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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 140 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Museum Novitates     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 244)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 376)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Chelonian Conservation and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access  
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 335)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access  
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eco-Entrepreneur     Open Access  
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 199)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 95)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Environment and Natural Resources Journal     Open Access  
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intervención     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Media Konservasi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Natureza & Conservação : Brazilian Journal of Nature Conservation     Open Access  
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
Northeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Northwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ocean Acidification     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Oryx     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Recycling     Open Access  
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Southeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access  
Sustentabilidade em Debate     Open Access  
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The American Midland Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
The Southwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover
Biodiversity and Conservation
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.243
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 244  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0960-3115 - ISSN (Online) 1572-9710
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Conservation of Mojave Desert springs and associated biota: status,
           threats, and policy opportunities

    • Abstract: Abstract In arid landscapes where fresh water is a limiting resource, the expression of groundwater in springs sustains important landscape functions, globally-recognized biodiversity hotspots, and both aquatic endemic and wide-ranging terrestrial species. Desert springs and associated groundwater dependent ecosystems are threatened by unsustainable groundwater pumping, and the Mojave Desert has seen extinctions of species due to the human use and modification of springs. To support changes in policy and management that would address the vulnerabilities of springs to unsustainable groundwater extraction and other threats, a better understanding of current spring condition is needed. Here we present the results of a comprehensive survey of Mojave Desert springs including hydrological and ecological observations, and an eDNA pilot study. Together, these investigations provide information about the present status of Mojave Desert springs, conservation challenges that they face, and needs that must be met to protect them. We also provide an overview of the current state of federal and state policy that could be used to better manage these critical freshwater resources.
      PubDate: 2020-12-05
  • Artisanal mining impacts small mammals while chainsaw milling is a more
           sustainable practice in Ghana

    • Abstract: Abstract Logging and mining are widespread in most West African countries and considering their socio-economic importance, little is known about their ecological impacts. In this study, we investigated the effects of chainsaw milling (logging) and artisanal mining on terrestrial small mammal communities in a tropical forest in Ghana. For this, we compared abundance, diversity measures and community composition of small mammals active at the forest floor in logged, mined and undisturbed forest sites. We found that abundance was higher in logged and undisturbed forest sites than in mined sites. Small mammal species richness, Shannon diversity and Pielou’s evenness did not differ significantly among the three forest disturbance categories. Community composition of small mammals varied between mined and undisturbed sites as well as between mined and logged sites, suggesting differential species responses to altered environments. This may be due to the presence of pits in mined forest sites, hence a reduction in exploitable ground habitat structures for shelter, nesting or food. Overall, our results suggest that artisanal mining has strong impacts on community composition of forest floor small mammals in tropical forests while the effect of logging by chainsaw milling activities is minimal, especially when practiced at low intensity. This effect was moderated by elevation and distance to streams that equally shaped small mammal communities. More research on the effects of specific forms of logging and mining activities on small mammals are urgently needed to better protect species in forests impacted by logging and mining.
      PubDate: 2020-12-02
  • From global to local scale: where is the best for conservation

    • Abstract: Abstract Demographic analysis of plant populations represents an essential conservation tool allowing to identify the population trends both at global and at the local level. In this study, the population dynamics of Helianthemum caput-felis (Cistaceae) was investigated at the local level by monitoring six populations distributed in Sardinia, Balearic Islands and Ibero-Levantine coast (Alicante). Demographic data for each population were analysed by performing Integral Projection Models (IPMs). Our results showed that, although the local trend of the main basic demographic functions was similar, vital rates and demographic dynamics varied among populations indicating high variability. In fact, asymptotic growth rate in Spanish populations widely varied both between years and populations (some populations growth, decline or strongly decline), while Sardinian populations showed greater equilibrium or a slight increase. Also, the typical pattern of a long-lived species was not supported by the results at the local scale. These results indicated that different populations of the same species can present extremely different population dynamics and support the belief that, for conservation needs, local studies are more informative than global ones: the conservation status of H. caput-felis could notably vary at a small spatial scale and, accordingly, the conservation efforts must be planned at the population level and supported by local analysis.
      PubDate: 2020-11-22
  • Exploring the bushmeat market in Brussels, Belgium: a clandestine luxury

