Subjects -> MINES AND MINING INDUSTRY (Total: 81 journals)
Showing 1 - 42 of 42 Journals sorted alphabetically
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Earth Science : Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Mining Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AusiMM Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BHM Berg- und Hüttenmännische Monatshefte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Clays and Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Mineralogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Exploration and Mining Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Extractive Industries and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Gems & Gemology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Geology of Ore Deposits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geotechnical and Geological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Ghana Mining Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Gold Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Inside Mining     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Coal Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Coal Preparation and Utilization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Coal Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Mineral Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Mining and Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Mining and Mineral Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Mining Engineering and Mineral Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Mining Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Analytical and Numerical Methods in Mining Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Central South University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of China Coal Society     Open Access  
Journal of China University of Mining and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Convention & Event Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Geology and Mining Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Materials Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Metamorphic Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Mining Institute     Open Access  
Journal of Mining Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Lithology and Mineral Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Lithos     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Mine Water and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mineral Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy : Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mineralium Deposita     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mineralogia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mineralogical Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Minerals     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Minerals & Energy - Raw Materials Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Minerals Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Mining Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Mining Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Mining Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mining Technology : Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration     Hybrid Journal  
Natural Resources & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Natural Resources Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physics and Chemistry of Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Podzemni Radovi     Open Access  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Réalités industrielles     Full-text available via subscription  
Rem : Revista Escola de Minas     Open Access  
Resources Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Revista del Instituto de Investigación de la Facultad de Ingeniería Geológica, Minera, Metalurgica y Geográfica     Open Access  
Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Rocks & Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Rudarsko-geološko-naftni Zbornik     Open Access  
Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.884
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-2983 - ISSN (Online) 0269-4042
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Zinc biofortification of cereals—role of phosphorus and other
           impediments in alkaline calcareous soils
    • Abstract: Abstract Alkaline calcareous soils are deficient in plant nutrients; in particular, phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) are least available; their inorganic fertilizers are generally applied to meet the demand of crops. The applied nutrients react with soil constituents as well as with each other, resulting in lower plant uptake. Phosphorus availability is usually deterred due to lime content, while Zn availability is largely linked with alkalinity of the soil. The present manuscript critically discusses the factors associated with physicochemical properties of soil and other interactions in soil–plant system which contribute to the nutrients supply from soil, and affect productivity and quality attributes of cereals. Appropriate measures may possibly lessen the severity of nutritional disorder in cereal and optimize P and Zn concentrations in grain. Foliar Zn spray is found to escape most of the soil reactions; thus, Zn bioavailability is higher either through increase in grain Zn or through decrease in phytate content. The reactivity of nutrients prior to its uptake is deemed as major impediments in Zn biofortification of cereals. The article addresses physiological limitation of plants to accumulate grain Zn and the ways to achieve biofortification in cereals, while molecular mechanism explains how it affects nutritional quality of cereals. Moreover, it highlights the desirable measures for enhancing Zn bioavailability, e.g., manipulation of genetic makeup for efficient nutrient uptake/translocation, and also elucidates agronomic measures that help facilitate Zn supply in soil for plant accumulation.
      PubDate: 2019-03-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10653-019-00279-6
       
  • Geochemistry of uranium and thorium in phosphate deposits at the Syrian
           coastal area (Al-Haffah and Al-Qaradaha) and their environmental impacts
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this research was to study the geochemistry of uranium and thorium in phosphate deposits in the upper Cretaceous phosphate deposits in the Syrian coastal area. The study covered three sites, namely Ain Al-Tenah, Ain Laylon, and Al-Mhalbeh. Petrographical study showed that phosphate deposits are of nodular type with micrit to microspaite cement, containing siliceous bone residues, and green grains of glauconite, which are increasing in abundance and volume in the south toward Al-Mhalbeh, reflecting the formation of phosphate in a shallow marine environment. In addition, uranium concentration varied between 3 and 112 ppm in Ain Laylon, 4.2–17 ppm in Ain Al-Tenah and 5–61 ppm in Al-Mhalbeh. Thorium concentration varied between 0.2 and 7.5 ppm in Ain Laylon, 0.3–1.4 ppm in Ain Al-Tenah and 0.3–4.4 ppm in Al-Mhalbeh. The average Th/U ratio in the collected samples was within the range 0.04–0.08 except for five samples which exceeded the value 0.1. Moreover, the 226Ra/238U ratios are lower than unity in all samples, while the 210Pb/238U ratios ranged between 0.4 and 1.2 and the 210Pb/226Ra ratios were found to be higher than unity. On the other hand, the impact of leaching and mobility of uranium and thorium from deposits to the surrounding agriculture fields in the area has been studied using the Radium Equivalent Activity Index (Raeq). The equivalent radium activity was 102 Bq kg−1 in Ain Al-Tenah, 403 Bq kg−1 in Ain Laylon, 407 Bq kg−1 in Al-Mhalbeh and 749 Bq kg−1 in agricultural soil samples. However, the data reported in this study can be considered as a baseline data for the phosphate deposits at the coastal area.
      PubDate: 2019-03-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10653-018-0221-x
       
