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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 140 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Museum Novitates     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 244)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 376)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Chelonian Conservation and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access  
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 335)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access  
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eco-Entrepreneur     Open Access  
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 199)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 95)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Environment and Natural Resources Journal     Open Access  
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intervención     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Media Konservasi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Natureza & Conservação : Brazilian Journal of Nature Conservation     Open Access  
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
Northeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Northwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ocean Acidification     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Oryx     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Recycling     Open Access  
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Southeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access  
Sustentabilidade em Debate     Open Access  
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The American Midland Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
The Southwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Resources, Conservation & Recycling
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.462
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 23  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0921-3449 - ISSN (Online) 1879-0658
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3203 journals]
  • Nitrogen flows in global pork supply chains and potential improvement from
           feeding swill to pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): Aimable Uwizeye, Pierre J. Gerber, Carolyn I. Opio, Giuseppe Tempio, Anne Mottet, Harinder P.S. Makkar, Alessandra Falcucci, Henning Steinfeld, Imke J.M. de BoerAbstractThe global pork sector contributes to food security and supports livelihoods for millions of households but also causes nitrogen (N) pollution. Here we assess N flows, losses, and N use indicators for global pork supply chains, from “cradle-to-primary-processing-gate” and for three production systems: the backyard, intermediate and industrial systems. Subsequently, we evaluate the effects of feeding swill to industrial pigs on N flows and land use. To produce 3.5 Tg N of pork globally, 14.7 Tg N are lost into the environment, of which 68% is lost to watercourses in the form of nitrates and organic N and the reminder emitted to the atmosphere as N-gas (e.g., NH3, NOx and N2O). We found that the efficiency of N use, hotspot and magnitude of N losses per unit of area depend chiefly on the region (agro-ecological and economic context), origin of feed, and manure management systems. Swill feeding increases N use efficiency and reduces N losses at the feed production stage. It achieves a saving of 31 Mt of soybeans and 20 Mt of grains on dry matter basis, equivalent to 16 M ha of land used. Its adoption would require innovative policies to preserve food safety and public health. Future research may explore the feasibility and requirements to adopt swill feeding at a country level and may investigate potential impacts on other sustainability objectives.
  • Sustainability issues of by-product and waste management systems, to
           produce building material commodities: A comprehensive review of findings
           from a virtual special issue
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): Carlo Ingrao, Claudia Arcidiacono, Alberto Bezama, Giuseppe Ioppolo, Kiara Winans, Apostolis Koutinas, Alejandro Gallego-Schmid
  • LED lamps waste in Canada: Generation and characterization
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): Amit Kumar, Vinoth Kumar Kuppusamy, Maria Holuszko, Shulei Song, Antonio LoschiavoAbstractLamps and lighting products are the most commonly used electrical products around the globe. With the improvement in lamp technologies, products have grown complex and hence require an improved recycling process. Light emitting diode (LED) lamps consist of various valuable and hazardous metals such as copper, aluminum, iron, zinc, lead, arsenic, and antimony.This paper provides an estimation of the waste LED lamps generation in Canada. It shows that the cumulative waste from LED lamps is expected to reach 12 kT by 2021. A characterization of LED lamps was also conducted to estimate the metal concentration and landfill leachate toxicity characteristics, which have not yet been studied with a bulk sample. The results showed that aluminum is the major metal present in LED lamps with a concentration of over 22%, followed by iron, copper, and zinc. It also showed the presence of heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, and antimony. On the contrary to the previous study, the landfill leachate concentration for waste LED lamps was found to be lower than the British Columbia (BC) landfill limits for all metals.
  • Peak phosphorus, demand trends and implications for the sustainable
           management of phosphorus in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): Binlin Li, KB Bicknell, Alan RenwickAn increasing number of studies have suggested that global phosphate rock (PR) extraction will reach a peak in the coming decades, with subsequent implications for food security. This paper focuses on peak phosphorus in China, which serves as an "early warning indicator" for phosphorus security. The results indicate that China`s production of PR is likely to peak sometime between 2035 and 2045. This result was derived using Chinese data, which differs from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) data, upon which estimates are more commonly based. Drivers of Chinese phosphorus consumption were also identified, and trends in phosphate use from six developed countries were analysed to form an overall assessment of the current demand for phosphorus in China. This analysis indicates that the demand for Chinese PR has reached a plateau. Combining the forecasts of both extraction and demand, the study explores potential challenges for sustainable phosphorus management. The study concludes with a range of policies that may help ensure a sustainable supply of Chinese PR.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Two-level optimization model for water consumption based on water prices
           in eco-industrial parks
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): Rongshan Bi, Chen Chen, Jiao Tang, Xiaoping Jia, Shuguang XiangAbstractThe eco-industrial park (EIP) is universally acknowledged as an important way to achieve resources sustainability by the plant cooperation. As an essential public resource in an EIP, the water resource is a primary research focus for minimizing the water consumption in EIPs. Commonly, the water price was adopted to adjust the plant water consumption; however, this method was relatively single. In this paper, a two-level optimization method was proposed based on the relationship between the water supplier and industrial plants and the interrelationship among plants in the EIP. Two cases were investigated based on the proposed method, and the results of different water prices and profit allocation ratios were presented in detail. Compared to the traditional method, the two-level optimization could produce more effective guide on industrial plants for applying water-saving and new technologies.
  • Value Creation in Circular Business Models: The case of a US small medium
           enterprise in the building sector
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): Enes Ünal, Andrea Urbinati, Davide Chiaroni, Raffaella ManziniAbstractA circular business model represents a holistic system of co-evolving managerial practices for collective value creation, delivery and capture, which provide solutions for sustainable development. Previous research on circular business models aimed to understand value creation mostly in terms of a single managerial practice or in a relatively isolated manner. In particular, little is known regarding the system of managerial practices that creates value. Accordingly, this study proposes a theoretical framework characterized by a set of managerial practices in connection with relevant internal and external contextual factors for creating value within a circular business model. The framework was used in a specific case of a small medium-sized enterprise (SME) operating in building sector, which can be considered a great example of circular economy put into practice. Therefore, the explorative nature of the case allows for deep probing that helps consolidating the framework. Among the main results, essential outcomes included configuring and adapting the company’s business model to particular internal and external contextual factors; valorization of local waste by harmonizing managerial practices, and socio-cultural and socio-economic settings, as well as sustainable behaviours among the actors of supply chain. This study contributes to the field of circular business models research by adopting a broader, interdisciplinary approach toward the concept of value creation. Further, it provides managers with a roadmap for creating value by enhancing the degree of circularity within a given context.
  • Using a typology to understand farmers’ intentions towards following a
           nutrient management plan
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): Amar Daxini, Mary Ryan, Cathal O’Donoghue, Andrew P. Barnes, Cathal BuckleyAbstractOptimising resource use efficiency is high on many national policy agendas. Inappropriate management in agricultural production can result in increased risk of nutrient loss to the environment. Best practice in nutrient management can help to mitigate this. However, policy initiatives aimed at encouraging farmers to follow a nutrient management plan (NMP) appear to be limited in their success. We employ a typology to classify farms/farmers based on a number of policy relevant farm and farmer characteristics. The theory of planned behaviour is applied to understand the variables which influence farmers’ intentions to follow a NMP across the Republic of Ireland. The typology resulted in a total of three classes of farmers, namely ‘traditional’, ‘supplementary income’ and ‘business-orientated’. The findings from the regression analysis reveal that attitude towards the outcomes of following a NMP is a weak predictor of intentions whereas subjective norm (social pressure) and perceived behavioural control (ease/difficulty) are strong predictors of intentions across the classes. Furthermore, contact with agricultural extension (a combination of one-to-one and group based extension) is found to be critical in determining the intentions of both traditional and supplementary income classes of farmers. The results also indicate that policy, which requires certain farmers in Ireland to develop a NMP on a mandatory basis, has consistent but mixed levels of influence on intentions. Initiatives designed to further encourage farmers to follow a NMP must account for the diversity that exists among the farming population and how different groups of farmers may respond to such initiatives.
  • Risk and performance assessment of cement made using municipal solid waste
           incinerator bottom ash as a cement kiln feed
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): Kyle A. Clavier, Benjamin Watts, Yalan Liu, Christopher C. Ferraro, Timothy G. TownsendAbstractTo assess the feasibility of incorporating municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash (BA) as a replacement for traditional raw materials in cement kiln feed, an industrial-scale kiln trial was performed. Leach testing and chemical and physical characterization data from a cement product made at a replacement percentage of 2.8% by mass of kiln feed were comparable to results from ordinary portland cement. The concentrations of constituents of concern in leach tests were generally below risk-based screening levels or of similar or lower magnitude than leachate from control products. Ash-amended cement exhibited greater early age reactivity, and this was reflected in initial mortar compressive strength results; ultimate compressive strength results were higher in the control mortar. The ash-amended and control cements were similar in characteristic, but quantitative x-ray diffraction results reveal differences in alite and aluminate formation during the clinker formation process.
  • Recycling organics from non-metallic fraction of waste printed circuit
           boards by a novel conical surface triboelectric separator
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): Jinshan Yang, Haifeng Wang, Guangwen Zhang, Xuejie Bai, Xiaolu Zhao, Yaqun HeAbstractThe nonmetallic fractions (NMFs) from waste printed circuit boards mainly comprise organic materials (OMs) and inorganic materials, taking up a large proportion of E-waste. The NMFs can be used as fillers for composite materials by decreasing the content of inorganic materials. In this study, a novel conical surface triboelectric separator based on the tribocharge difference of organics and inorganics was used to concentrate OM and remove inorganics to improve the usability of NMFs. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis showed that the content of OM in the raw samples was up to 73.03%, and Si, Al, Br, and Ca were the main inorganic elements in the NMFs. The experimental results demonstrated that the organic particles were negatively charged while the inorganic particles were positively charged in the process of particle friction and collision. The effects of feed rate, rotation speed, and voltage on the triboelectric separation of NMFs were investigated, and the optimum separation was achieved at 12.96 kg/h feed rate, 500 r/min rotation speed and 50 kV voltage. The OM content in the positive plate product increased to 85.12% with a yield of 28.81%, while that in the negative plate product decreased to 59.22% with a yield of 36.45%. The test results demonstrated that the novel conical surface triboelectric separator can effectively recycle OM from the NMFs and facilitate the subsequent reutilization of NMFs.
