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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 140 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Museum Novitates     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 244)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 376)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Chelonian Conservation and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access  
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 335)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access  
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eco-Entrepreneur     Open Access  
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 199)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 95)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Environment and Natural Resources Journal     Open Access  
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intervención     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Media Konservasi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Natureza & Conservação : Brazilian Journal of Nature Conservation     Open Access  
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
Northeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Northwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ocean Acidification     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Oryx     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Recycling     Open Access  
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Southeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access  
Sustentabilidade em Debate     Open Access  
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The American Midland Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
The Southwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Ecology and Society
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.728
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 51  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1708-3087
Published by Resilience Alliance Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Measuring rural community resilience: case studies in New Zealand and
           Vermont, USA

    • Authors: Payne, P. R; Kaye-Blake, W. H, Kelsey, A, Brown, M, Niles, M. T.
      Abstract: To date, methods for assessing community resilience have focused predominantly on disaster recovery. Those that do focus on broader social-ecological and psychological contexts tend to be qualitative and have not been validated at the community scale. This situation reveals a need for quantitative measurement tools for assessing community resilience to slow-moving change such as rural depopulation or climate change. Our research provides a proof of concept across two diverse contexts, New Zealand and Vermont, USA, that community resilience can be quantified and broken down into dimensions of resilience. Using mixed methods, we assessed how eight communities across two countries perceive resilience and compared their perceptions with indicators of resilience in the form of official statistics. Vermonters generally perceived their communities as more resilient than did New Zealanders, and reported different dimensions of resilience as drivers of overall perceptions of resilience. Although institutional resilience was a driver of overall resilience in both countries, social and cultural dimensions of resilience were also drivers in New Zealand, whereas economic and environmental dimensions were drivers of overall resilience in Vermont. Resilience indicators were found to be weakly related or unrelated to community perceptions of resilience. This result suggests that the proposed method for measuring resilience can be used across contexts, but that there is not one type of resilience that is the key to higher levels of overall resilience. It also suggests that the two proxy measures of resilience, i.e., community perceptions and indicators, do not provide a consistent picture of resilience, raising the question of which is a more accurate measure.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Jan 2021 13:18:02 EST
  • Linking landscape attributes to salmon and decision-making in the southern
           Kenai Lowlands, Alaska, USA

    • Authors: Walker, C. M; Whigham, D. F, Bentz, I, Argueta, J. M, King, R. S, Rains, M. C, Simenstad, C. A, Guo, C, Baird, S, Field, C. J.
      Abstract: While Pacific salmon are economically and culturally important worldwide, Alaska, USA is one of the few remaining places on earth where sustainable management of salmon is possible, even in the face of wide-ranging threats, including overharvesting and the impacts of climate change. A continuing challenge that we face is to understand the ecological processes that result in sustainable salmon populations and report that science to stakeholders in a way that promotes decision-making to avoid the destruction of salmon populations that has occurred in most areas of the lower 48 states. To address this challenge, our studies in the southern Kenai Lowlands of Alaska are designed to understand the ecological linkages between the landscape and salmon-bearing streams. Our focus on headwater streams that are essential habitat for juveniles of several salmonids demonstrates multiple connections between uplands, wetlands, and the headwater streams. These ecological linkages have been mapped across the watersheds of the southern Kenai Lowlands and used to create spatial tools for communicating with stakeholders who are making land-use decisions that affect salmon-supporting habitats. We present how the main findings of our research, i.e., the influence of alders, peatlands, and groundwater flows on riparian and headwater streams, were incorporated into a spatial tool that was used in case studies with user groups and in outreach efforts. We include evidence that these efforts to engage with stakeholders are resulting in attitudinal shifts as well as on-the-ground changes in peoples’ decision-making.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Jan 2021 13:02:12 EST
  • The Flow of Peasant Lives: a board game to simulate livelihood strategies
           and trajectories resulting from complex rural household decisions