    • Abstract: Abstract The European Union prohibits the import of meat (products) unless specifically authorised and certified as being eligible for import. Nevertheless, various scientific papers report that passengers from west and central African countries illegally import large quantities of meat, including bushmeat, into Europe via its international airports. They also suggest that African bushmeat is an organised luxury market in Europe. In the present study we explore several aspects of the African bushmeat market in Brussels, Belgium. We demonstrate the clandestine nature of this market where bushmeat is sold at prices at the top of the range of premium livestock and game meat. Inquiries among central and western African expatriates living in Belgium, who frequently travel to their home countries, indicate that the consumption of bushmeat is culturally driven by the desire to remain connected to their countries of origin. DNA-based identifications of 15 bushmeat pieces bought in Brussels, reveal that various mammal species, including CITES-listed species, are being sold. Moreover, we find that several of these bushmeat pieces were mislabelled.
      PubDate: 2020-11-10
  • Drying microclimates threaten persistence of natural and translocated
           populations of threatened frogs

    • Abstract: Abstract Defining species habitat requirements is essential for effective conservation management through revealing agents of population decline and identifying critical habitat for conservation actions, such as translocations. Here we studied the habitat-associations of two threatened terrestrial-breeding frog species from southwestern Australia, Geocrinia alba and Geocrinia vitellina, to investigate if fine-scale habitat variables explain why populations occur in discrete patches, why G. alba is declining, and why translocation attempts have had mixed outcomes. We compared habitat variables at sites where the species are present, to variables at immediately adjacent sites where frogs are absent, and at sites where G. alba is locally extinct. Dry season soil moisture was the most important predictor of frog abundance for both species, and explained why G. alba had become extinct from some areas. Sites where G. alba were present were also positively associated with moss cover, and negatively with bare ground and soil conductivity. Modelling frog abundance based exclusively on dry season soil moisture predicted recent translocation successes with high accuracy. Hence, considering dry season soil moisture when selecting future translocation sites should increase the probability of population establishment. We propose that a regional drying trend is the most likely cause for G. alba declines and that both species are at risk of further habitat and range contraction due to further projected regional declines in rainfall and groundwater levels. More broadly, our study highlights that conservation areas in drying climates may not provide adequate protection and may require interventions to preserve critical habitat.
      PubDate: 2020-10-27
  • Fragmented dry grasslands preserve unique components of plant species and
           phylogenetic diversity in agricultural landscapes

    • Abstract: Abstract In intensively used landscapes biodiversity is often restricted to fragmented habitats. Exploring the biodiversity potential of habitat fragments is essential in order to reveal their complementary role in maintaining landscape-scale biodiversity. We investigated the conservation potential of dry grassland fragments in the Great Hungarian Plain, i.e. patch-like habitats on ancient burial mounds and linear-shaped habitats in verges, and compared them to continuous grasslands. We focused on plant taxonomic diversity, species richness of specialists, generalists and weeds, and the phylogenetic diversity conserved in the habitats. Verges meshing the landscape are characterised by a small core area and high level of disturbance. Their species pool was more similar to grasslands than mounds due to the lack of dispersal limitations. They held high species richness of weeds and generalists and only few specialists. Verges preserved only a small proportion of the evolutionary history of specialists, which were evenly distributed between the clades. Isolated mounds are characterised by a small area, a high level of environmental heterogeneity, and a low level of disturbance. Steep slopes of species accumulation curves suggest that high environmental heterogeneity likely contributes to the high species richness of specialists on mounds. Mounds preserved the same amount of phylogenetic diversity represented by the branch-lengths as grasslands. Abundance-weighted evolutionary distinctiveness of specialists was more clustered in these habitats due to the special habitat conditions. For the protection of specialists in transformed landscapes it is essential to focus efforts on preserving both patch-like and linear grassland fragments containing additional components of biodiversity.
      PubDate: 2020-10-17
  • The Biodiversity Promotion Areas: effectiveness of agricultural direct
           payments on plant diversity conservation in the semi-natural grasslands of
           the Southern Swiss Alps

