood ratio. The results further suggest that loneliness can be predicted by a predeployment; measure of need for affiliation, as well as levels of the personality traits of agreeableness; and extraversion.
       
  • Micromorphological features of mineral matter from cryoconite holes on
           Arctic (Svalbard) and alpine (the Alps, the Caucasus) glaciers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Krzysztof Zawierucha, Giovanni Baccolo, Biagio Di Mauro, Adam Nawrot, Witold Szczuciński, Edyta Kalińska Mineral grain micromorphology is a useful proxy for reconstructing the history of mineral matter deposited on glaciers. In this study, we focus on the grain shape and micromorphology of mineral particles collected from cryoconite holes on glaciers in the Alps, the Caucasus and Svalbard. We use the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to better understand the origin, transport regime, depositional processes, biofilm formations, degradation and grain transformation. Our results show that chemical and physical weathering are equally relevant in shaping mineral grains, although in polar and cold regions physical processes dominate. Grains with smooth edges owing to chemical weathering in some of the investigated samples, represent more than 60–70%. Comparison of main grain-type abundance helped to establish that climate is not the most important factor affecting grain micromorphology on glaciers, but local rock sources and supraglacial processes. We hypothesize that grain surface roughness plays an essential role with respect to biofilm formation, while at the same time bacteria-enhanced weathering enriches micromorphology (we observed polymeric substances on some of grains) and release critical compounds for nutrient-poor glacial systems. Thus, grain type and morphology might be an important factor influencing cryoconite granules formation and productivity of cryoconite holes.
       
  • Winter CO2 emission and its production rate in cold temperate soils of
           northern Japan: 222Rn as a proxy for the validation of CO2 diffusivity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Yongwon Kim, Shizuo Tsunogai, Noriyuki Tanaka In the context of a changing seasonal snow-covered period and extent in northern high latitude regions, winter CO2 emissions are vulnerable to drastic climate change, prompting rigorous evaluation of regional carbon budgets. The significance of winter CO2 contributions to the atmosphere in these regions has likewise been recognized. In this study, concentrations of CO2 and 222Rn were observed in the snowpack and underlying cold temperate soils of northern Japan during two winter seasons. Winter CO2 emissions, estimated alternately by snow density, 222Rn tracer (under steady and non-steady states), and chamber, were 56 ± 2, 42 ± 6, 44 ± 15, and 34 ± 3 gCO2-C/m2/season, respectively, suggesting that contribution from average winter CO2 emission corresponds to 25 % (range: 19-33 %) of annual emission. Winter CO2 emission is highly regulated by soil temperature at 5 cm, depending on snow depth. Winter CO2 emission transport is not suppressed through the snowpack to the atmosphere; rather it is stimulated when seasonal snow depth is over the 40-cm threshold in the soils. The higher soil CO2 production of 0.11 ± 0.02 gCO2-C/m3/h estimated by 222Rn transfer velocity reflects vigorous microbial activity in soils underlying winter snowpack. Therefore, 222Rn is an important proxy for the estimation of winter CO2 emission and diffusivity in snowpack, and of CO2 production rate and transfer velocity in the seasonal, snow-covered.
       
  • Relocation of Kiruna and Construction of the Markbygden Wind Farm and the
           Saami Rights
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Agnieszka Szpak The Saami are the indigenous peoples living in the northern Europe in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. Relocation of the Swedish town of Kiruna and construction of Markbygden, one of the largest wind farms in the world, in northern Sweden may serve as an example of the breaches of the Saami rights; in other words, Kiruna’s relocation and Markbygden construction will severely impact the Saami, their livelihood and culture. In the first case the relocated railway already cuts through reindeer pasture land, and in the second, the wind farm will limit the movements of reindeer herders and endanger the migration routes and possibility of grazing of reindeer. In this paper the author offers an international law perspective on the relocation of Kiruna and the construction of the Markbygden wind farm. The author examines legal instruments and international jurisprudence as well as the UN treaty monitoring bodies quasi-jurisprudence that are relevant for the Saami peoples. The purpose of the paper is to answer the research question whether relocating Kiruna and building the Markbygden wind farm violates the Saami rights as well as to point to the Swedish obligations in this regard. The thesis of this paper is that in both of the eponymous cases Saami rights are being violated.
       
