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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 140 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Museum Novitates     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 244)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 376)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Chelonian Conservation and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access  
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 335)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access  
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eco-Entrepreneur     Open Access  
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 199)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 95)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Environment and Natural Resources Journal     Open Access  
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intervención     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Media Konservasi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Natureza & Conservação : Brazilian Journal of Nature Conservation     Open Access  
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
Northeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Northwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ocean Acidification     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Oryx     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Recycling     Open Access  
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Southeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access  
Sustentabilidade em Debate     Open Access  
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The American Midland Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
The Southwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover
Global Ecology and Conservation
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.145
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 16  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2351-9894 - ISSN (Online) 2351-9894
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3203 journals]
  • Estimating density for species conservation: Comparing camera trap spatial
           count models to genetic spatial capture-recapture models

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2018Source: Global Ecology and ConservationAuthor(s): Joanna M. Burgar, Frances E.C. Stewart, John P. Volpe, Jason T. Fisher, A. Cole BurtonAbstractDensity estimation is integral to the effective conservation and management of wildlife. Camera traps in conjunction with spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models have been used to accurately and precisely estimate densities of “marked” wildlife populations comprising identifiable individuals. The emergence of spatial count (SC) models holds promise for cost-effective density estimation of “unmarked” wildlife populations when individuals are not identifiable. We evaluated model agreement, precision, and survey costs, between i) a fully marked approach using SCR models fit using non-invasive genetic data, and ii) an unmarked approach using SC models fit using camera trap data, for a recovering population of the mesocarnivore fisher (Pekania pennanti). The SCR density estimates ranged from 2.95-3.42 (2.18–5.19 95% BCI) fishers 100 km−2. The SC density estimates were influenced by their priors, ranging from 0.95 (0.65–2.95 95% BCI) fishers 100 km−2 for the uninformative model to 3.60 (2.01–7.55 95% BCI) fishers 100 km-2 for the model informed by prior knowledge of a 16 km2 fisher home range. We caution against using strongly informative priors but instead recommend using a range of unweighted prior knowledge. Thin detection data was problematic for both SCR and SC models, potentially producing biased low estimates. The total cost of the genetic survey ($47 610) was two-thirds of the camera trap survey ($77 080), or comparable ($75 746) if genetic sampling effort was increased to include sex and trap-behaviour covariates in SCR models. Density estimation of unmarked populations continues to be a series of trade-offs but as methods improve and integrate, so will our estimates.
       
  • The potential to use documentation in national Red Lists to characterize
           red-listed forest species in Fennoscandia and to guide conservation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2018Source: Global Ecology and ConservationAuthor(s): L. Tingstad, J.A. Grytnes, V.A. Felde, A. Juslén, E. Hyvärinen, A. DahlbergAbstractLoss of biodiversity is a pressing global issue, hence it is vital to facilitate informed and effective conservation. As conservation mainly operates at the level of habitats, aiming for species of conservation interest, conservation and management require adequate ecological knowledge of prioritized species for the geographic and environmental setting considered.Our aim was to investigate if ecological documentation in national Red Lists could be combined and used to identify important forest habitats and ecological variables for red-listed forest species in Fennoscandia, and whether this knowledge could be arranged at different geographical scales and for various selections of species of conservation interest.We compiled the national Red Lists of Finland, Norway and Sweden and extracted ecological information for all red-listed forest species (n = 4830). We used a principal component analysis to investigate variation in distribution of species and their habitat associations and taxonomical groups, and to group species of similar associations. We further used the listed species in Sweden as an example, and compared the proportions of species associated to the ecological variables dead wood, living trees or merely the “forest floor and understory” a) at larger and smaller scale (Fennoscandia – county in Sweden), b) in regions with contrasting biomes (nemoral and boreal), and c) in two more limited selections of species of conservation interest; Fennoscandian and globally red-listed species also red-listed in Sweden.Ecological information could be extracted for 96% of the species, albeit with a low resolution; i.e. overall forest habitats, associated tree species, lifeforms and six other ecological variables selected based on their frequent appearance in the Red List documentation. Using this information, we identified five large-scale patterns for Fennoscandian red-listed species; the majority of red-listed species is associated with coniferous forest. The number of red-listed species associated with specific tree species was poorly correlated with the amount of each tree species in Fennoscandia. Dead wood was one of the most important habitat features in terms of number of associated red-listed species, and the proportion of species associated to dead wood was similar in coniferous, boreal and nemoral broadleaved forests types.We demonstrate that ecological documentation in national Red Lists can be used to identify general ecological variables at varying geographical scales and for different selections of species, albeit not with sufficient resolution to provide detailed local conservation guidelines.
       