  • Measurement of radon, thoron and their daughters in the air of marble
           factories and resulting alpha-radiation doses to the lung of workers
    • Abstract: Abstract Concentrations of radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) were measured in the air of different marble factories by using a nuclear track technique. The influence of the marble dust nature and ventilation on radon and thoron concentrations was investigated. It was observed that measured radon and thoron concentration ranged from 310 to 903 Bq m−3 and 6 to 48 Bq m−3, respectively. In addition, alpha-activities due to the unattached and attached fractions of 218Po and 214Po radon short-lived progeny were evaluated in the marble factories studied. Committed equivalent doses due to the attached and unattached fractions of 218Po and 214Po nuclei were evaluated in the lung tissues of marble factory workers. The dependence of the resulting committed equivalent dose on the concentration of the attached and unattached fractions of the 218Po and 214Po radionuclides and mass of the tissue was investigated. The resulting annual committed effective doses to the lung of marble factory workers due to the attached and unattached fractions of the 218Po and 214Po radionuclides were calculated. The obtained results show that about 80% of the global committed effective doses received by workers in the studied marble factories are due to the attached fraction of the 218Po and 214Po radon short-lived daughters from the inhalation of polluted air. Male workers spending 8 h per day (2080 h per year) in a marble factory receive a maximum dose of 34.46 mSv y−1 which is higher than the (3–10 mSv y−1) dose limit interval given by the ICRP. Good agreement was found between data obtained for the average effective dose gotten by using this method and the UNSCEAR and ICRP conversion dose coefficients.
      PubDate: 2019-03-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10653-019-00276-9
       
  • Quantitative health risk assessment of inhalation exposure to automobile
           foundry dust
    • Abstract: Abstract With a growing awareness of environmental protection, the dust pollution caused by automobile foundry work has become a serious and urgent problem. This study aimed to explore contamination levels and health effects of automobile foundry dust. A total of 276 dust samples from six types of work in an automobile foundry factory were collected and analysed using the filter membrane method. Probabilistic risk assessment model was developed for evaluating the health risk of foundry dust on workers. The health risk and its influencing factors among workers were then assessed by applying the Monte Carlo method to identify the most significant parameters. Health damage assessment was conducted to translate health risk into disability-adjusted life year (DALY). The results revealed that the mean concentration of dust on six types of work ranged from 1.67 to 5.40 mg/m3. The highest health risks to be come from melting, cast shakeout and finishing, followed by pouring, sand preparation, moulding and core-making. The probability of the risk exceeding 10−6 was approximately 85%, 90%, 90%, 75%, 70% and 45%, respectively. The sensitivity analysis indicated that average time, exposure duration, inhalation rate and dust concentration (C) made great contribution to dust health risk. Workers exposed to cast shakeout and finishing had the largest DALY of 48.64a. These results can further help managers to fully understand the dust risks on various types of work in the automobile foundry factories and provide scientific basis for the management and decision-making related to health damage assessment.
      PubDate: 2019-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10653-019-00277-8
       