  • The conditions of the formation and existence of “Blue Ice Areas” in
           the ice flow transition region from the Antarctic ice sheet to the Amery
           Ice Shelf in the Larsemann Hills area
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 August 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Aleksey Markov, Sergey Polyakov, Bо Sun, Valeriy Lukin, Sergey Popov, Huigen Yang, Tijun Zhang, Xiangbin Cui, Jingxue Guo, Penghui Cui, Li'an Zhang, Jamin Greenbaum, Andrey Mirakin, Andrey Voyevodin, Alina Boronina, Anastasiya Sukhanova, Gennadiy Deshovykh, Aleksey Krekhov, Sergey Zarin, Aleksey Semyonov Understanding the trend and main causes of the formation and distribution of Blue ice areas (BIAs) in Antarctica may help the search for areas (BIAs) suitable for ice runways for heavy aircraft. Two districts were explored on the glacier within a 50 km radius around the Larsemann Hills. They were isolated as blue ice areas based on the analysis of satellite images. According to the results of surface studies, one of the areas (about 500x5,000 m in size), though initially identified as a BIA based on the analysis of satellite images, has a high density firn covered with sun crust. The second area is indeed a blue ice area of significant size (about 5,000x5,000 m). Similarities and differences have been determined in the formation conditions of the glacier surface in the two areas of assumed BIAs, and an analysis was carried out to identify dominant, necessary and “sufficient” reasons for the sustained existence of BIAs. An obvious link has been found between the distribution of BIAs and the morphology of the subglacial mountain relief and the ice dynamics.
       
  • Operational history and development plans for the use of AUVs and UAVs to
           map sea ice topography
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): P. Wadhams, B. Krogh In order to improve the capabilities of AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicles) when operating in the Arctic, and under sea ice in particular, there are a number of recommendations that are essential for a successful operation. These recommendations not only deal with features of the AUV itself, but also with positioning under the ice, artificial intelligence for under-ice behaviour, the optimal sensor package for mapping the underside of sea ice, launch and recovery techniques and the operational scenario as a whole. We review these recommendations, and draw attention to a new technology which is central to improved AUV operation, the Stand-Alone USBL (Ultra-Short BaseLine, a method of underwater acoustic positioning) Positioning Buoy, which will enable insertion, tracking and retrieval of AUVs to be more rapid and secure, and enable in-mission low bandwidth communication. Both large and small AUVs have been used successfully to map the 3D structure of the ice underside, but always in an experimental context. The challenge now is to determine the best way forward to improve the quantity and quality of data gathering, and to turn the under-ice AUV into a reliable vehicle for routine use.
       
  • Site selection of the Turkish Antarctic Research station using Analytic
           Hierarchy Process
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 July 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): H.H. Yavaşoğlu, H. Karaman, B. Özsoy, S. Bilgi, B. Tutak, AG Gülnerman Gengeç, Ö Oktar, S. Yirmibeşoğlu Determination of the location of a research station in Antarctica is a very important issue, and necessary for countries to have sustainable Antarctic Scientific Program and expeditions. The suitable site selection is affected by long-term scientific work plan, its realization costs, and field experience on the continent. For this purpose, using a well-structured evaluation method is indispensable to handle decision uncertainties. This study focuses on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method with using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to detect the optimum probable location for an Antarctic research station. During the study, three main criteria groups and their sub-criteria were taken into account: spatial condition, accessibility, and international legal regime. The comparisons obtained from AHP method including GIS and surveys were used to find potentially suitable areas to demonstrate fitness-for-use of the allocation results. Finally, the suitability map was produced to identify the potential locations for the future Turkish Research Station by considering the climatic effects, environmental constraints, enabling logistics, cost and scientific interest. This study would help the decision-makers to take final steps for determining the potential Turkish Antarctic Station.
       
  • Weather conditions and warm air masses during active fire-periods in
           boreal forests
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 July 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Hiroshi Hayasaka, Koji Yamazaki, Daisuke Naito Weather conditions for concurrent widespread fires in boreal forests were examined by various weather maps and temperature charts. The four study regions in boreal forests are three in East Siberia and one in Alaska. We applied preliminary analysis method for Sakha proposed by the authors to show the effectiveness of our approach. More than 12 very active fire-periods were identified from satellite hotspot data. Analysis results clearly showed fires during all active fire-periods became very active as warm air masses from south approached four study regions. These movements of warm air masses were mainly related to the meandering of large westerlies. To explain the large increase of daily hotspots (fires) during active fire-periods, a preliminary wind analysis was carried out. Strong wind conditions occurred when warm and dry air masses were approaching, stagnating, and passing over Southern Sakha under various weather conditions at lower air. During the top fire-period in Southern Sakha, wind velocity at lower air (925 hPa) changed from about 1 to 8 m/s while number of hotspot increased from around 1000 to 9000.
       