  • Private landowners and protected species: What sort of noncompliance
           should we be worried about'

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Global Ecology and Conservation, Volume 15Author(s): Maarit Jokinen, Teppo Hujala, Riikka Paloniemi, Annukka VainioAbstractSpecies protection legislation has been used as one of the main approaches in conservation – yet in many cases we know only little about the effectiveness and side-effects of such regulation. Noncompliance can limit effectiveness of legislative protection, and deliberate harmful actions by landowners have sometimes been reported as a response to restrictions. We studied attitudes of 186 Finnish forest owners toward the protection of Siberian flying squirrel Pteromys volans – a species which is protected according to the European Union Habitats Directive and is a well-known example for species protection in Finland. We explored the attitudes and claims of harming protected species by comparing the responses of persons with and without direct experience of legal protection by structural equation modelling. We found that experience did not explain forest owners' attitudes toward having the species in their forest. Claims of harming protected species were connected to policy attitudes and should be interpreted as a political phenomenon: they reflect political discourse on conservation policy and are a part of debate between stakeholders. Accidental and reckless noncompliance seem more important phenomena than intentional harming, especially as the chance in Finnish Nature conservation likely Act likely affects information of nest sites on logging areas. Other instruments than legislative protection of known nest sites might be more effective in protecting the flying squirrel population.
       
  • Drought and climate change incidence on hospot Cedrela forests from the
           Mata Atlântica biome in southeastern Brazil

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Global Ecology and Conservation, Volume 15Author(s): Alejandro Venegas-González, Fidel A. Roig, Claudio S. Lisi, Alci Albiero- Junior, Clayton Alcarde Alvares, Mario Tomazello-FilhoAbstractThe Atlantic Forest is a Neotropical biome encompassing mainly Brazil's coastline and parts of Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argentina, but today surviving largely in small degraded patches and protected areas. Being a region under threat of extinction of its biological components, little is known about how climate change could influence the biodiversity, dynamics, and stability of this ecosystem. Here, we analyze the response of tree-growth dynamics to regional climate variability and drought, both in temporal and spatial scale. For this purpose, five Cedrela spp forest sites located in the biogeographic region ‘Serra do Mar’ (AFSM) in southeastern Brazil was considered. This region contains the best-preserved secondary forests of the Atlantic Forest biome, a fact that represents a natural laboratory to ascertain the environmental influence on the tree development through large spatial scales. Correlation and regression analysis were used to explore the relationship between growth and rainfall, air temperature, and a drought index. Results indicate that tree growth performance is highly dependent to the dry season rainfall amounts in the most humid sector of the gradient, while sites settled in areas of lower summer temperatures, rainfall during the warm-rainy season is the main determining factor influencing tree-growth dynamics. This implies that the same environmental factor (rainfall) affect differentially the growth of Cedrela sites depending on the sector in the gradient in which they are. We found that the population located at the highest-altitude site experienced a growth decline in recent decades linked to increases of winter regional warming, being more sensitivity to long periods of drought (6–10 years). In summary, the seasonal response of cambium activity in AFSM trees to rainfall varies across a climatic gradient. These results are crucial to understand how the present and future global change may differentially impact on tree population dynamics of montane Neotropical forests.
       