  • The recycling and reuse of steelmaking slags — A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): Lucy V. Fisher, Andrew R. BarronLarge volumes of slags are formed as by-products during the refinement of pig iron by basic oxygen steelmaking or electric arc furnace steelmaking. In order to lower the environmental impact of the steel industry and ensure its economic sustainability, there have been significant studies finding the ways to recycle by-products. The formation, composition and physical properties of steel making slag are discussed with regard to the problems associated with its reuse. The volume instability caused by free lime exposure to moisture means that the reuse of steelmaking slag is often limited as many potential applications, and the leaching behavior of steelmaking slag is important for environmental considerations. Land-based applications that have been demonstrated include replacing natural sand as aggregate in cement, which may be combined with the CO2 sequestration properties. Steel slag shows use as a liming material (when spread over acidic soils to help to raise the pH to a more neutral level) and to enhance the physical properties of soft soils. Potential benefits to the marine environment is due to high porosity and large surface area, making slags ideal for coral reef repair (e.g., overcoming coral bleaching) and replacement (e.g., artificial reef to promote growth of green marine plants and seagrass), as well as a growth promoter for seaweed and phytoplankton that are microscopic organisms that are an essential component of ecosystems in oceans around the world. The chemistry of steelmaking slag also makes it a contender for adsorption of H2S and metalloids from marine environments.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Technology generation and international collaboration in the Global Value
           Chain of Lithium Batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): Fernando Moreno-Brieva, Raquel MarínAbstractThe Global Value Chain (GVC) literature generally highlights the opportunities for developing economies to be found in technological upgrading – although the generation of technology tends to be associated with the highest added-value stages, what could be a limiting aspect in those chains based primarily on natural resources. The case of lithium batteries allows analysis of the trade-off between technology generation and international collaboration, as well as any potential asymmetries between producers of natural resources and end-use products within the same GVC. Lithium is a relevant component, currently seen as a valuable player in the reduction of fossil fuel emissions, given the potential of lithium batteries for energy storage, in final applications ranging from consumer electronics to electric vehicles. Our findings show a divergent relationship between lithium producers and related technologies at the country level, across the different stages of the Global Value Chain for Lithium Batteries (GVCLB), and this suggests that upgrading throughout the value chain could foster imbalances. Empirical analysis has been conducted using data from patent applications made to the European Patent Office, and the findings reveal wide international divergence and numerous interactions within the GVCLB, defining a complex international pattern of collaboration, with technology generation concentrated into very few economies.
  • Supply chain and logistic optimization of industrial Spent Microbial
           Biomass distribution as a soil amendment for field crop production
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): Lixia He-Lambert, Oleg Shylo, Burton C. English, Neal S. Eash, James A. Zahn, Dayton M. LambertAbstractAdvancement of a sustainable bioeconomy requires strategic planning and development of new markets for coproducts. This research develops a least cost transportation model to deliver Spent Microbial Biomass (SMB) to farm fields as a soil amendment and fertilizer substitute. SMB is a coproduct resulting from the production of Bio-PDO™ – a certified biobased 1,3-propanediol made from corn glucose. SMB is bulky, but high in organic matter and other important plant nutrients. Distribution of SMB requires storage sites and truck transportation. The location of storage sites and serviceable coverage area are important factors determining supply logistic costs. This case study focuses on a Bio-PDO™ processing facility in East Tennessee. Stochastic programming and Monte Carlo simulation were used to evaluate the least-cost distribution of SMB under uncertain farmer demand. Farmer interest and participation rates affect the number and location of storage facilities, the system’s total storage capacity and costs, and transportation costs. The results suggest that on-farm storage of SMB minimizes material transport and storage costs.
  • Economic analysis and risk-based assessment of the financial losses of
           domestic rainwater harvesting systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): Roni M. Severis, Flávia Arcari da Silva, Júlia Wahrlich, Everton Skoronski, Flávio J. SimioniAbstractThe considerable potential for rainwater harvesting (RWH) opens the door for the study of economic viability and risk indicators in this kind of system. The aim of this paper was to present economic and risk analyses of three RWH systems intended for water supply to single-family residences. The systems were analyzed based on water demand, degree of treatment and distribution arrangement. Economic, sensitivity and risk analyses were performed. The system with the basic treatment of rainwater and distribution by pressure (BX Pressure) was the most economically viable. The Net Present Value and the Intern Return Rate of the BX Pressure system was 480.36 USD and 6.85%, respectively. In the sensitivity analysis, both basic treatment systems were viable at any considered discount rate (0.00%–10.00%) and at a water price ranging from 1.58 USD to 2.72 USD for BX Pressure. In the risk analysis, BX Pressure was also the most viable system, presenting a risk probability of viability of 95.9% at current water prices. Water price, demand, lower discount rates and initial investment costs determined the greater economic viability and lower economic risk associated with domestic RWH systems.
  • Photovoltaic waste assessment: Forecasting and screening of emerging waste
           in Australia
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): Sajjad Mahmoudi, Nazmul Huda, Masud BehniaAbstractAustralia has to meet the challenges of End-of-Life treatment of photovoltaic modules in coming years due to rapid growth of photovoltaic capacity during the last decades. This paper contributes towards the sustainable management of decommissioned solar panels through the estimation of PV waste flow between the years 2031–2047 based on the actual installation of the PV modules from 2001 to 2018, and the provision of a forecasting model applying on four major scenarios to project the waste generated from 2048–2060. Assuming three forecasting schemes, and consistent annual-growth-rate of PV installation for each scenario, the future PV waste was quantified. Considering the PV installation from 2001 to 2018, the cumulative waste is estimated to be 0.8 million tonnes until 2047. The mainstream of the waste is estimated to be glass and aluminium with 541,209 and 116,483 tonnes respectively, followed by 8375 tonnes of copper and 71,329 tonnes of steel. The PV waste includes various valuable substances which, if appropriately recycled, can bring significant economic benefit. With regards to all PV penetration scenarios in the electricity generation market until 2030, Australia is estimated to face around 1–8 million tonnes of decommissioned PV until 2060. The recovery of the EoL PV raw materials can lead to value creation of nearly 1.2 billion dollars. These findings can shed light on the possibility of a circular economy and suggest an active contribution of all parties and a very well-planned coordinated approach prevent the potential environmental impacts and maximize resource efficiency.
  • Degrowth within – Aligning circular economy and strong
           sustainability narratives
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): Patrick Schröder, Magnus Bengtsson, Maurie Cohen, Paul Dewick, Joerg Hoffstetter, Joseph SarkisAbstractThis perspective calls for building greater understanding of overlapping and conflicting considerations between the sustainability principles that inform current conceptions of circular economy and degrowth. We contend that scholars and practitioners need to be pragmatic and to recognize evident ideological differences, but simultaneously to acknowledge beneficial similarities and complements. The common aim of both frameworks – to change business-as-usual and to enable human society to operate within ecological planetary boundaries – will likely engender opportunities to formulate new solutions. Management of the inherent tensions, such as the scale and scope of rebound effects, will continue to pose challenges. However, with thoughtful dialogue, commitment to respectful discourse, and more refined articulation we are confident that progress will be made. By building on synergies and seeking holistic strategies, the academic community, along with its transdisciplinary partners, can advance strong global sustainability efforts.
  • Comparative life cycle assessment of station-based and dock-less bike
           sharing systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): Hao Luo, Zhaoyu Kou, Fu Zhao, Hua CaiAbstractBike sharing system (BSS) is growing worldwide. Although bike sharing is viewed as a sustainable transportation mode, it still has environmental footprints from its operation (e.g., bike rebalancing using automobiles) and upstream impacts (e.g., bike manufacturing). Thus, evaluating the environmental impacts of BSS from the life cycle perspective is vital to inform decision making for the system design and operation. In this study, we conducted a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) of station-based and dock-less BSS in the U.S. The results show that dock-less BSS has a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions factor of 118 g CO2-eq/bike-km in the base scenario, which is 82% higher than the station-based system. Bike rebalancing is the main source of GHG emissions, accounting for 36% and 73% of the station-based and dock-less systems, respectively. However, station-based BSS has 54% higher total normalized environmental impacts (TNEI), compared to dock-less BSS. The dock manufacturing dominants the TNEI (61%) of station-based BSS and the bike manufacturing contributes 52% of TNEI in dock-less BSS. BSS can also bring environmental benefits through substituting different transportation modes. Car trip replacement rate is the most important factor. The results suggest four key approaches to improve BSS environmental performance: 1) optimizing the bike distribution and rebalancing route or repositioning bikes using more sustainable approaches, 2) incentivizing more private car users to switch to using BSSs, 3) prolonging lifespans of docking infrastructure to significantly reduce the TNEI of station-based systems, and 4) increasing the bike utilization efficiency to improve the environmental performance of dock-less systems.
  • Prioritisation and evaluation of barriers intensity for implementation of
           cleaner technologies: Framework for sustainable production
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): Dimple Bhandari, Rajesh Kr Singh, Suresh K. GargAbstractIn the era of circular economy, the economic growth of a country is highly dependent on the sustainable performance of its manufacturing sector. Therefore, it is mandatory to develop technology with maximum efficiency and minimum pollution to make manufacturing sector sustainable and competitive. Hence cleaner technology is an ingenious option to maintain potential for increasing effectiveness of manufacturing processes. Cleaner technologies application is the modern integrated approach in manipulating pollutants and wastes in industries. “Cleaner Technology” is all about less and more systematic energy and materials use. For manufacturing organisations to be globally competitive and sustainable, it is necessary to implement cleaner technologies in different functions. Organisations face number of barriers while implementing cleaner technologies. It becomes indispensable to measure the influence of these barriers for formulating strategic approach to implement cleaner technologies. On the basis of literature review and experts’ opinion, four categories of barriers, namely technical information barriers, operational and strategic barriers, financial and economic barriers and human barriers are identified. In this study, hybrid approach comprising of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and graph theoretic approach (GTA) has been used. First prioritisation of different categories of barriers by AHP has been done and second, GTA has been applied for finding the barriers intensity index. Based on this study, finance and economic barriers have emerged as major hurdle in implementing cleaner technologies. Proposed framework will help organisations in quantifying barriers in implementing cleaner technologies in different processes thereby developing effective strategies for sustainable production.