    • Authors: Garc?a-Barrios, L; Rivera-N??ez, T, Cruz-Morales, J, Urdapilleta-Carrasco, J, Castro-Salcido, E, Pe?a-Azcona, I, Mart?nez-L?pez, O, L?pez-Cruz, A, Morales, M, Espinoza, J.
      Abstract: Since the 1990s, many of neoliberalism’s policies for growth and development have contributed to the deterioration of living conditions for rural peasants who are marginalized and unwilling or unable to abandon their lands. In every nation in which this phenomenon is prevalent, the resulting impoverishment of rural peasants has motivated numerous academic studies and poverty-alleviation programs. Concurrently, peasants have been developing and modifying their strategies for social reproduction, under conditions that are usually uncertain and restrictive. Here, we describe the design and implementation of a serious board game called The Flow of Peasant Lives (TFPL). TFPL is a complex but player-friendly game that was developed and parameterized using information and first-hand knowledge that the authors gained through 15 years of interaction and discussion with peasant residents of La Sepultura Man in the Biosphere-United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Biosphere Reserve in Chiapas, Mexico. The game was implemented in November 2017 in workshops held in six rural communities in the Sierra Madre of Chiapas, Mexico. During the workshops, 126 participants made 21,600 recorded decisions about capacity allocations during 393 simulated years of rural life. Strategies followed by members of rural households (as a team) led the game along ascendant, descendant, and oscillatory trajectories in the reproduction of capabilities, as is actually the case in rural life contexts. The great majority of academic approaches seeks to influence the transformation of rural life starting from preconceived notions about peasants’ needs. In contrast, TFPL is a social-immanent learning tool that provides a safe, fun venue where rural households can make their realities explicit, exchange ideas, explore possibilities for action, and discuss what needs to be changed. It has great potential for transfer to other rural contexts because it balances research components that are nomothetic (general) with ones that are ideographic (particular).
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Dec 2020 14:05:24 EST
  • Telecoupling visualizations through a network lens: a systematic review

    • Authors: Sonderegger, G; Oberlack, C, Llopis, J. C, Verburg, P. H, Heinimann, A.
      Abstract: Telecoupling is an integrative social-ecological framework that has made important contributions to understanding land change processes in a hyperconnected world. Visualizations are a powerful tool to communicate knowledge about telecoupling phenomena. However, little is known about current practices of telecoupling visualization and the challenges involved in visually displaying connections between multiple social-ecological systems. Our research takes stock of existing telecoupling visualizations and provides recommendations for improving current practices. We systematically review 118 visualizations presented in the scientific literature on telecoupling, and assess them in terms of their content and the adopted visualization approaches. To this end, we conceptualize telecoupling visualizations through a network lens. We find that they typically present networks of social-ecological systems, which are linked through flows. Displays of telecoupling connections through actor networks or action situation networks are less frequent. We categorize the existing visualizations into seven main types, which differ in terms of the visual encoding strategies used to represent telecoupling components. We then draw on insights from data visualization literature to reflect critically upon these current practices and provide practical recommendations. Finally, we show that network perspectives are inherent in telecoupling research and visualizations, and may deserve further attention in this field.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Dec 2020 13:28:31 EST
  • Toward the development of sustainable ecotourism in Italian national parks
           of the Apennines: insights from hiking guides

    • Authors: Poponi, S; Palli, J, Ferrari, S, Filibeck, G, Forte, T. G. W, Franceschini, C, Ruggieri, A, Piovesan, G.
      Abstract: National parks in mountain areas are biodiversity hotspots in which implementing the sustainability goals of Agenda 2030 is particularly urgent. Ecotourism provides an opportunity to convey bio-ecological and economic sustainability principles to the public, focusing on nature conservation and a reduction of the negative impacts of tourism. We investigated four national parks in the Apennines, Italy using the insights of hiking guides with park accreditation to assess sustainability issues. Multivariate analyses of questionnaires revealed that most of the interviewed hiking guides across the Apennines were sensitive toward the theme of sustainability. Limiting the ecological footprint of tourism was identified as the main challenge. Interesting feedback on management issues was given by hiking guides, indicating innovations such as food, waste-disposal management, accommodation, and transport as critical areas with the potential to impact sustainable development. Certification schemes were also recognized as an important tool with which to encourage ecologically responsible tourism. Hiking guides themselves revealed an interest in improving national parks’ scientific communication and the provision of lifelong learning initiatives regarding old-growth forests and nature conservation. Overall, the research highlights the key role of hiking guides as an effective means of conveying conservation messaging to ecotourists, while also encouraging sustainable development and the adoption of agro-environmental measures on the part of local communities. Hiking guides could, therefore, contribute toward both improving cultural awareness of conservation issues and encouraging local, low-impact economic practices.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Dec 2020 11:18:32 EST
  • Putting machine learning to use in natural resource
           management—improving model performance

