Subjects -> TEXTILE INDUSTRIES AND FABRICS (Total: 40 journals)


Showing 1 - 16 of 16 Journals sorted alphabetically
AATCC Journal of Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AATCC Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4) - Revista Eletrônica de Moda     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Textile     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Autex Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cerâmica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 245)
Fashion and Textiles     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Fashion Practice : The Journal of Design, Creative Process & the Fashion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Fibers     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Fibre Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Focus on Pigments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Geosynthetics International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Geotextiles and Geomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research (IJFTR)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Textile Science     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Fashion Technology & Textile Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Industrial Textiles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Leather Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Natural Fibers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Textile Design Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Textile Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India) : Series E     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Textile Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Text and Performance Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Textile History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Textile Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Textile Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Textiles and Clothing Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Textiles and Light Industrial Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Third Text     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Wearables     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Textile Research Journal
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.551
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 14  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0040-5175 - ISSN (Online) 1746-7748
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1097 journals]
  • Experimental study of a modified drafting system based on the ring
           spinning frame
    • Authors: Yuemin Cui, Hong Song, Longdi Cheng, Wansheng Deng, Yijun Ji
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      A systematic study of a modified drafting system based on the ring spinning frame, which is called the SDS (soft drafting system), is reported in this article to raise yarn quality. Two parts of an experiment were conducted to investigate differences between the conventional and modified drafting systems by spinning three kinds of yarns (in part I) and the effects of process parameters (block gauge, pressure on the front rollers and break draft) on the SDS by using response surface methodology (RSM) to spin 18.2 tex cotton yarn (in part II). The results show that the SDS can significantly improve yarn evenness and reduce yarn imperfections of thick places by +35% and +50%, respectively, and neps by +140% per km. In addition, it is noted that the three parameters are all statistically significant for the SDS to spin yarns, while interactions between them are not. More importantly, RSM predicted a minimum CVm% of 13.95% under the optimum conditions of 1.75 mm, 190 N and 1.21 for the block gauge, pressure on the front rollers and break draft, respectively, which is very close to the conditions of the practical spinning test.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-13T06:17:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520984977
  • CORRIGENDUM to “Development and characterization of electrospun
           curcumin-loaded antimicrobial nanofibrous membranes”
    • Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-11T06:24:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521990290
  • Electrospun nanofiber/cotton composite yarn with enhanced moisture
           management ability
    • Authors: Ning Mao, Xiaohong Qin, Liming Wang, Jianyong Yu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Wet comfort is a critical performance for fabrics, especially when human bodies release sweat in daily life. Despite excellent moisture absorption performance, cotton yarns are still limited in the moisture release/transfer ability. Here, based on a novel electrospinning technology, polyacrylonitrile and polystyrene (PS) electrospun nanofiber/cotton composite yarns were produced, respectively. Under fluorescence microscopic observation, electrospun fibers within the composite yarns showed a uniform distribution. As a result, these composite yarn-based knitted fabrics obtained a good water transport ability and a fast water evaporation rate. According to the moisture management test, PS electrospun nanofiber composite yarn-based fabrics exhibited a relatively high one-way transport index R (400%), claiming an enhanced moisture management performance. Finally, specific surface area tests and finite element analyses were used to analyze the water transport mechanism inside the yarns. The results proved that a small number of electrospun fibers played a predominant role in enhancing the moisture management ability of the composite yarns.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-07T07:58:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520984978
  • Influence of inlaid material, yarn and knitted structure on the net
           buoyant force and mechanical properties of inlaid knitted fabric for
           buoyant swimwear
    • Authors: Nga-wun Li, Chu-po Ho, Kit-lun Yick, Jin-yun Zhou
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Buoyant swimwear is becoming more common in recreational swimming use, so the performance of buoyant fabric is important when designing functional swimwear. In this study, potential buoyant inlaid knitted fabrics for buoyant swimwear are investigated. Three types of knitted structures, half milano, full milano and 1 × 1 rib, are selected and various kinds of tubes and foam rods in different diameters are prepared for inlaying during the knitting process by using a 7 G hand-knitting machine. The mean differences among the levels of three independent variables, (1) inlaid material, (2) yarn and (3) knitted structure, on three dependent variables (net buoyant force, compression and tensile properties) are analyzed by using a multivariate analysis of variance. The result shows that the net buoyant force and mechanical properties of the fabric are significantly different due to the inlaid material and knitted structure, but not the yarn. The net buoyant force increases with fabric thickness and the outer diameter of the inlaid material. The inlaid fabrics are less compressible than the control fabric and show better recoverability with an increase in the diameter of the inlaid material. For the tensile properties, the inlaid material reinforces the fabric in both the wale and course directions, in which the stiffness in the course direction is significantly increased. The inlaid fabric is stronger and resistant to breakage in the course direction when the diameter of the inlaid material is increased. The findings of this study contribute to developments in the textile and sportswear industry.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-07T07:58:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520981742
  • Appearance change for colored spun yarn fabric based on image color
    • Authors: Ning Zhang, Qun Hu, Lei Wang, Shuo Meng, Ruru Pan, Weidong Gao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The fabric of colored spun yarn has ever-changing appearances and styles with different fancy yarns. The fabric image is commonly designed by the designer using the software, which needs complex user interactions and difficult image segmentation. In this paper, a modified color transfer method was proposed to generate the fabric appearance of colored spun yarn. Given the color card as the target image, the style fabric image was matched as the reference image based on the dominant luminance. After transferring the two images to lαβ color space, Wavelet transform and luminance sampling were utilized to filter the redundant high-frequency information and select the representative pixels, respectively. Then, the chromatic channels were transferred based on the best matched luminance and the neighborhood relation. Finally, the image after color transfer was reconstructed by wavelet reconstruction. The proposed reference image matching maintained the result to be the ground truth. For the samples selected, the combined methods based on wavelet transform and luminance sampling improved the efficiency and performance of the proposed scheme. Experiments were conducted on different fabrics with different colors and styles. Experiments demonstrated the validity and superiority of the proposed method, which can provide referential assistance for the designer and save considerable amounts of labor.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-06T06:19:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520984093
  • Mechanical and electrical properties of graphene-coated polyimide yarns
           improved by nitrogen plasma pre-treatment
    • Authors: Chuanli Su, Fangbing Lin, Jinhua Jiang, Huiqi Shao, Nanliang Chen
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      One-dimensional high-performance yarns with excellent conductivity and flexibility are of considerable interest in the energy and aerospace industries. However, how to achieve highly conductivity, excellent flexibility, extreme condition durability and high mechanical performance in one fiber material is still a great challenge using economically viable materials and synthesis technologies. Herein, we report electrically conductive yarns (modified polyimide (M-PI)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) yarns) consisting of RGO coated on the surface of nitrogen plasma M-PI yarns, which are fabricated by combining the N2 plasma pre-treatment and repeated dip-coating and reducing technique. N2 plasma treatment is used to roughen the surface of the PI yarn and introduce functional groups, contributing to improve wettability, which can provide a stronger adhesion of the graphene coating. The dip-coating and reducing process was repeated 10 times to enhance the loading mass of RGO on the PI yarns, then M-PI/RGO yarns with better conductivity property can be obtained. The effects of N2 plasma treatment power and time on the M-PI yarns and M-PI/RGO yarns are investigated and discussed. The results demonstrate that the graphene layer is uniformly and densely coated on the PI yarn when being treated at 200 W for 8 min, and the conductivity of the M-PI/RGO yarn reaches 1.51 × 102 S/m. The M-PI/RGO yarn combine the advantages of RGO and PI yarns, retaining the mechanical properties and thermal stability of PI yarn while exploiting the conductive property of RGO. In addition, the enhanced adhesion between the PI yarn and graphene coating endows the composite yarns with excellent fastness and superior flexibility. This work describes an environmentally friendly, controllable and facile method to develop flexible and conductive functional graphene-coated PI yarns with high-performance properties.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-06T06:19:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520984102
  • Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of text printed with flexography
           on woven labels
    • Authors: Urška Stanković Elesini, Sara Pančur, Klementina Možina
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Even though textile labels are not often the subject of research, their quality must not be neglected. Printed typographic elements (i.e. letters and texts) must be visible regardless of textile ribbons and typeface or type size to be printed. Thus, the aim of the research was to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze and evaluate the text printed with flexography in two different typefaces (Helvetica and Verdana) in three different type sizes (4, 6 and 8 point) on five textile ribbons made of polyester and polyester/cotton mixture in two different weaves (plain and satin). The results of our research showed that the quality of printed letters is influenced by the properties of textile ribbons as well as by the chosen typographic features. When textile ribbons were composed of polyester filaments, the quality of prints was better than in the case of the mixed composition with cotton fibers. The coating and previously dyed textile ribbons had a positive influence on the quality of printed letters. The typeface Verdana gave more distinct and contrasted printed letters than Helvetica. The quality of printed letters (measured by the cover factor) decreased with the reduced type size; letters (and text) in a smaller type size (4 point) were hence, depending on the properties of textile ribbons, less visible.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-30T06:11:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520981740
  • Poly(lactic acid) fibers, yarns and fabrics: Manufacturing, properties and
    • Authors: Yadie Yang, Minglonghai Zhang, Zixin Ju, Po Ying Tam, Tao Hua, Muhammad Waseem Younas, Hasan Kamrul, Hong Hu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fiber was developed more than a decade ago. It has been regarded as the most promising sustainable and biodegradable fiber to replace conventional polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polyester fiber in textile products. This paper reviews recent developments in PLA polymerization, PLA filament and fiber spinning, staple yarn spinning, fabric production, dyeing and finishing and aftercare procedures. The properties of PLA fiber are broadly similar to those of PET fiber; however, the properties of PLA fiber that differ, including thermal degradation and low hydrolytic resistance to strong alkaline, significantly affect the method selection and parameter setting of production and processing of PLA fibers and fabrics. PLA filaments are mainly produced by two-step melt spinning to get fibers with stable quality, but degradation at high temperature is still a problem. PLA staple yarns are normally spun using ring spinning. Currently existing knitting or weaving techniques can be used to produce PLA fabrics. PLA fabrics can be dyed with disperse dyes at 110°C, but their color fastness and shades are different from PET fabrics when using the same dyes. The scouring and dyeing of PLA/cotton blended fabrics and the reductive clearing after dyeing remain to be improved. As a new fiber, the entry of PLA fiber into the textile market faces difficult challenges as well as great opportunities in the future.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-30T06:11:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520984101
  • A spacer fabric-based three-dimensional patterning method with two-colored
           jacquard systems
    • Authors: Xinxin Li, Meiling Tian, Yanping Liu, Ya Li
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      To generate three-dimensional (3D) patterned spacer structures with non-continuous jacquard appearance in two colors, such as the yarn-cutting style, this paper attempts to propose a novel 3D patterning method based on the single jacquard technique. Two sets of jacquard threads are spaced apart and threaded in split bars as two patterning systems with separate colors. Then, for independent patterns, each single loop should be able to be selectively observable on patterned layers and hidden in the spacer layer. Cases of continuous jacquard loops and zero-loop ones in both course and wale directions are to be solved based on the characteristic of one-wale left offset. Besides, by differing the moment when offset occurs, jacquard threads are transferred from stitching on both layers to a single or zero layer, thus enabling one to hide jacquard loops in non-patterning areas. This approach theoretically brings new patterning possibilities to 3D spacer structures with the single jacquard technique.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-24T04:48:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520982004
  • Mechanical properties of warp-knitted metal mesh fabric under biaxial
           tension loading
    • Authors: Tong Yang, Ping Yang, Zhuanyong Zou, Pibo Ma
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, warp-knitted metal mesh fabric was used as the research object, and its mechanical loading behavior under uniaxial and biaxial stress loading states was studied. The relationship and connection between the effective elastic modulus of its anisotropic structure was studied with different loading angles of stress as variables. The results showed that there were differences in the mechanical properties and effective elastic modulus under these loading angles, and there was a linear relationship between the effective elastic modulus of the metal mesh with the same warp-knitted structure under different directions of stress, which will provide a theoretical basis for broadening its application in the field of anchor spray support, flexible wearable electronic devices, satellite antennas, water filter walls and other applications.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-23T06:13:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520981997
  • Construction and system realization of the yarn tension model of fully
           fashioned flat knitting fabric
    • Authors: Boyu Zhao, Honglian Cong, Guangjun Wu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, fully fashioned flat knitting fabrics have been extensively studied owing to their superior formability, rich application range and advanced knitting technology. However, the yarn tension fluctuations during the knitting process are difficult to control. The yarn tension in the knitting process is affected by many factors, such as the carriage running speed, structure, yarn properties, clothing parameters, and so on. In this work, a tension model of the yarn was established to explore the regularity of yarn tension variation, which was caused by the running speed and direction of the carriage when producing fully fashioned fabrics. Then, a tension compensation device was set up to reduce tension fluctuations to improve the quality of fully fashioned fabrics. Results showed that the tension fluctuation in the dynamic change of the tension was reduced to a certain extent by adding the tension compensation device. Meanwhile, the average value and fluctuating standard deviation of the yarn tension between the forward and backward processes were significantly reduced during a cycle of the knitting process. This indicates that controlling the tension fluctuation in the knitting process will effectively improve the surface evenness of the fully fashioned flat knitting fabric.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-23T06:13:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520982386
  • Three-dimensional simulation and experimental investigation of
           three-dimensional printed guiding devices on lattice-apron compact
    • Authors: Malik YH Saty, Nicholus Tayari Akankwasa, Jun Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The compact spinning system with a lattice apron utilizes air-flow dynamics to condense fibers in a bunch and enhance the yarn properties. One of the main challenges with this method is the lack of a comprehensive understanding of the air-flow field's effect in the condensing zone. This work presents a numerical and experimental investigation of the effects of three-dimensional (3D) printed guiding devices on the air-flow characteristics and yarn properties. Firstly, the 3D numerical model of the compact spinning system was set up based on the compact spinning machine geometrical dimensions. Secondly, different 3D prototypes were developed, simulated, and analyzed using computational fluid dynamics based on ANSYS software. The prototypes (A-type, B-type, and C-type), selected according to the simulation results, were then 3D printed to enable further experimental investigation. Air-flow analysis results in the air-suction flume area exhibiting a very high negative pressure, and the centerline zone was characterized by high velocity. Experimental results revealed that the three yarns spun with guiding devices had better strength, hairiness, and evenness than those spun without a guiding device. The model developed can be further improved and utilized for commercial purposes and is anticipated to improve compact spun yarn properties significantly.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-23T06:13:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520982586
  • Nano-bio finishing of cotton fabric with chitosan nano-hydrogels
           containing Rhus coriaria (L)
    • Authors: Loza Taghavi, Nahid hemmatinegad, Azadeh Bashari, Seyyed Abbas Noorian Najafabadi, Sepideh Shakibi
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The goal of this paper was to study some chemical and physical effects of chitosan nano-hydrogels containing Rhus coriaria on cotton fabric. The finished fabrics showed antimicrobial effects against two pathogenic microorganisms, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and the particle size, as well as the effect of encapsulating sumac extract in chitosan nano-hydrogel on some physical and visual characteristics of fabrics, are then confirmed by using various methods, including antimicrobial testing, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The encapsulation efficiency and release behavior of the samples are also studied. The as-prepared samples with higher sumac content have more ultraviolet (UV) absorbing activity (about 52%) than the un-treated sample, as well as excellent washing fastness and antimicrobial properties after five washing cycles. More specifically, these methods indicated negligible changes in color and thickness of treated cotton fabrics. Finally, the application of cotton fabric along with the synthesis of chitosan nano-hydrogel and sumac loading introduced a novel cotton fabric with high antimicrobial properties, washing fastness and UV protection property.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-21T06:39:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520978926
  • Evaluating the biomechanical interaction between the medical compression
           stocking and human calf using a highly anatomical fidelity
           three-dimensional finite element model
    • Authors: Yongtao Lu, Daxing Zhang, Liangliang Cheng, Zhuoyue Yang, Junyan Li
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The beneficial effects of the medical compression stocking (MCS) in the treatment of venous disorders of the human lower limb have been recognized. However, the effectiveness of the MCS on the internal tissues of the lower limb has not been properly evaluated. The aim of the present study was to shed light on the mechanism of compression therapy using a highly anatomical fidelity three-dimensional finite element (FE) model. A FE calf model of a 40-year-old female was created from magnetic resonance images, in which the bones, the muscle groups, three veins (the great saphenous vein, medial peroneal vein and small saphenous vein), the subcutaneous tissues (fascia) and the skin were reconstructed. The model was validated using experimental data collected in-house, and then the influence of different levels of external compression and the biomechanical effect of the MCS under the pathological conditions were investigated. The results showed that the pressure at the skin–stocking interface was largely influenced by the external compression pressure with an increase of up to 54.98%, while the pressure was neither influenced by the impairment of the muscular tissues nor by the impairment of the calf veins, with the largest change of just 5.63%. The trans-mural pressure was increased more by the impairment of the calf veins than by the impairment of the muscular tissues. The volume reductions in the calf veins were not evenly distributed. The present study provides some guidance on compression therapy.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-18T09:02:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520979743
  • Acoustical absorptive properties of meltblown nonwovens for textile