  • Community use and perceptions of a biodiversity corridor in Myanmar's
           threatened southern forests

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Global Ecology and Conservation, Volume 15Author(s): Teri D. Allendorf, Khine Khine Swe, Myint Aung, Anton ThorsenAbstractWith the advent of democratization in Myanmar in 2010, it is a pivotal moment for Myanmar's natural environment. Myanmar's southern forests are a biodiversity hotspot and are receiving a great deal of conservation investment from international non-governmental organizations. Given the important role that local communities play in conservation, the objective of this study is to explore the perceptions of local communities toward a biodiversity corridor in this forest landscape. We conducted 263 individual surveys in eight communities along the Banchaung River in a primarily Karen area of Tanintharyi. We found that the vast majority of respondents in these forest-dependent communities (98%) see changes in the forest and are worried about its future (92%). The primary changes they perceive are degradation (94%) and less wildlife (94%). The most commonly mentioned concerns that people have for the forests are the threat of outside companies claiming land (34%) and climate change (31%). Villages have rules regarding extraction of timber and wildlife from the forest but they do not have secure tenure. In fact, five of the communities were actively trying to register their forests with either the Government of Myanmar's Forest Department or the Forest Department of the Karen National Union, the de facto government in much of the Karen area. Given people's high dependence on the forest and high levels of concern for it, we propose that the government and civil society prioritize policies and programs that facilitate and institutionalize the involvement of local communities in decision-making and management of this landscape at this critical juncture of Myanmar's history.
       
  • Morphological changes in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) at
           continental migration sites

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2018Source: Global Ecology and ConservationAuthor(s): Teresa E. Ely, Christopher W. Briggs, Shawn E. Hawks, Gregory S. Kaltenecker, David L. Evans, Frank J. Nicoletti, Jean-Francois Therrien, Olin Allen, John P. DeLongAbstractMany American kestrel (Falco sparverius) populations are declining across North America. Potential causes include mortality from reduction in food availability, a changing climate, habitat degradation, an increase in avian predators, disease, and toxins. We analyzed American kestrel count and banding data from seven raptor migration sites throughout North America with at least 20 years of migration data. We used count data to determine the year at which the kestrel population began a significant decline and then used banding records to determine whether body mass and wing chord declined after this point. We found reductions in kestrel body mass at three sites and reductions in kestrel wing chord at five sites. Our results indicate declines in body size at the majority of sites are consistent with the hypotheses that food availability, impacts of a changing climate, or predation risk may be contributing to population declines.
       
  • Roads have no effect on guanaco habitat selection at a Patagonian site
           with limited poaching

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Global Ecology and Conservation, Volume 14Author(s): Natalia M. Schroeder, Alejandro González, Michael Wisdom, Ryan Nielson, Mary M. Rowland, Andres J. NovaroAbstractRoads affect flora and fauna across the world. Large mammals are particularly vulnerable to road effects because their large home ranges lead to a higher probability of contact with road networks. Disturbance associated with roads can alter the probability of habitat use by making suitable habitat near roads inaccessible or underused. Many studies and monitoring programs for large mammals such as guanaco (Lama guanicoe) in South America, however, rely on counts made from roads to estimate population abundance and distribution. These counts implicitly assume that animal responses to roads are negligible, an assumption almost universally unstudied. We used density surface models with aerial survey data to evaluate the effects of unpaved roads on guanaco habitat selection, at the scale of the species' home range, in a Patagonian site with limited poaching. Contrary to expectations and regardless of disturbance level associated with roads, guanacos did not avoid roads at site (0.36 km2) or patch (2.4 km2) scales during any season. We posit two non-exclusive hypotheses to explain our results: (1) disturbance levels of roads are below thresholds of guanaco response, and (2) guanacos in our study area tolerated motorized vehicles due to limited harassment by poachers from roads. Our results, considered with opposite findings of strong road effects on guanaco at a landscape and regional scales, highlight the need to assess whether road surveys lead to biased estimates of ungulate abundance and distribution under different environmental conditions, human activities and scales of interest. Where long-term monitoring of large mammal populations relies on road surveys, aerial or other non-road surveys could be strategically conducted to determine whether counts from roads provide reliable estimates.
       