    • Authors: Frey U. J.
      Abstract: Machine learning models have proven to be very successful in many fields of research. Yet, in natural resource management, modeling with algorithms such as gradient boosting or artificial neural networks is virtually nonexistent. The current state of research on existing applications of machine learning in the field of social-ecological systems is outlined in a systematic literature review. For this purpose, a short introduction on fundamental concepts of neural network modeling is provided. The data set used, a prototypical case study collection of social-ecological systems—the common–pool resources database from the Ostrom Workshop—is described. I answer the question of whether neural networks are suitable for the kind of data and problems in this field, and whether they or other machine learning algorithms perform better than standard statistical approaches such as regressions. The results indicate a large performance gain. In addition, I identify obstacles for adapting machine learning and provide suggestions on how to overcome them. By using a freely available data set and open source software, and by providing the full code, I hope to enable the community to add machine learning to the existing tool box of statistical methods.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Dec 2020 10:24:53 EST
  • Canada and transboundary fisheries management in changing oceans: taking
           stock, future scenarios

    • Authors: Sumaila, U; VanderZwaag, D. L.
      Abstract: This article is the Introduction to the Special Feature entitled: Canada and Transboundary Fisheries Management in Changing Oceans: Taking Stock, Future Scenarios. We summarize the research context of the four papers in the Special Feature.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Dec 2020 12:38:00 EST
  • Transboundary fisheries, climate change, and the ecosystem approach:
           taking stock of the international law and policy seascape

    • Authors: Engler C.
      Abstract: The ecosystem approach to fisheries management is a conceptual and practical framework consistent with, and supportive of, climate change adaptation at the national and regional level. Implementing an ecosystem approach can contribute to climate change adaptation by improving ecosystem resilience and reducing vulnerability to climate change, by providing planning strategies and tools to monitor and assess the impacts of climate change on fisheries, and by relying on precautionary, flexible, and adaptive approaches that account for the uncertainties, surprises, unpredictability, and dynamism of ecosystems in a changing climate. In this article, I provide an overview of some key considerations framing the mandate and capacity of regional fisheries management organizations and arrangements to implement ecosystem approaches in the context of climate change. The article first addresses the extent to which international law of the sea, and in particular the 1995 United Nations Fish Stock Agreement, endorses and implements an ecosystem approach to fisheries for the management of straddling and highly migratory stocks. It then addresses the barriers to more effective implementation of an integrated and adaptive ecosystem approach to fisheries in transboundary settings, including the decentralized and consensus-based nature of international law, stationary visions of ecosystems, and principles of certainty and stability. This analysis is then expanded to focus on specific challenges of adapting to climate-induced changes to transboundary stocks distribution and abundance. I address preparing and planning for climate change, responsive decision-making procedures, regulation of new fisheries, jurisdictional challenges, enhancing marine resilience, and revisiting allocation agreements, highlighting legal provisions and policy developments that may support or enhance the adaptive capacity of transboundary fisheries arrangements.I conclude that, despite some supportive legal provisions and practices, structural, legal, and political barriers severely hinder the pace and the scope of required governance and management responses to climate-induced changes to transboundary stocks.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Dec 2020 12:05:54 EST
  • Are transboundary fisheries management arrangements in the Northwest
           Atlantic and North Pacific seaworthy in a changing ocean'

    • Authors: Koubrak, O; VanderZwaag, D. L.
      Abstract: Climate change is affecting physical and biological components and processes of marine ecosystems in many ways. Resulting changes in abundance and distribution of commercially valuable species are anticipated to create or exacerbate challenges for fisheries management across national boundaries by raising questions around catch allocation, membership in the management organizations, and forms of cooperation between the organizations. In this paper we assess eight transboundary fisheries arrangements in the Northwest Atlantic and North Pacific on their preparedness to respond to climate-change driven changes. For each arrangement a three-part analysis is provided. A general introduction to fisheries management responsibilities, including species and geographic scope, is first followed by a review of how climate-related science is being supported and a discussion of how climate change is being addressed directly or indirectly in management. The review shows that none of the examined treaties and founding documents mention climate change or direct parties to include climate change in their research programs and management measures. Nevertheless, climate change is on the radar screen of all eight arrangements although adopting management approaches that do not rely on single stock assessments remains politically difficult. The seaworthiness of the eight arrangements to address climate change varies considerably. Three arrangements were categorized as the most seaworthy for investing significant resources in ecosystem-based management and climate science. Three were assessed to be moderately seaworthy for recognizing precautionary and ecosystem approaches in their treaties, or for taking steps toward this objective, as well as supporting climate science. However, they are relying on single-stock management and, at times, struggle with making decisions based on scientific evidence. Two arrangements appear to be least seaworthy because they are largely ignoring climate change and the need for an ecosystem approach in their management or have inadequate legal tools to address these needs effectively.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Dec 2020 11:03:18 EST
  • Challenges to transboundary fisheries management in North America under
           climate change