    • Authors: Magdi El Messiry, Gajanan Bhat, Affaf Eloufy, Samar Abdel Latif, Yasmin Ayman
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Noise pollution is one of the harmful physical sources in the textile industry, which is among those industries that are faced with noise exposure problems. The results of environmental sound measurements at modern textile mills have shown that the sound pressure level varied from 95 to 130 dB, where the highest sound pressure level was at weaving machines. Textile insulation materials can be fitted in order to decrease sound pollution at a low cost. The objective of this work is to design a sound absorber that can be fixed to the body of the machines, at the point of the noise generation, to reduce noise pollution. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA), which is an environmentally friendly material, was used to produce different samples of meltblown nonwoven absorbers to be used for damping the noise of textile machinery. PLA meltblown nonwoven fabric with the areal density of 16.7 g/m2, average fiber diameter of 1.1 µm, mean pore diameter of 9.8 µm and thickness of 0.27 mm exhibited significant sound absorption. The sample with the smallest average fiber diameter among those investigated had the highest damping effect: 23.95, 41.29 and 29.32 dBA at frequencies of 400, 1000 and 1500 Hz, respectively. Our goal is to have a practical tool that accurately evaluates the absorber sound damping under the actual running conditions of the textile machinery. The design of the absorber from one layer of the PLA meltblown nonwoven over a rigid polyurethane foam sheet had an excellent sound absorption property.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-18T09:02:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520980460
  • Effect of nanoparticles on the mechanical properties of kenaf
           fiber-reinforced bio-based epoxy resin
    • Authors: EA Franco-Urquiza, AV Rentería-Rodríguez
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Ecological composites materials have become a topic of interest in materials science and engineering in recent years because of the growing need for environment-friendly composites that maintain properties like light weight, but gain biodegradability and renewability. Bio-composites of kenaf fiber-reinforced bio-based epoxy resin filled with different kind of nanoparticles were prepared in this work using a hybrid manufacturing process combining vacuum-assisted resin infusion and an autoclave. Nanoparticles of carbon, metal oxides and layered silicates were employed in this work to analyze their effect on the mechanical properties of bio-kenaf composites. Nanoparticles were synthesized and heat-treated according to their nature, and Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed the presence of functional groups. Laminar structures, such as graphene or layered silicates, had more influence on the bio-kenaf composite toughness than the particle-like morphology of metal oxides. However, the nanoparticles influenced the strength because of their effective stress transfer mechanism. Despite voids of different sizes, which were detected using scanning tomography, they did not influence the mechanical properties of the bio-kenaf composites, showing that the filler effect of the nanoparticles is the dominant mechanism.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-16T04:30:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520980459
  • A novel method for evaluating the slurry coating characteristics of sized
           yarns based on the starch-iodine color reaction principle and image
    • Authors: Wenjun Yan, Bo Zhu, Jianli Liu, Weidong Gao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The slurry coating characteristics of sized yarns directly impact warp weavability. Due to the damage to sized films, the conventional methods of detecting sized-yarn coating characteristics have drawbacks of low efficiency and poor repeatability. A novel detecting method of slurry coating characteristics was proposed based on image processing. Through the starch-iodine color reaction principle, a self-made dynamic image acquisition device was developed in this paper, in which the apparent images of starch-based sized yarns after color reaction were captured consecutively. The slurry coating percentage (SCP), slurry coating depth (SCD) and slurry coating unevenness (SCU), respectively reflecting the sizing coating integrity, sizing coating thickness and thickness unevenness, were extracted by image processing. The effects of experimental parameters, including immersion time and concentration of I2-KI solution, on slurry coating characteristics were analyzed, and central composite design was adopted to optimize the stability of the test system. Sized yarns commonly used in textile mills were characterized by the proposed method. The experimental results indicated that immersion time of 3.56 min and I2-KI concentration of 0.11‱ (‱ represents that the mass of the solute is one ten-thousandth of solution) led to the optimal stability of slurry coating characteristics (the CV of SCP, CV of SCD and CV of SCU were 3.32%, 5.56% and 9.37%, respectively). The much lower CV of the proposed method compared with conventional ones confirmed that the method was useful for evaluating slurry coating characteristics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-14T07:42:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520980805
  • Experimental and numerical study of helical auxetic yarns
    • Authors: Yajie Gao, Xiaogang Chen, Rachel Studd
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Auxetic materials, including textiles, exhibit a negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR), which is of interest for many applications. This research aims to optimize the structural parameters of helical auxetic yarns (HAYs) and to evaluate the auxetic performance of these yarns. The research reports on the improvement of auxetic yarn quality and the yarn auxeticity through studying the effect of helical angles, diameter ratio and tensile moduli of the two plies, as well as the binder filament feeding. The maximum NPR of the optimized auxetic yarns was experimentally achieved as low as –9.6, with the helical angle of around 14.0° on average using the optimal machine setting. The optimized yarn parameters enabled the making of high-quality auxetic yarns with a wider range of machine settings than before. In parallel, theoretical and numerical studies were carried out for the engineering design of auxetic yarns, which enabled comparisons among the experimental results, calculated results and results from finite element analysis. The comparison showed that a lower initial helical angle, higher tensile modulus of the wrap ply and lower tensile modulus of the core ply led to a higher auxetic effect. A new finding is reported in that a concave relationship between the diameter ratio and the NPR was discovered. The results of this study could assist researchers in producing HAYs, and this type of HAY could be used for many potential applications, such as filtration and impact protection.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-14T07:42:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520977194
  • Determination of the strength and elongation distribution of single wool
           through fiber bundle testing based on acoustic emissions
    • Authors: Di Lu, Weidong Yu, Ning Pan
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The method to obtain the breaking strength and elongation distribution of fiber through numerous single fiber tests is tedious and time-consuming. In the present work, a method based on acoustic emission (AE) signals generated by fiber fracture during the fiber bundle test has been developed for estimating the distribution of single wool breaking strength and elongation. AE detection is performed simultaneously during the fiber extension. According to the AE signal, it is proved that every individual fiber break can be detected, and the failure probability distribution of wool elongation can be obtained. Based on this, the single wool breaking strength is estimated from the tensile response of the fiber bundle, and then its distribution can be deduced. Finally, the distributions of breaking strength and elongation determined by the bundle test are compared with that obtained from the single fiber samples. The results show that the method developed in this work can be used to estimate the breaking strength and elongation of the single fiber within the bundle. Their cumulative probability distributions are similar to the results of single fiber sample tests, especially the distribution of the breaking strength.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-06T11:38:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520975093
  • Superhydrophobic fabric mixed with polyester and cotton yarns modified by
           alkaline treatment and thermal aging
    • Authors: Hyewon Kim, Ji-Hyun Oh, Chung Hee Park
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Superhydrophobic fabric composed of polyester and cotton single yarns was developed by alkali treatment and thermal aging. During the alkali treatment to make the nano-roughness of the polyester fibers, micro-roughness also increased due to differences in the thicknesses of the two yarns arising from the increased polyester surface roughness and swollen cotton. The superhydrophobicity, with a static contact angle of 155.8 ± 3.2° and shedding angle of 11.1 ± 0.8°, was achieved with 90% polyester/10% cotton fabric treated with 20% alkali concentration for 20 min under applied tension, then followed by 24 h thermal aging at 130℃. The tensile strength of the superhydrophobic polyester/cotton fabric (28.7 MPa) was higher than that of 100% polyester fabric (20.1 MPa). The breathability of the superhydrophobic polyester/cotton fabric was improved compared with 100% polyester fabric. In durability assessment, a static contact angle of ≥150° was shown for the tape tests. Five times of repeated adhesion with a clothing tape cleaner were conducted for the five samples each. Although washing and dry-cleaning decreased contact angles to as low as 137.7°, a static contact angle of 150° was achieved by additional thermal aging (130℃, 24 h). We developed a superhydrophobic fabric mixed with polyester and cotton yarns by exploiting differences in the characteristics of the two yarns induced by alkali treatment, which causes fabric surface roughness, and thermal aging without the use of any chemicals. Moreover, this superhydrophobic fabric has improved breathability.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-06T11:38:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520977211
  • Applicability of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonate)
           impregnated polyurethane nanoweb as a transmission line for smart textiles
    • Authors: Hyeon-seon Cho, Eunji Jang, Hang Liu, Gilsoo Cho
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Smart clothing, which can be manufactured based on smart textiles with electrical conductivity, can be used as a transmission line to transmit signals. The performance of the fabricated textile-based transmission line can be determined by evaluating light-emitting diode consistency. In this study, a textile-based transmission line was fabricated by impregnating two concentrations of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS) to impart the electrical conductivity to a polyurethane (PU) nanoweb. Three conditions of thermal treatment were conducted to decrease the electrical resistance, and the thickness, electrical, surface, and chemical properties were evaluated. The thickness of the specimens tended to decrease at the low concentration, and the thermal treatment temperature increased. The linear resistances decreased from 1580 Ω/cm (PA) to 310.6 Ω/cm (PB120) as the concentration of PEDOT: PSS and thermal treatment temperature increased. Field emission scanning electron microscope images show that the PU nanoweb was uniformly and successfully impregnated with PEDOT: PSS. Raman spectra indicate an effect of the thermal treatment on the structural change of the PEDOT chains, which suggests an electrical resistance change of specimens. As a result, the optimum concentration of the PEDOT: PSS impregnated PU nanoweb as a transmission line for smart textiles is 2.6 wt%, and the thermal treatment temperature is 120℃. The performance of the textile-based transmission line (PB120) according to the length was higher as the length of the specimen was shorter. The highest consistency was 51 lm/m2 (50 mm), and the lowest was 45 lm/m2 (150 mm). Therefore, the PEDOT: PSS/PU nanoweb has applicability and feasibility as a transmission line.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-03T06:12:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520975633
  • Composite phase change materials improve the photo-thermal effects of
           cotton fabrics
    • Authors: Wei Zhang, Shang Hao, Jiali Weng, Yibo Zhang, Jiming Yao, Sainan Wei
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      We report on the impregnation-based preparation of composite phase change materials (CPCMs) with thermal storage properties, using paraffin wax and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). We coated the CPCMs on the fabric by scraper coating, then evaluated their shape stability, latent heat, thermal conductivity, thermal storage stability and photo-thermal effects. Results show that CPCMs with 10% acid-oxidized MWCNTs introduce only a small phase leakage when heated at 50℃ for 900 s; their latent heat energy reduces by 16.5%, while their thermal conductivity increases by 131.9% compared to pure paraffin. When exposed to sunlight at an ambient temperature of 12.5℃, the cotton fabrics coated with CPCMs record a 12.8℃ higher surface temperature than the pristine fabric, while their heat dissipation is delayed by 120–180 s. The fabric surface temperature increases to twice the ambient temperature during daytime. Overall, these findings indicate that the coated fabric has excellent thermal stability, affirming its potential as photo-thermal functional material.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-30T04:37:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520975617
  • Tactile evaluation of down jacket fabric by the comprehensive handle
           evaluation system for fabrics and yarns
    • Authors: Yuan Tian, Yi Sun, Zhaoqun Du, Dongming Zheng, Haochen Zou, Zhenrui Liu, Gui Liu, Xingxing Pan
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Down jacket fabric is greatly important in determining the quality of a down jacket. In order to enrich the research on fabric handle, subjective and objective evaluations were made for down jacket fabrics that were less studied. The comprehensive handle evaluation system for fabrics and yarns (CHES-FY) can be used to evaluate the tactile handle of the fabric by accurately and efficiently measuring the basic mechanical properties of the fabric. Therefore, the CHES-FY was used to link the objective evaluation with the subjective handle, so as to effectively estimate the total handle value of the down jacket fabric. Fifty-two kinds of down jacket fabrics were objectively tested through measuring 17 extracted parameters, and principal component analysis was adopted to establish the five main handle characteristics of fullness, softness, stiffness, smoothness, looseness and tightness to characterize basic style of the down jacket fabrics. The results showed that the subjective and objective results were in good agreement. These characteristics can be used as indicators to characterize fabric performance, and the principal component expression to characterize fabric handle can better predict the handle characteristics of down jacket fabrics. This also proves that the CHES-FY can quickly and accurately obtain the fabric handle value, and can also evaluate the fabric quality level.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-28T01:26:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520977207
  • An enhanced quantum-inspired gravitational search algorithm for color
           prediction based on the absorption spectrum
    • Authors: Zehai Gao, Yan Zhang, Shisheng Zhou, Wei Lyu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Spot color is widely applied to printing and packing in modern industry, which can satisfy the individualization requirements and express the emotion of products. Color prediction is the core technique for spot color restoration. In this paper, a method that combines the least squares method and gravitation search algorithm is proposed to address the color prediction by using the absorption spectrum. Firstly, the spectral transmittance of the thin film with high transmission and low reflectance characteristics is researched to find the absorbance. Secondly, the least squares method is used to ascertain the primary colors of the spot color. Thirdly, an enhanced quantum gravitation search algorithm is designed to predict the spot color. The predicted results on the 30 spot colors show that the proposed method has higher accuracy in comparison with the three existed methods. The color differences between the prepared spot colors and the reproduced spot colors are all less than 3, in which 75% of the color differences are less 1 and 35% of the color differences are less 0.1. All the results confirm that the proposed method can predict the spot color accurately.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-28T01:21:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520977007
  • Optimization of the water-based polyurethane with acrylate terminal
           process in nylon fabrics application using the Taguchi-based gray
           relational analysis method
    • Authors: Chung-Feng Jeffrey Kuo, Min-Yan Dong, Chi-Ping Yang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This study synthesized the water-permeable and hydrophobic property of water-based polyurethane (WPU) and applied it to nylon fiber-based functional textiles. Specifically, poly-stearyl acrylate (PSA) homopolymers with different molecular weights were used as end-capping agents in the WPU to form water-based polyurethane with acrylate terminal (WPUA). In the WPUA process, dimethylacetamide was adopted as a neutralizing agent to form a stable WPUA emulsion. The effects of the design parameters, such as the hydrophilic ionic group dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), the PSA molecular weight and content, were set as the control factors and are analyzed by the Taguchi method and gray relational analysis (GRA). The water-repellent characteristic, water vapor permeability (WVP) and fabric flexural rigidity were considered as performance parameters as multi-qualities. The Taguchi method was based on the analysis of variance and implemented orthogonal arrays for experimental design. Each performance parameter was optimized independently. Then, the performance parameters were optimized together with GRA. According to the experimental results, the most important factor for the water-repellent characteristic, WVP and fabric flexural rigidity is the DMPA content, followed by the PSA molecular weight and content. The corresponding results showed that in the optimal parameter combination, the content of DMPA was 30.8 phm (parts per hundred monomer by weight), the PSA molecular weight was 3000 g/mol and the PSA content was 4 phm. After WPUA padding, the water contact angle of the water-repellent nylon was 135.3°, the WVP was 2271.7 g/m2/day and the flexural rigidity was 2.7 cm.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-28T01:19:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520975660
  • Design of novel buoyant swimming vest using inlay knitting technology
    • Authors: Nga-wun Li, Chu-po Ho, Kit-lun Yick, Jin-yun Zhou
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The use of children’s buoyant swimwear has become more common. However, its bulkiness and hardness restrict the wearer’s movement. For better fit, comfort and mobility, a knitted buoyant swimming vest is developed. It is compared with two market samples using subjective evaluation according to the Functional, Expressive and Aesthetic (FEA) Consumer Needs Model and laboratory tests of objective measurements. The results of a paired-sample t-test show that a tightly fitting buoyant swimming vest should be worn out of water, as the vest becomes a perfect fit in water. Tests on the knitted buoyant swimming vest demonstrate improved functionality and higher buoyancy than that of two market samples conforming to British Standard EN13138-1:2014. The results of repeated measures analysis of variance show an overall significant higher satisfaction level in the knitted buoyant swimming vest than two market samples in terms of fit, comfort and mobility. The results of this study are significant for both the textile industry and the fast-growing sportswear industry.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-28T01:18:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520975632
  • Enhanced mechanical performance of biocompatible silk fibroin films
           through mesoscopic construction of hierarchical structures
    • Authors: Yifan Zhang, Ronghui Wu, Aniruddha Patil, Liyun Ma, Rui Yu, Wei Dong Yu, Xiang Yang Liu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Silk fibroin (SF) material receives a great deal of attention in the biomedical field for its extensive mechanical performance and applications due to its singular structure/properties and applications, especially hierarchical structure. Here, we blended polyethylene glycol (PEG) into SF solutions that reconstruct the hierarchical micro structure of SF. The effect of PEG on the SF gelation process was in situ observed through rheological measurement and optical density changes. The structural change of SF/PEG blended films with different concentrations and their effects on the mechanical performance were investigated. The results indicated that with increasing PEG content, the β-sheet content of the films increased with the α-helix declining, which enables a composite film with a fracture strain exceeding 300%, Young's modulus exceeding 200 MPa and a fracture strength exceeding 20 MPa. The culture of MC-3T3 proves that the film is beneficial for cell proliferation and adhesion. By constructing the mesoscopic structure of SF, the plasticized silk materials provide great options for biodegradable and flexible protein-based materials.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-28T01:16:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520975622
  • Investigation of the mechanical and flame retardant properties of carbon
           fiber modified phenolic epoxy resin
    • Authors: Guoqiang Chai, Guoqing Zhu, Yang Wang, Zhan Wang, Tianwei Chu, Ying Zhou
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Epoxy resin and carbon fiber were used as the reinforcement to modify phenolic resin. Phenolic epoxy resin was prepared by physical blending, and carbon fiber was introduced into the resin matrix, and meanwhile the curing agent was added. The flame retardancy and thermal stability of the samples were evaluated, and the mechanical performance of the samples was characterized to investigate the overall performance. The flame retardancy of phenolic epoxy resin decreased slightly with epoxy resin of 5 wt%. The oxygen index was decreased by 6.3%, the ignition time was shortened by 66 s, and the peak heat release rate was increased by 8.9%. The tensile strength and elastic modulus were increased by 46% and 26.1%, respectively. The flame retardant and mechanical properties of phenolic epoxy resin were improved the most with short carbon fiber of 0.5 wt%. The oxygen index was increased by 4.6%, the ignition time was delayed by 35 s, the peak heat release rate was reduced by 18.9%, the carbon residue rate at 800℃ was increased by 60.4%, the apparent activation energy was increased by 11.3%, and the tensile strength and elastic modulus were improved by 90.4% and 87.9%, respectively.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-28T01:09:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520971361
  • Hydrodynamic modeling of e-textile fabric washing behavior by the Coupled
           Eulerian–Lagrangian method
    • Authors: T Tetik, RA Yildiz, AR Labanieh, B Yoruk, S Kursun Bahadir, F Kalaoglu, V Koncar