  • Assessment of the African baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) populations in
           Namibia: Implications for conservation

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Global Ecology and Conservation, Volume 14Author(s): K. Lisao, C.J. Geldenhuys, P.W. ChirwaAbstractThis study assessed the population structure of baobabs (Adansonia digitata) in Kunene, Omusati, Otjozondjupa and Zambezi Regions in northern Namibia. Data were collected from 240 trees in randomly selected baobab clusters. The stem girth at breast height (gbh, converted to stem diameter), height and crown diameter were recorded for each individual tree. Any sign of damage on the stem was recorded. Average stem densities were determined and compared between regions. Stem number per diameter classes were presented in histograms. The highest baobab density (6.7 stems per ha) was observed in Omusati Region and the lowest (0.2 stems per ha) was observed in Otjozondjupa Region. A J-shaped stem diameter distribution was observed in Zambezi Region and an inverse J-shaped distribution in Kunene Region. Bell-shaped distributions were observed in Otjozondjupa and Omusati Regions. The percentage of damaged stems in the sampled populations showed more damaged than undamaged baobabs in Kunene (63%), Omusati (83%) and Otjozondjupa (95%), but in Zambezi there were fewer damaged (46%) stems. Elephant damage accounted for 41% of the damaged stems whereas human damage was 59%. Selective protection of large baobabs by communities may attribute to the high densities and occurrence of trees in larger size classes in comparison to juveniles. Overall, the baobab population is currently considered as stable in Namibia. However, factors that negatively affect recruitment and establishment of baobab need to be monitored to ensure that a higher proportion of young trees survive. The study recommends protection and propagation of baobab seedlings in order to maintain viable populations of the species. Sustainable harvesting practices of baobab bark is also recommended.
       
  • Effects of livestock grazing on key vegetation attributes of a remnant
           forest reserve: The case of Desa'a Forest in northern Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Global Ecology and Conservation, Volume 14Author(s): Kidane Giday, Bekele Humnessa, Bart Muys, Fatemeh Taheri, Hossein AzadiAbstractThe study was conducted in Desa'a Forest with the objective of investigating livestock-forest interaction. This study also evaluated the grazing pressure on Desa'a Forests from livestock, the potential of forests biomass feed production and current livestock density relation to the sustainable stocking rate. Data on socio-economic and community perception about livestock-forest interaction were collected through structured questionnaire on 90 households. To determine the species composition, abundance, density and diversity of woody plants, using stratified random sampling, four transect lines were laid out in east, west, north and south direction. Accordingly, the results are representative of Desa'a Forest. In the study area, 90% of the respondents (81 households) entered their livestock into Desa'a Forest and only 10% of the respondents (9 households) did not use Desa'a Forest. A total of 63 woody plant species were identified in the study area. According to farmers and pastoralists' opinion, 49.15%, 15.25%, 28.81% and 6.79% of woody species were identified as highly palatable, palatable, less palatable and unpalatable respectively. The mean herbaceous biomass production in Desa'a Forest is 1255.86 kg/ha. The predicted mean annual browse biomass production was 3000.72 kg/ha. The potential stocking rates for Desa'a Forest were 68480.39 TLU/year obtained based on the amount of fodder available to the livestock in the forest. The available potential browsing unit per hectare in the centre, North-West direction and south-east direction was 1432.66 BU/ha, 665.83 BU/ha and 203.66 BU/ha, respectively. Only 5.65% of the total surveyed households practice forage development which are the key to overcome feed shortage and decrease the pressure from the forest.
       