  • Mining leachate contamination and subfecundity among women living near the
           USA–Mexico border
    • Abstract: Abstract The contamination of the Sonora River with 40,000 m3 of toxic leachate released from a copper mine on August 6, 2014, was considered the worst environmental disaster of the mining industry in Mexico, exceeding safety levels in the concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic. To explore the potential association of the toxic release with subfecundity, by comparing time to pregnancy (TTP) of women with different levels of exposure at municipalities located along the Sonora River watershed, just 35 km south of the Arizona–Mexico border. Data from 235 pregnancies were included in a retrospective cohort study. Exposure was measured whether pregnancy occurred before or after the disaster and included a non-exposed community outside the watershed. Pregnancies were also compared between communities according to the concentration-level gradient of water pollutants found in the river. Fecundability odds ratios (fORs) were calculated using discrete time analogue of Cox’s proportional hazard models. Multiple analysis included all pregnancies with TTP of no more than 12 months, only first-time pregnancy, or excluding women with TTP = 1. The probability for pregnancy decreased after the disaster (fOR 0.55, 95% CI 0.31, 0.97), when the residency was located mid-or-downstream the watershed (fOR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15, 0.91), when reported chicken consumption, when mining was the father’s occupation, and when surface water was reported to be used for crop irrigation and for animal consumption. There was a decrease in fecundity on women exposed to the contaminated river. There is a need for more studies to prove these findings and to broaden the knowledge of other possible adverse health effects associated with this environmental disaster.
      PubDate: 2019-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10653-019-00275-w
       
  • Carbonyl sulfide (COS) and carbon disulfide (CS 2 ) exchange fluxes
           between cotton fields and the atmosphere in the arid area in Xinjiang,
           China
    • Abstract: Abstract Due to the important roles of carbonyl sulfide (COS) and carbon disulfide (CS2) in atmospheric chemistry, this study was designed to determine different proportions of COS and CS2 fluxes contributed from different sources, i.e., vegetation, soil and roots, at monthly and hourly timescales in the arid area in Xinjiang, China. Results indicated that the seasonal net uptake of COS by vegetation was predominant in the growing season. The CS2 fluxes from vegetation and soils had no significant seasonal variations compared with COS. The exchange rates of COS and CS2 have been found to be stimulated by the addition of nutrients in the form of urea fertilizer. Compared with the results of plots that were treated only with nitrogen, the treatments with both nitrogen and sulfur displayed no significant difference in the exchange fluxes. The results of compartment experiments indicated that the aboveground plants had the highest uptake of COS and had a vital role in the uptake of COS during the main growth period. The shares of COS emissions from the soil and roots increased to 6–17% and 55–58%, respectively, in the total COS fluxes when conditions, such as drought and senescence, were unfavorable for the developmental of vegetation. Observations of the preliminary diurnal fluxes indicated that the fluxes that occurred at night, with contributions from soils and plants, accounted for 27% of the total daily uptake of COS uptake. These quantitative results may be reasonably accounted for the use of COS as a promising tracer to obtain independent constraints on terrestrial carbon exchange at regional to global scales for their response to special environmental conditions in semiarid area.
      PubDate: 2019-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10653-019-00268-9
       
  • Anatomical and ultrastructural responses of Hordeum sativum to the soil
           spiked by copper
    • Abstract: Abstract Effects of Cu toxicity from contaminated soil were analysed in spring barley (Hordeum sativum distichum), a widely cultivated species in South Russia. In this study, H. sativum was planted outdoors in one of the most fertile soils—Haplic Chernozem spiked with high concentration of Cu and examined between the boot and head emergence phase of growth. Copper toxicity was observed to cause slow ontogenetic development of plants, changing their morphometric parameters (shape, size, colour). To the best of our knowledge, the ultrastructural changes in roots, stems and leaves of H. sativum induced by excess Cu were fully characterized for the first time using transmission electron microscopy. The plant roots were the most effected, showing degradation of the epidermis, reduced number of parenchyma cells, as well as a significant decrease in the diameter of the stele and a disruption and modification to its cell structure. The comparative analysis of the ultrastructure of control plants and plants exposed to the toxic effects of Cu has made it possible to reveal significant disruption of the integrity of the cell wall and cytoplasmic membranes in the root with deposition of electron-dense material. The changes in the ultrastructure of the main cytoplasmic organelles—endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, chloroplasts and peroxisomes—in the stem and leaves were found. The cellular Cu deposition, anatomical and ultrastructural modifications could mainly account for the primary impact points of metal toxicity. Therefore, this work extends the available knowledge of the mechanisms of the Cu effect tolerance of barley.
      PubDate: 2019-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10653-019-00269-8
       