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The paper examines the washing behavior of fabric by using the finite element method (FEM) along with the Coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian (CEL) approach. Many prototypes of e-textiles with different functions have been developed for various applications in laboratories worldwide, but only a limited number of products exist on the market. The washing process, even for mild wash cycles, damages mainly conductive yarns and electrical contacts on wearable fabrics. A hydrodynamic simulation method is proposed to investigate the mechanical response of fabric during a washing cycle, using the FEM and CEL approaches with the Abaqus finite element solver. The FEM is described with the following inputs: the fabric properties; the Mie–Grüneisen equation of state (EOS) for water; the ideal gas EOS for air; the geometry of the model; the drum spin data; and the boundary conditions. The movement of fabric inside the drum and reaction forces on the drum are utilized to verify the simulations. The fabric movements that are attributed to be the reason for damage in a conductive yarn showed a typical washing response. The frictional dissipation energy results show different regions depending on the motion and interaction of the components inside the drum. Also, the contact forces were determined. These forces can be input for future damage modeling studies. The findings of the study are expected to be used in development phases of reliable e-textile products with an extended life of service and readiness for the market.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-25T12:32:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520973455
  • Amino-modified Reactive Red 195/P(styrene-co-butyl
           acrylate-co-trimethyl(vinylbenzyl) ammonium chloride) nanospheres with
           high coloration performance for enhancing cotton dyeability
    • Authors: Dongwei Wang, Kuanjun Fang, Xiuming Liu, Xinqing Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Reactive dye is widely used for cotton dyeing, but its low utilization results in vast amounts of colored effluent with high salinity discharge. Amino-modified Reactive Red 195/P(styrene-co-butyl acrylate-co-trimethyl(vinylbenzyl) ammonium chloride) nanospheres (Am-RPNs) are a kind of novel colorant that exhibit excellent dyeing ability for cotton fabrics and higher dye utilization than original reactive dyes. The colored polymer nanospheres demonstrated small size, high stability and dye content in the dispersion system when cationic polymer nanospheres were dyed at an optimal dye dosage of 100%. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that the polymer nanospheres have smooth spherical shapes. Am-RPNs with an average hydration diameter of 96.5 nm and zeta potential of −33.7 mV were fabricated after being modified with ethylenediamine at pH 11. Both analytical techniques, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, indicated the presence of –NH2 on the surface of Am-RPNs. The amino-modification mechanism of the Reactive Red 195/P(styrene-co-butyl acrylate-co-trimethyl(vinylbenzyl) ammonium chloride) nanospheres depended on the dyeing bath pH. The color depths of the cotton fabrics dyed with Am-RPNs reached up to 3.1 times higher than those with Reactive Red 195. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that Am-RPNs form stable deposits on the surface of the modified fibers. The cotton fabrics dyed with Am-RPNs possessed excellent rubbing and washing fastness, satisfactory light fastness, and desirable handle. This study provides an innovative method that employ Am-RPNs with high coloration performance to endow the cotton fabric with deep color and good colorfastness without using inorganic salt.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-20T02:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520974043
  • Influence of polyurethane foam on chemical clogging of nonwoven geotextile
           and tailings caused by ferrous iron
    • Authors: Sheng Liu, Yuan Wang, Di Feng
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The chemical clogging of geotextiles filters is a common issue, which threatens the safety of engineering projects. To reduce the chemical clogging of nonwoven geotextiles and enhance their drainage capability, a polyurethane foam was innovatively placed under the nonwoven geotextiles in this paper. A series of column tests were conducted to study the mechanism of the polyurethane foam to reduce the chemical clogging of the nonwoven geotextile filters in tailings caused by ferrous iron. In addition, the influence of the concentration of Fe2+, hydraulic gradient and thickness of the tailings specimen on the chemical clogging of the polyurethane foam and nonwoven geotextiles was examined. Less chemical clogging of geotextiles caused by polyurethane foam was observed and the related mechanism was firstly explained. The polyurethane foam under the geotextile reduced the contact between the geotextile and air. As a result, the chemical clogging of the geotextile was alleviated, which increased the drainage capability of the geotextiles. A high water saturation of the polyurethane foam would help to a reduce the extent of the chemical clogging of the geotextile. The chemical clogging characteristics of geotextiles and polyurethane foam under different concentrations of Fe2+ and hydraulic gradients were observed.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-17T01:06:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520973456
  • Seawater as an alternative to dye cotton fiber with reactive dyes
    • Authors: Iêda Letícia de Souza Ferreira, José Ivan de Medeiros, Fernanda Steffens, Fernando Ribeiro Oliveira
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The textile industry is a sector completely dependent on water for its full functioning; on the other hand, water represents a very high cost in the production process. The textile chemical processing area is mainly responsible for the large consumption of water. On the opposite side of this high consumption there is an evident water crisis worldwide. That fact has led to many problems to textile companies, mainly for the preparation, dyeing and printing sectors. This present work focuses on an ecologically friendly alternative for cellulosic fiber dyeing processes using seawater. Dyeing cotton fabrics with reactive dye in three primary colors (blue, yellow and red) was performed, and the results compared with processes using distilled water. Samples dyed with seawater exhibit good uniformity, intense color (color strength – K/S) and excellent washing and rubbing fastness properties compared to the conventional process. It was possible to observe also that the use of seawater did not affect the mechanical properties of the substrate. Thereby, it was verified that the use of seawater presents as a potential and important alternative to applications in the textile dyeing process.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-12T05:45:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520972482
  • Sustainable low liquor ratio dyeing of cotton with C.I. Reactive Blue 21
           using dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate
    • Authors: Shekh Md. Mamun Kabir, Salauddin Sk, Joonseok Koh
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Low liquor ratio (material to liquor ratio = 1:5) dyeing of cotton fabric with C.I. Reactive Blue 21 using dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate as a surfactant was thoroughly analyzed. The dye–surfactant interactions in the micelles during low liquor ratio dyeing were investigated by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and the chemical mechanism of the process was evaluated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Cotton fabric was subjected to low liquor ratio dyeing and conventional dyeing by varying the temperature, pH, treatment time, and non-identical chemical concentration. The effectiveness of the process was assessed based on the color strength (K/S), exhaustion (%), fixation (%), and levelness. Low liquor ratio dyeing afforded superior dyeing compared to conventional dyeing, attributed to the anti-agglomeration effects of the former, which also had no adverse impact on the fastness of the dye. The lower environmental impact due to the lower effluent footprint (biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, and dissolved oxygen) is another benefit of low liquor ratio dyeing. High-pressure liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the low liquor ratio dyed fabric is free of toxic substances (alkylphenol ethoxylates and formaldehyde). Moreover, low liquor ratio dyeing is more cost-effective and outperformed conventional dyeing in all aspects, while being a sustainable process.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-10T08:03:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520971363
  • Screening and identification of pectinolytic bacteria for ramie degumming
    • Authors: Lifeng Cheng, Shengwen Duan, Xiangyuan Feng, Ke Zheng, Qi Yang, Huan Xu, Wei Luo, Yuande Peng
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      To explore high-quality microbial resources with the capability of ramie degumming, we collected soil samples from rotten ramie and straw heaps. After enrichment culture by ramie raw materials, bacterial strains with the potential ramie-degumming function were screened using a pectin-hydrolysis plate. Dominant bacteria were identified by combining colonial morphological characteristics with the molecular biology method, and their ramie-degumming effects were verified through comprehensive biological degumming indices. Results demonstrated that Bacillus aryabhattai, Bacillus thuringiensis, Lysinibacillus fusiformis, and Acidovorax temperans were successfully obtained. The highest pectinase activity, 98.2 U/mg, was found by A. temperans. B. thuringiensis showed the best ramie-degumming effect. The residual gum content, single-fiber linear density, and bundle-breaking strength of the degummed ramie fiber treated with B. thuringiensis were 8.32%, 6.80 dtex, and 7.84 cN/dtex, respectively. The residual gum content of the ramie fiber treated with B. thuringiensis met the textile requirement (
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-10T05:18:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520968280
  • Computational design of shape-changing robotic mannequin based on 3D human
    • Authors: Jituo Li, Chengdi Zhou, Juncai Long, Haocan Xu, Dongliang Zhang, Guodong Lu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      A shape-changing robotic mannequin is a mechatronic robot used to simulate different human body shapes. With such a robot, the dressing effects of a ready-made garment on different human bodies can be simulated and evaluated, which is very useful for garment design and garment online sales. Currently, the robotic mannequin surfaces are mostly designed into patches. However, the methodological lack of design result evaluation and shape deformation control hinders the performance of the robotic mannequins. In this paper, the robotic mannequin is computationally designed and optimized based on a large number of three-dimensional scanned human bodies, which endows the robot with a high simulation capability. The robot is designed into three layers comprising a skin layer composed of patches, a muscle layer consisting of shape-controllable elastic bars, and a skeleton layer made of linear actuators. The skeleton layer controls the overall shape change of the robot, and the muscle layer attached on the skeleton adjusts the bending of the skin layer, which makes the robot deformation predictable and controllable. A prototype of the robotic mannequin has been made on which the simulations of various human bodies have been experimented, and examples of predicting the dressing effects of ready-made garments on different human bodies via augmented virtual try-ons have been experimented as well.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-10T05:17:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520970169
  • Emulsion electrospun polylactic acid/Apocynum venetum nanocellulose
           nanofiber membranes with controlled sea buckthorn extract release as a
           drug delivery system
    • Authors: Lu Wang, Chenmeizi Wang, Ling Wang, Qingle Zhang, Ying Wang, Xin Xia
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Prolonging the duration of drug action and reducing toxicity play a vital role in wound administration as they reduce the chance of infection and decrease complications and cost. This study reports the natural antioxidant procyanidins extracted from sea buckthorn (SBT) and laboratory-manufactured Apocynum venetum cellulose nanofiber as core drugs. The sustained-release nanofiber membrane was prepared by electrospinning on polylactic acid/polyvinyl pyrrolidone nanofibers. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify the phenolic compounds in SBT extracts and confirmed the presence of procyanidins with a content of 0.0345 mg/g. The nanofiber membrane was characterized through transmission electron microscopy, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug-release study and antioxidant assay. The results indicated that the extracted procyanidins were successfully encapsulated in the core–sheath structure nanofibers, and the encapsulation efficiency of nanofiber membranes reached 83.84%. In vitro measurements of the delivery showed this core–sheath structure could significantly alleviate the drug burst release, which is followed by a linear and smooth release within 30 hours. Further tests showed that the removal efficiency of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl reached 88.62%, indicating that the membranes had high antioxidant activity. This work implies that the combination of Apocynum venetum nanocellulose and emulsion electrospun fibers has promising potential applications in tissue engineering or drug delivery.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-02T09:40:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520970171
  • Preliminary study of weave pattern influence on microplastics from fabric
    • Authors: María Berruezo, Marilés Bonet-Aracil, Ignacio Montava, Eva Bou-Belda, Pablo Díaz-García, Jaime Gisbert-Payá
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Nature, including the oceans, is polluted by the presence of plastics. Different products can be found, including plastic bottles, toys, toothpaste tubes, fruit meshes, etc. Small pieces of plastics, known as microplastics, have been found in the oceans and there is concern that their impact is increasing. Some of those microplastics are considered to come from the textile products. In this article, the authors will suggest how to minimize the environmental problem of the presence of microplastics in wastewaters from textile laundries. The aim of this study is to determine the influence of some parameters related to the design of fabrics. A relationship between microplastic release and parameters from weave design will be established. A fiberglass filter was used to analyze water from the laundry. Results demonstrated that the interlacing coefficient influences the number of particles in the wastewaters. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the higher the density of yarns/cm in the fabric, the lower the quantity of fibers could be found in the wastewater. Results demonstrated that the presence of weave patterns, such as a plain pattern, work better from the sustainability point of view than a twill. The interlacing coefficient and the weft density are important to prevent the microplastic release.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-02T09:40:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520965708
  • Three-dimensional stretchable knitted design with transformative
    • Authors: Yishu Yan, Shouxiang Jiang, Jinyun Zhou
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This paper proposes the use of digital knitting to fabricate three-dimensional stretchable fabric with transformative properties. The research focus is on the application of the curling effect and the resultant stitch structures. Rib, purl, and links structures, which have alternating face and back loops in the structural knit cell and produced the curling effect, are investigated. Thirty-six samples based on the three structures along with 12 different stitch combinations are produced through the digital knitting process. The properties of the samples, including the dimensional changes, surface texture, weight and thickness, and tensile properties, are subsequently evaluated and compared by using both quantitative and qualitative assessment methods. The results show that the developed knitted fabrics that use the curling effect through alternating face and back loops are significantly three-dimensional in surface texture and have considerable stretchability. These effects in general increase with the growth of stitch number in a structural knit cell. However, only the links structures show considerable extensibility along both course and wale directions, while the rib and purl structures have enhanced stretchability in only the course and wale directions, respectively. Therefore, this design-led textile study provides a simple but effective means for producing new materials that offer both function and aesthetics for fashion with transformable designs. The work here also provides a technical-based integrated approach for innovative textile and fashion developments.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-10-30T06:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520968281
  • The impact of textile relief structures on pressure distribution and heat
    • Authors: Małgorzata Cieślak, Ewa Gromadzińska, Irena Kamińska, Ewa Witczak, Katarzyna Śledzińska
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      A long-term static position causes inter alia hypoxia, poor blood circulation, slowing down of the metabolism, and problems in air and heat transport, which in consequence lead to the occurrence of bedsores. In the design of seats and mattresses for people with impaired mobility, advanced textile and composite materials should be used to improve safety and comfort. This functionality can be obtained using spatial textile materials. The aim of the research was to assess the impact of two unmodified woven relief structures I.0 and II.0 made of different yarns and ones modified by inserting linear elements (1: braided round tape and 2: polyethylene tube) to their rib tunnel on the heat transport and on the pressure distribution under loading of 0.5, 1, and 2 N. Element 1 lowers the value of average pressure on the fabrics I.1 and II.1, respectively, by 6.9% and 3.5% at the lowest loading and by 9.8% and 4.6% at the highest loading. For fabric II.2 with element 2, the decrease is of 10.4% and 8.4%, respectively. The thermal conductivity values increase by 8.8%, 9.4%, and 40.1%, respectively for I.1, II.1, and II.2. The pressure distribution and thermal characteristic of the fabrics depend on the type of yarn, the structure of ribs, and the linear element and its fit to the rib tunnel.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-10-29T06:56:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520970170
  • Review of carbon-based electromagnetic shielding materials: film,
           composite, foam, textile
    • Authors: Lulu Zhong, Rufang Yu, Xinghua Hong
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Carbon-based electromagnetic shielding materials are reviewed in terms of their performance, type, and preparation. They include film, composite, foam, and fabric with particular attention on their frequency selectivity ascribed to the periodic structure. The SE/t, referring to shielding effectiveness per unit thickness (dB/mm), and SSE, referring to shielding effectiveness per unit density (dB·cm3/g), are summarized. The main conclusions of this work are as follows: (1) large area film shows higher SE/t, in which carbon nanotube (CNT) film is endowed with the most attractive value (19,500 dB/mm); materials containing CNTs achieve higher shielding efficiency, ascribe to a high specific surface area, have a greater length–diameter ratio, and a one-dimensional continuous-oriented structure; (2) notably, frequency selectivity based on varied period structures has been widely studied; the method includes multilayer structure/printing/cutting/backfilling and, especially, woven fabric; (3) favorable shielding effectiveness is attributed to the shielding material's intrinsic electrical conductivity and structural integrity. Based on these developments, this paper aims to provide some valuable data, highlight the important research direction, and advance the development of carbon-based electromagnetic shielding materials.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-10-28T07:04:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520968282
  • Towards simulation of force and velocity fluctuations due to turbulence in
           the relay nozzle jet of an air jet loom
    • Authors: Lucas Delcour, Lieva Van Langenhove, Joris Degroote
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This research was aimed at obtaining a first estimation of the effect of turbulent vortices present in the relay nozzle jets of an air jet loom on the weft. To this end a large eddy simulation (LES) model was set up and validated capable of simulating a highly underexpanded jet up to a point sufficiently far from the nozzle exit such that flow features at the weft location could be analyzed. The quality of the LES was evaluated based on several quality criteria as well as by comparing the results with experiments and data from the literature. The results show that for a free jet substantial velocity fluctuations are present at a representative yarn location. By inserting a rigid cylinder at this location, the corresponding force fluctuations on a smooth yarn were also obtained. The research shows that the unsteadiness in the jet is quite substantial, as are the corresponding force fluctuations. These fluctuations could have a profound impact on the yarn motion and should at least be considered when using numerical tools to evaluate the forces on or the motion of a yarn acted on by a relay nozzle jet.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-10-28T07:04:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520968285
  • Theoretical analysis of the moisture transfer property for
           polytetrafluoroethylene/polyethylene terephthalate bi-layer complex
    • Authors: Dongming Zheng, Haochen Zou, Zhenrui Liu, Qingqing Shao, Zhaoqun Du, Jinkang Liu, Mingxing Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The main content in the paper aims to characterize the moisture transfer property of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)/polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bi-layer complex fabric. Firstly, theoretical analyses of moisture permeability from the moisture transfer cup method and moisture resistance from the moisture resistance method were conducted, and the function between the two indexes was acquired. Results show that there is a negative correlation between moisture permeability and moisture resistance. The higher the moisture permeability of the fabric, the lower the moisture resistance. Then, in order to study relationship between moisture permeability and resistance, several PTFE/PET bi-layer complex fabrics were prepared, and a theoretical model of moisture resistance was constructed by the serial method so as to evaluate the relationship of the moisture transfer property between complex fabric and two components (PTFE film and PET fabric). Comparisons between theoretical and experimental results of moisture resistance of complex fabric were conducted, which demonstrated that the serial model was effective in characterizing the moisture transfer property of complex fabric assembled by membrane and fabric.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-10-27T07:47:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520968851
  • Preparation of polypyrrole/polyester-cotton composites and a study of
           their dielectric properties and conductivity