    • Authors: Palacios-Abrantes, J; Sumaila, U, Cheung, W. W. L.
      Abstract: Climate change is shifting the distribution of fish stocks that straddle between exclusive economic zones (EEZ), challenging transboundary fisheries management. Here, we examine the projected sharing of jointly managed transboundary fish stocks between Canada and the United States. We hypothesize that ocean warming will alter the sharing of fish stocks between the two countries, and that such changes will intensify under a high carbon emission scenario. We look at the specific cases of the International Pacific Halibut Commission that manages Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) and a resource sharing arrangement in the Gulf of Maine for cod (Gadus morhua), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), and yellowtail flounder (Limanda ferruginea) to discuss the management consequences of shifts in transboundary stocks. We rely on multiple Earth system models’ simulations and species distribution models to estimate the change in catch potential and stock share ratio of each transboundary stock in the 21st century under two climate change scenarios. Results show that, even under a low emission scenario, most transboundary fish stocks sharing ratios, i.e., the proportion of the total catch of a fish stock taken by a given country, will change by 2050 relative to present. The overall reduction in catch potential, in addition to the changes in stock-share will further exacerbate trade-offs between changes in species catch potential. Such trade-offs in the Atlantic and Pacific regions will be amplified if a high emission scenario is followed, relative to a low carbon emission scenario. Based on the simulation results, we examine possible solution options to reduce climate risks on transboundary fish stocks and fisheries.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Dec 2020 09:52:45 EST
  • Climate change, shifting threat points, and the management of
           transboundary fish stocks

    • Authors: Sumaila, U; Palacios-Abrantes, J, Cheung, W. W. L.
      Abstract: We apply the concept of threat points in game theory to explore the stability of current joint management arrangements for shared transboundary fish stocks between Canada and the United States. We use three examples to explore the effects of projected impacts of climate change on the productivity and distribution of these stocks between the exclusive economic zones of the two countries. The three stocks that we study are: Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and yellowtail flounder (Limanda ferruginea) within the Gulf of Maine, and Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) in the Pacific Coast. We define a threat point as the payoffs that the fisheries in Canada and the United States take home given the current management agreement between the two countries. This is an application of John Nash’s threat point, defined as the minimum payoffs that each player in a game theoretic model must receive for the solution to a cooperative game to be stable, which is usually the outcome of a noncooperative game. First, we compute the threat points, that is, the current profits that Canada and the United States derive from the three shared stocks, respectively. Next, we build an ensemble of climate-marine ecosystem and economic models and use them to determine how climate change is likely to change current profits received by each country relative to the shifts in their threat points. We find that in some cases the profits obtained by fisheries in Canada and the United States would change under climate change both in absolute and relative terms resulting in relative changes in threat points. These relative changes in threat points serve as the basis for our discussion of the stability of current transboundary management agreements between Canada and the United States for these important shared stocks in the face of climate change.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Dec 2020 09:32:46 EST
  • Institutions and inequality interplay shapes the impact of economic growth
           on biodiversity loss

    • Authors: Mirza, M; Richter, A, Van Nes, E. H, Scheffer, M.
      Abstract: The latest global assessment of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) warns that biodiversity loss can make ecosystems more vulnerable to the effects of climate change and other stressors. Economic growth has been identified as one of the key drivers of these losses, however, the impact pathway may depend on how society organizes economic activity and distributes its benefits. Here we use a global country-level dataset to show how the strength of national institutions and economic inequality in society can mediate the loss of biodiversity worldwide. We find that the interplay of institutions and inequality fully mediates the impact of economic growth on plant biodiversity, but only partially mediates the impact on animal biodiversity. Furthermore, in sustaining biodiversity, the effectiveness of institutions depends on inequality in society, such that biodiversity loss is ameliorated when institutions are strong and inequality low, but in regions with high inequality, institutions tend to lose their efficacy. The analysis also uncovers nonlinearities in inequality, institutions, and biodiversity interactions, which are important to investigate further and consider for policy purposes.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Dec 2020 15:13:10 EST
  • Assessing livelihood vulnerability using a Bayesian network: a case study
           in northern Laos