  • A method to determine the combined effects of climate change (temperature
           and humidity) and eggshell thickness on water loss from bird eggs
    • Abstract: Abstract Differences in bird eggshell thicknesses occur due to numerous factors, including thinning due to persistent organic pollutants. Not only does thinning weaken the shell; weaker shells combined with elevated ambient temperature and changes in humidities may result in changes in water loss rates from the egg contents. Therefore, thinner eggshells raise concern of water being lost faster than normal at lower relative humidities, which may affect hatching. To investigate the combined effects, we developed and tested an effective method that measures water loss through different thickness eggshells at controlled temperatures and relative humidities to assist in ascertaining the combined effects of climate change (temperature and humidity) and changes in eggshell thickness on bird reproduction. The fastest rate of loss was at 40% RH at 40 °C (0.1 mL/cm2/day), and the slowest was at 22 °C at 80% RH (0.02 mL/cm2/day). Eggshell thickness had a significant effect on water loss at all humidity treatments, except at the highest temperature and humidity treatment (80% RH and 40 °C). Temperature explained 40% of the variance, RH explained 20%, and interactions between temperature and humidity explained 15% of the variance (repeated-measures, two-way ANOVA). Generalized linear analyses revealed that both factors temperature and humidity contributed significantly in any two-way combinations. We have laid the ground for a system to test the combined effects of temperature and humidity changes associated with climate change and eggshell thinning associated with pollutants, on water loss across eggshells.
      PubDate: 2019-03-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10653-019-00274-x
       
  • Assessment of carbon monoxide concentration in indoor/outdoor air of
           Sarayan city, Khorasan Province of Iran
    • Abstract: Abstract Nowadays, air pollution by humans is considered a serious problem. One of the main sources of air pollution is carbon monoxide which is called the silent killer. With the increasing rate of population growth in Iran and subsequent acceleration of vehicle and fossil fuel usage, the mortality rate of carbon monoxide has increased. The aim of this study is assessment of the concentration of carbon monoxide in indoor and outdoor air of Sarayan city, Khorasan Province of Iran. In this descriptive-analytic study, the air condition of a residential area and outdoor environment of Sarayan city has been monitored for determining the carbon monoxide concentration during a 3-month period from January to March 2017. Overall, 25 stations with uniform distribution were located in the city. Fifty samples were taken monthly and by considering 3-month period, a total of 150 samples were gathered. The samples were taken in kitchens between 11 a.m. and 3 p.m., and by considering the respiratory height of the human body, the carbon monoxide meters (TES model, Taiwan) were placed at a height of 75–150 cm. The descriptive statistics were presented after entering data into SPSS-16, and, by applying Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis tests in the case of α = 0.05, the data were analyzed. The average concentrations of carbon monoxide in indoor and outdoor environments were 0.84 ± 3.21 ppm and 0.27 ± 0.92 ppm, respectively. The maximum carbon monoxide concentration in February in an outdoor environment was 6 ppm (station no. 4) and the least one was 0 ppm. In March, for an indoor area, the maximum carbon monoxide concentration was 41 pm for station no. 11. The indoor-to-outdoor (I-to-O) ratio in March was higher than other months, and in January, was less than others. The study reveals that the indoor and outdoor carbon monoxide indices of Sarayan city are at acceptable levels.
      PubDate: 2019-03-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10653-018-0226-5
       
  • Bioelectricity generation by wetland plant-sediment microbial fuel cells
           (P-SMFC) and effects on the transformation and mobility of arsenic and
           heavy metals in sediment
    • Abstract: Abstract Two wetland plant-sediment microbial fuel cell systems (PSM1 and PSM2) and one wetland sediment microbial fuel cell system (SM) were constructed to investigate their electricity production performance and the simultaneous migration and transformation of arsenic and heavy metals in sediment and overlying water, arsenic and heavy metals uptake by plants. The bioelectricity generation was monitored for 175 days, and sediment samples were collected at three time points (64, 125 and 200 days) for the analysis. The results showed that plants improved the efficiency of the electricity production by the fuel cell system. The average output voltage was: PSM1 (0.32 V) > PSM2 (0.28 V) > SM (0.24 V)(P ≤ 0.05).The electricity production of the electrodes and the introduction of plants affected the mobility and transformation of As, Zn and Cd in the sediment, which contributed to their stability in the sediment and reduced the release of these metals into the overlying water column. The bioelectricity production process affected the bioavailability of arsenic and heavy metals in the sediment and attenuated metal uptake by plants, which indicated the potential for remediation of arsenic and heavy metals pollution in sediment.
      PubDate: 2019-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10653-019-00266-x
       