    • Authors: Yuanjun Liu, Yi Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Polypyrrole/polyester-cotton composites were prepared using pyrrole as the monomer, adopting an in situ polymerization on the plain polyester-cotton fabric. The influence of the pyrrole concentration, type and concentration of doping agents on the dielectric properties and conductivity of polypyrrole/polyester-cotton composites were investigated using the method of control variables. The results show that within the frequency range 0.01–1.0 GHz, and for concentrations of pyrrole monomers of 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5 mol/L, the polypyrrole/polyester-cotton composite had the strongest polarization ability, dissipation ability and absorbing-attenuation ability to electromagnetic waves, and the surface resistance was the smallest and conductivity was the best when the pyrrole concentration was 0.9 mol/L. Within the same frequency range, five doping agents were tested, namely sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, p-toluenesulfonic acid, ferric chloride, sodium lignosulfonate and camphor sulfonic acid. The composite with sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate as the doping agent had the strongest polarization ability, dissipation ability and absorbing-attenuation ability to electromagnetic waves, the lowest surface resistance and the strongest conductivity. Finally, within the same frequency range and using doping agent concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2 mol/L, the composite with doping agent concentration of 0.1 mol/L had the strongest polarization ability, dissipation ability and absorbing-attenuation ability.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-10-26T04:10:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520965696
  • Semi-supervised fabric defect detection based on image reconstruction and
           density estimation
    • Authors: Qihong Zhou, Jun Mei, Qian Zhang, Shaozong Wang, Ge Chen
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Defective products are a major contributor toward a decline in profits in textile industries. Hence, there are compelling needs for an automated inspection system to identify and locate defects on the fabric surface. Although much effort has been made by researchers worldwide, there are still challenges with computation and accuracy in the location of defects. In this paper, we propose a hybrid semi-supervised method for fabric defect detection based on variational autoencoder (VAE) and Gaussian mixture model (GMM). The VAE model is trained for feature extraction and image reconstruction while the GMM is used to perform density estimation. By synthesizing the detection results from both image content and latent space, the method can construct defect region boundaries more accurately, which are useful in fabric quality evaluation. The proposed method is validated on AITEX and DAGM 2007 public database. Results demonstrate that the method is qualified for automated detection and outperforms other selected methods in terms of overall performance.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-10-22T08:01:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520966733
  • Thermal properties of thermal insulation chambers
    • Authors: Dubravko Rogale, Snježana Firšt Rogale, Goran Majstorović, Goran Čubrić
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The paper presents the investigation of thermal properties of thermal insulation chambers as an actuator in intelligent clothing, having the property of automatically adjusting the thermal protection level. The chambers are designed to vary their thickness based on the pressure of the inflated air in them. The pressure value measured in the thermal insulation chamber gives the microcomputer information on the thickness of the chamber. The paper presents the investigation of the functional dependencies of changes in the thickness of the chambers on the air pressure in them and the thermal resistance depending on the thickness of the thermal insulation chamber. Experimental thermal insulation chambers were made and integrated into an intelligent article of clothing and filled with air of 0–50 mbar, whereby chamber thicknesses of 0–25 mm were measured. Next, thermal resistance of 0.1876–0.5022 m2 k/W was measured on the thermal manikin. It was found that the ratio of thermal insulation of non-activated to maximally activated chambers was 1:2.7. Research has shown good results for the area where intelligent clothing can automatically adjust its thermal insulation properties. The technical systems described represent a suitable basis for experiments and scientific research during the introduction of intelligent clothing with active thermal protection into human life. The third-generation prototype shows very good properties from the aspect of automatic control of thermal protection in intelligent clothing. This forms the basis for further research. Cold protection has always been carried out by wearing garments with higher or lower thermal protection as well as wearing multiple layers of clothing. The conceptual starting point of the development of intelligent clothing is the development of an adaptive insulation layer with changeable thickness in the form of thermal insulation chambers filled with air. In this way, layered clothing as well as the use of several clothing layers can be avoided. Thus, one intelligent article of clothing regulating its thermal insulation properties can be used in a wide range of cold weather in the environment of the wearer.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-10-21T07:15:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520966718
  • The structural effects on the impact response of
           ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene plain weaves
    • Authors: Yi Zhou, Hang Li, Ziming Xiong, Zhongwei Zhang, Zhongmin Deng
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This paper investigates the penetration and energy absorption mechanisms of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene plain weaves with different fabric properties. Impact tests along with finite element (FE) analysis were used to study the impact response of the fabrics. In this research, the impacting projectile did not cause any fiber or yarn failure on the samples. It was found that structural parameters determine the yarn pull-out behavior and the softness of the resultant fabrics. Fabrics formed by loosely interlaced yarns tend to exhibit higher softness and less resistance against yarn pull-out. When the projectile velocity is not sufficient to initiate yarn pull-out, material softness determines the depth of the backface signature on the clay witness. This trend is more pronounced in a multi-ply fabric system than in a single-ply system; when yarn pull-out occurs, the projectile-slowing mechanism depends on the frictional force between the warp and weft yarns. Therefore, fabric softness becomes less important, and the yarn pull-out behavior of the fabric plays a predominant role in energy absorption. FE prediction showed that tightly woven fabrics exhibit a larger area of stress distribution and material deformation than those with severe yarn pull-out and, consequently, these tight fabrics tend to absorb more kinetic energy and sustain higher impact load from a projectile.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-10-21T07:15:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520966728
  • Simulation and analysis of the twist propagation process of polyester
           staple yarn on the fiber scale
    • Authors: Jiang Wang, Yuze Zhang, Qian Ding, Nicholus Tayari Akankwasa, Qianqian Shi, Liqing Li, Jun Wang, Huiting Lin
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The twisting process of the sliver is an important part of the yarn spinning process, but this process has not been fully characterized on the fiber scale. Herein, based on the assumption that fibers are randomly distributed in the sliver, we analyzed the simulation twisting process of the sliver model on the fiber scale. The mathematical model of the twisting process of the sliver is set up and the non-free-end twisting process is simulated using the finite element software ABAQUS®. The simulation process clearly shows the configuration changes of the sliver caused with the increase of the twist. We also divided the twisting process into 11 stages and obtained a three-dimensional model of staple yarn. Then, the relationship curve between the ring-spun yarn fineness and the number of fibers in the cross-section of the ring-spun yarn was established by spinning the yarns of different counts of 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60 and 65 Ne, and the fineness of the simulated yarn was calculated. The accuracy of the simulated yarn was verified by comparing the weight of the simulated yarn and the ring-spun yarn. The model established can be used to predict yarn properties for different purposes and can also be further utilized to study other phenomena in ring-spinning technology.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-10-12T08:24:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520963342
  • Jet motion and fiber properties arising from a parallel electric field in
    • Authors: Xueqin Li, Yuansheng Zheng, Xiaoqi Mu, Binjie Xin, Lantian Lin
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      It is well known that the electric field has a great influence on the diameter and properties of fiber prepared via the melt-electrospinning technique. In this paper, two parallel metal discs were introduced to create a controllable electric field in the experiments. In addition, a three-dimensional electric field was calculated by the numerical simulation method and the jet motion was captured by taking advantage of high-speed photography technology. The influences of electric field distribution on the fiber jet, fiber diameter, fiber mat area and fiber crystallinity were studied in an in-depth and systematical manner. Both whipping amplitude and whipping frequency were also used to describe the characteristics of the jet. The above-mentioned results have proven that increasing the distance between the two parallel metal discs leads to the decrease of electric field intensity and the increase of electric field action time on the fiber, which together determine the diameter and crystallinity of the fiber. With the increase of the outer diameter of the upper disc, the distribution of the electric field becomes more uniform, making it capable of steadily controlling the behavior of the jet, and thus effectively reducing the diameter of the fiber and improving the crystallinity of the fiber.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-10-12T08:24:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520964199
  • Measurement of local shear deformation in fabric drape using
           three-dimensional scanning
    • Authors: Liu Yang, KyoungOk Kim, Masayuki Takatera
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      We propose a measuring method of shear deformation in drape using three-dimensional (3D) scanning. We measured the local shear angles in fabric drape based on the Fabric Research Laboratories (FRL) drape test for woven fabrics using the proposed method. We investigate the effects of the relative positions of the node to the center grainlines that cross at the fabric center, and the bending and shear properties of fabric on the shear angles. To measure the local shear deformation, we obtained 3D drape shapes of four different fabrics with three to six nodes. We covered the obtained drape shapes using a fabric model composed of square cells that allowed shear deformation. By calculating the shear angles of the cells, we obtained the local shear deformation. We found that the FRL drape can be characterized by three areas, except for the flat areas of the support disks: (a) areas along the center grainlines with zero or small shear angles within 3°, which could result from single curvature bending; (b) areas in the bias directions with relatively large shear angles over 3°, which could result from double curvature bending; and (c) polygon edges connected by tangents of the support disk with relatively larger shear angles than their surroundings, which could result from both bending and shear deformation, such as folding and wrinkles. By investigating the relationships between areas with large shear angles and the bending rigidity/shear stiffness, we clarified that the bending rigidity indirectly affects the local shear deformation of drape.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-10-12T08:24:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520963347
  • Dyeing mechanism and photodegradation kinetics of gardenia yellow natural
    • Authors: Huiyu Jiang, Xiaodong Hu, Asfandyar Khan, Jinbo Yao, Muhammad Tahir Hussain
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, gardenia yellow solution is used to dye 100% cotton fabric. The dyeing rate curve and adsorption isotherms were recorded to explore the thermodynamic model and to calculate the corresponding parameters. A definite concentration of gardenia yellow solution was placed under the xenon arc lamp for irradiation to test its photodegradability. Absorbance of the solution was measured at different degradation times and the corresponding varying curve of the absorbance was drawn to explore the photodegradation reaction order of the natural colorant and consistent parameters were calculated. The experimental results proved that the dyeing of cotton fabric with gardenia yellow colorant followed the pseudo second order kinetic model whereas adsorption isotherm followed the Langmuir model and the photodegradation process followed the second order kinetic model. Values of different parameters were calculated: reaction rate constant k = 2.26 × 10–3 (mg · L−1)1−m h−1, the correlation coefficient R2 = 0.994, and half decay time t1/2 = 5.82 h.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-10-06T08:12:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520958483
  • Dynamics of cotton textile motion in a domestic tumble dryer and its
           effect on drying performance
    • Authors: Xinchen Yu, Yi Li, Xuemei Ding
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      A high-speed video camera was used to track a tracer textile as it is tumbled among other textiles in a domestic tumble dryer under different operating conditions, with the aim of investigating the mechanisms by which the mechanical action is imposed on textiles and affects drying performance during drying. These mechanisms were first recognized by comparing the clothes drying process to other well-researched chemical engineering processes. From the observation of the recorded motion processes, cotton textile transverse motion can be divided into three categories and a motion index system was derived to characterize the type of motion undergone. The impact of textile transverse motion on drying performance was numerically discussed based on the results of an analysis of variance and regression analysis. Results indicated that textile dynamics with more complexity and flexibility tended to have more mixing, shortened distance of moisture migration inside the fabric layer and fewer wrinkles formed, resulting in higher potential to have a better drying performance.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-10-06T08:11:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520960751
  • Garment mass customization methods for the cutting-related processes
    • Authors: Yanni Xu, Sébastien Thomassey, Xianyi Zeng
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In the garment industry, upgrading from mass production to mass customization is imperative, due to ever-changing fashion trends and customers’ increasing personal demands. Based on pattern variations, several practical mass customization methods in terms of custom-fit and co-design are developed in this study for cutting-related processes (i.e. the sizing process and the cutting process). The increment of size number by generating additional sizes and the expansion of size capacity by setting multi-sized darts are two custom-fit methods, while material (fabric) variation by spreading “rainbow plies” and module variation by making a stepwise cutting are two co-design methods. Compared with existing mass customization methods mainly related to the garment design processes, the proposed methods emphasize the garment manufacturing processes in order to resolve the conflict between personalization and cost. A case study on the women’s basic straight skirt is conducted for the performance evaluation (about personalization and cost) of the proposed methods. The experimental results demonstrate the ability of these methods to significantly raise the personalization level with an acceptable price in garment customization. This study provides a reference for garment manufacturers to make proper production strategies, enabling garment mass customization.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-09-29T12:53:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520957399
  • Colored spun fabric texture representation and application by combining
           spatial features with frequency features
    • Authors: Li Yuan, Xue Gong, Junping Liu, Yali Yang, Muli Liu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Colored spun fabrics are difficult to accurately characterize with a local binary pattern due to texture anisotropy caused by the uneven distribution of dyed fibers. In this paper, we present a texture representation model based on spatial and frequency characteristics. The proposed model takes advantage of the local binary pattern and local phase quantization to extract the texture of woven fabric. Then, the two features are connected in series, and the features of dimension reduction by principal component analysis are used to represent the texture of the fabric image. Finally, the hierarchical hybrid classifier is applied to classify the fabric structure. The experimental results show that the local phase quantization feature is robust to the fuzzy transformation and the texture representation model has a stronger ability of texture description than the single local binary pattern feature, with the average classification accuracy of 97.59% on 336 samples. In addition, compared with the deep learning algorithm, the texture representation algorithm can ensure a high classification accuracy.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-09-29T12:53:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520961407
  • Development of self-care textile wearables with thermally stimulated drug
           delivery function via biological and physical investigations
    • Authors: Tin Wai Cheung, Li Li
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Previous studies have examined and verified the drug loading and releasing functionality from the interior channels of hollow fibers. An integrated design for self-care textile wearables with a thermally stimulated drug delivery function was proposed. To progress the in-depth development of the proposed self-care wearables, physical and biological investigations, including i) liquid release with thermal stimulation and ii) drug release upon thermal stimulation, were conducted. Physical investigation revealed that the concentration of dyes released from the heated specimens increased with higher temperature during the initial first hour of delivery. Moreover, higher cytotoxic effect could be induced with drugs delivered through heated specimens under higher thermal stimulated energy through biological examination. These results set up milestones for demonstrating the influence of thermal energy on different therapeutic requirements, such as rapid-onset transdermal medication.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-09-29T12:53:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520960758
  • Enhanced interfacial adhesion in glass fiber fabric/epoxy composites
           employing fiber surface treatment with aminosilane-functionalized graphene
    • Authors: Hongjie Gao, Yecheng Fan, Shaohua Zeng, Pengpeng Chen, Ying Xu, Wangyan Nie, Yifeng Zhou
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      An economical and effective method was developed to optimize the interface of glass fiber fabric (GFf)-reinforced epoxy composites (GFfE) by dispersing aminosilane-functionalized graphene oxide (GO) on the fiber surface. The effects of γ-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APS) or APS hydrolysis on the dispersion of GO and the interfacial properties of resultant composites were investigated in detail. The results indicated that the uniform dispersion of GO in composites and strong fiber/matrix adhesion could be achieved, based on grafting of APS hydrolysis onto GO. The interlaminar shear, flexural and tensile strengths of resultant composites were improved by 28%, 22% and 19%, respectively; the storage modulus and dynamic glass transition temperature (1 Hz) were significantly enhanced, compared with pure GFfE. In particular, the work of fracture received from interlaminar load–deflection curves increased by 97%, indicating the toughening effect of GO. This work demonstrates that it is possible to enhance the strength, stiffness and toughness of fiber-reinforced composites by incorporating GO into the interface between the fiber and the matrix.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-09-25T07:53:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520960749
  • Effects of alkali solution on the durability of sewing thread made of
           modified polyphenylene sulfide and polytetrafluoroethylene
    • Authors: Wanzhen Huang, Bin Zhang, Abeer Alassod, Guangbiao Xu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The alkali resistance of sewing thread made of modified polyphenylene sulfide and polytetrafluoroethylene (MPPS/PTFE) has a crucial influence when used in the field of filtering high-temperature dusty gas. Therefore, the effects of alkali (NaOH) solution on the properties of MPPS/PTFE sewing thread at different temperatures, different concentrations and different times were studied. The results showed that white particulate matter and bump materials appeared on the surface of MPPS fibers in the MPPS/PTFE sewing thread. The maximum strength loss of MPPS/PTFE sewing thread was around 12.9% and the maximum deviation of elongation at break was about 4.5% after treatment with NaOH solution at a temperature of 25℃ and a concentration of 2 mol/L for 120 h. By analysis, it could be concluded that the structure of the benzene ring skeleton of the macromolecular chain in the MPPS/PTFE sewing thread did not change after treatment with NaOH solution, but the C-S bonds attached to the benzene ring in the MPPS/PTFE sewing thread had rotated, or even broken, which could be confirmed by the curves of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The thermal stability of MPPS/PTFE sewing thread was decreased after treatment with NaOH solution, which was caused by surface damage of MPPS fibers in the MPPS/PTFE sewing thread.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-09-23T04:38:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520955231
  • The influence of nanostructure on the wetting transition of polyvinylidene
           fluoride nanoweb: from the petal effect to the lotus effect
    • Authors: Hyae Rim Hong, Chung Hee Park
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the effects of the surface structure of electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanoweb on surface wettability were analyzed. The conditions of the surface structure representing the lotus and petal effects were derived, and the difference in the dynamic behavior of the water droplets on the surfaces was investigated. To this end, a PVDF nanoweb was fabricated by electrospinning various concentrations of PVDF solutions. The nanoscale roughness was adjusted by varying the CF4 plasma etching time. It was seen that when the concentration of the electrospun PVDF solution was 15 or 20 wt%, a hierarchical structure of microbeads and nanofibers was formed. In the 20 wt% nanoweb, droplets formed an apparent contact angle of 149.5 ± 2.2°, and the petal effect was observed in which the droplets were pinned on the surface and did not roll off even when the nanoweb was tilted by 180°. As a result of introducing fine nanostructures with CF4 plasma etching on the 20 wt% nanoweb, the apparent contact angle increased to 162.8–164.4°, and the shedding angle decreased to 5.3–8.1°, showing a wetting transition to the lotus effect, regardless of the plasma etching time. In addition, the lotus effect was observed when 15 wt% nanoweb was treated with CF4 plasma etching for more than 10 min. We confirmed that the lotus effect was exhibited when the three-phase contact line of the PVDF nanoweb/water/air was discontinuous, and the contact area between the surface and the water droplets was reduced with increased air pockets at this interface, which led to a decrease in the adhesive force and the impact of negative pressure.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-09-21T07:49:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520955233
  • Tactile comfort characterization of knitted fabrics based on the
           ring-shaped style tester