  • A review on lead slag generation, characteristics, and utilization
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): De’an Pan, Lili Li, Xi Tian, Yufeng Wu, Na Cheng, Hailiang YuAbstractLead slag is produced by the primary and secondary lead industry. The large amount of lead slag discharge causes environmental problems. Reducing the toxicity and increasing utilization of lead slag are important measures to solve the negative impact of lead slag on the environment. Here, we review the lead slag physical and chemical characteristics, as well as environmental impacts. This review focuses on the utilization of lead slag: recovery of metals and used for construction materials. Various processes for metal recovery including pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, and bioleaching methods are summarized. Coal-based direct reduction is a typical pyrometallurgical technology for recovering metals from lead slag, which has the characteristics of high recovery efficiency, high energy consumption and suitable for industrial production. Chloride, acetic acid, and HNO3-based leaching systems are mainly used in hydrometallurgy of lead slag. The waste reagents and residues produced in hydrometallurgy process inevitably increase the environmental risk. Bioleaching is an environmentally friendly technology, but it is currently limited to laboratory scale. We also discuss the utilization of lead slag in construction materials. The use of lead slag in road construction and concrete will cause environmental risk of leaching toxic elements. The utilization rate of lead slag in cement clinker is extremely low. Geopolymers and glass-ceramics have good stabilization effect on toxic elements. However, the extensive use of alkaline activators limits the large-scale application of geopolymers. High energy consumption of glass-ceramics should be considered. Finally, the limitations and prospects for future research of lead slag utilization are also considered.
  • Stress-strain behavior of spirally confined recycled aggregate concrete:
           An approach towards sustainable design
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): Muhammad Junaid Munir, Yu-Fei Wu, Syed Minhaj Saleem Kazmi, Indubhushan Patnaikuni, Yingwu Zhou, Feng XingAbstractApplication of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) in the concrete structures is very limited due to inferior performance. Moreover, design of concrete structures ignores the role of transverse reinforcement in the strength enhancement of compression members. This study aims to utilize pre-existing transverse reinforcement to improve the performance of RAC. For this purpose, spirally confined concrete specimens were examined under axial compression, with the variation of three recycled aggregates (RA) replacement ratios (i.e., 0, 50 and 100%) and three pitches of spiral reinforcement (i.e., 20, 30 and 40 mm). The results show that increase of RA will cause a reduction of peak strength and peak strain. However, improved strength and ductility of RAC are observed with the increase in confinement pressure. A comparative study of the existing models for stress-strain behavior of steel confined normal aggregate concrete (NAC) with the test results indicates that the stress-strain characteristics of steel confined RAC cannot be well predicted using these existing models. Based on the test results, a model is developed in this work by modifying the parameters of best performing stress-strain model for steel confined NAC to incorporate the influence of RA replacement ratio. The proposed model can estimate the stress-strain characteristics of both NAC and RAC confined by steel spiral, which may be helpful in designing the sustainable RAC compression members. Moreover, an equation is presented to estimate the amount of RA for the given confinement level which can be recycled without compromising the design strength of spirally confined concrete compression members.
  • Business models for industrial symbiosis: A taxonomy focused on the form
           of governance
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): Luca Fraccascia, Ilaria Giannoccaro, Vito AlbinoAbstractThe aim of this paper is to propose a taxonomy of industrial symbiosis (IS) business models. Rather than to adopt a firm perspective, we take a system perspective and focus on the governance of the system made up of the firms implementing IS, being the latter considered an important factor influencing firm’s competitive advantage. Four extreme IS business models are identified, characterized on the basis of two governance features: (1) need for coordination and (2) centralization of control. For each model, the main characteristics are presented and the main factors influencing firm value creation and value capture discussed. In doing so, our study contributes to clarify how and why firms applying IS practice can gain competitive advantage, a major gap in the current literature. Consequently, we contribute to the practical development of IS, which appears to be still not fully exploited by firms, despite its relevance.
  • Multi-criteria decision analysis to mitigate the impact of municipal solid
           waste management services during floods
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): Nuchcha Phonphoton, Chanathip PharinoAbstractThe efficiency of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) services indicates the sustainability of a city. Sustainable development goals (SDGs) are defined as sustainable global agenda covering normal and disaster situations as per goal#11, to make sustainable cities and communities with holistic disaster risk management. Local governments are among the target groups to adopt and implement local disaster risk reduction strategies. Mitigation plans are highly important, especially during crises such as flooding that have the potential to disrupt regular waste management services in cities.This study aims to identify practical approaches for impact mitigation and preparedness of MSWM services during floods. In this study, Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) is applied, using a panel of responsible providers and waste management and town planning specialists to assess appropriate impact mitigation alternatives. Flood impacts on MSWM in cities are classified into three situations: 1) Cannot collect waste from sources (CNC), 2) Cannot transfer waste for final disposal (CNT), and 3) Cannot collect and transfer waste for final disposal (CNC and CNT). The decision support system is designed based on the principles of sustainable development, and considers impacting criteria, namely environment, society and economic factors.The results show that modifying waste-hauling trucks is the most appropriate alternative for all situations to prepare for mitigating flood impact on MSWM services. The findings can help develop an appropriate mitigation management plan for waste management systems during floods that challenges practice to develop cities and communities sustainably and achieve the SDGs.
  • Impacts of income growth on air pollution-related health risk: Exploiting
           objective and subjective measures
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): Beibei Wu, Tianxiang Li, Tomas Baležentis, Dalia ŠtreimikienėAbstractChina’s remarkable economic growth during the past four decades has resulted in a number of environmental problems. However, very few studies have addressed the interactive impact of both income and air pollution on public health. Thus, an innovative contribution of this paper is to test whether household income growth (HIG) can mitigate the health risks resulting from air pollution in China. More specifically, using pooled data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study and official statistical data, we try to estimate the interactive impact of HIG and air pollution-related health risks by employing an ordered logistic regression model, and compare these effects across different levels of pollution and education attainment. Our results indicate that HIG can significantly reduce the health risks of air pollution, especially those health risks caused by gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NOx). However, HIG fails to offset the adverse health effect induced by particulate matter (PM). Further, heterogeneity analysis shows that the health benefits from incomes vary greatly among different regions. HIG can mitigate the health risks of NOx to people in heavily polluted regions. In terms of education level, HIG can significantly raise the self-rated health level for groups with different educational backgrounds, but HIG of the highly educated group can significantly offset the health losses due to air pollution.
  • Evaluation of the efficiency of odor removal from recycled HDPE using a
           modified recycling process
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): Miriam Strangl, Eva Ortner, Andrea BuettnerAbstractA series of recent global and local policymaking processes is promoting or demanding developments in the recycling of post-consumer plastic packaging waste. After successfully clearing most hurdles in the PET bottle sector to promote a successful market launch of the recycled PET products, it is now important to take measures to meet the challenges associated with the recycling of polyolefins such as HDPE. In this respect, the need to further improve recycling technologies is currently prevalent because the quality parameters of the recycled materials do not yet meet the strict industrial requirements. In this context, apart from optical or mechanical properties, there is increasing awareness of odorous contaminants in the recycled products. Therefore, in this study, a modified HDPE recycling method was evaluated for its ability to reduce odors. For the aim of mapping and understanding the odor of recycled HDPE pellets with different residence times in a special decontamination reactor a combinatory sensory and instrumental-olfactometric approach was applied. Furthermore, based on the characterization of the causative odorants by gas chromatography-olfactometry and two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry, quantitative determination of selected odorants was carried out over time using stable isotope dilution analysis. With regard to the decontamination efficacy of the evaluated decontamination process, we observed that the decrease in the concentration profiles of the monitored odorants went along with a sensorially relevant overall odor minimization of the recycled HDPE. The results of the study are aiding the adaptation of technological procedures for smell reduction or complete decontamination.
  • Evaluating the risks in the construction wood product system through a
           criticality assessment framework
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): Dimitra Ioannidou, Régis Pommier, Guillaume Habert, Guido SonnemannAbstractThe increasing use of wood in product eco-design focuses on the environmental merits of wood. Nevertheless, forest cover loss and other threats may hamper the supply of certain wood species, hence significantly impacting the economic sector. Supply risk has been intensively studied in the field of mineral resources; this has led to the emergence of the criticality concept, which evaluates the supply risks and main impacts of limited accessibility. In the case of biotic, renewable resources, lack of sustainable management can result in supply shortage. We developed here a criticality framework for wood to assess the risk of supply shortage of different wood species in different regions. Our motivation to look at wood is that it is the biotic resource most used in construction. The indicators used in the framework express all factors that can disturb the forest growth, such as fire and diseases, the sustainable supply of harvested wood, such as trade barriers and country governance, as well as the impacts of the aforementioned factors on the construction wood product system. The value of the framework and of the observations that can be derived thereof is shown through application to four different wood species. Such a criticality assessment can help define points of intervention at different geographic scales.
  • Who can improve the environment—Me or the powerful others' An
           integrative approach to locus of control and pro-environmental behavior in
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): Xisi Yang, Anja WeberAbstractMany people think that only powerful institutions are effective to combat environmental problems, especially in government-guided countries such as China. This study contrasts people’s beliefs in their own abilities to improve the environment to their perceptions of other powers (e.g. government, corporations, higher powers, and earth-cycles). Previous research explored the impact of internal and external control beliefs on individuals’ pro-environmental behavior mostly separately in developed Western countries. Since China’s cultural and sociopolitical environment significantly differs from that of Western countries, we develop and test an integrated model of environmental locus of control (ELOC) to enlighten possible interactions and simultaneous effects in China. As expected, results indicate that internal ELOC generates positive effects on Chinese people’s behaviors. But contrary to our predictions, external ELOC is positively correlated with internal factors and also positively influences behaviors. The belief in one’s own abilities outperforms the belief in others to translate the confidence into reported behaviors. Nevertheless, Chinese perceive a higher level of governmental and corporate responsibility relative to their own environmental impacts which is driven by Confucian values (i.e. group orientation, belief in hierarchy). Compared to relatively consistent internal ELOC, the perceptions of most external ELOC factors significantly differ among provinces by levels of GDP per capita. Promotional programs should stress the individual’s significance through daily behaviors in specific ways such as green purchase, activism, advocate (e.g. persuasion of friends), and recycling. Communicating the impact of powerful institutions might not necessarily trigger responsibility diffusion, but seems to promote the sense of shared responsibility.