    • Authors: Junquera, V; Gr?t-Regamey, A.
      Abstract: Agricultural transitions from subsistence to export-oriented production make households more reliant on volatile agricultural commodity markets and can increase households’ exposure to crop price and yield shocks. At the same time, subsistence farming is also highly vulnerable to crop failures. In this work, we define household livelihood vulnerability as the probability of falling under an income threshold. We propose the use of a Bayesian network (BN) to calculate the income distribution based on household and community-level variables. BNs reflect relationships of dependence between variables and represent all variables as probability distributions, which allows for the explicit propagation of variability and uncertainty between variables. We focus on two agricultural frontier case study areas (CSAs) in northern Lao PDR that are at different stages in the transition from subsistence to export-oriented agriculture. Because agricultural production is the main livelihood activity in both CSAs, we develop a BN that calculates the probability distribution of net household agricultural production income. BN structure and parameterization are based on data collected in 110 household surveys across both CSAs, as well as interviews with villagers, government officials, and private sector actors. We analyze the effect of crop price and yield variability, land-use portfolio, and land holdings, on the probability of having a negative net agricultural income, which reflects a household’s ability to meet its food consumption needs through cash crop sales. Results show that agricultural income is highly sensitive to rubber plantation area, rubber yield, and rubber price given the very large income potential of the crop. Households with larger agricultural areas have a lower probability of falling under an agricultural income threshold regardless of their diversification choices. Households that own more high-value cash crops are more buffered against rice yield shocks despite having higher agricultural income variability. However, low-income households are better off if they maintain a minimum level of rice sufficiency in combination with high-value cash crop production. Diversifying upland cash crops by increasing the share of cardamom (a low-value but low-volatility crop) at the expense of rubber (a highly lucrative crop with high price volatility) does not have a sizable beneficial impact, because returns from cardamom are significantly lower than for rubber. We show that BNs can be useful tools for the design and evaluation of rural development policies.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Dec 2020 10:12:02 EST
  • The effects of urban development and current green infrastructure policy
           on future climate change resilience

    • Authors: Shade, C; Kremer, P, Rockwell, J. S, Henderson, K. G.
      Abstract: Governments around the world are beginning to plan for the effects of climate change. In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, the city is implementing a variety of green infrastructure practices through the program Green Cities, Clean Waters to meet state and federal stormwater regulations. Though not a current goal of the program, when implemented effectively, a cobenefit of green infrastructure is increased local resilience to potential ecosystem alterations, such as increasing summer temperatures and heavier precipitation, also defined as climate change adaptation. We analyzed the potential of the Green City, Clean Waters plan to increase the city’s resilience to the future consequences of climate change. Three future landcover models of Philadelphia were used to analyze climate change adaptation through green infrastructure in the near term, midcentury, and end of century under two climate change scenarios. Green infrastructure was overall found to locally decrease runoff throughout Philadelphia over time. Green infrastructure impact on surface temperature showed mixed results. Impact on runoff and surface temperature differed between types of green infrastructure. As the city is forecasted to grow warmer, wetter, and more urbanized over the century, runoff and local temperatures will increase on average throughout the city, despite the planned growth in green infrastructure. If increased resilience is to keep pace with climate change, the city government will need to expand its green infrastructure plan and consider the cobenefit of climate change adaptation when planning new projects. Additionally, for true climate change resiliency to be achieved, green infrastructure implementation must be connected to citywide greening efforts, accelerate and continue beyond the near term for localities to function as they do today.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Dec 2020 14:38:12 EST
  • Trade-offs between benefits and costs of forest proximity: farmers'
           practices and strategies regarding tree–crop integration and
           ecosystem disservices management