    • Authors: Yawen Shao, Yi Sun, Dongming Zheng, Gui Liu, Zhaoqun Du, Jinkang Liu, Mingxing Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The main content of this paper is to objectively characterize the tactile comfort of fabric through the ring-shaped style tester. It mainly explains the objective tactile comfort of knitted fabric through the curve parameters measured by the ring-shaped style tester and structural parameter thickness. In this paper, by adopting the methods of correlation analysis and cluster analysis, the curve parameters, including slope in the linear segments of the left-hand part of the curve (K1), the right-hand area of the curve (A2), the distance between the abrupt point and the peak point (X), the linearity of the left-hand curve (L) and the ratio of the left-hand area to the right-hand area of the curve (C), are used. In order to verify its effectiveness, the results of subjective evaluation are compared and analyzed with the objective clustering. The experimental results show that the subjective judgment has good correlation with the objective clustering. This indicates that the curve parameters obtained through the ring-shaped style tester and structural parameters can be used to effectively represent the tactile comfort performance of fabrics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-09-21T07:49:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520957391
  • Fuzzy clustering analysis of comprehensive hand of polyester fabric based
           on the CHES-FY system
    • Authors: Dongming Zheng, Zhenrui Liu, Haochen Zou, Qiaoling Xiong, Jinkang Liu, Mingming Wang, Gui Liu, Xingxing Pan, Zhaoqun Du
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Polyester fabrics are attributed with various performances and are currently applied widely in textiles. This necessitates a quick and effective selection process to choose polyester fabrics to correspond with engineers' designs for industrial textiles. Therefore, the main focus of this paper is to present the comprehensive handle evaluation system for fabrics and yarns (CHES-FY), which has been specially developed to measure the basic handle of textile materials, including softness, stiffness, smoothness and tightness. Several kinds of polyester fabrics were chosen to undergo subjective evaluation and testing by the CHES-FY system, and were assigned into corresponding clusters by the K-means cluster method. The basic hand indexes of polyester fabric were featured. Comparisons between subjective judgments and the objective K-means cluster method were conducted. Experimental results show that a good correlation exists between subjective judgment and the objective cluster method, indicating that the four basic hand indexes measured by the CHES-FY system can be utilized to characterize the comprehensive hand of industrial polyester fabrics, and that the CHES-FY system can be used to discriminate categories of polyester fabrics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-09-17T09:08:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520957409
  • Color segmentation and extraction of yarn-dyed fabric based on a
           hyperspectral imaging system
    • Authors: Zhang Jianxin, Zhang Kangping, Wu Junkai, Hu Xudong
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      For multi-color yarn-dyed fabrics which are cross-woven by yarns with different colors, the different colors cannot be directly measured by a traditional spectrophotometer because it can only obtain the average color of solid-color sample in the limited aperture. In this paper, a novel method for color segmentation and extraction for multi-color yarn-woven fabrics based on a Hyperspectral Imaging System (HIS) was proposed. First, the multi-color yarn-woven fabric images were acquired with the HIS. Then a space transformation based on Fréchet distance was used to transform the pre-processed hyperspectral fabric images into gray images, and then an improved watershed algorithm was used to segment the transformed gray images into different color regions. Finally, to solve the problems of over-segmentation with the improved watershed algorithm, an improved k-means clustering algorithm was adopted to merge the over-segmented color regions. The experimental results on four multi-color yarn-woven fabrics showed that the color segmentation accuracy of the proposed method outperformed the ordinary k-means, Fuzzy C-means (FCM), and Density peak cluster (DPC) algorithms on evaluation indexes of compactness (CP) and separation (SP), and the execution efficiency was improved by at least 55%. Furthermore, the color difference between the proposed method and the spectrophotometric measurements ranged from 0.60 to 0.88 CMC (2:1) (Color Measurement Committee) units, which almost satisfied the accuracy of color measurement.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-09-17T09:08:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520957401
  • Characterization of the airflow field in the rotor spinning unit based on
           a novel experimental approach and numerical simulation
    • Authors: Qianqian Shi, Nicholus Tayari Akankwasa, Yuze Zhang, Jiang Wang, Jun Wang, Huiting Lin
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      It is very challenging to experimentally characterize and verify the airflow in the rotor spinning machine because the process takes place in an enclosure. In an attempt to portray the process, we present a methodology that combines a novel experimental approach and numerical techniques. We developed a model unit and used colored smoke to mimic the airflow behavior practically, measured the air pressure, and compared the results to the simulation data. Three state conditions, namely suction and rotation (the regular rotor spinning operation, (Case 1)), without rotation (Case 2), and without suction (Case 3), were adopted to investigate the formation mechanism of the airflow field in the rotor spinning unit based on two operating conditions. Results show that, in a regular state, the airstream accelerates rapidly in the transfer channel under the dominant action of air suction at the rotor outlet and crashes clockwise to the rotor wall with the joint action of two operating conditions. In the rotor, the airflow flows clockwise with the velocity distribution of a multi-ring gradient due to the dominant action of high-speed rotor rotation. Analytics from the air pressure indicate that while the air pressure in the rotor is mainly controlled by the action of the air suction mechanism, it is also affected by the superposition action of the rotation mechanism. This approach is groundbreaking for rotor spinning machine optimization and is anticipated to trigger more insights that will lead to fundamental research in the spinning industry and beyond.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-09-15T05:54:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520957400
  • Binding and release of odor compounds from textiles: Changing fiber
           selection for apparel
    • Authors: Tobias M Richter, Raechel M Laing, Phil J Bremer
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Understanding odor volatiles known to constitute those emanating from the human body and how these interact with textiles is relevant to diverse interested parties because of changing fiber use, a better understanding of apparel life cycles including cleaning and the potential for fiber/textile re-use. This paper extends the application of our proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry model system on adsorption and release behavior of fiber types typical of next-to-skin uses to include both viscose and other volatile organic compounds in body odor for which release has not previously been studied (hexanoic acid, acetone, cyclohexanone, hexanal, methyl butanoate, ethyl benzene, 1-octanol, decanal, butanoic acid). The current findings confirmed release patterns of different fiber types found in our earlier studies – low release of volatile organic compounds from cotton and wool, but higher release from polyester – and made a new finding of low release from viscose. Adsorption characteristics were different given the different volatile organic compounds analyzed. Viscose showed better adsorption characteristics for primarily polar volatile organic compounds, but was otherwise very similar to cotton.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-09-14T08:09:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520957397
  • Process analysis and optimization of open-width fabric continuous drying
           based on numerical simulation
    • Authors: Shuangqing Wang, Huile Zhang, Huimin Chen, Yi Zhong, Xiaoli Yue
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      As an indispensable part of textile processing, the fabric drying process has a great impact on product quality and overall energy consumption. To reveal the characteristics of the continuous drying process of various fabrics and optimize process parameters for improving productivity and saving energy, a finite element model is built to simulate the continuous fabric drying process, and an optimization method is applied to optimize process parameters based on the model. Specifically, a finite element model is first built; the model can predict distribution of water content and surface temperature of three kinds of fabric in the continuous drying process under different process parameters. The model is then verified by experiments, and the experimental results agree well with the numerical results: The mean absolute errors of distribution of water content and surface temperature of fabrics are 4.22% and 2.15℃, respectively. The numerical results indicate that wind velocity, wind temperature, and fabric velocity have a significant influence on the drying rate and surface temperature of fabrics in the continuous drying process, which, however, are not affected obviously by initial water content. It is also found that under the same initial and technological conditions, the drying rate and surface temperature of fabrics in the continuous drying process are lower than those in the intermittent drying process. Second, the Taguchi method is applied to design continuous fabric drying schemes, considering the interaction effect of technological parameters on the drying process. The numerical model is then applied to simulate these schemes, and the TOPSIS method is applied to analyze and compare these numerical results. The optimal technological parameters are determined; the optimal parameters can help to save energy by about 27.8% and enhance energy efficiency by about 16% in the continuous drying process. It is worth noting that the interaction effect of fabric velocity and wind temperature on the continuous drying process is more significant than their independent effects.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-09-11T05:16:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520955238
  • A novel modeling and simulation approach for the prediction of human
           thermophysiological comfort
    • Authors: Muhammad Awais, Sybille Krzywinski, Ellen Wendt
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Thermophysiological comfort is one of the most important aspects of wear comfort. Currently, there are no software solutions available for the combined consideration of material physical and mechanical characteristics, fit, and thermophysiological behavior. Thus, a laborious empirical process is typically required to determine an appropriate design matching new textile materials to pattern cuts as well as changing climatic conditions. A detailed wear trial in a climatic chamber supports this process. The objective of this research is to analyze the thermal comfort of clothing with different thermal characteristics through the simulation of heat regulation in the human body, microclimate, clothing, and environment.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-09-11T05:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520955227
  • Synthesis of novel coumarin-based acid vapochromic fluorescence dye
           showing change of both color and fluorescence emission spectrum for
           application to sensitive, reusable, and washable textile sensors
    • Authors: Junheon Lee, Taekyeong Kim
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      A new coumarin-based fluorescence dye, which simultaneously changes the fluorescence behavior as well as color by exposure to an acid-gas, was synthesized by modifying the dye structure so as to produce relatively long alkyl groups. The newly synthesized halochromic fluorescence dye was applied to polyethylenic fibers, such as high molecular weight polyethylene. The acid-gas sensing was functionalized not only in the solution state but also inside a matrix. A textile sensor was subsequently fabricated in this study and showed visible changes to both color and fluorescence emission properties as well as sensitivity to changes under low concentrations of gas-phase hydrogen chloride. Further, the sensing performance was sustainable and repeatable. From the washability test, it was observed that the dye did not leach out completely.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-09-09T07:01:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520955232
  • Bag of tricks for fabric defect detection based on Cascade R-CNN
    • Authors: Feng Li, Feng Li
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, a bag of tricks is proposed to improve the precision of fabric defect detection. Although the general state-of-the-art convolutional neural network detection algorithm can achieve a better detection effect, in fact, the detection precision still has enough room to improve on fabric defect detection. Therefore, we propose three tricks to further improve the precision. Firstly, we use multiscale training, which scales the single input image into a number of images of different resolutions for training, so as to be able to adapt to the box distribution of different scales. Secondly, we use the dimension clusters method. By observing the distribution of the width and the height of the defect size in the fabric dataset, we find that the distribution of the defect size in the dataset is extremely unbalanced and the size span is large. We believe that the training results of the default prior boxes setting might not be optimal, so we conduct dimensional clustering for the width and height of the defect size of the dataset, so as to make the network model easier to learn. Thirdly, we use soft non-maximum suppression instead of traditional non-maximum suppression to avoid the situation that the same kinds of defect category in the dataset are overlapped and eliminated as repeated detection. With this bag of tricks, we effectively improve the precision of fabric defect detection by 8.9% mAP on the basis of the baseline of state-of-the-art convolutional neural network detection algorithm.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-09-09T07:01:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520955229
  • Improving the adsorption performance and surface roughening of rayon
           fibers via enzymatic treatment with cellulase
    • Authors: Tetsuya Takahashi, Makoto Hayashi, Yudai Watanabe, Hiroyuki Sadatomi, Kentaro Matsumoto, Eisaku Shono
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, expectations have increased for the development of filters for removing air pollutants. Rayon fibers have rough surfaces and excellent adsorption characteristics. Therefore, rayon is a promising material for such filters. By further roughening its surface, its adsorptivity to substances such as volatile organic compounds can likely be improved. The surface of rayon fibers was roughened via wet spinning carried out by adding oleic acid to a raw viscose. As a result, porous fibers containing several pores with a diameter of about 0.5–1.0 µm were obtained. A weight reduction treatment of the porous rayon fibers with cellulase, a cellulose-degrading enzyme, resulted in the appearance of several streaks and asperities on their surfaces. To investigate the adsorption behavior of the rayon fibers after cellulase treatment, dye adsorption was examined using an aqueous methylene blue solution. The porous rayon fibers adsorbed much more dye than the regular fibers. In addition, the fibers absorbed more dye after treatment with cellulase than without treatment in both fibers. The deodorizing function of the rayon fibers was also investigated using ammonia gas. The porous rayon fibers treated with cellulase had a very high deodorizing effect. In the proposed study, rayon fibers (which are porous inside) were treated with cellulase, and their surface was found to be considerably rough.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-09-03T05:39:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520932394
  • Effect of the dyeing process on thermal and dyeing properties of
           poly(butylene terephthalate) fibers
    • Authors: Shuqiang Zhao, Zhe Gao, Gaoming Jiang, Jiankang Wang, Xuhong Miao, Ailan Wan
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      A medium- and low-temperature disperse dye was applied as a dyeing material for poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) fibers using a cost-effective and scalable approach. The relationship between the dyeing process and thermal or dyeing properties, such as the dye uptake percentage and color fastness properties, was systematically investigated. Interestingly, with the increase of the C. I. Disperse Red 167 concentration from 2% o.w.f. (on weight of fiber) to 5% o.w.f. and dyeing temperature, the dyed PBT fibers correspondingly gained better color strength (28.7), an indication of a suitable dye uptake of 93.15%. Furthermore, the incorporation of the dye into PBT fibers improved the decomposition temperature and melting or crystallization temperature, and the storage modulus was higher than that of undyed PBT fibers using this simple approach. Therefore, these promising results would be a significant component to enhance or regulate the significant thermal stability of PBT fibers in the dyeing field. Also, they would go a long way to support the idea that the present approach is useful for further industrialization of the dyeing process because of its low cost and suitability for a large-scale process.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-08-31T05:31:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520948163
  • Process development of water-based polyurethane with acrylate terminal
           group under water vapor permeability and water repellency for nylon fabric
    • Authors: Chung-Feng Jeffrey Kuo, Jiong-Bo Chen, Chi-Ping Yang, Min-Yan Dong
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This study synthesized water-based polyurethane with acrylate terminal group (WPUA) using the long carbon chain of stearyl acrylate to synthesize hydrophobic poly-stearyl acrylate (PSA). The proposed process could minimize environmental pollution caused by fluorine-containing monomers. As a water-based polyurethane (WPU) end-capping agent, the hydrophobic PSA and the hydrophilic and water vapor permeable WPU are copolymerized to form a WPUA functional resin with simultaneous water vapor permeability (WVP) and water repellency. Here, 2-mercaptoethanol was used to control the molecular weight of PSA to prepare the acrylate end-capping agent. PSA was then employed in WPU to form WPUA, which is characterized by the moisture permeability of WPU and water repellency of acrylic resin simultaneously. During the WPUA process, dimethylacetamide was used as a neutralizer to replace the traditional toxic chemical control drug triethylamine. This study set up the material and chemical structure to replace the toxic chemical-controlled drugs and organofluoride in the traditional preparation of moisture permeable and water repellent materials. The proposed process was proven to reduce the consumption of organic solvent, achieve WPUA copolymer stability, and provided moisture permeable and water repellent functions. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the structure of WPUA, while thermogravimetry analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were performed to establish the thermal properties of WPUA. After the WPUA was padded on nylon fabric, its water drop contact angle was observed through a scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the contact angle of nylon fabric increased significantly, water repellency was reached, and WVP rises by 23.75%.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-08-27T06:18:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520948187
  • Theoretical and experimental investigations on the effects of friction,
           bending rigidity, extensibility, and Poisson's ratio on fabric tensile
    • Authors: Yi Sun, Dongming Zheng, Gui Liu, Zhaoqun Du, Zou Haochen, Jinkang Liu, Mingxing Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      A three-point tensile model that consists of a noncontact model and a modified capstan model of contact sections, including coupling effects of factors, is established in this study. The tension ratio calculated using the Runge–Kutta method increases along with the extensibility, surface friction coefficient, and radius ratio and is inhibited by the power-law friction ([math]). Moreover, the theoretical model in a case with all the factors and frictional modification shows high accuracy with the actual test of the quick-intelligent handling evaluation system, and the Poisson's effect can be negligible, especially with the power-law friction. It has been confirmed that greater surface roughness and thickness (lower radius ratio) with worse extensibility result in tighter fabric tensile properties. Therefore, this work can provide theoretical guidance for the measurement of fabric tensile properties and the evaluation of practical application of fabrics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-08-24T07:33:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520949450
  • Effects of porosity and area density on upward flame spread
           characteristics over thin flax fabric
    • Authors: Yunji Gao, Hui Zhu, Yuchun Zhang, Guoqing Zhu, Guoqiang Chai
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Few investigations have systematically addressed the porosity effects of upward flame spread over fabric fuels, although the porosity is a special property for fabric fuels. The present paper studies the porosity and area density effects on upward flame spreading using 160.0 cm tall and 8.0 cm wide flax fabric samples with various porosities and area densities. The flame shape, flame length, flame spread rate, ignition time, standoff distance and surface temperature distribution are obtained and analyzed. The major findings are summarized as follows: as the porosity increases and corresponding area density declines, the flame spread rate and flame length increase, whereas the ignition time decreases, which is because the oxygen can reach the fuel surface in the pyrolysis region more easily and, subsequently, the heat flux received by the virgin fuels increases. The two parameters of flame standoff distance and surface temperature in the preheating region can be applied to characterize the heat flux received by the virgin fuels. Generally, when the porosity increases and the corresponding area density decreases, the flame standoff distance and the surface temperature at the same distance from pyrolysis front increase, which reveals that the heat flux received by the virgin surface increases.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-08-24T07:33:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520947746
  • Weaving scheduling based on an improved ant colony algorithm
    • Authors: Wentao He, Shuo Meng, Jing’an Wang, Lei Wang, Ruru Pan, Weidong Gao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Weaving enterprises are faced with problems of small batches and many varieties, which leads to difficulties in manual scheduling during the production process, resulting in more delays in delivery. Therefore, an automatic scheduling method for the weaving process is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a weaving production scheduling model is established based on the conditions and requirements during actual production. By introducing flexible model constraints, the applicability of the model has been greatly expanded. Then, an improved ant colony algorithm is proposed to solve the model. To address the problem of the traditional ant colony algorithm that the optimizing process usually traps into local optimum, the proposed algorithm adopts an iterative threshold and the maximum and minimum ant colony system. In addition, the initial path pheromone distribution is formed according to the urgency of the order to balance each objective. Finally, the simulation experiments confirm that the proposed method achieves superior performance compared with manual scheduling and other automatic methods. The proposed method shows a certain guiding significance for weaving scheduling in practice.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-08-24T07:33:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520948896