  • Spatially explicit material stock analysis of buildings in Eastern China
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): Jing Guo, Alessio Miatto, Feng Shi, Hiroki TanikawaAbstractChina is experiencing a period of rapid urbanization and fervent construction activities, which are responsible for the accumulation of large amount of material stocks (MS). Fundamental in every society, buildings not only shape material flows before and during construction, but also during maintenance and demolition, inducing the extraction of resources and the production of construction waste. It is thus imperative to understand the amount, composition, and location of current building MS as a first step to design appropriate management strategies for an environmentally sustainable society. This research uses the latest GIS dataset of buildings in 14 representative Eastern China metropoles to quantify the current status of building MS by employing a bottom-up method. The selection of the study areas relies on the law of the primate city, which permits to quickly target the most important urban areas of a region. We review and discuss existing material intensity (MI) coefficients for Chinese buildings, and produce a new set of MIs manipulating those available in the literature. We then calculate the total MS, MS density, and per capita MS for each city. Results find that in 14 cities 7.9 Gt of building materials are currently stored in a total area of 3790 km2, resulting on an average density of 2.1 Mt/km2. The per capita building MS results being 283 t/cap, and this value correlates with a growth of the per capita GDP. We conclude the research with a hotspot analysis of the spatial distribution of the MS, identifying the MS clusters.
  • Environmental benefits of secondary copper from primary copper based on
           life cycle assessment in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): Jingjing Chen, Zhaohui Wang, Yufeng Wu, Liquan Li, Bin Li, De’an Pan, Tieyong ZuoAbstractChina is the largest producer and consumer of refined copper in the world. The large amount of copper consumption not only creates added pressure surrounding resource availability but also causes prominent environmental problems. Although copper can be recycled to alleviate resource pressure, there are significant differences between mining primary copper and recycling scrap copper in view of resources, energy consumption, and pollution emissions. These factors were analyzed to better understand the total environmental effects of refined copper from extracting primary ore and recycling scrap copper. The results of this analysis showed that the most serious environmental impacts of refined copper were human toxicity, abiotic depletion potential, and global warming potential. The environmental impacts were mainly caused by the mining and smelting of primary copper by pyrometallurgy. For secondary copper, refining and electrolysis were the main factors. Thus, these main processes, which cause major environmental impacts, should be promoted technologically. According to the results, the total environmental impact of secondary copper was only 1/8 that of the primary copper production process, which indicates that regeneration has better environmental benefits. Furthermore, the sensitive analysis showed that electricity was the most sensitive factor of both technologies. By optimizing the energy structure and increasing the proportion of regeneration, can also reduce the environmental impact. It was suggested that energy structure should be improved and secondary copper should be given more attention and be developed vigorously. Finally, ways to reduce the environmental impact of primary copper and secondary copper industries were recommended.
  • Coordinate the economic and environmental sustainability via procurement
           outsourcing in a co-opetitive supply chain
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): Baozhuang Niu, Zihao Mu, Lei Chen, Carman K.M. LeeAbstractThe increasing concern about sustainability prompts the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) to make efforts for sustainable technology innovations, thereby attracting customer demand. However, the increased demand results in more resource consumption and hurts the environmental sustainability deterioration. In this paper, we coordinate the economic sustainability (because of the increased demand and profits) and the environmental sustainability (because of the reduced demand and resource consumption) through procurement outsourcing. We develop a co-opetitive supply chain consisting of an OEM and a competitive contract manufacturer (CM), where the OEM faces the strategic decisions of procurement outsourcing to the CM. In the sense of economic sustainability, we derive three interactive effects that make the OEM prefer procurement outsourcing when its market potential is either low or high. The main reason is that the OEM could drag down the competitive CM with a high component/material wholesale price. In the sense of environmental sustainability, we find that there exists incentive conflict between the economic and environmental sustainability because of the OEM’s priority of achieving economic sustainability. We further identify the “sustainable-effort-dilemma” to show that the coordination of economic and environmental sustainability is attainable when the OEM chooses procurement outsourcing.
  • End-of-life photovoltaic modules: A systematic quantitative literature
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): Sajjad Mahmoudi, Nazmul Huda, Zahraossadat Alavi, Md Tasbirul Islam, Masud BehniaAbstractPV modules which are installed worldwide have a defined lifetime for useful service after which the panels become End-of-Life (EoL) products. An enormous amount of obsolete solar PV modules will be added to the waste stream in the near future. Hence, the EoL photovoltaic waste stream could cause an appalling problem in the future if a holistic management strategy is not considered. Despite the vast research on photovoltaic technology, little is known about the perspective of how the EoL PV modules will be handled. The current study systematically investigates global research on EoL PV modules to identify gaps for further exploration. The review reveals that most of the research concentrates on the recovery and recycling of PV panels. Also, the vast majority of the research is mostly carried out in laboratory-scale. The geographical distribution of the studies was concentrated on 15 countries including the USA, Italy, and Taiwan, the latter of which has produced the most publications. Life-cycle-assessment and reverse logistics (RL) are two critical aspects of PV waste management and have only recently received attention from researchers, with 11 and six papers respectively. There are still many countries which have not attempted to forecast their EoL solar-panel waste stream and develop recycling infrastructure. Based on review findings, the future research must be focused on forecasting the PV waste streams, development of recycling technologies, reverse logistics and the policies of individual PV consumer countries. Finally, this study develops a foundation for future research on Photovoltaic waste management to build upon.
  • Life cycle assessment of end-of-life treatments of waste plastics in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 146Author(s): Yuedong Chen, Zhaojie Cui, Xiaowei Cui, Wei Liu, Xinlei Wang, XinXin Li, Shouxiu LiAbstractAs the world’s largest producer and consumer of plastics, China is also the largest producer and recycler of waste plastics. It is necessary to explore the environmental impacts of actual end-of-life (EOL) treatments of waste plastics in China. In this study, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to evaluate the environmental impacts of mechanical recycling of waste plastics as well as incineration and landfilling with municipal solid waste in China. The results indicate the environmental benefits of current EOL treatments of waste plastics in China. Mechanical recycling was a negative and decisive contributor, with a minimum impact on terrestrial acidification potential (-83.4%) and a maximum impact on global warming potential (-165.8%). Incineration had negative contributions to 8 of the 12 environmental indicators, and landfilling was a positive contributor to all environmental impacts. Scenarios of treatment pattern, recycling technologies and import policy were set to analyze the potential reduction in environmental impacts of future EOL treatments of waste plastics. Increasing the proportion of mechanical recycling would reduce all environmental impacts, including up to 51.8% on particulate matter formation potential. Energy conservation and emission reduction in atmospheric pollutants would effectively reduce the environmental impacts of mechanical recycling. Banning waste plastics imports would decrease the transportation distances of waste plastics, thereby reducing the related environmental impacts, most notably a reduction of 84.8% for marine ecotoxicity potential. This study provides robust references for waste plastics management in China.
  • Comparative analysis of metals use in the United States economy
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Philip Nuss, Hajime Ohno, Wei-Qiang Chen, T.E. GraedelBuilding a circular economy requires knowledge of physical material flows and stocks. One approach for obtaining data on the intersectoral exchanges of materials in an economy is with physical input-output tables (PIOTs). Using PIOTs of eleven alloying metals (aluminum, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, niobium, molybdenum, tungsten) for the entire United States economy in 2007, we apply network-based metrics and visualizations to identify key sectors and compare different PIOTs with each other. Some 40–45% of all intersectoral trade contains the major metals aluminum, copper, and iron, while this number ranges between only 11–15% for minor metals (e.g., cobalt, vanadium, niobium, molybdenum, tungsten). The majority of sectors rely on products containing the major metals, reflecting widespread use of those products in our modern economy. Network size provides an indication of supply chain steps required to move from metal production to finished product manufacturing. Supply chains for the minor metals require an average of 5–8 steps, while those of major metals involve 3 steps on average. Cobalt is used extensively to illustrate these results because its status as a “technology-critical material” demonstrates how these analytical approaches can reveal sector usage and dependency for a metal of potential supply concern. We conclude by presenting automobile supply chain networks and discuss the position of the automobile production sector in the US economy. The analytical and visualization approaches presented result in an improved understanding of metal flows and can help to better communicate underlying data, e.g., in a policy context.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • The recovery of products and materials for reuse: The global context of
           resource management
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Faye Duchin, Stephen H. LevineAbstractWe propose a framework for evaluating alternative approaches for recovering products and materials from capital goods that are no longer in use. It calls for deepening the existing collaborations between input-output economists and industrial ecologists to develop scenarios for the future and databases to support the analysis of global strategies for resource management. Our formulation offers the endogenous choice among technologies subject to resource constraints to minimize economy-wide use of factors of production in satisfying final demand. The determination is made on the basis of comparative advantage for a single economy and for the global setting. We develop an illustrative database for three regions characterized by different resource profiles for natural resource endowments and for the accumulation of built capital; they are roughly modeled on Japan, Guinea, and India. The material and economic consequences for each region, and for the world as a whole, are then calculated under alternative recovery scenarios. Sharp contrasts in region-specific outcomes are evident, and clear impacts of actions in one region on outcomes in other regions demonstrate the need for a global context. Next steps include making dynamics explicit by incorporating lifetimes of durable goods and infrastructure, varying production duration periods, and resource stock-flow relationships. The final section addresses the corresponding development challenges, in particular those surrounding jobs and livelihoods. These concerns need to inform design priorities for the scale and degree of decentralization of future technological systems, which are readily represented as technological alternatives.
  • Strategies of disaster waste management after an earthquake: A
           sustainability assessment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and RecyclingAuthor(s): Alessia Amato, Francesco Gabrielli, Francesco Spinozzi, Lorenzo Magi Galluzzi, Susanna Balducci, Francesca BeolchiniOne of the most significant effects of an earthquake is the production of a huge amount of waste. An incorrect management of the rubbles causes relevant environmental damages, economic losses and a psychological impact for the population. In this context, the present manuscript assesses different strategies of waste management, estimating the carbon footprint and the economic impact, in order to define the best choices. Overall, different management options can be applied, that have different costs and impacts on the environment: a temporary storage site could be used, rubbles can be treated through different technologies (either simple crushing or advanced refining), and the treatment can be carried out at different distances from the site of the event. The environmental impact assessment evidenced the importance of an in-situ pre-treatment of the rubbles and of an enhanced refining, addressed at the achievement of high quality inert. On the other hand, the economic analysis suggests that the best option is to transport everything to the treatment site, and to carry out a simple treatment of the rubbles. Consequently, our assessment resulted in conflicting conclusions, where an enhanced treatment of the rubbles is positive, from an environmental point of view, but negative, for the increase in the management costs. The economic criteria are currently pushing any decision taken by the emergency managers; however, the environmental load may have a long-term effect with even more significant economic consequences, and it cannot be neglected.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Life cycle assessment of forest-based biomass for bioenergy: A case study
           in British Columbia, Canada
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and RecyclingAuthor(s): Jan Moritz Maier, Taraneh Sowlati, James SalazarAbstractLarge quantities of residual forest-based biomass, including harvesting and sawmill residues, are available in British Columbia, Canada. They can be used to generate bioenergy. Currently, harvesting residues are burned to reduce fire hazard, and private and remote sawmills’ residues are either burned or landfilled. While previous studies assessed the impact of bioenergy production from residual forest-based biomass on global warming, this life cycle assessment includes a comprehensive set of ten impact categories. Adopting a case study in a region in British Columbia, a life cycle model is applied to three locations considering four combustion and gasification technologies with different capacities (0.5 MW, 2 MW, 3 MW and 5 MW) and product outputs (electricity and/or heat). Most bioenergy supply chain scenarios showed improved environmental performance due to avoided uncontrolled combustion of residues and avoided fossil fuel combustion, particularly in the categories of acidification (+1% to -71%), eutrophication (-2% to -85%), fossil resource depletion (-2% to -84%), respiratory effects (0% to -96%), and photochemical ozone formation (+3% to -59%). Benefits were larger at locations dependent on fossil energy compared to locations dependent on hydropower. In contrast, ecotoxicity values increased in most scenarios (+460% to -11%), due to wood ash disposal. Results confirmed conversion efficiency and wood ash disposal as influencing factors in bioenergy supply chains for the investigated region, but showed a minor influence of the feedstock procurement distance. Moreover, the results emphasized the high contribution of uncontrolled burnings to the overall environmental impact of the forest biomass supply chains.