  • Global conservation status of marine pufferfishes (Tetraodontiformes:
           Tetraodontidae)

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Global Ecology and Conservation, Volume 14Author(s): Emilie Stump, Gina M. Ralph, Mia T. Comeros-Raynal, Keiichi Matsuura, Kent E. CarpenterAbstractPuffers are biologically and ecologically fascinating fishes best known for their unique morphology and arsenal of defenses including inflation and bioaccumulation of deadly neurotoxins. These fishes are also commercially, culturally, and ecologically important in many regions. One-hundred-and-fifty-one species of marine puffers were assessed against the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List Criteria at a 2011 workshop held in Xiamen, China. Here we present the first comprehensive review of puffer geographic and depth distribution, use and trade, and habitats and ecology and a summary of the global conservation status of marine puffers, determined by applying the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List Criteria. The majority (77%) of puffers were assessed as Least Concern, 15% were Data Deficient, and 8% were threatened (Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable) or Near Threatened. Of the threatened species, the majority are limited-ranging habitat specialists which are primarily affected by habitat loss due to climate change and coastal development. However, one threatened puffer (Takifugu chinensis – CR) and four Near Threatened puffers, also in the genus Takifugu (which contains 24 species total), are wide-ranging habitat generalists which are commercially targeted in the international puffer trade. A disproportionate number of species of conservation concern are found along the coast of eastern Asia, from Japan to the South China Sea, with the highest concentration in the East China Sea. Better management of fishing and other conservation efforts are needed for commercially fished Takifugu species in this region. Taxonomic issues within the Tetraodontidae confound accurate reporting and produce a lack of resolution in species distributions. Resolution of taxonomy will enable more accurate assessment of the conservation status of many Data Deficient puffers.
       
  • Reconsidering habitat associations in the Anthropocene

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Global Ecology and Conservation, Volume 14Author(s): Sarah McCullough Hennessy, Susanne A. Marczak, Lisa A. Nordstrom, Ronald R. SwaisgoodAbstractThe California ground squirrel (Otospermophilus beecheyi) is generally undervalued despite serving as an ecosystem engineer in grassland ecosystems. Evidence of significant engineering effects by squirrels indicates that population reductions have cascading effects on other species, including several conservation-dependent species. While the theory and practices behind habitat association studies are already well established, our application of this approach helped identify priority management options in degraded grasslands expected to change further under shifts in climate. In this study we conducted surveys for California ground squirrels throughout San Diego County grasslands and examined habitat covariates to determine the ecological variables currently associated with occurrence. The primary objectives were to 1) improve our understanding of the habitat variables associated with squirrel presence, and 2) develop a predictive model for squirrel habitat suitability at a local scale. The most predictive models included significant main effects for percent sand (as a component of soil texture) and vegetation cover. A 10% increase in vegetation cover was associated with 1.3 fold lower odds of squirrel presence, whereas a 10% increase in percent sand was associated with 2.0 times higher odds of squirrel presence. Comparison of the predictive accuracy of soil texture data at two scales (fine-scale field vs. landscape scale GIS layers) showed fine-scale field sampling has greater predictive strength. Because soil type is a logistically non-malleable factor for wildlife managers, it is important to categorize management sites by soil type to identify the potential for promoting fossorial species on the landscape. With the prospect of shifting landscape ecotones due to climate change, it is as important to understand the basic habitat requirements of keystone species as for rare species.
       
  • Impact assessment of agriculture and livestock over age, longevity and
           growth of populations of common toad Rhinella arenarum (anura: Bufonidae),
           central area of Argentina