    • Abstract: Abstract An agro-environmental payment for the management of the so-called ‘Biodiversity Promotion Areas’ (BPA) has been used to accomplish biodiversity conservation goals in Switzerland. These areas have been managed according to specific limitations on mowing dates and fertilizers. We assessed the regional-scale effectiveness of BPA implementation within Ticino Canton by answering the following questions: (i) is plant species diversity higher in BPA than in conventionally managed grasslands (CMG)' (ii) which are the differences between BPA and CMG in terms of climatic, topographical, ecological, and vegetation variables' (iii) which vegetation types, functional groups, and plant species are specifically related to BPA' A total of 242 vegetation surveys (64 in BPA and 178 in CMG, respectively) was carried out in 55 farms and the main climatic and topographic features were assessed. Differences in terms of plant diversity, ecological indicator and pastoral values, species functional groups, vegetation types, and indicator species between BPA and CMG were assessed. The BPA harboured a higher plant diversity. They were located in steeper areas, at higher elevations, and characterised by lower soil nutrient content, mowing tolerance, and pastoral value than CMG. Dry meadow species number and cover were higher in BPA, while nutrient-rich meadow species number was higher in CMG. The species associated to BPA belonged to a wider range of functional groups and 38% of them belonged to the national list for biodiversity promotion in agriculture, whereas no species associated to CMG belonged to that list. Thus, our results confirmed the effectiveness of BPA for biodiversity conservation for the Southern Swiss Alps.
      PubDate: 2020-10-16
  • Enhancing seed conservation in rural communities of Guatemala by
           implementing the dry chain concept

    • Abstract: Abstract Seed conservation in rural communities of low- and middle-income countries located in tropical areas is particularly problematic, due to high relative humidity that promotes insect and fungal infestations and leads to rapid losses in seed viability. Seed conservation in those areas is affected by unreliable power supplies that do not allow the use of dehumidifying and refrigeration systems recommended for the long-term storage of seeds. We tested the dry chain, i.e., initial seed drying with a reusable desiccant in the form of zeolite beads followed by seed conservation in hermetic containers, in rural communities of Guatemala (Huehuetenango Department). In this region, a network of community seed reserves (CSRs) has been established to provide a safety backup for seed and to conserve local agrobiodiversity. Using a local maize variety in three communities, we compared the dry chain with the seed conservation methodology employed in the CSRs (i.e., undried seeds in hermetic flasks) as well as with seed conservation in open storage, both in the local CSR and in a farmer’s granary. Seed conserved using the dry chain treatment maintained very high seed viability (> 80%) throughout the whole experiment (6 months) and reduced fungal and insect infestations (< 3%). In the other treatments, the viability declined significantly to an average of 52% non-viable and 19% infested seeds after 6 months of storage. The dry chain was demonstrated to be an excellent solution for enhancing seed conservation in biodiversity hotspots of tropical areas as well as for improving seed security for farmers.
      PubDate: 2020-10-13
  • Low diversity or poorly explored' Mesophotic molluscs highlight
           undersampling in the Eastern Mediterranean

    • Abstract: Abstract Mesophotic assemblages are the next frontier of marine exploration in the Mediterranean Sea. Located below recreational scuba diving depths, they are difficult to access but host a diverse array of habitats structured by large invertebrate species. The Eastern Mediterranean has been much less explored than the western part of the basin and its mesophotic habitats are virtually unknown. We here describe two mesophotic (77–92 m depth) molluscan assemblages at a rocky reef and on a soft substrate off northern Israel. We record 172 species, of which 43 (25%) are first records for Israel and increase its overall marine molluscan diversity by 7%. Only five of these species have been reported in recent surveys of the nearby Lebanon, suggesting that our results are robust at a broader scale than our study area and that the reported west-to-east declining diversity gradient in the Mediterranean needs a reappraisal based on proper sampling of the eastern basin. We found only four (2%) non-indigenous species, represented by seven (0.5%) specimens. These results suggest that pristine native assemblages still thrive at this depth in Israel, in contrast to the shallow subtidal heavily affected by global warming and biological invasions, calling for strong conservation actions for these valuable but vulnerable habitats.
      PubDate: 2020-10-12
  • Predicting biodiversity richness in rapidly changing landscapes: climate,
           low human pressure or protection as salvation'