  • Announcing 2018 RCR annual awards
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and RecyclingAuthor(s): Ming Xu
  • What predicts household waste management behaviors' Culture and type
           of behavior as moderators
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Keren Kaplan Mintz, Laura Henn, Joonha Park, Jenny KurmanAbstractThis study seeks to examine the factors predicting waste management behaviors— recycling (difficult and easy) and waste minimization—based on social norms and environmental orientation in a cross-cultural context. A survey conducted among 401 university students from Japan, Germany and Israel included measures of social norms for recycling and minimization, biospheric value orientation, environmental concern (NEP), and waste management behaviors. Results showed that difficult recycling was lower than the other two behaviors, and that household waste management behaviors were higher among Germans than among the other two groups. The relative contribution of environmental orientation to waste management behavior was generally weaker in Japan than in Germany and Israel. Social norms significantly predicted easy recycling and minimization in all three groups, and difficult recycling only in Germany and Israel. Social norms were a stronger predictor of easy recycling among Israelis than among Japanese. The research results imply that both structural contexts and cultural factors influence the extent to which people engage in recycling and waste minimization. The results highlight the importance of integrating cultural considerations into waste management strategies.
  • Sustainable management of natural resources toward sustainable development
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Ming Lang Tseng, Anthony S.F. Chiu, Weslynne Ashton, Vincent Moreau
  • Approaches to responsible sourcing in mineral supply chains
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Susan van den Brink, René Kleijn, Arnold Tukker, Jaco HuismanAbstractOver the last decade, ‘responsible sourcing’ has become a topic of broad interest. Policymakers, consumers and companies refer to ‘responsible sourcing’ as a way to address sustainability risks in globalized mineral supply chains, but the term is used to refer to a wide range of sustainability objectives pursued by a variety of approaches. To address the need for a definition and structuring of the topic, a review was performed of the existing literature and of company policies on ‘responsible sourcing’ of minerals. The study develops a framework for responsible sourcing, here defined as ‘the management of social, environmental and/or economic sustainability in the supply chain through production data’. We propose that ‘responsible sourcing’ should be used as an umbrella term encompassing all sourcing designed to be ‘socially responsible’, ‘green’ or ‘sustainable’. Two approaches to managing responsible sourcing of minerals were identified: supply chain due diligence and sourcing via sustainability schemes. This study maps the sustainability requirements of such schemes and uses these to categorize them as socially responsible sourcing, sustainable sourcing or green sourcing. It also identifies the extent in the supply chain to which the schemes provide assurance or certification and how far traceability extends. The study provides a framework for future research and a springboard for further development of approaches to responsible sourcing that can be used by both companies and academics.
  • Industrial wastewater desalination under uncertainty in coal-chemical
           eco-industrial parks
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Liu Huang, Dongliang Wang, Chang He, Ming Pan, Bingjian Zhang, Qinglin Chen, Jingzheng RenAbstractThis work proposes a stochastic multi-scenario model for the robust design of industrial wastewater desalination under uncertainty. For fully accommodating the diverse nature of wastewater variability, multiple uncertain design parameters consisting of salt concentration, flowrate, and inlet temperature of wastewater are taken into account for the realization of uncertainty. A three-step stochastic strategy for data processing including uncertainty characterization and quantification, data sampling, and data propagation is developed to generate a proper size of feeding scenarios. The detailed process model of the dual-stage reverse osmosis is incorporated in the optimization model for minimizing the expected specific production cost. Finally, we illustrate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed stochastic multi-scenario model with an example from a coal-chemical eco-industrial park.
  • A new strategy for using textile waste as a sustainable source of
           recovered cotton
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Samy Yousef, Maksym Tatariants, Martynas Tichonovas, Zahid Sarwar, Ilona Jonuškienė, Linas KliucininkasCotton is one of the primary resources in many modern industries and with increasing demand rates the current challenge is to find other sources of cotton production with lower prices and higher quality whereas cotton produced only by agriculture is not sufficient for these needs. This is focused on developing a new strategy to make the textile waste a new sustainable source of recovered cotton to face this shortage. This strategy is summarized as development of a chemical technology using sustainable and commercial chemicals to recover cotton from waste textile. The technology consists of three sequential processes: a) textile dye leaching using Nitric Acid as a pretreatment of the original waste, b) dissolution process using Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) as the main treatment to dissolve the organic materials from the treated fabric, including polyester and remaining organic part from textile dyes, and c) bleaching process using sodium hypochlorite and diluted hydrochloric acid for final recovered cotton purification. Preliminary experiments were performed at a laboratory scale to determine the optimum conditions on a few grams of two different types of denim fabric. To simulate the pilot scale, the main experimental work was conducted for full-size blue and black waste jeans trousers in a developed reactor with capacity 1 kg based on the preliminary experimental results. To close the lifecycle loop of the suggested strategy, rotary evaporator was used to extract the polymeric part and regenerate the spent DMSO, while the acid was regenerated by activated carbon. Additionally, suggestions on treatment of the water contaminated by acid and solvent (obtained after washing) were given. Morphology, thermal behavior, and chemical structure of the recovered cotton, regenerated acid, solvent, and recovered polyester were investigated. Based on the recycling rate (93%), profitability (1466 $/ tonne), greenhouse gas emissions (-1,534 CO2-eq/ tonne), and sustainability assessment, the developed strategy can be seen as a high-potential approach for recovery of cotton.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • The sustainability of remarkable growth in emerging economies
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Jianglong Li, Boqiang LinAbstractThe remarkable GDP growth along with the dramatic increases in energy consumption and pollution emissions in emerging economies raise the concerns for the sustainability of their development pattern. However, the precise role of how energy and environment contribute to economic growth in emerging economies is still unknown. This paper explores the sustainability of remarkable GDP growth in emerging economies by using non-radial directional distance function (NDDF) to identify the sustainable total-factor productivity (STFP) growth in the emerging economies and comparing it with that in developed economies. Our research extends previous literature by highlighting the roles of energy and environment in economic growth. The results raise the concerns on the sustainability of the remarkable GDP growth (especially after 2000) in emerging economies due to their slow STFP growth after excluding the contributions from energy and environment. Furthermore, it is also found that compared with developed economies, the slower STFP growth in emerging economies is mainly caused by their disadvantages in innovation, although they are able to utilize existing technology by catch-up effect. Besides, analysis from the group heterogeneity among Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America gives a better grasp of implications for stimulating the sustainable growth in emerging economies by promoting technology spillover from developed economies.
  • Building a taxonomy of eco-innovation types in firms. A quantitative
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Christoph P. Kiefer, Javier Carrillo-Hermosilla, Pablo Del RíoAbstractEco-innovations, or innovations that reduce the environmental impacts of production and consumption activities, are considered crucial for sustainability transitions and a key element of a Circular Economy. Although previous contributions have acknowledged the existence of different types of eco-innovations (e.g., product vs. service or incremental vs. radical), a precise conceptualization of eco-innovation types, which takes into account its multifaceted character, is missing. Yet such a conceptualization is crucial in order to understand how eco-innovations contribute to a sustainable transition, how policy makers can promote different eco-innovation types, and how business practitioners can develop eco-innovations. This article covers this gap in the literature. Its aim is twofold: 1) to develop a quantitative method to categorise different eco-innovation types in a particular setting, taking into account their distinct features and dimensions; 2) to apply this method in a given sector and country, building a taxonomy of eco-innovation types. It draws on a survey of 197 Spanish industrial small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) which developed or adopted an eco-innovation between 2012 and 2013. The statistical analyses reveal the existence of a taxonomy of five eco-innovation types: systemic, externally driven, continuous improvement, radical (technology-push initiated) and eco-efficient. They differ in their techno-economic configurations, contribution to environmental sustainability and corporate goals and required changes in the firms. Specific policy and managerial implications are deducted.
  • Household food waste in an emerging country and the reasons why:
           Consumer´s own accounts and how it differs for target groups
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Jessica Aschemann-Witzel, Ana Giménez, Gastón AresAbstractA major share of food waste is caused in consumer households. Globally, this share is expected to increase with growing middle classes in emerging countries. Consumer behaviour factors causing food waste differ across the various food handling stages from purchase to use, as well as for the individual and the specific situation in question. In order to tackle food waste in the household, knowledge on the type of food wasted, the cause of waste, and the situation in which it occurs is needed for different target groups. Little research so far has studied household consumer related food waste in emerging countries. This study explored food waste in consumer´s own accounts of a recent food waste incident in 540 Uruguayan households. It used a mixed-method approach composed of open-ended questions, which were analysed using content analysis. Differences in the frequency of mention of the identified categories between socioeconomic and sociodemographic groups were analysed. Results showed that leftovers and fresh vegetable and fruit were the categories most consumers recall wasting, and indicated that sub-optimality and prolonged storage were major reasons for discarding food. The higher the socioeconomic group, the greater the likelihood of wasting fresh produce, and the more often due to sub-optimality. Findings imply that avoidable food waste might increase with affluence levels. Public policies or collaborative public-private information or intervention campaigns directed at consumer households can more effectively contribute to decreasing food waste if targeted at the most relevant categories and causes of food waste.