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Global Ecology and Conservation, Volume 14Author(s): Clarisa de L. Bionda, Selene Babini, Adolfo L. Martino, Nancy E. Salas, Rafael C. LajmanovichAbstractThe central area of Argentina has been greatly affected mainly due to urbanization and intensive agriculture (corn, soybean and cattle). Age, longevity and growth were determined in populations of the common toad, Rhinella arenarum, from urban and agricultural sites in the central area of Argentina. Five sites in Rio Cuarto (33º05′52.95″ S - 64º26′02.99″ W, 471 m a.s.l.; Córdoba Province, Argentina) with different degree of anthropic disturbance were selected to evaluate the impact of urbanization and agriculture on common toad populations as sentinel species. The selected sites were chosen according to intensive to moderate agricultural and livestock activity, low influence of agricultural and an intensive to moderate urban influence. A total of 114 adults (males and females) were sampled. Skeletochronology was used to estimate toad's growth and age, which relies on the analysis of the annual Lines of Arrested Growth or LAGs in bones. Size, age and growth reductions occurrence in intensive agricultural systems could suggest long term impacts on fitness. In addition, intensive urban activity also affects life history of the population of R. arenarum, although to a lesser extent than the agricultural-livestock activity.
       
  • Participatory scenario development process in addressing potential impacts
           of anthropogenic activities on the ecosystem services of Mt. Marsabit
           forest, Kenya

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Global Ecology and Conservation, Volume 14Author(s): Godwin Leslie Muhati, Daniel Olago, Lydia OlakaAbstractThe Marsabit Forest Reserve (MFR), a green island in an arid environmental setting, generates multiple ecosystem goods and services (ES) to the local community critical for their livelihoods. The forest has been experiencing substantial land conversion for town expansion, agriculture production and settlements threatening long-term ES provision. Sustaining the forest ES under increasing anthropogenic pressures is one of the great challenges of the Marsabit forest community. We used focus group discussions in the thirteen locations around the forest and individual key informant's interviews in the identification of drivers of change and their potential impacts on ES in MFR. We used the scenario development process (SDP) in coming up with four divergent but plausible exploratory scenarios. The study established that the main ES provided by the forest was, water, fuelwood, forage (dry season grazing resource), medicinal plants and timber for construction. Stakeholders identified population pressure, unsustainable utilisation of forest resources, institutional barriers to effective resource management, land use and climate change as the main drivers impacting ES provision in the forest. Land use change and climate change were considered the most significant drivers yet the most uncertain in the future impacting ES provision in the MFR. The SDP identified four alternative future scenarios for the MFR by the year 2044 with the Marsabit we want scenario identified as the most desirable future for the sustainable supply of ES with adequate adaptation to observed changes. Stakeholders came up with a joint action plan implementation matrix for the identified scenario while mitigating the negative aspects of the alternative scenarios. The results support the need for participatory land use planning that takes into to account the growing threat of climate change to natural forest systems.
       
  • Plantations of Pinus and Eucalyptus replacing degraded mountain miombo
           woodlands in Mozambique significantly increase carbon sequestration

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Global Ecology and Conservation, Volume 14Author(s): Benard S. Guedes, Bengt A. Olsson, Gustaf Egnell, Almeida A. Sitoe, Erik KarltunAbstractTotal ecosystem carbon (C) stocks in tree biomass (aboveground and belowground), litter layer and soil (0–50 cm depth) were quantified in mountain miombo woodland and in 34-year-old first-rotation plantations of Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus grandis. The study was performed at three sites (Penhalonga, Rotanda and Inhamacari) in the western highlands of Manica province in Mozambique, bordering Zimbabwe. One 30 m × 30 m sampling plot was established for each forest type per site. Pre-tested allometric equations were used to determine total C stocks within aboveground tree biomass of each forest type and data from the literature on the relationship between aboveground and belowground biomass were used to estimate C stocks in belowground woody biomass (i.e. coarse roots). Measured soil and litter layer C data were taken from a previous study. Carbon stocks in mountain miombo woodland were used as a baseline to estimate C sequestration at the ecosystem scale, i.e. net ecosystem production (NEP) in the plantations, considering 34 years as stand age of the planted forests.Total ecosystem C stocks in miombo woodlands (∼116 Mg ha−1) were significantly lower than in stands of P. taeda (363 Mg ha−1) and E. grandis (∼407 Mg ha−1). Carbon sequestration rate at ecosystem scale (NEP) was 7.24 Mg ha−1 yr−1 in P. taeda stands and 8.54 Mg ha−1 yr−1 in E. grandis stands. NEP was dominated by the increment in biomass (∼80%). This was also reflected in higher ratio between biomass C and soil organic C stocks in the plantations compared with miombo forest. The plantation species showed similar performance with respect to total C stocks and NEP. It was concluded that plantations of P. taeda or E. grandis have significant potential to increase C stocks and C sequestration rate in both soil and tree biomass on replacing degraded mountain miombo woodlands in the western highlands of Manica province.
       