  • Fiber orientation measurement of fiber injection molded nonwovens by image
    • Authors: Patrick Moll, Shaofan Wang, Sven Coutandin, Jürgen Fleischer
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The fiber injection molding process is an innovative approach for the manufacturing of long fiber nonwoven preforms with little to no waste. An important property for the mechanical characteristics of the composite parts is the fiber orientation of the fiber injection molded nonwovens. In this paper a newly developed assemble method based on Fast Fourier Transform and improved Structure Tensor methods for the computation of the fiber orientation distribution in the local orientation by image analysis of transmitted light images is presented. For the computation of the fiber orientation, the Fast Fourier Transform and Structure Tensor methods are used. The new method is evaluated using simulated images and transmitted light images of real nonwovens to evaluate their accuracy. The computed fiber orientation distributions are compared to reference distributions by means of the Kullback–Leibler divergence. It is shown that the assemble method can perform accurate and reliable measurement of fiber orientation measurement and the modified Structure Tensor method improves results significantly compared to the current state of the art.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-08-18T05:25:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520948903
  • Predicting the tensile strength of single wool fibers using artificial
           neural network and multiple linear regression models based on acoustic
    • Authors: Di Lu, Weidong Yu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The acoustic emission (AE) technique is widely used at the present time for almost any kind of material characterization. The main aim of the present study was to predict the tensile strength of wool by using artificial neural networks and multiple linear regression analysis based on AE detection. With this aim, a number of single wool fibers were stretched to fracture and the signals at break were recorded by the AE technique. The energy, amplitude, duration, number of hits, average rectified value and root mean square value were used as input parameters to predict the strength of the wool. A feed-forward neural network with a backpropagation (BP) algorithm was successfully trained and tested using the measured data. The same input parameters were used by multiple stepwise regression models for the estimation of wool strength. The coefficients of determination of the BP neural network and stepwise regression indicate that there is a strong correlation between the measured and predicted strength of wool with an acceptable error value. The comparative analysis of the two modeling techniques shows that the neural network performs better than the stepwise regression models. Meanwhile, the relative importance of the input parameters was determined by using rank analysis. The prediction models established in the present work can be applied to AE studies of fiber bundles or fiber-reinforced composite materials.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-08-18T05:24:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520948200
  • Structure optimization of an ultrahigh frequency radio frequency
           identification tag thread based on the normal mode helix dipole antenna
    • Authors: Yong Zhang, Jiyong Hu, Xiong Yan, Xudong Yang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This paper describes the design of a novel ultrahigh frequency radio frequency identification (UHF RFID) tag thread that mainly consisted of the common yarn and the normal mode helix dipole antenna. The linear dipole antenna for the UHF RFID tag thread was too long to miniaturize the tag. In order to maximize the read performance and miniaturize the size of the tag, the basic antenna structure parameters, such as the helical pitch and single arm length, were optimized by analyzing the radiation parameter S11 of the normal mode helix dipole antenna based on simulation experiments. The simulation experiments started with optimizing the single arm length to obtain the minimum of the S11 parameter at resonant frequency, then the helical pitch was further optimized to limit the resonant frequency to the UHF range. The simulation results showed the resonant frequency rises with an increase of helical pitch and declines with an increase of single arm length. Furthermore, a series of UHF RFID tag threads with good performance from the simulation cases were prepared, and the performance of the optimized tag was validated. Generally, the UHF RFID tag thread with optimized helix dipole antenna could reduce the axial length of the tag by 57% and improve the reading range by 500%, and its performance was greatly superior to that of the UHF RFID tag thread with the classical linear dipole antenna.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-08-17T05:29:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520948904
  • Characterization and empirical analysis of hot water immersion with
           compression protective performance of fabrics used in firefighters’
    • Authors: Sumit Mandal, Jane Batcheller, Guowen Song, Indu Bala Grover
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to investigate hot water immersion with compression protective performance of textile fabrics used in firefighters’ clothing. This study has two key objectives – firstly, to characterize the protective performance of fabrics under different types of hot water immersion with compression exposures; secondly, to empirically analyze the protective performance of these fabrics under different exposures. To accomplish both the objectives, the physical properties (e.g., thickness, air permeability) of multi-layered fabrics that are commonly used in firefighters’ clothing were measured. Next, the protective performances of these fabrics were evaluated under different exposures. The experimental data obtained were statistically analyzed to identify the effects of the fabrics’ physical properties on the performance. Also, the performances provided by the fabrics were compared, and the nature of heat and mass transfer through the fabrics was explored. Using the significant fabric properties that affected the performance, Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) modeling techniques were used to empirically predict the performance of the fabrics. The best prediction models were then employed for saliency testing to understand the relative importance of the significant fabric properties on the performance. The study demonstrates that the protective performance of textile fabrics varies with the exposures, depending upon the mass transfer through fabrics. In these exposures, fabric thickness, air or water-vapor permeability, and evaporative resistance are found to be the primary properties to consider in protecting the wearer. In this study, it has been identified that ANN models can be effectively used in comparison to MLR models for predicting the protective performance. By analyzing the best-fit ANN models, it is identified that different fabric properties play a key role in predicting the protective performance. Overall, this study would enhance the understanding of fabric materials used in firefighters’ clothing. This deeper understanding could be applied to engineer new test standards and fabric materials for clothing to provide optimum occupational health and safety for firefighters.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-08-13T05:05:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520947108
  • Mechanics and hierarchical structure transformation mechanism of wool
    • Authors: Hongling Liu, Liang Zhao, Guosheng Zhang, Feng Pan, Weidong Yu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Various natural protein materials have hierarchical microscale and nanoscale structures that protect animals from suffering cold weather or external threats. Herein, we contribute an effective strategy for exploring the hierarchical structure transformation mechanism by stretching a single fiber and bundle fibers. Taking advantage of controllable stretching, the disulfide bonds and peptide chains were taken apart or reconstructed by the new crosslinking bonds inside the wool fiber. If the temperature, solution concentration and stretching velocity were appropriate, the strain was more than 230% and the microstructure transformation of a single fiber underwent α→β transition, disulfide bond breakage and macromolecule slippage occurred during the tensile process. The transformation mechanism was modeled and experimentally tested in wool bundle fibers after setting, suggesting that the stretching led to the transformation from α helix to β-pleated sheet, the breakage of disulfide bonds and the slippage of microfibrils. The availability of wool fibers provides many opportunities for bio-friendly cellular substrates and biosensor devices.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-08-12T05:25:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520944249
  • Saliency-dependent adaptive remeshing for cloth simulation
    • Authors: Min Shi, Hou Ming, Yaning Liu, Tianlu Mao, Dengming Zhu, Zhaoqi Wang, Fan Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      We propose a method for simulating cloth with meshes dynamically refined according to visual saliency. It is a common belief that it is preferable for the regions of an image being viewed to have more details than others. For a certain scene, a low-resolution cloth mesh is first simulated and rendered into images in the preview stage. Pixel saliency values of these images are predicted according to a pre-trained saliency prediction model. These pixel saliencies are then translated to a vertex saliency of the corresponding meshes. Vertex saliency, together with camera positions and a number of geometric features of surfaces, guides the dynamic remeshing for simulation in the production stage. To build the saliency prediction model, images extracted from various videos of clothing scenes were used as training data. Participants were asked to watch these videos and their eye motion was tracked. A saliency map is generated from the eye motion data for each extracted video frame image. Image feature vectors and map labels are sent to a Support Vector Machine for training to obtain a saliency prediction model. Our method greatly reduces the number of vertices and faces in the clothing model, and generates a speed-up of more than 3 × for scenes with single dressed character, while for multi-character scenes the speed-up is increased to more than 5×. The proposed technique can work together with view-dependency for offline simulation.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-08-11T05:19:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520944248
  • Study on the model of semi-open-end twist in compact spinning with lattice
    • Authors: Ting Fu, Yuze Zhang, Nicholus Tayari Akankwasa, Nanliang Chen, Huiting Lin
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The twist mechanism of the fiber strand in the condensing zone in compact spinning is complex. This paper proposes a dynamic model to evaluate the additional twist of the fiber strands. Based on the flow simulation in the condensing zone, the fiber trajectory in the suction slot was simulated and obtained. Several spinning parameters such as suction slot angle, suction slot width, negative pressure, and shape of suction slot, were varied to show their effects on the additional twist. The simulation results indicated that by increasing the suction slot angle from 5° to 10° the additional twist increased significantly. Higher negative pressure also leads to an increase in the additional twist. The suction slot width has a greater effect on the fiber trajectory than on the additional twist. An arc-shape suction slot increased the additional twist compared with a linear-shape one. An experimental test conducted revealed a precise agreement with the simulation results.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-08-06T05:55:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520942545
  • NIPAM polymer/polyurethane resin films and the moisture transport
           characteristics of film-treated fabrics
    • Authors: Masao Enomoto, Yuichiro Omote, Mitsuo Miyajima, Che Kyung Yun
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Numerous studies have addressed the use of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) or (poly-NIPAM) homopolymers in drug delivery systems. However, their application has not been extended to textiles owing to their high solubility in water. In this study, we investigated thermo-responsive, hydrophilic, breathable, waterproof films as well as fabrics treated with these films. To impart temperature-sensitivity, a poly-NIPAM polymer was used, with water solubility at or below the lower critical solution temperature (LCST). The poly-NIPAM used in this study had to be insoluble in water, even at the LCST or below it. Consequently, this study was performed using films wherein poly-NIPAM was copolymerized with hydrophilic polyurethane (PU). The change in water solubility of the homopolymer at temperatures greater than or less than the LCST could be verified from the water absorption coefficient of the films observed at various temperatures. Subsequently, we ascertained the functionality of the temperature-sensitive water absorption feature. In addition, we validated the functionality of the breathable, waterproof films and the condensation-inhibition capacity of film-treated fabrics. As a result, we postulated that the fabrics coated with poly-NIPAM/PU copolymer films could serve as functional materials for apparel with novel and improved moisture transport characteristics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T06:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520945690
  • A modular modeling approach for investigating wool critical buckling from
           biologically variable along-fiber microstructure
    • Authors: Indrakumar Vetharaniam, Jeffrey E Plowman, Peter Brorens, Duane Harland
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Mammalian hair fibers are internally sophisticated. We introduce a modeling approach aimed at use in research that derives value from understanding how microstructural organization generates effects at the macroscopic level in the context of natural biological variation. Critical buckling load is solved using a numerical approach applied to a modular fiber microstructure model where fibers of arbitrary length are made up of snippets composed of serial cross-sections at 25 micrometer intervals. As an example, the model is applied to investigate how much effect changes to single microstructural properties (fiber ellipticity, cortical cell type distribution and cell type proportion) have on critical buckling load in the context of prickle. Potential uses and key weak areas in our knowledge of wool fiber morphology and biophysics are discussed.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-08-02T11:55:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520944614
  • An understanding of bra design features to improve bra fit and design for
           older Chinese women
    • Authors: Shichen Zhang, Kit-lun Yick, Joanne Yip, Winnie Yu, Ka-po Maggie Tang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The aim is to analyze the bra design features and fit problems of older women and to design solutions to improve bra fit and design for older women. Twenty-six participants aged 62 ± 4 years participated in bra fitting experiments with eight commercial senior bras featuring different design features. The bra design features were firstly quantified into 19 parameters including dimensions and/or curvatures, material properties, bra tension and elongation. The associations between bra design features and related problems were then systematically addressed. The most common fit problem was bulging, which was affected by underarm height (r = 0.23, p 
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-07-31T04:52:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520944253
  • All-in-one fibrous capacitive humidity sensor for human breath monitoring
    • Authors: Liyun Ma, Ronghui Wu, Hao Miao, Xuwei Fan, Lingqing Kong, Aniruddha Patil, Xiang Yang Liu, Jun Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Accurate and quick monitoring of an individual's respiration signals plays an important role in health monitoring and disease diagnosis. Electronic fabrics are the best candidates for detecting human signals through a non-invasive pathway. Inspired by the potential and attractive applications of fiber-shape electronics in smart and wearable e-textiles, here we developed an all-in-one fibrous capacitive humidity sensor. The fibrous sensor is prepared using a domestic winding fabrication facility and sputtering technique. Analysis of the exact morphology and elemental details of the fibrous sensor was carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry. Moreover, the frequency characteristic of the sensor is studied, and exhibits an increasing sensitivity with the decrease of testing frequency. The fabricated humidity sensor exhibited good repeatability and responsiveness performance under the 5 kHz frequency. In addition, the fibrous structure of the sensor makes it appropriate to be integrated into a fabric such as smart mask, which can be used to monitor breathing information and also to provide alarm signals.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-07-29T06:23:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520944495
  • Modal analysis of 3D needled waste cotton fiber/epoxy composites with
           experimental and numerical methods
    • Authors: Linlin Lu, Wei Fan, Xue Meng, Tao Liu, Ling Han, Tao Zhang, Jingjing Dong, Linjia Yuan, Huixia Tian
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The small-size microstructure models of the 3D needled waste cotton fiber/epoxy composites (3DNWCFCs) were brought out to predict their key vibration parameters (natural frequency and mode shapes) with the finite element analysis method. Six kinds of 3DNWCFCs with different parameters were prepared and tested by the experimental modal analysis method to verify the accuracy of the prediction of the natural frequencies and mode shapes with the finite element method. The effects of the fiber volume content and needling density of the composites on the modal behavior were investigated. The natural frequency of the cantilever beams of the composites increased with the increase of the fiber volume content and increased at first then decreased with the increasing needling density. The effect of needling density on the vibration properties of the composite depended on the degree of damage and entanglement of Z-direction fibers. The comparative analysis of the finite element analysis and the experimental results showed that the small-size microstructure models of the 3DNWCFCs were effective to predict their vibration parameters. Therefore, the small-size finite element models can be used to predict the modal properties of the staple fiber reinforced composites effectively with less time and lower economic costs.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-07-29T06:23:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520944477
  • Fostering sustainable consumer behavior regarding clothing: Assessing
           trends on purchases, recycling and disposal
    • Authors: Arminda Paço, Walter Leal Filho, Lucas V Ávila, Karen Dennis
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The apparel industry, which includes the clothing/garment sector, encompasses the supply chain of clothing and garments, starting with the textile and fashion industry, all the way to fashion retailers and the trade with second-hand clothes and textile recycling. This sector is characterized by substantial wastes, which may be minimized by means of textile recycling. This paper reports on the results of an international study on sustainable clothing consumption. This paper identifies and analyzes attitudes and behaviors regarding the clothing industry in a sample of 203 individuals. The results suggest a number of trends. Firstly, they show the complexity of purchase habits. The reasons why individuals dispose of their old or not used clothes are manifold, and include objective and subjective factors. Also, the paper illustrates the existence of disparities in respect of clothing use and disposal behavior. Finally, the results suggest that there is a need for more awareness-raising initiatives, in order to make consumers more conscious about the options available and the need for a more sustainable use of clothing.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-07-29T06:23:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520944524
  • Predicting air permeability of multifilament polyester woven fabrics using
           developed fuzzy logic model
    • Authors: Maher Alsayed, Halil İbrahim Çelik, Hatice Kübra Kaynak
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The number of filaments in yarn cross-section, weave density, and weave type are considered the most important factors that affect the property of air permeability of multifilament woven fabrics. Microfilament yarns significantly affect the air permeability property of this type of fabric because of the low porosity between the filaments. This study deals with the development of a fuzzy logic model for predicting the air permeability of multifilament polyester woven fabrics produced from conventional and microfilament yarns. The polyester multifilament yarns used in this study were produced with three different microfilament fineness and two conventional filament fineness levels. The woven fabric samples used in this study were obtained in three weave types: plain, twill, and satin, and with five different weave densities. In accordance with the experimental test results, both regression analysis and fuzzy logic system were built. The air permeability results generated from the developed fuzzy model and the regression equations were compared with the experimental values. Satisfactory and accurate prediction results were obtained with the developed fuzzy logic model. The mean absolute error of the fuzzy model and regression analysis were found to be 2.32%, 12.59%, respectively. Therefore, it was confirmed that the fuzzy model was superior in predicting air permeability.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-07-29T06:23:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520942549
  • Mechanical and thermal behavior analysis of wood–polypropylene
    • Authors: Wei Wang, Liu Liu, Ning Ding, Ruiyun Zhang, Jianyong Yu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Bio-based materials have attracted great attention due to their good mechanical properties, biodegradability, low cost, and easy processing, especially abundant resources. In this work, polypropylene (PP) composites reinforced with 15, 30 and 45 wt% wood powder (WP) were prepared by injection molding and their thermal, mechanical, and dynamic mechanical properties were characterized. It was found that the strength and modulus of the composite materials in the tensile and bending tests significantly increased, but the impact strength decreased. The dynamic mechanical test also showed that the storage modulus increased with the increase of WP content. WP endowed the composite material with rigidity and strength, but it was not good for toughness. Besides, the addition of WP did not change the crystal structure of the composites, while the degree of crystallinity decreased. WP-filled PP composites with stable mechanical and thermal properties have great potential to replace traditional glass fiber-reinforced composites in many fields such as construction, sports equipment, and the automotive industry.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-07-28T06:39:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520944246
  • A shortened development process method for warp-knitted yarn-dyed shirt
    • Authors: Haisang Liu, Gaoming Jiang, Zhijia Dong