  • Effect of simulated acid rain on stability of arsenic calcium residue in
           residue field
    • Abstract: Abstract In recent years, acid rain had a serious negative impact on the leaching behavior of industrial waste residue. Researches were mainly focused on the environmental hazards of heavy metal in the leachate, but ignored the effects of heavy metal speciation on the stability of waste residue in the subsequent stabilization process. In this study, the unstable calcium–arsenic compounds in the arsenic calcium residue were firstly removed by leaching process; subsequently, the crystallization agent was added to treat the remaining calcium–arsenic mixture. The results of the leaching process demonstrated that the decrease in particle size and pH value directly affected the increase in the cumulative leaching amount of arsenic, and the cumulative leaching ratio reached 1.55%. In addition, the concentration of arsenic decreased from 3583 to 49.1 mg L−1. After the crystallization process, the arsenic concentration was lower than the limit value of Identification Standards for Hazardous Wastes (GB 5085.3-2007). The SEM analysis showed the bulk structures, and XRD pattern confirmed that they were the stable compounds. Moreover, the result of XRD and SEM illustrated that acid concentration, chloride ions and sulfate ions were contributed to the transformation and growth of stable calcium arsenate compounds. Therefore, effective control of the acidity of acid rain, the type of anions in acid rain, and the particle size of residues would contribute to adjusting the arsenic speciation to be more stable. The leaching-crystallization process was of great significance to improve the stability of the arsenic-containing residue.
      PubDate: 2019-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10653-019-00273-y
       
  • Seasonal variation in the occurrence of ischemic stroke: A meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Abstract Stroke was demonstrated to correlate with seasonal variation. However, the relevant studies were incongruous. To better understand the rules of seasonal impact on ischemic stroke (IS) patients, we performed this meta-analysis. We systematically searched relevant observational studies in Pubmed, Web of science and Embase from January 1, 1980, to November 1, 2017, in English. Patients included in this study were adults who suffered from IS. Stata version 12.0 software was used to pool useful data and calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We also performed heterogeneity and sensitivity analyses and evaluated publication bias. Thirty-three observational studies involving 234,196 participants were incorporated into the meta-analysis. Summer and December were regarded as reference, respectively. The IRRs were calculated showing: IRRWinter 1.05 (95% CI 1.04–1.07), IRRAutumn 1.03 (95% CI 1.02–1.04), IRRSpring 1.02 (95% CI 1.01–1.03). No obvious difference existed among 12 months. Stratified analyses on Köppen classification were also conducted. Between-study heterogeneity was discovered; however, predefined stratified analyses and meta-regression could not reduce this heterogeneity. Our meta-analysis has revealed very little seasonal variation in the overall study. Both cold and hot months may be high risky for IS after stratified by Köppen Climate Classification. Thus, a rationale to environmental setting of risky patient management could be provided. More studies with specific assessments are warranted for further comprehensive investigation.
      PubDate: 2019-03-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10653-019-00265-y
       