  • Soil indicators of plant diversity for global ecoregions: Implications for
           management practices

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Global Ecology and Conservation, Volume 14Author(s): Ji-Zhong Wan, Qiang-Feng Li, Ning Li, Jian-Hua Si, Zhi-Xiang Zhang, Chun-Jing Wang, Xi-Lai Li, Zong-Ren LiAbstractEnvironmental indicators have been developed widely to promote biodiversity conservation, ecological restoration, and nature resource management from local to global scales. Ecoregions are effective tools for global conservation of plant diversity, and soil conditions can affect the plant diversity within ecoregions. Hence, soil indicators of plant diversity have substantial potential as tools for effectively understanding global ecoregions. Here, we used plant diversity data from 361 ecoregions and seven soil variables in a regression analysis to explore the relationships between soil and ecoregional plant diversity (EPD). We found that soil means and heterogeneity were significantly related to EPD. EPD decreased curvilinearly as both mean cation exchange capacity and mean soil pH increased, while mean soil organic carbon stock was negatively related to EPD (P 
       
  • Small populations of fig trees offer a keystone food resource and
           conservation benefits for declining insectivorous birds

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Global Ecology and Conservation, Volume 14Author(s): K.D. Mackay, C.L. Gross, M. RossettoAbstractNovel restoration approaches are required to provide food and habitat for declining bird populations, particularly as pressures increase from growing human populations and climate change. Fig (Ficus) species support many frugivores but there is a gap in our knowledge about the importance of these insect-pollinated plants to insectivores. We tested the influences of fig-population size and the number of fig-wasp-producing fruit per tree on avian-insectivore visitation to fig trees in eastern Australia over a three-year period. Eighty-four bird species visited fig trees in our study; two thirds (55) of these species were insectivores. More individual insectivores (1686) than frugivores (1051) visited fig trees (p 
       
  • Local costs of conservation exceed those borne by the global majority

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Global Ecology and Conservation, Volume 14Author(s): Jonathan M.H. Green, Brendan Fisher, Rhys E. Green, Joseph Makero, Philip J. Platts, Neema Robert, Marije Schaafsma, R. Kerry Turner, Andrew BalmfordAbstractCost data are crucial in conservation planning to identify more efficient and equitable land use options. However, many studies focus on just one cost type and neglect others, particularly those borne locally. We develop, for a high priority conservation area, spatial models of two local costs that arise from protected areas: foregone agricultural opportunities and increased wildlife damage. We then map these across the study area and compare them to the direct costs of reserve management, finding that local costs exceed management costs. Whilst benefits of conservation accrue to the global community, significant costs are borne by those living closest. Where livelihoods depend upon opportunities forgone or diminished by conservation intervention, outcomes are limited. Activities can be displaced (leakage); rules can be broken (intervention does not work); or the intervention forces a shift in livelihood profiles (potentially to the detriment of local peoples’ welfare). These raise concerns for both conservation and development outcomes and timely consideration of local costs is vital in conservation planning tools and processes.
       