  • Endogenous community development in Greenland: A perspective on creative
           transformation and the perception of future
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 June 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Naotaka Hayashi, Matthew Walls The purpose of this paper is to explore research frameworks for understanding the relationship between northern communities and environmental change, which present an alternative to the currently prevailing concept of resilience. We contribute to a growing literature that identifies a chief problem with resilience thinking— that despite much discussion of modification and flexibility, its application often takes for granted that a community presented with an environmental disturbance will bounce back to an equilibrium. In the context of Greenland and northern communities as a whole, we find need for a framework that better accounts for the complexity of environmental change and dynamic social processes of response, and one that is less conservative in its sense of persistence. With specific emphasis on Tsurumi Kazuko's Endogenous Development Theory, we show how individuals and communities embark on arduous and creative processes of subject formation in order to recover, develop and challenge existing social systems. We explore resonance between Tsurumi's work on human-environment relationships in post-industrial Japan and the current context of Arctic communities responding to ecological and political consequences of climate change. We focus on the entangled nature of community ties to the environment, to others, to self, and to cultural modes of perception. In so doing, we demonstrate research pathways that focus on how residents build hope for future and how a vision for future spreads among a community to actualize an alternative way of life.
       
  • The role of the polar vortex strength during winter in Arctic ozone
           depletion from late winter to spring
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Vladimir V. Zuev, Ekaterina Savelieva The polar ozone destruction occurs as a result of the chemical processes and catalytic cycles with the participation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in the presence of weak solar radiation inside the polar vortex from late winter to spring. However, in some years, ozone depletion was not observed under strong polar vortex conditions (in the presence of PSCs). Based on the ERA-Interim reanalysis data and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) satellite data, we show that the polar vortex strength in early winter plays an important role in polar ozone depletion. If the short-term weakening or splitting of the polar vortex, occurring with PSC melting, happened during the winter, then, in most cases, ozone destruction during the subsequent period from late winter to spring was not observed even under conditions of the strong polar vortex containing PSCs.
       
  • Strong and stable relationships between tree-ring parameters and
           forest-level carbon fluxes in a Siberian larch forest
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Shunsuke Tei, Atsuko Sugimoto, Ayumi Kotani, Takeshi Ohta, Tomoki Morozumi, Soma Saito, Shuhei Hashiguchi, Trofim Maximov The tree-ring width index (RWI) and satellite-derived vegetation indices, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), are used as long-term indicators of the past forest carbon uptake. However, fundamental questions remain with respect to what is represented by the RWI and NDVI at the ecosystem level. To address this question, we compared tree-ring parameters (RWI and the carbon isotope ratio: δ13C) and NDVI products with forest ecosystem CO2 fluxes estimated using the eddy covariance method, at a larch forest in eastern Siberia. The RWI and tree-ring δ13C correlated well with the ecosystem gross primary production (GPP), and their temporal stabilities were high during 2004–2014. However, the NDVI products did not show any temporally stable relationship with the GPP. This could be ascribed to significant changes in the understory vegetation in this forest, i.e., from dense cowberry to shrubs and moisture-tolerant grasses, because of an excessively moist environment during 2007–2008. Changes in the understory vegetation could be reflected by the NDVI products but not by the GPP. Our results indicate that it is more feasible to study forest carbon uptake using tree-ring parameters than using satellite-derived vegetation indices in such larch-dominated forest ecosystems in eastern Siberia.
       
  • Safe places: Increasing Finnish waterfowl resilience through human-made
           wetlands
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Tero Mustonen, Harri Kontkanen Loss of boreal wetlands in Finland has negative consequences for waders, ducks and local socio-ecological systems. These changes result from over 70-years of human-made alterations to land and waterscapes. Climate change and associated extreme events are expected to be further drivers of negative change. In order to build resilience and seek answers to these challenges, a five-year monitoring of Linnunsuo, a 120-ha human-made wetland was conducted. Wood sandpiper (Tringa glareola) and Northern pintail (Anas acuta) were the indicator species. Analysis of co-management complemented the review. Results indicate that the creation of well-designed wetlands has the potential to increase resilience of these socio-ecological systems. They are cost-effective and can be replicated across the boreal region to address the need of habitat loss and climate impacts.
       