  • Iodine uptake, storage and translocation mechanisms in spinach ( Spinacia
           oleracea L.)
    • Abstract: Abstract Iodine is an essential micronutrient for human health; phytofortification is a means of improving humans’ nutritional iodine status. However, knowledge of iodine uptake and translocation in plants remains limited. In this paper, plant uptake mechanisms were assessed in short-term experiments (24 h) using labelled radioisotopes; the speciation of iodine present in apoplastic and symplastic root solutions was determined by (HPLC)-ICP-QQQ-MS. Iodine storage was investigated in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) treated with I− and IO3−. Finally, translocation through the phloem to younger leaves was also investigated using a radioiodine (129I−) label. During uptake, spinach roots demonstrated the ability to reduce IO3− to I−. Once absorbed, iodine was present as org-I or I− with significantly greater concentrations in the apoplast than the symplast. Plants were shown to absorb similar concentrations of iodine applied as I− or IO3−, via the roots, grown in an inert growth substrate. We found that whilst leaves were capable of absorbing radioactively labelled iodine applied to a single leaf, less than 2% was transferred through the phloem to younger leaves. In this paper, we show that iodine uptake is predominantly passive (approximately two-thirds of total uptake); however, I- can be absorbed actively through the symplast. Spinach leaves can absorb iodine via foliar fertilisation, but translocation is severely limited. As such, foliar application is unlikely to significantly increase the iodine content, via phloem translocation, of fruits, grains or tubers.
      PubDate: 2019-03-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10653-019-00272-z
       
  • Distribution of potentially harmful elements in soils around a large
           coal-fired power plant
    • Abstract: Abstract An understanding of the spatial distribution and contribution of a power plant to local soil contamination is important for the planning of soil use and prioritizing remedial actions for public safety. Consequently, the aim of this study was to map the spatial distribution of potentially hazardous elements (PHEs; Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, Fe, Mn, Cd, As, and Se) in soils around a large (796 MW) coal-fired power plant in Brazil. For the purpose, 33 soil samples were collected in the area within a radius of approximately 17.5 km from the plant and subsequently analyzed for PHEs. The frequency and direction of winds were also obtained from a meteorological station in the region. The sampling area was divided into four quadrants (northwest: N-NW; northeast: N-NE; southeast: S-SE; southwest: S-SW), and there were significant negative correlations between the distance and the concentrations of Se in the S-SE quadrant and As in the S-SW and S-SE quadrants. There were positive correlations between distance from the plant and the concentration of Mn in the N-NE quadrant and the concentration of Cd in the S-SW quadrant. The dominant direction of the winds was N-NE. The indexes used in this study showed low-to-moderate enrichment factor, but detailed analysis of the dominant quadrant of the winds showed a correlation with higher concentrations in the soils closer to the power plant for at least seven of the PHEs analyzed, especially with regard to As. Therefore, we conclude that the distribution of the metalloid As can be used as a marker of the spatial distribution of contamination from the thermoelectric plant, but the dynamics of the other elements suggests that the presence of other sources of contamination may also compromise the quality of local soils.
      PubDate: 2019-03-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10653-019-00267-w
       
  • Heavy metals contamination in urban surface soils of Medak province,
           India, and its risk assessment and spatial distribution
    • Abstract: Abstract The main purpose of the current study is to assess the contamination status, human health risk, and spatial distribution of heavy metals in the urban soils from the Medak province in India. For this purposes, a total of 40 urban surface soil samples were collected and analyzed seven heavy metals including chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The results of the study showed that the concentration of Cr (81–751 mg/kg), Cu (2–180 mg/kg), Zn (25–108 mg/kg), Pb (5–77 mg/kg), Ni (1–50 mg/kg), As (0.4–14 mg/kg), and Cd (0.1–4.2 mg/kg), respectively, was found above their natural background values. The geo-accumulation index analysis indicated that except Zn, all other tested heavy metals had a range of moderately to heavily polluted/contaminated in the study region. Spatial distribution pattern analysis inferred that the soil heavy metal (Cu, Cr, Zn, and Ni) pollutions in western regions of Medak were relatively larger than that in central and eastern regions. The hazard index (HI) values for Cu, Cd, Zn, As, Pb, and Ni were below 1, implying that there is no non-carcinogenic risks exposure from these heavy metals in soil for children and adults in the study region. However, HI value for Cr ranged from 3.08E−01 to 2.86E+00 for children, implying that children were relatively vulnerable population than adults in the current study region. Comparatively speaking, 67.5% and 100% total carcinogenic risks for Cr values for adults and children were larger than the acceptable threshold value of 1.0E−04, indicating chromium poses the greatest carcinogenic risk in the study region.
      PubDate: 2019-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10653-019-00270-1
       