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      At present, warp-knitted yarn-dyed shirt fabric has become the research focus due to its comfort and highly efficient production. In order to shorten the development process of warp-knitted yarn-dyed shirt fabric, a computing method including theoretical modeling and simulation is proposed in this paper to simulate 2–5 guide bar warp-knitted yarn-dyed shirt fabric. Based on the structure model of warp-knitted fabric, a new model of geometric shape, including loops and underlap, is built according to size measurement results of the loops. In terms of the establishment of mathematical models, such as models of yarn-pressing, loop types, loop locations, guide bar threading, color and fineness, the transformation between knitting technology and mathematical language is realized. With the double buffer technique of HTML (Hypertext Markup Language), loops and underlaps of each bar are displayed separately on different canvases superposed in some order. Simulation is implemented for 2–5 bar warp-knitted yarn-dyed shirt fabric via JavaScript and C# programming languages. The results indicate that this method is able to simulate diverse 2–5 bar warp-knitted yarn-dyed shirt fabrics in a short time. The pattern effect can be seen with a high similarity and practicability before it is produced, thereby shortening the development.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-07-27T06:33:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520937372
  • Preparation and application of polyaldehyde trehalose as a new hydrophilic
           anti-crease finishing agent for cotton fabric
    • Authors: Jiangfei Lou, Jiugang Yuan, Qiang Wang, Ping Wang, Jin Xu, Yuanyuan Yu, Xuerong Fan
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Polyaldehyde trehalose (OTr) was prepared and applied to cotton fabric as an anti-crease finishing agent under Lewis acid conditions. OTr contains reactive groups (aldehyde groups) and hydrophilic groups (hydroxyl groups). After the aldehyde groups crosslink with the hydroxyl groups of the fibers, the hydroxyl groups of the OTr improve the hydrophilicity of the finished fabric. The target product was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance. The optimum process conditions for anti-crease finishing were studied. The optimal anti-crease finishing process for OTr was 10.0%, a MgCl2 concentration of 2.0%, a pH of 3, and curing for 3 min at 150℃. The efficiency of the OTr-treated cotton fabrics was examined, and the anti-crease property, whiteness, tensile strength, hydrophilicity, and staining property of the OTr and conventional anti-crease finishing reagents were compared. The anti-crease property, whiteness, and tensile strength of the OTr-treated fabric improved significantly, but were lower than those of the butane tetracarboxylic acid and glutaraldehyde. Fabric that was treated with the new prepared agent presented a satisfactory hydrophilicity, which indicates that OTr can be used as an effective hydrophilic crosslinking agent.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-07-24T05:43:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520942964
  • Objective evaluation of fabric smoothness appearance with an ordinal
           classification framework based on label noise estimation
    • Authors: Jingan Wang, Meng Shuo, Lei Wang, Fengxin Sun, Ruru Pan, Weidong Gao, Kangjun Shi
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Objective fabric smoothness appearance evaluation plays an important role in the textile and apparel industry. In most previous studies, objective fabric smoothness appearance evaluation is defined as a general pattern classification problem. However, the labels in this problem exhibit a natural ordering. Nominal classification ignores the ordinal information, which may cause overfitting in model training. In addition, for the existence of subjective errors, measurement errors, manual errors, etc., the labels in the data might be noisy, which has been rarely discussed previously. This paper proposes an ordinal classification framework based on label noise estimation (OCF-LNE) to objectively evaluate the fabric smoothness appearance degree, which takes the ordinal information and noise of the label in the training data into consideration. The OCF-LNE uses the basic classifier in pre-training as a label noise estimator, and uses the estimated label noise to adjust the labels in further training. The adjusted labels can introduce the ordinal constrain implicitly and reduce the negative impact of label noise in model training. Within a 10 × 10 nested cross-validation, the proposed OCF-LNE achieves 82.86%, 94.29%, and 100% average accuracies under errors of 0, 0.5, and 1 degree, respectively. Experiments on different fabric image features and basic classification models verify the effectiveness of the OCF-LNE. In addition, the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods for fabric smoothness evaluation and ordinal classification. Promisingly, the OCF-LNE can provide novel ideas for image-based fabric smoothness evaluation.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-07-22T05:50:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520939574
  • Analysis of 16 phthalate esters in wastewater from textile plants using
           headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography with mass
           spectrometric detection
    • Authors: Ying Li, XiWen Ye, ZengYuan Niu, Jing He, Xin Luo, Qiang Ma
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with a 100-µm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was used to determine 16 phthalate esters (PAEs) in wastewater from textile processing plants. Some of the 16 PAEs that exist as mixtures of isomers were identified and quantified. We investigated the matrix effect and evaluated a qualification and quantitation method for determining trace amounts of PAEs in wastewater from textile processing plants. The major advantages of this approach are the reduced matrix effects from the textile wastewater and the compatibility with the standard addition method (SAM) for PAE quantitation. Moreover, the developed method has low reagent and solvent consumption, does not require clean-up or evaporation steps and involves minimal sample manipulation. Two fiber coatings, 85-µm polyacrylate and 100-µm PDMS, were tested. The variables affecting SPME absorption, such as the sample temperature, extraction time and salt concentration, were studied. The final conditions were an extraction temperature of 95℃, an extraction time of 30 min and a salt concentration of 0.3 g/mL. The SAM was used to analyze and quantify samples. The linear range was between 5 and 20 µg/L, and the limits of detection of the method were between 0.5 and 5 µg/L. Finally, the precision of the phthalate quantitation was also evaluated.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-07-21T05:25:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520941903
  • Qualitative analysis of cotton fiber pigment composition
    • Authors: Mengying Chen, Ting Ting Zhang, Li He, Kezuo Wang, Yiren Chen
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Naturally colored cotton is a green textile material. To cultivate new colored cotton and improve its performance, we must first understand the types, composition, and formation mechanism of the pigments in colored cotton. This study aims to explore the composition and structure of cotton fiber pigments. Qualitative analyses of pigment extracts from brown cotton, green cotton, and white cotton fibers were carried out using ultraviolet spectroscopy, diagnostic agents, and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. The main component of cotton fiber pigments was flavonoids, and specific types of flavonoids were found in the pigments in brown cotton, green cotton, and white cotton fibers. Research on the composition of cotton fiber pigments can increase our understanding of colored cotton fibers and lay a foundation for the cultivation, planting, and development of colored cotton fibers, as well the identification of naturally colored cotton from dyed cotton.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-07-20T06:22:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520932234
  • Electro-textile wearable antennas in wireless body area networks:
           materials, antenna design, manufacturing techniques, and human body
           consideration—a review
    • Authors: Bahaa Almohammed, Alyani Ismail, Aduwati Sali
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The latest progress in the emerging wireless technology has resulted in the development of wearable antennas made of various fabrics. This unique antenna is an integral part of the wireless body area network (WBAN). A wide range of applications are made by the wearable antennas in the fields of the Internet of Things, sport, defense, public safety, telemedicine, navigation, and tracking. The focus point of the current review is the recent progress of electro-textiles research with special attention on the materials properties, criteria, and manufacturing techniques. Existing as well as upcoming materials specifically and potentially used for electro-textile fabrication are discussed. Various manufacturing techniques are discussed to match the importance of material selection. The current work highlights the performance when the antennas tagging are applied in WBAN objects and illustrates how the human body affects the performance of the wearable antenna and vice versa. The findings of this review by introducing the best materials, techniques, and designs could be used in future to provide high-performance materials for body-centric applications.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-07-17T10:15:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520932230
  • Isotherms and kinetics of dyeing poly-m-phenyleneisophthal-amide with
           Basic Red 46 based on the macro-cation dyeing mechanism
    • Authors: Dan Sheng, Bo Deng, Yunli Wang, Ling Liu, Xin Chen, Honghui Xia, Genyang Cao, Weilin Xu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The aggregation behaviors of Basic Red 46 in water, water/dimethylacetamide (water/DMAc), and water/DMAc/NaCl were investigated by both a Transmission Electron Microscope and a laser particle size analyzer. The corresponding electric conductivity of the dyeing solution and surface zeta potential of dye aggregates using different concentrations of DMAc and NaCl were compared. The kinetics and adsorption isotherms of dyeing poly-m-phenyleneisophthalamide (MPIA) based on the macro-cation dyeing mechanism were investigated. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to determine the adsorption type. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models were applied to determine the kinetics of [DMAc-Dye]+ adsorption onto MPIA. The washing and rubbing fastness of dyed MPIA using different initial dye concentrations and dyeing time were measured and analyzed.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-07-17T10:15:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520934050
  • Theoretical study of the effects of the shape of the spinning triangle
    • Authors: Ruiqi Shao, Longdi Cheng, Wenliang Xue, Yanping Yu, Ning Pan
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The spinning triangle is an important area in the spinning process, and the shape of the spinning triangle influences the yarn qualities. This paper aims to theoretically study the effects of the spinning parameters on the shape of the spinning triangle. In this paper, a model of the spinning triangle considering force equilibrium and torque equilibrium was built. The initial strain of fibers in the spinning triangle was determined by the profile of the spinning triangle. The initial height of the spinning triangle was obtained by the width of the spinning triangle and the twist angle. Based on the initial condition and boundary condition in the model, the displacements of the twisting point were obtained. With the displacements of the twisting point, the height of the spinning triangle and the deviation angle of the center fiber in the final spinning triangle, which represent the shape of the spinning triangle, were calculated. In the analysis, the spinning tension, yarn twist, and yarn radius were chosen as the independent parameters to analyze the geometric change of the spinning triangle.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-07-17T10:15:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520938464
  • Mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of nonlinearly elastic yarn
           in ring spinning
    • Authors: Rong Yin
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, yarn dynamic behavior in the ring spinning system has been studied. A new model has been proposed by considering nonlinear elastic yarn. Equations of motion were derived by Newton’s second law and resolved by the finite difference method. Some results were given and relationships among models of inextensible yarn, linear elastic yarn, and nonlinearly elastic yarn were discussed. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed model in terms of yarn tension and balloon profile and a good agreement has been made between the predicted data and experimental results.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-07-13T09:06:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520940807
  • An investigation of temperature-sensing textiles for temperature
           monitoring during sub-maximal cycling trials
    • Authors: Theodore Hughes-Riley, Philippa Jobling, Tilak Dias, Steve H Faulkner
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Temperature-sensing textiles have been proposed for a variety of applications, including health monitoring and sports. Skin temperature (Tsk) measurements are an important parameter in performance sports and can be used to better understand thermoregulation during exercise. Currently, most Tsk measurements are taken using skin-mounted thermistors, which can be uncomfortable to the wearer, or thermal imaging, which can be difficult to implement and analyze. This work investigates the feasibility of using textile temperature-sensing electronic yarns (E-yarns) to measure human skin temperature during sub-maximal cycling trials. E-yarns were attached to commercially available cycling suits and measurements were recorded using both the E-yarns and the skin-mounted thermistors at rest and during sub-maximal cycling. Temperature readings were compared between the two temperature-sensing methodologies to determine the viability of using the temperature-sensing E-yarns for this application. Differences in the Tsk measurements as high as 5.9℃ between the E-yarns and skin-mounted thermistors for participants at rest have been shown. This work has also identified that a build-up of sweat significantly altered the Tsk recorded by the E-yarns in some cases. Further experiments explored the effect of saline solutions (simulating sweat) on the response of the temperature-sensing E-yarns. This work has highlighted boundary conditions for taking point Tsk measurement using electronic textiles.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-07-08T10:51:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520938144
  • Element extraction and convolutional neural network-based classification
           for blue calico
    • Authors: Xiaojun Jia, Zihao Liu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Blue calico is a highly valued folk handicraft that forms part of China’s national intangible cultural heritage. Thus, blue calico is a worthy target for reconstruction using modern image processing technology. Extracting the visual components or elements of a blue calico pattern is one way to capture the underlying design and enable innovation in traditional patterns using modern techniques. This paper presents a method of element extraction and classification based on a smart convolutional neural network (CNN), with an improved CifarNet structure, which we call CalicoNet. Initially, the algorithm for element extraction is implemented to generate element samples of blue calico. This process includes gray scaling, binarization, and contour extraction. We construct a data set of elements with 12 types. Then, four critical hyper-parameters, the batch-size, dropout ratio, learning rate, and pooling strategy, are optimized by a comparative analysis. A combination classifier strategy is subsequently added to the fully connected layers to strengthen the feature expression in the corresponding classes. Finally, the superiority of the proposed CalicoNet is verified through a comparison with other sophisticated CNNs. Experimental results demonstrate that CalicoNet achieves a validation accuracy of 99.2% for the training set, a total time of 1.13 hours for the whole data set, and a test mean accuracy precision of 98.66%. The robust performance of the proposed method across the element data set indicates that CalicoNet is a promising approach for element extraction and classification.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-07-08T10:51:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520939573
  • Mixture design experiments applied for the formulation of a textile ink
    • Authors: Ioana Asofiei, Aurelian Cristian Boscornea, Diana-Ioana Buliga, Aurel Diacon, Stefan Theodor Tomas, Cristina Viorica Pop
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents the development of a mathematical model for pigment formulations used for screen printing textile inks in order to reproduce the NATO IRR green standard using four highly performant pigments: Hostaperm Yellow H4G (CI 13980), Irgazin Red A2BN (CI 65300), Heliogen Blue (CI 74160), and Lamp Black (CI 77266). In order to study the influence of each pigment on the final CIE L*a*b* parameters, a quadratic mathematical model (Scheffé type) was created and experimentally validated. The model was used and verified for generating pigment compositions for textile inks that reproduce the NATO IRR green. A total of 22 possible solutions were developed and experimentally performed. Studies regarding the reflectance in the visible-near-infrared domain were conducted, ensuring compliance with the standard. The optimal composition of the pigment mixture was 66.55% Hostaperm Yellow H4G, 7.66% Heliogen Blue, 12.01% Irgazin Red A2BN, and 13.78% Irgazin Red A2BN. The mixture was added to textile ink in the proportion of 5% and was applied via serigraphy.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-07-07T04:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520938152
  • Bioactive and superabsorbent cellulosic dressing grafted alginate and
           Carthamus tinctorius polysaccharide extract for the treatment of chronic
    • Authors: Yassine El-Ghoul, Fahad M Alminderej
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Diabetic foot ulcers have a negative impact on the lives of patients and are highly vulnerable to infection, leading to amputation too often. It is essential that the patient with a diabetic foot ulcer receives the best possible care. Herein, we developed a new functionalized cellulosic wound dressing with high-improved healing properties, able to be a serious alternative for diabetic acute wounds. First, a bioactive polysaccharide was extracted from the Carthamus tinctorius plant. Then a new crosslinked polymer-based alginate/C. tinctorius polymer extract was prepared and checked for combined antimicrobial and tissue regeneration properties. Afterward, the efficiency of the textile functionalization process was optimized through studying the influence of different grafting parameters: curing conditions and the concentration of the impregnating solution. The drop method wettability technique exhibited significant improvement in the hydrophilicity behavior of treated textile samples, which increased with the grafting rate. Attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis or differential thermal analysis were investigated to test whether the chemical permanent grafting resisted the severe standard washing conditions. The tensile strength characteristics showed that the grafting does not affect the original mechanical properties of treated textile dressings. A morphological study via scanning electron microscopy images confirmed the permanent textile finishing performance and permitted us to assess its chemical grafting approach onto the treated surfaces. The biological and the bacteriological investigations of functionalized dressings proved that the functional biomaterial could be used as a medical bioactive device with improved biological properties.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-06-30T05:12:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520935213
  • Mobile-Unet: An efficient convolutional neural network for fabric defect
    • Authors: Junfeng Jing, Zhen Wang, Matthias Rätsch, Huanhuan Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Deep learning–based fabric defect detection methods have been widely investigated to improve production efficiency and product quality. Although deep learning–based methods have proved to be powerful tools for classification and segmentation, some key issues remain to be addressed when applied to real applications. Firstly, the actual fabric production conditions of factories necessitate higher real-time performance of methods. Moreover, fabric defects as abnormal samples are very rare compared with normal samples, which results in data imbalance. It makes model training based on deep learning challenging. To solve these problems, an extremely efficient convolutional neural network, Mobile-Unet, is proposed to achieve the end-to-end defect segmentation. The median frequency balancing loss function is used to overcome the challenge of sample imbalance. Additionally, Mobile-Unet introduces depth-wise separable convolution, which dramatically reduces the complexity cost and model size of the network. It comprises two parts: encoder and decoder. The MobileNetV2 feature extractor is used as the encoder, and then five deconvolution layers are added as the decoder. Finally, the softmax layer is used to generate the segmentation mask. The performance of the proposed model has been evaluated by public fabric datasets and self-built fabric datasets. In comparison with other methods, the experimental results demonstrate that segmentation accuracy and detection speed in the proposed method achieve state-of-the-art performance.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-05-29T07:04:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520928604
  • Development and characterization of electrospun curcumin-loaded
           antimicrobial nanofibrous membranes
    • Authors: Javeed A Awan, Saif Ur Rehman, Muhammad Kashif Bangash, Fiaz Hussain, Jean-Noël Jaubert
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Curcumin is a naturally occurring hydrophobic polyphenol compound. It exhibits a wide range of biological activities such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, antifungal, anti-HIV, and antimicrobial activity. In this research work, antimicrobial curcumin nanofibrous membranes are produce by an electrospinning technique using the Eudragit RS 100 (C19H34ClNO6) polymer solution enriched with curcumin. The morphology and chemistry of the membrane are analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Kirby Bauer disk diffusion tests are carried out to examine the antibacterial effectiveness of the membrane. Experimental results show that the nanofibers produced are of uniform thickness morphology and curcumin is successfully incorporated into the nanofibrous mat, while no chemical bonding was observed between curcumin and the polymer. The antimicrobial curcumin nanofibrous membranes can be effectively applied as antimicrobial barrier in a wide variety of medical applications such as wound healing, scaffolds, and tissue engineering.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-05-14T05:18:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520925514
  • Phenomenological modeling and simulation of a textile stenter
    • Authors: John Wilmer Parra Llanos, Rossane Mailde Santos, Marintho Bastos Quadri, Ianto Oliveira Martins
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Mathematical modeling and simulation of cotton fabric drying in a stenter machine was performed using a finite element method. A standard κ-ɛ turbulence model was coupled with heat/mass transfer in porous media models. A novel approach to simulate all injectors enabled a new perspective of the process and the calculation of local convective coefficients. Three simulations were run: Simulation I reproduced real operational conditions; Simulations II and III estimated the effects of increasing drying air inlet velocity and decreasing translational velocity of the fabric, respectively. The highest drying air velocities occurred at the nozzles on the edges of the injectors, leading to high convective heat and mass transfer coefficients. Results indicated the drying process was not uniform along the fabric’s width. The models were acceptable in realistically predicting the drying of a cotton fabric in a stenter machine and could be useful in optimizing the stenter design considering the final product’s quality and energy consumption.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-04-29T02:32:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520918231