    • Abstract: Abstract Rates of biodiversity loss in Southeast Asia are among the highest in the world, and the Indo-Burma and South-Central China Biodiversity Hotspots rank among the world’s most threatened. Developing robust multi-species conservation models is critical for stemming biodiversity loss both here and globally. We used a large and geographically extensive remote-camera survey and multi-scale, multivariate optimization species distribution modelling to investigate the factors driving biodiversity across these two adjoining biodiversity hotspots. Four major findings emerged from the work. (i) We identified clear spatial patterns of species richness, with two main biodiverse centres in the Thai-Malay Peninsula and in the mountainous region of Southwest China. (ii) Carnivores in particular, and large ungulates to a lesser degree, were the strongest indicators of species richness. (iii) Climate had the largest effect on biodiversity, followed by protected status and human footprint. (iv) Gap analysis between the biodiversity model and the current system of protected areas revealed that the majority of areas supporting the highest predicted biodiversity are not protected. Our results highlighted several key locations that should be prioritized for expanding the protected area network to maximize conservation effectiveness. We demonstrated the importance of switching from single-species to multi-species approaches to highlight areas of high priority for biodiversity conservation. In addition, since these areas mostly occur over multiple countries, we also advocate for a paradigmatic focus on transboundary conservation planning.
      PubDate: 2020-10-09
  • Community completeness as a measure of restoration success: multiple-study
           comparisons across ecosystems and ecological groups

    • Abstract: Abstract When restoring habitat for biodiversity, the most effective outcome will be achieved by restoration projects which target several organism groups or ecosystem types. Such integrated approaches require direct comparisons among different ecological communities while evaluating success of restoration. The Community Completeness Index (CCI) is a recently developed metric that allows such comparisons by accounting for both present and absent but otherwise suitable taxa. We empirically evaluated the applicability of CCI for assessing the outcome of ecological restoration. We analyzed how species richness and the completeness of ecological communities recover after restoration, for different ecological groups and ecosystem types, and how it develops over time after restoration. Analyses were performed on 18 datasets with per site presence-absence data from Northern Europe. Each dataset represented one of the three habitat types (mire, forest, grassland) and different ecological groups (plants, flying insects, epigeic invertebrates). Datasets contained pristine, degraded and restored sites. We calculated the dark diversity and subsequently CCI based on species co-occurrences. Our multiple-study analyses revealed that CCI of grassland plant communities increased faster after restoration than invertebrate communities or plant communities in forests and mires. In addition, flying insect communities demonstrated significantly highest CCI in pristine mires. Some results were significant only for richness but not for CCI indicating species pool effect. Finally, completeness and species richness of restored communities increased with time since restoration. As such, our study demonstrated that CCI is a useful tool in evaluating restoration success across different organism groups and ecosystem types.
      PubDate: 2020-09-17
  • Resolving the trade-off between production and biodiversity conservation
           in integrated forest management: comparing tree selection practices of
           foresters and conservationists

    • Abstract: Abstract Integrating nature conservation effectively in forests managed for timber production implies reconciling a trade-off between ecological and economic objectives. In continuous cover forest management, this culminates in decisions about tree harvesting (or retention) determining both the prevalence of tree-related microhabitats in the forest and the economic viability of timber management. Applying an innovative mixed methods approach, we compare conservationists and foresters performing a tree selection exercise. We assess the outcomes of their forest management decisions quantitatively and explore their strategies and the underlying reasoning based on qualitative data. Our findings show that particularly the habitat trees differ greatly between the two groups: while conservationists retained almost exclusively large oaks at often high opportunity costs, foresters retained a notable number of smaller-diameter hornbeams. These differences are related to a different perception of opportunity costs of retention by both groups, as well as because they do not agree about how to value current tree-related microhabitats and their projection into the future. Such diverging patterns of reasoning imply incompatible interpretations of what constitutes a habitat tree. Our results indicate that it is important to apply benchmarks for evaluating ecological goals as well as to increase foresters’ and conservationists’ understanding about the motivations and restrictions of the respective counterpart. Our study points out a significant potential for (mutual) learning, and illustrates the complementarity of quantitative and qualitative research methods to examine tree selection behaviour.
      PubDate: 2020-09-12
  • The role of environmental filtering, geographic distance and dispersal
           barriers in shaping the turnover of plant and animal species in Amazonia