  • Scenarios of rare earth elements demand driven by automotive
           electrification in China: 2018–2030
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Xiang-Yang Li, Jian-Ping Ge, Wei-Qiang Chen, Peng WangAbstractChina is accelerating automotive electrification to address the pressing oil shortage and environmental pollution issues. Automotive electrification can be achieved through four different major technology pathways: hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, battery electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles. These pathways all heavily rely on the use of critical mineral resources, such as rare earth elements (REEs). This study establishes different scenarios of the future technology mix and growth in automotive electrification in China by 2030 to predict the future demand of REEs associated with such scenarios. The widely applied Bass model is chosen to predict the future growth of these four technology pathways for electric vehicles under pessimistic, neutral and optimistic demand scenarios. Given the potential for technological advances, the effects of changes in the material intensity and component substitution are considered to effectively reflect future demand changes. Accordingly, the REE demand associated with the four technology pathways from 2018 to 2030 is estimated. The highest demand for REEs in automotive electrification will reach 315 thousand tons, accounting for 22% of global production during the prediction period. Specifically, the demands for Nd, Dy, Ce, Pr, and La will account for 51%, 20%, 12%, 9.5%, and 7.7% of the total demand, respectively. Moreover, the contrast between the supply and demand of Dy and Pr will be extremely large, and these elements will require more attention than others. For the successful development of automotive electrification in China, related policies and plans regarding the supplies of different types and quantities of REEs should be urgently established.
  • Supply and demand response trends of lithium resources driven by the
           demand of emerging renewable energy technologies in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Donghui Liu, Xiangyun Gao, Haizhong An, Yabin Qi, Xiaoqi Sun, Ze Wang, Zhihua Chen, Feng An, Nanfei JiaThe supply and demand response trends of lithium resources in China are investigated under the obvious changes caused by the rapid development of emerging renewable energy technologies (ERETs), such as electric energy storage (EES) and new energy vehicles (NEVs). A system dynamics model for renewable energy technology–lithium supply and demand is developed based on the industrial chain of lithium resources. Then, we analyze how the trends in the lithium market price, the supply and demand gap, the import volume, and the composition of lithium consumption will change with the rising demand of EES and NEVs. The model is simulated under three different demand level scenarios. The results show that the lithium market price will experience 2 processes in which the market price first gradually increases and is followed by a rapid decline, which is due to the incentive for upstream industries to increase production, resulting in oversupply. There are relatively large gaps between supply and demand, especially in later periods under a high NEV demand scenario. The import volume of lithium resources increases significantly after period 20 due to the rapid development of EES and NEVs. The import volume is much greater under the high scenario in later periods. The EES will play a significant role in the market, which tends to be ignored in the literature. Lithium recycling and extraction technologies, especially for brine, require a breakthrough to increase domestic production to cope with various challenges, including supply shortages and import risks.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Valorisation of wood fly ash on concrete
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): E.R. Teixeira, A. Camões, F.G. BrancoAbstractWood fly ash (WFA) is a waste material produced in power plants as result of forest residues combustion to produce power and heat. In countries like Portugal, this waste is disposed of in landfills. Since this material shows pozzolanic characteristics, several studies have been done to evaluate its use as a construction material. This work shows an overview of some published results about the effect of the utilisation of WFA, as a supplementary cementitious material, on the durability and quality of concrete. The results showed that the increase on the wood fly ash content leads to a negative effect on the concrete properties when compared with a conventional concrete. However, the results showed that the behaviour of wood fly ash concrete is very similar to the coal fly ash concrete, which is the most pozzolanic material used in the world. In terms of durability, it was verified that WFA improved the most of the durability characteristics with the exception of carbonation resistance. However, more experimental analysis needs to be developed in terms of wood fly ash concrete durability. Results suggested that using wood fly ash to replace cement is a valuable sustainable option for concrete production. This manuscript discusses the key factors and attempts to provide new information about the application of the wood fly ash on concrete.
  • How will second-use of batteries affect stocks and flows in the EU' A
           model for traction Li-ion batteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Silvia Bobba, Fabrice Mathieux, Gian Andrea BlenginiAbstractAlthough not yet developed in Europe, second-use of traction batteries enables an extension of their lifetime and potentially improves life cycle environmental performance. Li-ion batteries (LIBs) offer the most promising chemistry for traction batteries in electric vehicles (xEVs) and for second-use. Due to the novelty of the topic and the expected increase of e-mobility in the next decades, more efforts to understand the potential consequences of second-use of batteries from different perspectives are needed. This paper develops a dynamic, parameterised Material Flow Analysis (MFA) model to estimate stocks and flows of LIBs after their removal from xEVs along the specific processes of the european value-chain. Direct reuse, second-use and recycling are included in the model and parameters make it customisable and updatable.Focusing on full and plug-in electric vehicles, LIBs and energy storage capacity flows are estimated. Stocks and flows of two embedded materials relevant for Europe were also assessed (cobalt and lithium). Results showed that second-use corresponds to a better exploitation of LIBs’ storage capacity. Meanwhile, Co and Li in-use stocks are locked in LIBs and their recovery is delayed by second-use; depending on the slower/faster development of second-use, the amount of Co available for recycling in 2030 ranges between 9% and 15% of Co demand and between 7 and 16% for Li. Uncertainty of inputs is addressed through sensitivity analysis.A variety of actors can use this MFA model to enhance knowledge of second-use of batteries in Europe and to support the effective management of LIBs along their value-chain.
  • A new model for assessing industrial worker behavior regarding energy
           saving considering the theory of planned behavior, norm activation model
           and human reliability
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): José Rafael Nascimento Lopes, Ricardo de Araújo Kalid, Jorge Laureano Moya Rodríguez, Salvador Ávila FilhoApplication of energy efficiency measures is one of the most hopeful solutions to face global environmental challenges, to minimize natural resources consumption and the greenhouse effect. However, the level of implementation in the industrial sector is far below of what theoretically could be achieved due to several barriers, one of which is the behavior of industrial workers. The aim of this paper is to rank the critical factors of industrial worker behavior with relation to energy saving in an industrial organization. A case study was undertaken to analyze workers' intentions to adopt energy efficiency measures, using an extended model of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). A survey gathered the data to assess the model and a structural equation modeling (SEM) was fitted. The results indicate that two factors of the adjusted SEM model are not statistically significant, contrary to what was expected by the TPB and the human reliability; therefore, these two factors, subjective norms and performance shaping factors, should be the object of greater attention so as to influence the behavior of workers towards greater energy saving in industrial units.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Estimating direct CO2 and CO emission factors for industrial rare earth
           metal electrolysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Bo Yao, Bofeng Cai, Fan Kou, Youming Yang, Xiping Chen, David S. Wong, Lisha Liu, Shuangxi Fang, Helin Liu, Hongyang Wang, Lizhi Zhang, Jianzhong Li, Guochun KuangAbstractRare earth (RE) metals are now being widely applied in new material industries with rapidly increasing production. However, there is limited research on greenhouse gas emission factors from RE metals production by electrolysis and currently no method exists to account for this industry’s CO2 emissions in the ‘2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories’. This study employed two independent methods to determine direct carbon emission factors for industrial rare earth metals production by molten-salt electrolysis: continuous emissions monitoring by FTIR and time-integrated sampling with offline lab analysis, both measuring CO2 and CO concentrations in the exhaust gases from Pr-Nd, Dy-Fe and La potlines in three companies in China. The study confirmed that CO2 contributes>97% of the total carbon emission factor. Direct carbon emissions per tonne RE metal electrolysis is equivalent to one tenth to a half of the emission factor for aluminum production (due to much lighter molar mass of Al) but is similar on a mole basis (carbon emissions per mole metal). Emission factors vary with the type of rare earth metal or alloy produced and from one facility to another, ranging from 165.0 to 672.4 kg/t-RE metal for CO2, 3.00 to 8.23 kg/t-RE metal for CO and 46.4 to 186.8 kg/t-RE metal for total carbon. Direct CO2 and CO emission factors from the two exhaust gas monitoring methods agreed well considering the uncertainties.
  • IFQP-EPS: Analyzing effects of queuing and storage issues on electric
           power systems under dual uncertainties
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): S. Jiang, Y.P. Li, C. SuoAbstractIn this study, an interval fuzzy queue-storage (IFQS) method is developed through integrating interval-parameter programming, fuzzy queue and storage theory into a general framework. IFQS is not only capable of reflecting the effects of queue and storage on electric power systems (EPS), but also helpful for dealing with dual uncertainties expressed as fuzzy sets and interval values. Then, an IFQS-EPS model is formulated for the City of Shijiazhuang (the capital of Hebei province), where M/M/1 (exponential interarrival time, exponential service time and one server) queue with fuzzy information and different storage periods are measured. Results reveal that (i) coal mines in Yulin, Datong and Jincheng would be the major coal suppliers for the study city (providing over 77% of coal); (ii) as waiting time adds 1 day, system cost would increase around $200 million and nitrogen dioxide (NOx) emission would grow approximately 91 ton; (iii) system cost and NOx emission would respectively decrease $370 × 106 and 90 × 103 ton when storage period varies from 10 day to 20 day; (iv) electricity generated by coal would reduce 5% due to the limitation of coal supply and the control of air pollution. Compared to interval-fuzzy queue (IFQ) approach, the developed IFQS method has advantages in balancing coal purchase batch and storage cost, such that an optimal system cost can be obtained. Results can not only facilitate to generate appropriate coal purchase and electricity generation plans, but also reveal effects of queuing and storage issues on EPS under complicated uncertainties.