  • Distribution and sources of rare earth elements in sediments of the
           Chukchi and East Siberian Seas
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): A.S. Astakhov, V.V. Sattarova, Shi Xuefa, Hu Limin, K.I. Aksentov, A.V. Alatortsev, O.N. Kolesnik, A.A. Mariash Using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), the distribution of rare-earth elements (REE) at the surface and Holocene sediments of the Chukchi and East Siberian Seas was studied in two cores of up to 8.5 ka in age. The total REE concentration of the surface sediments of the Chukchi Sea varied from 62 mg kg−1 to 169 mg kg−1. The NASC-normalized REE patterns were relatively similar to each other and are characterized by a slight enrichment in the middle lanthanides. The total REE concentrations in surface sediments from the East Siberian Sea ranged from 123 mg kg−1 to 200 mg kg−1. The normalized patterns showed a strong predominance of light REE, in particular, La and Ce. The main concentrators of REE are the sand and silt fractions of the sediment. The East Siberian Sea is characterized by REE association with elements contained in heavy stable clastic minerals (Zr, Nb, Hf, Th, and Ti). REE in this region are derived from the erosion of the mainland coast and the New Siberian Islands ice complex, as well as from river discharge, primarily from the Lena River, the basin of which comprises ancient crystalline shield and magmatic rocks enriched in light REE. The sediments in the eastern and southern Chukchi Sea have low REE contents, indicating that the terrigenous flux supplying the Chukchi Sea is through the Bering Strait.
       
  • Getting necessary historical data out of deep freeze
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Elizabeth Griffin The changes which are brought about by natural evolution often have very long time-constants, and the data which are needed to capture and measure them can therefore span many decades, sometimes centuries. Most of the natural sciences have caches of analogue historical data that would add significantly to our understanding of the evolution of the objects in question, if only the information in those data were readily accessible in modern electronic formats. Unfortunately, many of those analogue data are in precarious physical condition and only very few have been digitized. We review briefly the global situation regarding the status of those “data at risk”, and suggest strategies that will ensure the preservation of the information that they contain, making it readily and easily accessible in the public domain for use in specific scientific research, disaster risk assessment, or citizen science projects.
       
  • Frozen narratives: How media present security in the Arctic
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 May 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Barbora Padrtova The current academic discourse on the concept of regional security is characterized by several theoretical approaches and schools. For the purpose of this article, the modified securitization theory (Copenhagen School) is applied as it expands the security agenda beyond the classical military sector to politics, environment, economy and society. The theory further contests traditional approaches to security by focusing on other referent objects than the state (e.g. environment, industry, ethnic groups). At the same time, the state does not constitute the only securitizing actor. While there is a general agreement that there are numerous challenging issues in the Arctic, including the consequences of climate change, oil and gas extraction, mining and fisheries, there is only a limited awareness of securitized issues within the region. In order to understand why issues related to the environment, economy and regional politics are becoming securitized in the Arctic, there is a need for knowledge about securitization processes. In this article, I examine securitization in the Arctic (case study focused on the United States) by identifying narratives presented by the media as one of the key securitizing actors. The analysis provides a typology of four different narratives, applied by the five most influential media outlets in the United States.
       
  • Large-and-Sparse-particle Clouds (LSC): Clouds which are subvisible for
           space-borne lidar and observable for space-borne cloud radar
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Suginori Iwasaki, Takafumi Seguchi, Hajime Okamoto, Kaori Sato, Shuichiro Katagiri, Masatomo Fujiwara, Takashi Shibata, Kazuhisa Tsuboki, Takashi Ono, Takuji Sugidachi Large-and-Sparse-particle Clouds (LSC), characterized by large particle size (radius > 50 μm) and small number concentration (
       
  • The October 14, 1908 MW 6.6 earthquake in the Barents and Kara sea region
           of the arctic: Relocation based on instrumental data
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Alexey N. Morozov, Natalya V. Vaganova, Yana V. KonechnayaA magnitude Mw (ISC) = 6.6 earthquake on October 14, 1908 in the Barents-Kara Sea region was the strongest in this region for the entire observation period. We performed earthquake relocation based on our compilation of all available seismological bulletins of the time that included data from the ISC-GEM (International Seismological Centre–Global Earthquake Model) project, the EuroSeismos project, the Geophysical Survey of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Russian State Library. The relocation was performed using a modified generalized beamforming method based on the BARENTS travel time model. The epicenter was located in the estuarial part of the Franz Victoria Graben at the continent-ocean transition zone. According to our justification, an earthquake of such magnitude could well have occurred in the area of Franz Victoria Graben.
       