  • Historical changes in the major and trace elements in the sedimentary
           records of Lake Qinghai, Qinghai–Tibet Plateau: implications for
           anthropogenic activities
    • Abstract: Abstract Sediment sequences in Lake Qinghai spanning the past 100 years were explored to assess the effects of changes in local land desertification, dust input and agriculture on sediment deposition in different parts of Lake Qinghai. Three short sediment cores (QH01, QH02, QH07) were collected from the main lake and one sediment core (Z04) from a sublake (Lake Gahai) of Lake Qinghai, China, during 2012 and 2013. The concentrations of Fe, Mn, Al, Rb, Ti, Ca, and Sr were analysed to determine the effects of historical and regional anthropogenic activities in the Lake Qinghai catchment from 1910 to 2010. The elemental concentrations in the sediment cores ranged from 1.85 to 2.79% for Fe, 397 to 608 μg/g for Mn, 3.04 to 5.64% for Al, 13.5 to 19.7 μg/g for Rb, 0.171 to 0.268% for Ti, 9.43 to 13.9% for Ca, 652 to 1020 μg/g for Sr, and 0.049 to 0.075% for P. Good correlations were found between the concentrations of Fe, Mn, Al, and Rb, and the Ti/Al ratios in the sediments suggest that these elements share a similar source. The enrichment factors (EFs) of Ti [EF(Ti)] and P [EF(P)] in each core were utilized to reflect variations in anthropogenic activities from 1950 to 2010. EF(Ti) ranged from 1 to 1.17 in QH01 and QH02, reflecting the variation of land desertification areas in the Buha River catchment from 1950 to 2010. The EF(Ti) showed positive linear correlations with the variation in cropland area in Gangcha County, suggesting that agricultural activity in the Quanji River and Shaliu River catchments was enhanced from 1950 to 2010. The sediment records showed similar biogeochemical changes in most lakes and bays in China, indicating that the intensity of changes in anthropogenic activities was caused by national policy enforcement from the 1950s to 2010. EF(Ti) can serve as a tracer for anthropogenic activities in Lake Qinghai, with the anthropogenic activities in different parts of the Lake Qinghai catchment represented in the homologous sediments from parts of Lake Qinghai over the past 100 years. The variation of EF(P) increased from 1 to 1.55 from deep layer to upper layer in all sediment cores, reflecting the increased fertilizer input and tourism activity from 1980 to 2010, a period during which the lake was evolved into a eutrophic lake.
      PubDate: 2019-03-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10653-019-00244-3
       
  • Combining potassium chloride leaching with vertical electrokinetics to
           remediate cadmium-contaminated soils
    • Abstract: Abstract This study evaluated the feasibility of combining potassium chloride (KCl) leaching and electrokinetic (EK) treatment for the remediation of cadmium (Cd) and other metals from contaminated soils. KCl leaching was compared at three concentrations (0.2%, 0.5%, and 1% KCl). EK treatment was conducted separately to migrate the metals in the topsoil to the subsoil. The combined approach using KCl leaching before or after EK treatment was compared. For the single vertical EK treatment, the removal of Cd, lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) from the topsoil (0–20 cm) was 9.38%, 4.80%, 0.95%, and 10.81%, respectively. KCl leaching at 1% KCl removed 84.06% Cd, 9.95% Pb, 4.34% Cu, and 19.93% Zn from the topsoil, with higher removal efficiency than that of the 0.2% and 0.5% KCl leaching treatments. By combining the KCl leaching and EK treatment, the removal efficiency of heavy metals improved, in particular for the 1% KCl + EK treatment, where the removal rate of Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn from the upper surface soil reached 97.79%, 17.69%, 14.37%, and 41.96%, respectively. Correspondingly, the soil Cd content decreased from 4 to 0.21 mg/kg, and was below the Chinese standard limit of 0.3 mg/kg soil. These results indicate that 1% KCl + EK treatment is a good combination technique to mitigate Cd pollution from contaminated soils used for growing rice and leafy vegetables.
      PubDate: 2019-03-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10653-019-00259-w
       