  • Quantification of carbon stocks in Mount Marsabit Forest Reserve, a
           sub-humid montane forest in northern Kenya under anthropogenic disturbance
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Global Ecology and Conservation, Volume 14Author(s): Godwin Leslie Muhati, Daniel Olago, Lydia OlakaAbstractThe quantification of carbon stocks is vital for decision making in forest management, carbon stock change assessment and scientific applications. We applied the land degradation surveillance framework (LDSF) method with a sentinel site of (10 km × 10 km) to assess carbon stock levels and tree diversity in the Marsabit Forest Reserve (MFR). The above ground (ABG) carbon stock was estimated at 12.42 t/ha, while soil organic carbon (SOC) was 12.51 t/ha, with SOC densities increasing with increasing depth. The mean ABG carbon and SOC densities were higher in the least disturbed strata than the disturbed strata. The estimated ABG carbon and SOC stocks were significantly lower than the range observed in a typical dry tropical forest. Twenty-one tree species were recorded belonging to twelve families with the disturbed areas recording nine tree species while the least disturbed recording twelve species. Rubiaceae and Rutaceae were the richest families with four species each while Boraginaceae, Capparaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Tiliaceae, Violaceae, and Ochnaceae the least frequent with one species each. The most common tree species were, Croton megalocarpus, Drypetes gerrardii, Ochna insculpta, Strychnos henningsii and Vangueria madagascariensis. The forest recorded a basal diameter of 14.09 ± 12.15 cm, basal area of 0.016 m 2/ha with a mean height of 8.69 m. The basal size class distribution declined monotonically indicative of a stable population. Livestock grazing, selective logging, and firewood collection were the primary forms of anthropogenic activities recorded in the MFR despite the moratorium imposed on consumptive utilisation of forest products by the Marsabit County security committee. The Pearson correlation coefficient returned an inverse relationship between forest disturbance with SOC and ABG carbon in the disturbed strata suggesting that anthropogenic activities reduced carbon stocks in the MFR. Concerted efforts to mitigate anthropogenic impacts on the MFR could significantly increase its terrestrial carbon sequestration potential and the provision of critical ecosystem goods and services.
       
  • Seed dispersal of a tropical deciduous Mahua tree, Madhuca latifolia
           (Sapotaceae) exhibiting bat-fruit syndrome by pteropodid bats

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Global Ecology and Conservation, Volume 14Author(s): Valliyappan Mahandran, Chinnaperamanoor Madhappan Murugan, Ganapathy Marimuthu, Parthasarathy Thiruchenthil NathanAbstractPollination and seed dispersal are two important phases of the reproductive cycle in plants and are usually performed by different groups of animal taxa in tropics. However, in Mahua tree, Madhuca latifolia (Sapotaceae) both pollination and seed dispersal are predominantly performed by pteropodid bats. We report the foraging and seed dispersal strategies of three sympatric pteropodid bats, Cynopterus sphinx, Rousettus leschenaultii and Pteropus giganteus, during two successive fruiting seasons of M. latifolia. These sympatric fruit bats exhibited spatio-temporal variation while foraging and consumed fleshy mesocarp of fruits and discarded the seeds. Fruit processing time corresponded to the size of the bat species (P. giganteus > R. leschenaultii > C. sphinx); the larger the bat, the more number of fruits they consumed. P. giganteus predominantly consumed the fruits in situ (87% of the times). However, during peak foraging hours, when intraspecific aggressive interactions were high, these bats flew away with fruits from the parent tree (13%), and transported seeds to longer distances (at a time, which they carried = 7.2 km). On the contrary, R. leschenaultii and C. sphinx plucked one fruit at a time and carried to their feeding roosts for consumption. The feeding roosts of medium-sized fruit bat R. leschenaultii were located farther than that of the small-sized C. sphinx, i.e., 52.81 m and 34.18 m, respectively. Comparison of seed germination rates showed no significant variation between bat-dispersed seeds (R. leschenaultii: 95% and C. sphinx: 90%) and control seeds (manually extracted: 90%). As intact fruits did not germinate, mesocarp removal and mobility of seeds away from the parent tree were the main advantages gained by M. latifolia from the foraging bats suggesting the existence of a resource−service mutualism between the fruit bats and bat fruits.
       
 
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