    • Abstract: Abstract To determine the effect of rivers, environmental conditions, and isolation by distance on the distribution of species in Amazonia. Location: Brazilian Amazonia. Time period: Current. Major taxa studied: Birds, fishes, bats, ants, termites, butterflies, ferns + lycophytes, gingers and palms. We compiled a unique dataset of biotic and abiotic information from 822 plots spread over the Brazilian Amazon. We evaluated the effects of environment, geographic distance and dispersal barriers (rivers) on assemblage composition of animal and plant taxa using multivariate techniques and distance- and raw-data-based regression approaches. Environmental variables (soil/water), geographic distance, and rivers were associated with the distribution of most taxa. The wide and relatively old Amazon River tended to determine differences in community composition for most biological groups. Despite this association, environment and geographic distance were generally more important than rivers in explaining the changes in species composition. The results from multi-taxa comparisons suggest that variation in community composition in Amazonia reflects both dispersal limitation (isolation by distance or by large rivers) and the adaptation of species to local environmental conditions. Larger and older river barriers influenced the distribution of species. However, in general this effect is weaker than the effects of environmental gradients or geographical distance at broad scales in Amazonia, but the relative importance of each of these processes varies among biological groups.
      PubDate: 2020-09-02
  • Biological invasions in World Heritage Sites: current status and a
           proposed monitoring and reporting framework

    • Abstract: Abstract UNESCO World Heritage Sites (WHS) are areas of outstanding universal value and conservation importance. They are, however, threatened by a variety of global change drivers, including biological invasions. We assessed the current status of biological invasions and their management in 241 natural and mixed WHS globally by reviewing documents collated by UNESCO and IUCN. We found that reports on the status of biological invasions in WHS were often irregular or inconsistent. Therefore, while some reports were very informative, they were hard to compare because no systematic method of reporting was followed. Our review revealed that almost 300 different invasive alien species (IAS) were considered as a threat to just over half of all WHS. Information on IAS management undertaken in WHS was available for fewer than half of the sites that listed IAS as a threat. There is clearly a need for an improved monitoring and reporting system for biological invasions in WHS and likely the same for other protected areas globally. To address this issue, we developed a new framework to guide monitoring and reporting of IAS in protected areas building on globally accepted standards for IAS assessments, and tested it on seven WHS. The framework requires the collation of information and reporting on pathways, alien species presence, impacts, and management, the estimation of future threats and management needs, assessments of knowledge and gaps, and, using all of this information allows for an overall threat score to be assigned to the protected area. This new framework should help to improve monitoring of IAS in protected areas moving forward.
      PubDate: 2020-08-30
  • Southern Canada’s crisis ecoregions: identifying the most significant
           and threatened places for biodiversity conservation