  • Impact of production parameters on physiochemical characteristics of wood
           ash for possible utilisation in cement-based materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Nina M. Sigvardsen, Gunvor M. Kirkelund, Pernille E. Jensen, Mette R. Geiker, Lisbeth M. OttosenEnergy production is reorganised to mitigate the pressure on the global environment. This reorganisation leads to an increase in the production of wood ash (WA). Multivariate modelling was used to identify the link between production parameters and the physiochemicalcharacteristics of different WAs and to determine which production parameters result in the WAs most suitable for utilisation in cement-based materials. Based on the multivariate model partial least square, WA originating from circulating fluidised bed combustion of wood chips made from whole trees is the optimal type of WA when utilised as a supplementary cementing material with pozzolanic activity. WA originating from the combustion of wood chips made from whole trees is the optimal type of WA when utilised as a supplementary cementing material with hydraulic activity. Furthermore, the combustion method and type of ash were seen to have the largest influence on the physiochemical characteristics of WAs compared to the other production parameters included in this study.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Does haze pollution promote the consumption of energy-saving appliances in
           China' An empirical study based on norm activation model
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Yan Song, Chunan Zhao, Ming ZhangAbstractUnder the dual pressure of energy shortage and air pollution, the widespread use of energy-saving appliances has become an important means of energy conservation and emission reduction in China. However, it is limited to explore the impact of altruism on energy-saving appliances use from the perspective of pro-environmental behavior. To remedy the problem, according to the particular situation of China, we propose an extended norm activation theory model. The 435 valid questionnaires have been analyzed using the structural equation model and the hierarchical regression model. The results prove that, haze pollution has promoted the consumption of energy-saving appliances for urban residents in China; personal norm, environmental concern, and perceived consumer effectiveness all have a significant positive impact on purchasing behavior of energy-saving appliance; personal norm is influenced by four cognitive factors of awareness of consequences, ascription of responsibility, environmental concern and perceived consumer effectiveness; personal norm mediates the relationship between environmental concern, perceived consumer effectiveness and purchasing behavior, respectively; herd mentality negatively moderates the relationship between environmental concern and purchasing behavior, and positively moderates the relationship between personal norm and purchasing behavior. Instead, policy and propaganda only positively moderate the relationship between personal norm and purchasing behavior. Moreover, the results also confirmed the appropriateness of the extended norm activation theory for exploring urban residents' purchasing behavior of energy-saving appliances. The findings could be helpful for a better understanding of urban residents’ purchasing behavior of energy-saving appliances, which in turn promotes the development of energy-saving appliances.
  • U.S. end-of-life electric vehicle batteries: Dynamic inventory modeling
           and spatial analysis for regional solutions
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Ning Ai, Junjun Zheng, Wei-Qiang ChenWhile electric vehicles (EVs) have been promoted for green consumption, improper or inadequate management of end-of-life (EOL) EV batteries, as the current practice, compromises the benefits of EV adoption. This study aims to contribute to both theoretical research of material flow analysis and timely management of EOL EV batteries at various geographic scales (i.e., national, state, and county).Theoretically, this study tests two battery lifespan scenarios (i.e., constantly at 3–8 years and dynamically increasing over time), three discard probability functions (i.e., uniform, truncated normal, and Weibull), and three EV sale projections (i.e., low, moderate, and high). Results show that the short-term EOL volume (by 2025) can be particularly sensitive to the lifespan parameter. The long-term estimates involve most uncertainties related to the EV market penetration. Various discard probability functions generally derive similar results.In practical terms, the results suggest that necessary infrastructure for proper EOL EV battery management is needed sooner than the public may have perceived. This study urges for regional planning that incorporates both temporal and spatial considerations. To illustrate an example of regional solutions, this study adopts empirical data in California to simulate and spatially match EOL EV battery clusters and the renewable energy facilities that can potentially reuse EV batteries as energy storage. Meanwhile, the spatial mis-match between the supply and demand, as can be the case in other regions, calls for region-wide coordination in terms of both infrastructure development and transportation planning.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Waste and material flow analysis in the end-of-life wind energy system
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Nacef Tazi, Junbeum Kim, Youcef Bouzidi, Eric Chatelet, Gang LiuIn the specific case of French onshore wind farms, waste management of these systems has become an important factor of the wind energy industry’s sustainability. The aim of this paper is to quantify wind turbine (WT) material wastes and flows across the Champagne-Ardenne (CA) region from 2002 to 2020. To do so, a material flow analysis (MFA) model was used. It included three maintenance strategies used for onshore wind turbines. Results show that more than 1 million tons of material will ultimately be generated at the EoL of CA wind farms. The main EoL materials are ferrous and non-ferrous metals, polymers, glass and concrete. The main EoL materials are ferrous and non-ferrous metals, polymers, glass and concrete. In this total, blades and composite EoL materials that need to be managed, account for more than 27,000 tons; there are 523,227 tons of steel and iron materials that need to be handled; 6617 tons of copper, and 28,179 tons of aluminum flows. Landfill concrete accounts for 734,230 tons. When the concrete in foundation is not considered, 73% of an average wind turbine can be recycled. With the first generation of WT reaching their EoL phase and taking into account that no dismantling or recycling facilities of WT components have emerged in the French territory, the potential of WT wastes available for treatment (recycle, incinerate, landfill etc.) is still increasing.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Treasured trash' A consumer perspective on small Waste Electrical and
           Electronic Equipment (WEEE) divestment in Ireland
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Katherine Casey, Maria Lichrou, Colin FitzpatrickAbstractSmall Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (sWEEE) is a particularly problematic category of electronic waste. A growing body of research indicates that sWEEE tends to be either stockpiled or disposed of improperly (references). However, despite this, little attention has been given to the meanings people ascribe to their electronic and electrical possessions; meanings which continue to apply even when they are disused or broken. The purpose of this study was to generate insight into this area and to identify opportunities for intervention to increase sWEEE recycling. A quasi-ethnographic approach was used to investigate sWEEE disposal behaviour from the perspective of Irish consumers. The rationale for this approach was the need to reconcile the policy perspective on sWEEE with the subjective experiences and interpretations that drive people’s behaviour. The findings reveal that from the time electronic and electrical devices enter consumers’ lives until their disposal, they exist in fluid in-between states of meaning and have perceived value. Before divestment, sWEEE typically undergoes a four-stage journey: a) once electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is no longer used, it tends to be either consciously stored or abandoned in the home (inactive EEE); b) a trigger prompts consumers to divest of the inactive EEE (critical moment); c) provoked to take action, consumers must decide precisely what to discard and how (transition from EEE to WEEE); d) consumers decide to recycle or not (divestment). The paper concludes by discussing the implications of these findings in terms of encouraging increased sWEEE recycling.
  • Developing a GHG-based methodological approach to support the sourcing of
           sustainable construction materials and products
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Md. Uzzal Hossain, Ammar Sohail, S. Thomas NgAbstractWhile the assessment of environmental impacts of different construction materials is widely studied globally, the development of robust mechanisms for material sourcing as an integral step to transit into a sustainable supply chain is still sparse. Integrating environmental performance into an industry level supply chain is indeed a challenging task due to the absence of standardized methodology. This paper presents a methodological approach for sustainable construction material sourcing by highlighting the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The proposed approach is then adopted to 12 case construction materials and products which are commonly used in to Hong Kong, and the hotspots for existing sourcing of the selected materials and products are identified while the GHG emissions are assessed based on their sourcing locations. Alternative scenarios for sourcing are identified based on a decision matrix developed according to this methodological approach. The results demonstrate that sustainable sourcing of the 12 selected materials and products by adopting the alternative scenarios can reduce 28% of the total GHG emissions compared to the base scenarios. As the scope of emission reduction for resource-scarce high-density city like Hong Kong is limited, sustainable sourcing of materials may significantly influence the emission reduction target of the construction industry. The proposed approach can help underpin sustainable sourcing of materials which can be effectively adopted in other regions to enhance the sustainability performance of the industry.
  • Progress in manufacture and properties of construction materials
           incorporating water treatment sludge: A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Samuel De Carvalho Gomes, John L. Zhou, Wengui Li, Guangcheng LongWater treatment sludge (WTS) management is a growing global problem for water treatment plants (WTPs) and governments. Considering the scarcity of raw materials in many parts of the planet and unique properties of WTS, extensive research has been conducted on the application of WTS in the production of construction materials such as roof tiles, bricks, lightweight aggregates, cement, concrete and geopolymers. This paper critically reviews the progress in the application of WTS in construction materials, by synthesizing results from recent studies. Research findings have revealed that incorporation of ≤10% alum-based sludge in ceramic bricks is satisfactory with a small reduction of mechanical performance. Using the iron-based sludge, the bricks presented better mechanical strength than the reference clay-bricks. Concerning WTS application in concrete, 5% replacement of cement or sand by WTS was considered as the ideal value for the application in a variety of structural and non-structural concrete without adverse effect on concrete mechanical performance. Furthermore, this paper discusses sludge-amended concrete in terms of durability, potential leaching of toxic elements and cost, and suggests topics for future research on the sustainable management of WTS.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • How does urbanization affect farmland protection' Evidence from China
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Zhonghua Huang, Xuejun Du, Carlos Salvador Zepeda CastilloAbstractChina’s urbanization and farmland protection problem has attracted attention from around the world. However, the relationship and mechanism between urbanization and farmland protection have not been yet fully understood. We address this gap by examining the impacts of urbanization on farmland area, based on Chinese prefecture-level cities’ panel data over 1990–2013. We employ the instrumental variable method and satellite nightlight data for robust analysis. Our findings reveal that urbanization has significant negative effects on farmland area. Urbanization causes much higher rates of farmland loss in medium-sized cities and in the more developed eastern area of China. China’s farmland dynamic balance policy has a significant positive effect on farmland area. We further test the impact channels and find that land financing and urban sprawl reinforce the negative impact of urbanization on farmland area. The problem of farmland quality loss is needed to study in future research.
  • Green growth and pro-environmental behavior: Sustainable resource
           management using natural capital accounting in India
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Moinul Islam, Shunsuke ManagiAbstractThe natural capital (NC) of India and its management system are essential conditions of the welfare path to the sustainable development of the country. We conduct an accounting process for India's NC to measure sustainability to ensure that future generations will have the equal total wealth per capita accessible to them as that available to the present generation. We then describe the combination of the renewable and non-renewable NC that is relevant within the concepts of welfare and sustainability. First, we note that India has successful forestation, which has enhanced welfare for its residents. However, the other renewables (e.g., cropland, fishery) and non-renewables (e.g., fossil fuels, minerals) are continuously degraded as a result of economic development and population growth. Second, we discuss the correlation between sustainable resource management and pro-environmental behavior (PEB) and explain the importance of considering these factors to achieve green growth. Third, to provide practitioners with useful information on how to promote PEB and to discover the determinants of PEB, we analyze the survey data of 5,200 respondents from all Indian states. We identify that environmental knowledge is an important determinant of individuals’ PEB in India. In the policy analysis, we evaluate the challenges to achieving sustainable development goals (SDGs) using NC accounting in India. We recommend several policy implications to maintain NC at a sustainable level and to achieve SDGs.