    • Authors: Osie, M; Nemomissa, S, Shibru, S, Dalle, G.
      Abstract: The impact of ecosystem disservices is among the issues that farmers have to consider in management of livelihoods and local landscapes. We investigated distinct practices developed within local communities in tree–crop integration and strategies to offset disservices. Forty-eight transects (24 at ≤1 km and 24 at ≥3 km from forest edges) were laid in the study sites. Woody and crop species were recorded from a total of 150 homegardens and farm fields along the 48 transects. In addition, farmers (n = 384) were interviewed using a semistructured questionnaire to assess their land-use practices and management strategies to counter ecosystem disservices. Data were analyzed using a linear mixed effects model of the statistical program R. A total of 72 woody and crop species belonging to 40 families were recorded. The mean number of woody species increased near to the forest. Wild mammals, such as olive baboons, bush pigs, warthogs, vervet monkeys, and porcupines were common crop raiders. Farmers used fences, guarding, noise, scare devices, and smoke to scare away crop-raiding animals. To protect beehives in the forest fragments, they have developed indigenous skills such as dusting ashes, spraying indigenous repellant suspensions, and destroying the nests of raiding ants. A biological control mechanism was also used by farmers where they cut part of the nest of Crematogaster sp. (locally called “Penie”) and glue it onto the trunk of trees with beehives. Crematogaster sp. safeguard the beehives from raiding ants as part of their efforts to protect their own nests. We recommend both ecological and socioeconomic studies in order to augment farmers’ strategies to balance disservices and corresponding management practices across the landscapes.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Dec 2020 10:08:13 EST
  • Evaluating water quality regulation as a driver of farmer behavior: a
           social-ecological systems approach

    • Authors: Hammond Wagner, C. R; Greenhalgh, S, Niles, M. T, Zia, A, Bowden, W. B.
      Abstract: Water quality policy for agricultural lands seeks to improve water quality by changing farmer behavior. We investigate farmer behavior in three water quality regimes that differ by rule structure to examine the fit and interplay of each policy within its social-ecological context, important aspects for improving water quality. Vermont, USA’s practice-based policy requires the adoption of specific practices, whereas New Zealand’s Lake Taupo and Lake Rotorua performance-based policies require farmers to meet a numeric limit for nutrient loss on their farm. Across the three regions we interviewed 38 farmers to elicit mental models of nutrient management changes. We utilized the social-ecological systems (SES) framework to guide mental model elicitation, drawing on farmers’ perceptions of the SES to identify salient aspects for behavior. Mental models were grouped by region and analyzed using network analysis. Farmers in all regions self-report high levels of behavior change and cite the policies as key drivers of behavior. This suggests that each policy fits in that it is achieving desired behavior change. However, different behavioral patterns emerged across the regions that we hypothesize have implications for biophysical fit: structural changes dominate in Vermont (e.g., buffers) and system changes in Taupo (e.g., switch from dairy support to beef cattle). The interplay of the policy in each setting, such as with incentive programs in Vermont and a market for nitrogen in Taupo, contributed to the different behavioral patterns. Additionally, access to capital in some form is required for farmers to achieve changes associated with higher biophysical fit. The social fit of the policies also varied, evidenced by dramatic upheaval in Taupo to mostly neutral perceptions of the policy in Vermont. We conclude that regions considering a shift to water quality rules for farms should carefully consider behavioral dynamics in policy design to achieve water quality goals.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Dec 2020 14:52:34 EST
  • The adaptive cycle and the ecosystem services: a social-ecological
           analysis of Chilo' Island, southern Chile

    • Authors: P?rez-Orellana, D. C; Delgado, L. E, Marin, V. H.
      Abstract: We used the adaptive cycle as a heuristic to conceptualize the changes in ecosystem services between its phases (growth, conservation, collapse, and reorganization) for Chilo' Island (southern Chile), analyzed as a social-ecological system. We generated hypothetical relationships between services and phases based on literature articles, testing them with secondary databases for 1826–2016 and interviews with local actors. Results show that the island is currently either in a late conservation phase or already in a collapse phase. Only provisioning ecosystem services corresponded with the proposed phases’ relationships, while regulation-maintenance and cultural services showed long-term decreasing trends. We discuss cross-scale interactions and political centralism as the main factors preventing a local adaptive scheme that may start a reorganization phase.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Dec 2020 06:16:53 EST
  • “Like the plains people losing the buffalo”: perceptions of
           climate change impacts, fisheries management, and adaptation actions by
           Indigenous peoples in coastal British Columbia, Canada