  • Potential CO 2 intrusion in near-surface environments: a review of current
           research approaches to geochemical processes
    • Abstract: Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) plays a crucial role in reducing carbon emissions to the atmosphere. However, gas leakage from deep storage reservoirs, which may flow back into near-surface and eventually to the atmosphere, is a major concern associated with this technology. Despite an increase in research focusing on potential CO2 leakage into deep surface features and aquifers, a significant knowledge gap remains in the geochemical changes associated with near-surface. This study reviews the geochemical processes related to the intrusion of CO2 into near-surface environments with an emphasis on metal mobilization and discusses about the geochemical research approaches, recent findings, and current knowledge gaps. It is found that the intrusion of CO2(g) into near-surface likely induces changes in pH, dissolution of minerals, and potential degradation of surrounding environments. The development of adequate geochemical research approaches for assessing CO2 leakage in near-surface environments, using field studies, laboratory experiments, and/or geochemical modeling combined with isotopic tracers, has promoted extensive surveys of CO2-induced reactions. However, addressing knowledge gaps in geochemical changes in near-surface environments is fundamental to advance current knowledge on how CO2 leaks from storage sites and the consequences of this process on soil and water chemistry. For reliable detection and risk management of the potential impact of CO2 leakage from storage sites on the environmental chemistry, currently available geochemical research approaches should be either combined or used independently (albeit in a manner complementarily to one another), and the results should be jointly interpreted. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2019-03-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10653-019-00263-0
       
  • The effect of two different biochars on remediation of Cd-contaminated
           soil and Cd uptake by Lolium perenne
    • Abstract: Abstract Biochar can be widely used to reduce the bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soil because of its adsorption capacity. But there are few studies about the effects of biochar on cadmium uptake by plants in soil contaminated with cadmium (Cd). Therefore, an incubation experiment was used to investigate the effects of rice straw biochar (RSBC) and coconut shell biochar (CSBC) on Cd immobilization in contaminated soil and, subsequently, Cd uptake by Lolium perenne. The results showed that the microbial counts and soil enzyme activities were significantly increased by biochar in Cd-contaminated soil, which were consistent with the decrease of the bioavailability of Cd by biochar. HOAc-extractable Cd in soil decreased by 11.3–22.6% in treatments with 5% RSBC and by 7.2–17.1% in treatments with 5% CSBC, respectively, compared to controls. The content of available Cd in biochar treatments was significantly lower than in controls, and these differences were more obvious in treatment groups with 5% biochar. The Cd concentration in L. perenne reduced by 4.47–26.13% with biochar. However, the biomass of L. perenne increased by 1.35–2.38 times after adding biochar amendments. So, Cd uptake by whole L. perenne was augmented by RSBC and CSBC. Accordingly, this work suggests that RSBC and CSBC have the potential to be used as a useful aided phytoremediation technology in Cd-contaminated soil.
      PubDate: 2019-02-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10653-019-00257-y
       
  • Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology in Sri Lanka and the exposure
           to environmental chemicals: a review of literature
    • Abstract: Abstract Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) has emerged as a serious health issue in Sri Lanka. The disease has been recorded in the North Central Province of the country. While studies have elicited many hypotheses concerning the pathogenicity of CKDu, none adequately explains the cause of CKDu and the measures needed to minimise its occurrence. Nephrotoxic heavy metal (oid)s such as cadmium, arsenic, lead, and chromium are present in biological samples of people from endemic areas. This review appraises evidence on the effects of long-term exposure to low concentration of nephrotoxic heavy metals, which could be the principal cause of CKDu. Although a considerable variation exists in metal concentrations in patients’ blood and urine, higher levels of heavy metals were consistently observed in affected areas. This review finds that the populations in the endemic areas are exposed to heavy metal (oid)s at low concentrations, which are considered as safe levels; nevertheless, it influences the incidence of CKDu. Recent global studies on chronic kidney disease (CKD) revealed a low concentration of heavy metals in diseased patients. Research findings indicated that CKDu patients in Sri Lanka demonstrated similar blood levels of Cd, Pb, and higher concentrations of Cr than that have been reported globally. Further studies on the influence of combinations of nephrotoxic heavy metals at low concentrations on reduced glomerular filtration rate and other renal biomarkers could explain CKDu pathogenicity.
      PubDate: 2019-02-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10653-019-00264-z
       
 
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