  • Surface radiation balance and weather conditions on a non-glaciated
           coastal area in the Antarctic region
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 April 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Jacyra Soares, Marco Alves, Flávia Noronha Dutra Ribeiro, Georgia Codato Meteorological measurements were performed on the non-glaciated coastal area of the Ferraz Station, the Brazilian Antarctic Station, at King George Island. Near the Station there are different topographic attributes, such as sea, glacier and hill, in addition to the intermittent presence of snow. The local atmospheric characteristics depend on wind direction, which is related in small scale to the local features and in large scale to the synoptic systems acting over the region. Westerly winds were the most frequent, with relatively lower speed and higher temperature and humidity values compared to the also frequent easterly winds, related to the coolest and driest winds. The average monthly barometric pressure and wind speed were higher during winter, associated with the presence of high-pressure systems. The radiation balance, measured for the first time in Ferraz Station, evidenced the presence of clouds throughout the year, especially during summer months, associated with the frequent synoptic systems of the region. During nighttimes (daytimes) and in winter (summer) months, the surface lost (gained) energy mainly by net longwave (shortwave) radiation. Reflected shortwave radiation was higher during spring months because of the its relatively higher albedo values combined with the already increased magnitude of the incident shortwave radiation.
       
  • Hunting tools and prestige in Northern Athabascan culture: Types,
           distribution, usage, and prestige of Athabascan daggers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Hiroya Noguchi, Shiaki Kondo Y-shaped copper or iron daggers found in Alaska and Yukon are generally attributed to the Northern Athabascan cultures. This study reveals their detailed distribution, types, and usage. Additionally, we discuss the relation between daggers as hunting tools and prestige goods. We conclude that Athabascan daggers were not only practical hunting tools, but also were prestige goods. This idea can partly resolve the proposed contradiction of the Northern Athabascan's archaeological context that supports native copper as a practical technology and the regional ethnohistory that strongly emphasizes connection with prestige.
       
  • Observation of nitrate deficit along transects across the Canada Basin
           after major sea-ice loss
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Yanpei Zhuang, Hongliang Li, Haiyan Jin, Jianfang Chen, Shengquan Gao, Youcheng Bai, Zhongqiang Ji, Yangjie Li Nutrient data were collected along similar cross-basin transects in the Canada Basin (75°–85°N) in 2005–2008, to evaluate the long-term change in the nitrate deficit. The results revealed a subsurface N* minimum (
       
  • Spatiotemporal variations of below-ground monoterpene concentrations in an
           upland black spruce stand in interior Alaska
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Tomoaki Morishita, Takafumi Miyama, Kyotaro Noguchi, Yojiro Matsuura, Yongwon Kim Monoterpenes play important roles in atmospheric chemistry and g lobal warming, and their sources and sinks have been investigated. However, there is no information about monoterpene concentrations in black spruce (Picea mariana) forest soil. Here, we investigated seasonal and spatial variations of monoterpene concentrations in soil of an upland black spruce stand in interior Alaska. The site comprised three plots with different tree biomasses, organic layer depths, and vegetation types (mosses and lichens). At each plot, monoterpene concentrations in air in the atmosphere, the soil, and the organic layer under various vegetation types (including leaf litter) were determined. Nine monoterpenes were identified: α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, 3-carene, sabinene, myrcene, p-cymene, limonene, and β-phellandrene. The total monoterpene concentration in the atmosphere was
       
  • Year-round observations of sea-ice drift and near-inertial internal waves
           in the Northwind Abyssal Plain, Arctic Ocean
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2019Source: Polar ScienceAuthor(s): Yusuke Kawaguchi, Motoyo Itoh, Yasushi Fukamachi, Erika Moriya, Jonaotaro Onodera, Takashi Kikuchi, Naomi Harada In this study, intra-annual variation of near-inertial internal wave (NIW) in the Arctic Ocean is examined using year-round mooring in the Northwind Abyssal Plain. Our emphasis is on dynamical responses of NIW to local sea-ice variables such as concentration, draft, and drift. We obtained those using a coupling system of ice profiling sonar (IPS) and an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) deployed at the top of the mooring. According to the wavelet spectrum, the inertial oscillation of ice drift becomes considerably strong during periods of ice formation and decay. Results show that the NIW amplitude in the upper part of the water column responds more sensitively to the sea-ice inertial oscillation than to the mean component of ice drift heading to the northwest. We also conducted an experiment with a mixed-layer slab model using the IPS-ADCP measured ice speed to examine the NIW generation responding to the ice-to-ocean stress. Experiment results suggest that the mixed-layer inertial oscillation is amplified in the early time of ice formation, through the ice-water resonance process. It is then concluded that the mixed-layer inertial current driven by ice drift is the primary driver of the enhanced NIW generation.
       
 
 
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