  • Managing complex products to support the circular economy
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Edwin Tam, Katie Soulliere, Susan Sawyer-BeaulieuAbstractThe circular economy champions recovering materials and returning them to productivity, and advocates designing out pollution, retaining materials for re-use, and being regenerative, instead of conventional disposal in our current linear economy. However, for the circular economy to succeed, waste materials need to be efficiently returned for production and the time-tested processes of reuse, recovery, and recycling will be essential. This paper provides an enhanced perspective on critical issues that need to be addressed to enable the circular economy. Much of the popular efforts presently target recovering simple consumer products (e.g., beverage containers). However, there are greater challenges when considering multiple materials from complex consumer products, such as electronics or automobiles, that have reached their end-of-life. These challenges include how to address: material identification and separation; ensuring purity; distribution and transportation; and establishing a viable market for recovered goods/materials. The circular economy further emphasizes the design of products and services to facilitate restorative mechanisms. However, product design varies significantly across different consumer items, and the trade-offs engineers and designers make for enabling circularity from complex goods will vary significantly compared to simple goods. Finally, while it is essential to embrace a new design ethic for future products or services, significantly more attention is needed towards enhancing the reuse and recovery potential from “current” end-of-life complex products because they were designed one or two generations ago: they are unlikely to have circularity designed into their makeup. Innovation in improving the recovery of EoL complex consumer products will be vital to supporting a robust circular economy.
  • Understanding transboundary air pollution network: Emissions, depositions
           and spatio-temporal distribution of pollution in European region
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): George Halkos, Kyriaki TsilikaThe primary objective of this paper is the structural analysis of source-receptor air pollution problems in the EU region. Two views are provided for the analysis: an emission-driven view and a deposition-driven view. Different visualization modules are used to reproduce the global pollution network and identify the biggest sources and sinks of pollution. Visual modelling helps to understand the linkages and interconnections in the transboundary pollution network. Our interactive outputs give the options to bring out the crucial actions of the global source-receptor air pollution scheme and highlight the top emitters or receptors of pollution. Ranking of countries in decreasing order of pollution responsibility and/or vulnerability using graph metrics is a main result. Data sources are emissions-depositions (or source-receptor) tables of air pollutants, available online from the data repository of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program (EMEP) of the Long-Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe. In our computer-based visual analysis, we design custom visualizations by writing code.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Wastewater-based resource recovery technologies across scale: A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Nancy Diaz-Elsayed, Nader Rezaei, Tianjiao Guo, Shima Mohebbi, Qiong ZhangOver the past few decades, wastewater has been evolving from a waste to a valuable resource. Wastewater can not only dampen the effects of water shortages by means of water reclamation, but it also provides the medium for energy and nutrient recovery to further offset the extraction of precious resources. Since identifying viable resource recovery technologies can be challenging, this article offers a review of technologies for water, energy, and nutrient recovery from domestic and municipal wastewater through the lens of the scale of implementation. The system scales were classified as follows: small scale (design flows of 17 m3/day or less), medium scale (8 to 20,000 m3/day), and large scale (3800 m3/day or more). The widespread implementation of non-potable reuse (NPR) projects across all scales highlighted the ease of implementation associated with lower water quality requirements and treatment schemes that resembled conventional wastewater treatment. Although energy recovery was mostly achieved in large-scale plants from biosolids management or hydraulic head loss, the highest potential for concentrated nutrient recovery occurred in small-scale systems using urine source separating technologies. Small-scale systems offered benefits such as the ability for onsite resource recovery and reuse that lowered distribution and transportation costs and energy consumption, while larger scales benefited from lower per unit costs and energy consumption for treatment. The removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products remained a challenge across scales, but unit processes such as reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, activated carbon, and advanced oxidation processes exhibited high removal efficiency for select contaminants.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Authoritarian environmentalism and environmental policy implementation in
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Xiaoliang Li, Xiaojin Yang, Qi Wei, Bing ZhangAbstractPolicy implementation is essential to the effectiveness of environmental governance. Focusing on two types of policies in China, law derived environmental policies and plan derived environmental policies; this research analyzed the impact of the central government's rules, regulations, and mechanism for rewards/penalties on local governments’ policy implementation. The results indicate that local governments selectively implement environmental policies. This selective implementation effort is primarily determined by the authoritarian environmentalism and the target responsibility system imposed by the central government. Local governments focus their attention on the attitude of the central government toward that policy because the scope of its reward/penalty system provides a signaling effect for different policies. The central government's regulatory oversight of policy implementation has also increased the binding power of the incentive mechanism. China's environmental law or policy implementation should make the government work paramountly.
  • Inventory control and supply chain management: A green growth perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Qiang Wang, Jie Wu, Nenggui Zhao, Qingyuan ZhuAbstractGreen growth is becoming an important mode for the sustainable operation of economy and society in the world. All countries are developing innovative methodologies to achieve green growth. Particularly, inventory and pricing are important technologies for companies’ leadership to make decisions. The increasingly polluted environment has made sustainable utilization of resources and environmental protection more urgent, however, there is very little literature studying inventory and pricing from a green growth perspective. To fill this gap, we consider both inventory and pricing decisions for companies under different green growth mechanisms. We first consider the single period inventory model with a remanufactured supplier and the government subsidy for single and dual sourcing system, respectively, further derive the optimal order decisions for the retailer. Then, we assume the customers are environmentally sensitive and there is a green supplier in the market, examine the optimal pricing decisions for the retailer using the two-stage optimization method. We explore the value of the recycling supplier and government subsidy in the numerical study; furthermore, we examine the influences of the green degree of product on the optimal price decisions for different products. One interesting finding is that the retailer should order more green products no matter how expensive it is, as long as the customers in the market are environmentally sensitive.
  • Implementing material efficiency in practice: A case study to improve the
           material utilisation of automotive sheet metal components
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Philippa Maia Horton, Julian M. Allwood, Christopher CleaverThere is an opportunity to reduce the amount of sheet metal currently used to manufacture automotive components, despite the available cost and CO2 savings, the automotive industry has not realised the full potential of these saving opportunities. To understand why, a practical case study was set up with an automotive manufacturer. A cross-functional team was established with the scope to make changes to five components using a structured design process to improve material efficiency. The trial identified realistic opportunities to improve material utilisation by 20%pts, and save £9million and 5 kilotonnes of CO2 annually. The greatest saving opportunities were found early in the product development cycle, before the production method is determined by component geometry. Of these, 3%pts were actually implemented on the production vehicle, saving £1.8million and 1.5 kilotonnes of CO2 annually. The case study identified significant barriers to implementing material efficiency strategies in an industrial setting. To overcome these barriers material utilisation should be considered early in the product design process and high in the vehicle platform hierarchy. As a result of this investigation, new business processes are being generated to support design for material utilisation at the automotive manufacturer. This case study approach should be considered to increase implementation for other aspects of material demand reduction.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Towards product-oriented sustainability in the (primary) metal supply
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Rodrigo A.F. Alvarenga, Jo Dewulf, Jeroen Guinée, Rita Schulze, Pär Weihed, Glenn Bark, Johannes DrielsmaConsideration of sustainable supply of (primary) metals is increasingly influencing the policy agenda of western societies. Environmental sustainability can be managed from different perspectives, including a site-oriented one (strongly used by the mining sector) and a product-oriented one (as with life cycle assessment). The objectives of this article are to analyse and discuss the differences in these perspectives; to discuss potential benefits to the metal/mining sector of also considering the product-oriented perspective; and to propose ways for a smooth implementation. We made use of literature and expert knowledge, on top of interviews with different stakeholders, to identify why and how these perspectives are (not) used in the metal/mining sector. Moreover, we identified three key concerns related to the implementation of a product-oriented perspective in the sector (e.g., use of unrepresentative life cycle inventory (LCI) datasets for metal-based products) and proposed three corrective actions for all of them (e.g., increase the quantity and quality of LCI). Finally, we discuss how the corrective actions could be implemented in the sector in a smooth way and some potential benefits from its implementation.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Biofuels for vehicles in Taiwan: Using system dynamics modeling to
           evaluate government subsidy policies
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Tsai Chi Kuo, Syu-Hong Lin, Ming-Lang Tseng, Anthony S.F. Chiu, Chia-Wei HsuAbstractThis study proposes a biofuel model in Taiwan that considers the government subsidy policy, market demand, biofuel production cost, and social cost attributes. Biofuel is a prospective alternative and renewable solution to energy and environmental challenges in the transportation sector. However, the development of biofuels is constrained by several factors including the amount of land available (the primary constraint), marketing of residual resources, and technological improvements. Economic feasibility and competition analysis and use of residual resources limited the actual amount of residual resources utilized to produce biofuel. Prior studies have examined the potential to commercialize biofuels where resources are limited. Despite insufficient land availability, biofuel commercialization has the potential to be mutually beneficial and risk-sharing in the supply chain. The contribution of this study is to develop a dynamic system model to explore the potential for biofuel commercialization in Taiwan despite its limited Biofuel resources. Through this model, this study considered E3 vehicles that use a fuel blend of 3% ethanol and 97% gasoline. Data were collected from institutional statistical reports. The results showed there is a large commercial opportunity; however, biofuel resources are insufficient. To deal with this resource insufficient, the Taiwanese government could use this model to develop an appropriate subsidy policy that adjusts prices based on market demand and technological improvements.
  • Describing and organizing green practices in the context of Green Supply
           Chain Management: Case studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 145Author(s): Miguel Afonso Sellitto, Felipe F. Hermann, Attila E. Blezs, Ana P. Barbosa-PóvoaAbstractThe purpose of this article is to present a qualitative model that allows researchers and practitioners to analyze activities that can contribute to eco-efficiency in the context of Green Supply Chain Management. A literature review identified 21 green practices, organized in four groups using cluster analysis: collaboration, innovation, operation, and mitigation. Practices and aspects of these were embedded into a model, which was tested in four companies in the footwear industry. Each practice was analyzed and appraised regarding how the activity contributes to the overall eco-efficiency in the supply chain. The most contributory practice is the existence of a specific strategy to deal with environmental impact. The most contributory aspect is mitigation. The companies in the sample predominantly demonstrate a reactive attitude in facing the challenges posed by eco-efficiency, which can help managers to formulate a new strategic approach to improve eco-efficiency. The main scientific value added by the article is a structured reference model to help practitioners and scholars analyze how green practices can improve eco-efficiency in the supply chain.
  • Corrigendum to “Ecological network analysis on intra-city metabolism of
           functional urban areas in England and Wales” [Resour. Conserv. Recycl.
           138 (2018) 172–182]
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2019Source: Resources, Conservation and RecyclingAuthor(s): Ling Min Tan, Hadi Arbabi, Qianqian Li, Yulan Sheng, Danielle Densley Tingley, Martin Mayfield, Daniel Coca
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