    • Abstract: Abstract Identifying and protecting key areas for biodiversity is a cornerstone of effective nature conservation. This conservation assessment analyzes 77 ecoregions across the southern, settled part of Canada to identify priorities for conservation action. Our analysis included 34 measures of biodiversity, threat and conservation response. We categorized all ecoregions based on their overall biodiversity and threat scores. This categorization identified nine “crisis ecoregions.” These ecoregions have higher biodiversity and threat scores compared to other ecoregions in the study area. These ecoregions represent less than 5% of Canadian lands and inland waters but provide habitat for over 60% of Canada’s species at risk. Twenty-one ecoregions have higher biodiversity but lower threat scores. Primarily distributed in the more intact portions of the study area, these ecoregions generally have lower biodiversity scores for species diversity, but score very high for intactness, habitat diversity and congregatory species. This assessment can help to contextualize existing and proposed conservation actions by highlighting key biodiversity, threat and conservation attributes of ecoregions across southern Canada. Our assessment can be used to focus efforts on new protected areas, species at risk recovery, capacity building and ecological monitoring. The results of the conservation assessment can be applied to set and track progress toward national, regional and organizational conservation goals, including post-2020 biodiversity targets. Regular reanalysis of the ecoregions to track their trends in biodiversity, threat and conservation responses will support monitoring the effectiveness of conservation programs and highlight ecoregions where continued focus is most needed to conserve Canada’s biodiversity.
      PubDate: 2020-08-27
  • Using occupancy models to assess the direct and indirect impacts of
           agricultural expansion on species’ populations

    • Abstract: Abstract Land-use change is a global threat to biodiversity, but how land-use change affects species beyond the direct effect of habitat loss remains poorly understood. We developed an approach to isolate and map the direct and indirect effects of agricultural expansion on species of conservation concern, using the threatened giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) in the Gran Chaco as an example. We reconstructed anteater occupancy change between 1985 and 2015 by fitting single-season occupancy models with contemporary camera-trap data and backcasting the models to 1985 and 2000 land-cover/use maps. Based on this, we compared the area of forest loss (direct effect of agricultural expansion) with the area where forests remained but occupancy still declined (indirect effect of agricultural expansion). Anteater occupancy decreased substantially since 1985, particularly after 2000 when agriculture expanded rapidly. Between 1985 and 2015, ~ 64,000 km2 of forest disappeared, yet occupancy declined across a larger area (~ 102,000 km2), extending far into seemingly untransformed habitat. This suggests that widespread sink habitat has emerged due to agricultural land-use change, and that species may lose their habitat through direct and indirect effects of agricultural expansion, highlighting the urgent need for broad-scale conservation planning in the Chaco. Appropriate management responses could proactively protect more habitat where populations are stable, and restore habitat or address causes of mortality in areas where declines occur. Our work also highlights how occupancy modelling combined with remote sensing can help to detect the direct and indirect effects of agricultural expansion, providing guidance for spatially targeting conservation strategies to halt extinctions.
      PubDate: 2020-08-20
  • Contrasting multi-taxa functional diversity patterns along vegetation
           structure gradients of woody pastures

    • Abstract: Abstract Woody pastures represent keystone habitats for biodiversity in agricultural landscapes, contributing to increased resource availability, landscape heterogeneity and structural variability. High taxonomic diversity is closely linked to vegetation structure in woody pastures, but examining functional characteristics of species assemblages can shed more light on the ecological mechanisms driving divergent responses to habitat characteristics and help guide good management practices. To this end, we use a multi-taxa approach to investigate how plant, bat and bird taxonomic and functional diversity are affected by pasture tree and shrub density, structural complexity and proximate forest cover in southern Sweden. In particular, we use a trait exclusion approach to estimate the sensitivity of diversity-environment relationships to specific traits. We found little congruence between corresponding diversity metrics across taxa. Bird species richness responded stronger to environmental variables than functional diversity metrics, whereas the functional response to the environment was stronger than the taxonomic response among plants and bats. While increasing tree densities increased the taxonomic diversity of all three taxa, a simultaneous functional response was only evident for plants. Contrasting measures of vegetation structure affected different aspects of functional diversity across taxa, driven by different traits. For plants and birds, traits linked to resource use contributed particularly to the functional response, whereas body mass had stronger influence on bat functional diversity metrics. Multi-taxa functional approaches are essential to understand the effects of woody pasture structural attributes on biodiversity, and ultimately inform management guidelines to preserve the biological values in woody pastures.
      PubDate: 2020-08-18
  • The Ancient Tree Inventory: a summary of the results of a 15 year citizen
           science project recording ancient, veteran and notable trees across the UK