    • Authors: Whitney, C. K; Frid, A, Edgar, B. K, Walkus, J, Siwallace, P, Siwallace, I. L, Ban, N. C.
      Abstract: Rapidly developing and complex climate change impacts have profound implications for coastal communities, demanding adaptation actions for both social and ecological systems. Along the coast of British Columbia, Canada, Indigenous peoples developed a tightly coupled social-ecological system that was interrupted by the arrival of settler colonialism in the 1800s. Although both climate change adaptation and the impacts of colonization have been well studied, little research has examined how these themes interact, and the conditions that may support or prevent people’s ability to adapt to the social-ecological changes that emerge. Through a collaborative partnership with four First Nations and their umbrella organization for technical support, we examined people’s perceptions of social and ecological aspects of adaptation to climate change. Using semistructured interviews (n = 50), four key strategies emerged as critical for climate change adaptation: (1) strengthening Indigenous governance autonomy and authority, (2) promoting knowledge sharing for adaptation practices within and among communities, (3) promoting adaptive comanagement among governance scales, and (4) developing learning platforms for climate impacts and adaptive strategies. Actions typically proposed by non-Indigenous government, including marine protected areas and ecosystem-based management were not prioritized. We found diverse attitudes toward climate change impacts, indicating that people’s perceptions of adaptation strategies are strongly influenced by exposure to observable impacts, the social-ecological context in which they live, and perceptions of governance and self-determination. Our study suggests that supporting Indigenous peoples’ ability to adapt to climate change will require transforming the current governance model into one that acknowledges Indigenous social, cultural, and food needs and how these relate to marine resources and territorial management rights.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Dec 2020 12:29:39 EST
  • Perceived availability and access limitations to ecosystem service
           well-being benefits increase in urban areas

    • Authors: Lapointe, M; Gurney, G. G, Cumming, G. S.
      Abstract: Access mechanisms can determine the benefits that people derive from a given ecosystem service supply. However, compared to ecosystem service availability, access has received little research attention. The relative importance of availability compared to access in limiting ecosystem service benefits is even less well understood. In cities, the observed disconnect between people and nature might result in part from changes in ecosystem service availability and access compared to rural areas. To address these research gaps, we compared perceived limitations to ecosystem service well-being benefits in urban and rural areas in the Solomon Islands. We predicted that more people would report being limited in ecosystem service benefits in urban than rural areas. Drawing on data from 200 respondents, we found that more urban dwellers reported being limited in both availability and access to the benefits that they derived from ecosystem services. Availability factors were the most frequently perceived limitations, although access played an important role for both provisioning and cultural services. In urban areas, poorer people, women, and older people identified the most limitations. Findings show the importance of investigating both ecosystem service availability and access to manage the environment in a way that sustains or increases benefits to people.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Dec 2020 06:53:40 EST
  • The role of collaborative research in learning to incorporate values of
           the public in social–ecological system governance: case study of
           bushfire risk planning

    • Authors: Williams, K. J. H; Ford, R. M, Rawluk, A.
      Abstract: Values of the public are a key and dynamic component of bushfire governance SES. Learning to work with these values is a significant challenge for government and environmental managers and an important aspect of policy transition in many contexts. During such transitions, collaborative research can play a key role in social learning, but this may be particularly challenging for agencies with dominant expertise in technical and ecological domains. We examined how collaborative research supported social learning to incorporate values of the public in bushfire governance in the State of Victoria, Australia. Following disruption of a major bushfire, new policy directions were established, including greater attention to expectations and participation of communities in bushfire management. Among other actions, the state environmental agency supported this policy transition by establishing a 3-year research collaboration to better understand and incorporate values of the public in their decision making. As both participants and observers of this research, we analyzed publications, unpublished internal reports, and notes from meetings and workshops to identify how the collaborative research facilitated and constrained learning. Analysis revealed how collaborative research presents interruptions in the form of questioning of plans and routines (including of researchers), joint concept development, collection and sharing of new information, tensions within the research collaboration, idea generation building on research insights, and action research to develop new tools or frameworks. These forms of disruption operated in different ways, involving different groups of actors, levels of collaboration, and opportunities for feedback, and these in turn had implications for the forms of learning that occurred. Collaborative research also identified constraints to learning that, in some instances, set the stage for further learning, for example through capacity building and further research.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Dec 2020 13:54:17 EST
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