    • Abstract: Abstract Ancient, veteran and notable trees are ecologically important keystone organisms and have tangible connections to folklore, history and sociocultural practices. Although found worldwide, few countries have such a rich history of recording and treasuring these trees as the UK, with its extensive Royal and aristocratic land ownership, unique land management methods and long-standing interest in natural history and species record collecting. As a result, the UK has collated an extensive database of ancient, veteran and notable trees called the Ancient Tree Inventory (ATI). The ATI is the result of a successful, long-term citizen science recording project and is the most comprehensive database of ancient and other noteworthy trees to date. We present here the first review of the ATI in its entirety since its initiation in 2004, including summaries of the UK ancient, veteran and notable tree distributions, the status and condition of the trees, and key information about the recording process and maintenance of the database. Statistical analysis of components of the dataset, comprising 169,967 tree records, suggest there are significant differences in the threats, size, form and location of different types of trees, especially in relation to taxonomic identity and tree age. Our goal is to highlight the value of the ATI in the UK, to encourage the development of similar ancient tree recording projects in other countries, and to emphasise the importance to conservation of continued efforts to maintain and expand databases of this kind.
      PubDate: 2020-08-18
  • Biodiversity and conservation of terricolous lichens and bryophytes in
           continental lowlands of northern Italy: the role of different dry habitat

    • Abstract: Abstract In dry habitats of European lowlands terricolous lichens and bryophytes are almost neglected in conservation practises, even if they may strongly contribute to biodiversity. This study aims at (a) testing the role of heathlands, acidic and calcareous dry grasslands for lichen and bryophyte diversity and conservation in lowland areas of northern Italy characterized by high human impact and habitat fragmentation; (b) detecting the effect of environmental drivers and vegetation dynamics on species richness and composition. Lichens, bryophytes, vascular plants, and environmental variables were recorded in 287 circular plots for 75 sites. Our results indicate that heathlands, acidic and calcareous dry grasslands host peculiar terricolous lichen and bryophyte communities that include several species of conservation concern. Thus, each habitat provides a complementary contribution to lichen and bryophyte diversity in continental lowland landscapes. Furthermore, in each habitat different factors drive species richness and composition with contrasting patterns between lichens and bryophytes. In terms of conservation, our results indicate that management of lowland dry habitats should act at both local and landscape scales. At local scale, vegetation dynamics should be controlled in order to avoid biodiversity loss due to vegetation dynamics and wood encroachment. At the landscape scale, patches of all the three habitats should be maintained to maximize regional diversity.
      PubDate: 2020-08-18
  • Do beds of subtidal estuarine seagrass constitute a refuge for
           macrobenthic biodiversity threatened intertidally'

    • Abstract: Abstract Biodiversity differentials between macrobenthic assemblages associated with adjacent intertidal and subtidal areas of a single seagrass system were investigated for the first time. Assemblage metrics of conservation relevance—faunal abundance and its patchiness, faunal richness, and beta diversity—were examined at four contrasting dwarf-eelgrass localities in the Knysna estuarine bay, part of South Africa's Garden Route National Park but a system whose intertidal areas are heavily impacted anthropogenically. Faunal assemblages were significantly different across all localities and between subtidal and intertidal levels at each locality although their taxonomic distinctness was effectively constant. Although, as would be expected, there were clear trends for increases in overall numbers of species towards the mouth at all levels, few generalities relating to the relative importance of the subtidal seagrass habitat were evident across the whole system—magnitude and direction of differentials were contingent on locality. Shore-height related differences in assemblage metrics were minor in the estuarine and lagoonal zones but major in the marine compartment, although the much greater subtidal faunal abundance there was largely consequent on the superabundance of a single species (the microgastropod Alaba pinnae), intertidal zones then displaying the greater species diversity due to greater equitability of species densities. Along its axial channel, the Knysna subtidal seagrass does not support richer versions of the intertidal polychaete-dominated assemblages fringing it; instead, it supports different and more patchily dispersed gastropod-dominated ones. At Knysna at least, the subtidal hardly constitutes a reservoir of the seagrass biodiversity present intertidally.
      PubDate: 2020-07-22
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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