  • Wool felt: Characterization, comparison with other materials, and
           investigation of its use in hospital accessories
    • Authors: Heloisa Nazaré dos Santos, Sebastiana Luiza Bragança Lana Lara, José Henrique Martins Neto
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This article presents groundbreaking research on wool felt for use in hospital accessories. The results of mechanical, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), chemical, flammability, and microbiological tests are presented, as well as research on the acceptability of three wool felt hospital accessories (i.e. sheet cover, pillowcase cover, and insole). An innovative approach was utilized to compare the mechanical properties of unwashed and washed wool felt samples by three different washing machines, with textiles commonly used in hospital (i.e. nonwoven of polyester felt, woven of 100% cotton, and woven of a blend of 67% cotton and 33% polyester). The mechanical tests showed that the wool felt had tensile resistance similar to that of polyester felt, superior elongation to the 100% cotton and the blend, inferior tearing stress, lower resistance to slippage, and good pilling resistance. After washing, the wool felt washed with the extractor washer and dry washer increased their tensile strength 33% and 19%; the tear strength did not change; the slippage decreased; and the samples washed with the dry washer showed 14% less pilling than those not washed. The SEM tests showed differences in appearance of the fibers after the washing processes. Chemical tests revealed that 0.11% of lanolin was retained in the wool felt after washing the samples with the dry process. The flammability tests showed the dependence of carbonization length with the wool felt washing process. The volunteers showed a good acceptance of the wool felt accessories emphasizing the feeling of freshness, release of pain, and reduction in sweating and unpleasant odors. Microbiological tests showed growth in the insoles of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and the fungus Candida albicans, commonly found in the hospital environment.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-04-16T02:40:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520915836
  • Effect of knitting structure and yarn composition on thermal comfort
           properties of bi-layer knitted fabrics
    • Authors: Yang Yang, Xin Yu, Liqun Chen, Peihua Zhang
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this work, nine bi-layer knitted samples with varied knitting structures and made up of different yarn compositions were fabricated, and their thermal comfort properties were investigated. The thermal comfort properties were evaluated by breathability, water transfer properties, thermo-physiology properties and dynamic cooling properties, and their relationship with fabric knitting structure and yarn composition were investigated statistically. It was observed that bi-layer knitted fabrics with meshes at one side had better air permeability, moisture management properties, drying performance, thermo-physiological properties and dynamic cooling function, but lower wicking height than bi-layer knitted fabrics with trim and symmetrical structure (without meshes). The composition of nylon and polyester filaments with varied wettability as outer and inners layer of bi-layer knitted fabrics, respectively, improved the water one-way transport capacity significantly. In particular, bi-layer fabrics with asymmetric structure and made up of yarns with varied hydrophilicity as each layer have excellent moisture management capacity. Moreover, fabrics made up of yarns with finer fibers exhibited better thermal comfort properties.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-06-11T02:06:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520932557
  • Simple process for separation and recycling of nylon 6 and polyurethane
           components from waste nylon 6/polyurethane debris
    • Authors: Caihong Gong, Kaihui Zhang, Ce Yang, Juan Chen, Shen Zhang, Chunwang Yi
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The nylon 6 (PA6)/polyurethane (PU) debris produced during the sanding process would result in a serious resource waste and environmental hazard if disposed of inappropriately. Therefore, this study proposed a simple process for separating and recycling PA6 and PU components of PA6/PU debris. Results revealed that the instantaneous dissolution of PU in N,N-dimethylformamide was independent of temperature and time but related to the quantity of the solvent. Further investigation showed that 43.2% of waste PA6/PU debris was dissolved at room temperature, with pulp density of 10% and within 10 minutes, indicating that PA6 and PU could be quickly separated from the waste PA6/PU debris. In addition, proton nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that the dissolved PU could be recovered by selective precipitation-stripping using an equal amount of deionized water. Moreover, the chemical structure analysis disclosed that the PU in PA6/PU debris should be polyether PU synthesized by reacting with methylene diphenyl diisocyanate and polyether polyols. Besides, the stable chemical structure and thermal properties of separated samples observed from differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry results confirmed that the recycling products could be reused as recycled plastic materials.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-06-17T12:57:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520931893
  • Organic dye anchor peptide conjugates as an advanced coloring agent for
           polypropylene yarn
    • Authors: Marc Zimmermann, Benjamin Stomps, Christine Schulte-Osseili, Dmitry Grigoriev, Dirk Ewen, Andrew Morgan, Alexander Böker
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Polypropylene as one of the world's top commodity polymers is also widely used in the textile industry. However, its non-polar nature and partially crystalline structure significantly complicate the process of industrial coloring of polypropylene. Currently, textiles made of polypropylene or with a significant proportion of polypropylene are dyed under quite harsh conditions, including the use of high pressures and temperatures, which makes this process energy intensive. This research presents a three-step synthesis of coloring agents, capable of adhering onto synthetic polypropylene yarns without harsh energy-consuming conditions. This is possible by encapsulation of organic pigments using trimethoxyphenylsilane, introduction of surface double bonds via modification of the silica shell with trimethoxysilylpropylmethacrylate and final attachment of highly adhesive anchor peptides using thiol-ene chemistry. We demonstrate the applicability of this approach by dyeing polypropylene yarns in a simple process under ambient conditions after giving a step-by-step guide for the synthesis of these new dyeing agents. Finally, the successful dyeing of the yarns is visualized, and its practicability is discussed.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-06-17T12:56:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520932231
  • Development of a superhydrophobic cellulose fabric via enzyme treatment
           and surface hydrophobization
    • Authors: Md Ashikur Rahman, Changsang Yun, Chung Hee Park
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Enzymatic hydrolysis is a common finishing method for cellulosic materials, to improve fabric softness, appearance, and surface properties. However, its potential to trigger superhydrophobicity has not been studied in depth. In this study, a superhydrophobic cellulose fabric was fabricated in two steps. Micro-/nano-hierarchical roughness on the fabric surface was achieved by cellulase from Aspergillus niger, through enzymatic hydrolysis. Subsequently, hydrophobization was carried out by a dip coating method, using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Enzyme concentration and treatment temperature were varied to find the values that provided the greatest superhydrophobicity. As enzyme concentration and temperature increased, the nano-scale roughness increased, along with weight reduction. The degree of crystallinity and reduction in tensile strength were also increased with weight loss via enzyme hydrolysis. As air pockets were formed by micro-/nano-structures on the fiber surface, the water contact angle increased and the shedding angle tended to decrease. The sample treated with 5 g/l enzyme at 60 ℃ for 60 min and coated with PDMS 1 wt.% coating solution had the greatest superhydrophobicity, with a water contact angle of 162° and a shedding angle of 7.0°. The weight loss and reduction in tensile strength of the developed superhydrophobic fabrics were 2.9% and 39.0%, respectively. This approach reduces the necessity for an additional process to introduce nano-scale roughness, and it has the potential to produce superhydrophobic cellulosic biomass for outdoor clothing.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-06-19T05:50:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520932232
  • Degradation study of polyester fiber in swimming pool water
    • Authors: Caroline Apoloni Cionek, Catia Nunes, Adonilson Freitas, Natalia Homem, Edvani Muniz, Teresa Amorim
      First page: 51
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The disinfection of swimming pool water is vital to maintain water quality. The chemicals used in this practice can damage the fabrics of bathing suits and shorten the shelf life of the textile substrate. The degradation of polyester, a polymer that is widely used in bathing suits for swimming pools, was investigated. For this, a 23 factorial design was employed for the experimental methodology. The effect of several variables was analyzed in a simulated swimming pool batch, such as textile-exposure time, concentration of the used disinfection product, and batch temperature. The response variables were enthalpy of fusion ΔHm, melting temperature and crystallinity (obtained by differential scanning calorimetry), percentage of weight loss, temperature of maximum rate of weight loss, onset temperature and endset temperature (measured through thermogravimetric analysis), and Young's modulus values (measured in strain-stress tests in the row and column directions). The factors of temperature, time, and the concentration of disinfectant were significant for melting temperature, crystallinity, onset temperature, and Young's modulus for columns. The analyses of variance were obtained using software Design-Expert DX7. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed changes in band intensities at 695 cm−1, which were attributed to ester groups, as well as a decrease of the carbonyl band at 1712 cm−1, which was attributed to the hydrolysis of the material. Analysis through scanning electronic microscopy images showed the appearance of stretch marks in the constituent filaments of the tested textiles, which suggests a surface degradation occurred.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-06-21T07:23:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520934507
  • Experimental and analytical analyses of the knitted fabric off-axes
           tensile test
    • Authors: Željko Penava, Diana Šimić Penava, Lozo Miloš
      First page: 62
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Determination of mechanical properties and predicting the behavior of knitted fabrics during the manufacturing process and finally in the use is an important part of textile science. In this study the influence of knitted fabric anisotropy on the values of maximum force, corresponding extension and total work when axial tensile forces act on specimens cut at different angles with respect to the course direction of the knitted fabric were analyzed. A plain double weft knit fabric made of single cotton yarns was studied. For different angles of cutting samples, the curves of the relation between the values of the tensile forces and the extension at break were experimentally obtained. The mathematical models obtained were compared with the experimental results, and the corresponding correlation coefficients were calculated.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-06-21T07:24:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520933701
  • Modeling perceptions using common impressions: Perceptual
           “authenticity,” “luxury,” and “quaintness” for leather
    • Authors: Shuhei Watanabe, Takahiko Horiuchi
      First page: 73
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Genuine leather has numerous applications, such as car interiors and clothing, owing to its excellent quality. However, due to the high cost of genuine leather, animal rights issues, and environmental effects of leather processing, artificial leather has increasingly replaced genuine leather. The materials and processing methods used for artificial and genuine leathers are different, resulting in a variety of impressions and shitsukan, that is, the sense of quality of the object. In this study, we focused on the perceptual “authenticity,” “luxury,” and “quaintness,” which are important components needed to achieve the shitsukan of leather used in various products and examined the quantification of qualitative shitsukan using a perception model. We hypothesized that shitsukan can be recognized from the common potential impressions perceived from the properties of a material. Therefore, we developed a method for evaluating shitsukan using representative words for impressions that we perceive in objects and measured their image properties. The physical and psychophysical properties were obtained using several measurements. Multi-angle measuring devices were developed for the measurement experiments. Moreover, several subjective evaluation experiments were conducted to estimate the representative impressions that were potentially perceived in leather. Subsequently, we estimated two independent impressions, “surface shape” and “impression of stateliness” from the properties of leather. In addition, “authenticity,” “luxury,” and “quaintness,” were quantified using simple equations basis the impressions.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-06-23T07:15:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520935534
  • Deformation behavior of auxetic woven fabric made of foldable geometry in
           different tensile directions
    • Authors: Hasan Kamrul, Weiguo Dong, Adeel Zulifqar, Shuaiquan Zhao, Minglonghai Zhang, Hong Hu
      First page: 87
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Auxetic woven fabrics made with special geometrical structures have gained the interest of textile scientists in recent years. This paper reports a study on auxetic woven fabric based on a double-directional parallel in-phase zig-zag foldable geometrical structure. Such a fabric has been already produced and investigated for its negative Poisson's ratio effect in two principal directions (weft and warp directions). However, its negative Poisson's ratio effect in biased tensile directions as well as under repeated tensile loading conditions has not been studied yet. Therefore, in this paper, these two limitations are addressed. The auxetic woven fabric was firstly fabricated, and then subjected not only to tensile tests in different tensile directions, including two principle directions and three biased directions, but also to repeated tensile loading. It was found that both the negative Poisson's ratio effect and the resistance to tensile deformation are dependent upon the tensile direction, and the highest negative Poisson's ratio effect and higher resistance to tensile deformation are obtained in two principal directions.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-06-24T06:41:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520936289
  • Recognition of the layout of colored yarns in yarn-dyed fabrics
    • Authors: Shuo Meng, Jingan Wang, Ruru Pan, Weidong Gao, Jian Zhou, Wentao He
      First page: 100
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The layout of colored yarns in yarn-dyed fabrics is a significant part of designing and production in the textile industry, which is still analyzed manually at present. Existing methods based on image processing have some limitations in accuracy and stability. Therefore, an automatic method is proposed to recognize the layout of colored yarns and some other basic fabric structure parameters: the fabric density and weave pattern. First, a large dataset with fabric structure parameters is constructed. The fabric images are captured by a wireless portable device. Then the yarns and floats are accurately located using a novel multi-task and multi-scale convolutional neural network. Finally, a density-based color clustering algorithm is proposed to recognize the layout of colored yarns. The results of extensive experiments show that the proposed method can automatically identify the basic structure parameters with high effectiveness and robustness.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-06-28T07:43:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520932830
  • Improvement of washing properties of liquid laundry detergents by
           modification with N-hexadecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate
    • Authors: Tomasz Kalak, Krzysztof Gąsior, Daria Wieczorek, Ryszard Cierpiszewski
      First page: 115
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Detergency of commercial liquid detergents before and after modification with SB3C16 (5%, m/m) sulfobetaine (N-hexadecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate) was examined using colorimetric analysis based on a CIELab system. The EMPA 101 standard cotton fabric soiled with carbon black and olive oil was used in washing tests under the following experimental conditions: the concentration of liquid laundry detergents 1.25–50 g/L, 30 min washing cycle, water hardness 5.35 mval/L, 40℃, 200 rpm. Results of physicochemical analysis of color, form, odor, pH, viscosity, density and content of anionic surfactants in detergents, as well as construction parameters of tested cotton fabrics, showed compliance with the requirements of standards and manufacturers’ declarations. The studies revealed that increasing the concentration of laundry detergent solutions caused a gradual increase in foaming power and detergency. Modification with SB3C16 positively improved washing ability and the maximum values were achieved at 23.7% (m-L1, 50 g/L) and 37% (m-L2, 40–45 g/L), respectively. Detergency efficiency was improved by 6.86% (m-L1) and 10.72% (m-L2) on average. EMPA 101 fabrics before and after washing were subjected to microscopic observations, which showed no serious damage to the fibers, but only slight loosening of individual fibers. In summary, the results clearly indicate that SB3C16 sulfobetaine favorably improves washing performance and can be successfully used in liquid laundry detergents due to its good surface properties.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-06-28T07:43:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520934161
  • Fabric defect detection based on a deep convolutional neural network using
           a two-stage strategy
    • Authors: Xiang Jun, Jingan Wang, Jian Zhou, Shuo Meng, Ruru Pan, Weidong Gao
      First page: 130
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      With the rise of labor costs and the advancement of automation in the textile industry, fabric defect detection has become a hot research field in recent years. We proposed a learning-based framework for automatic detection of fabric defects. Firstly, we use a fixed-size square slider to crop the original image to a certain step and regularity. Then an improved histogram equalization is used to enhance each cropped image. Furthermore, the Inception-V1 model is employed to predict the existence of defects in the local area. Finally, we apply the LeNet-5 model, which plays the role of a voting model, to recognize the type of the defect in the fabric. In brief, the proposed framework mainly consists of two steps, namely local defect prediction and global defect recognition. Experiments on the dataset have demonstrated the superior performance in fabric defect detection.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-06-28T07:43:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520935984
  • Knitting needle fault detection system for hosiery machine based on laser
           detection and machine vision
    • Authors: Zhouqiang Zhang, Sihao Bai, Guang-shen Xu, Xuejing Liu, Jiangtao Jia, Zhi Feng, Feilei Wang
      First page: 143
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The knitting needle cylinder is one of the core parts of a hosiery machine. The operation of its needles can directly affect the production quality and efficiency of the hosiery machine. To reduce the production loss of a hosiery machine caused by knitting needle faults, a knitting needle fault detection system for hosiery machines based on a synergistic combination of laser detection and machine vision is proposed in this paper. When the system was operating normally, a photoelectric detector collected the laser signal reflected by the knitting needle and the system monitored the operation of the knitting needle using the ratio of adjacent peak-to-peak distances of the signals. When a fault signal was detected, the hosiery machine was stopped by the system immediately, and a charge-coupled device camera was used to take an image of the faulty knitting needle. After image preprocessing, the faulty knitting needle could be identified quickly and accurately using an image region size classifier based on a decision tree. The experimental results showed that a single image classification by the classifier could be performed in as little as 0.002 s.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-06-28T07:43:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520935210
  • Effect of hydrolysis time on the morphological, physical, chemical, and
           thermal behavior of sugar palm nanocrystalline cellulose (Arenga pinnata
           (Wurmb.) Merr)
    • Authors: RA Ilyas, SM Sapuan, MSN Atikah, MRM Asyraf, S Ayu Rafiqah, HA Aisyah, N Mohd Nurazzi, MNF Norrrahim
      First page: 152
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Sugar palm nanocrystalline celluloses (SPNCCs) were isolated from sugar palm fiber (SPF). In this study, acid hydrolysis (60 wt. %) at different reaction times (30, 45, and 60 min) was carried out to investigate the optimum yield of NCC. The physical properties, degree of polymerization, chemical composition, structural analysis, crystallinity, surface area and charge, zeta potential, thermal analysis, and morphological characterization were also conducted to determine the outcome (efficiency) of the process. The results showed that a needle-like shape was observed under transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. TEM analysis showed optimum aspect ratios of 13.46, 14.44, and 13.13 for isolated SPNCC-I, SPNCC-II, and SPNCC-III, respectively. From thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the degradation temperature of NCC decreased slightly from 335.15℃ to 278.50℃ as the reaction time increased. A shorter hydrolysis time tended to produce SPNCC with higher thermal stability, as proven in thermal analysis by TGA. The optimal isolation time was found to be around 45 min at 1200 rpm during hydrolysis at 45℃ with 60% sulfuric acid. Therefore, the extracted SPNCC from SPF has huge potential to be utilized in the bionanocomposite field for the production of biopackaging, biomedical products, etc.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-06-28T07:43:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520932393
  • Size formulations for cotton yarn weaving at lower relative humidity
    • Authors: Hailiang Wu, Yanqin Shen, Yijun Yao, Bin Zhang
      First page: 168
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, size formulations for cotton yarns suitable for weaving fabrics in an environment of lower relative humidity (RHs) are investigated, which is desirable for both human comfort and the reduction of energy costs during fabric production. Moisture regain, tensile strength and abrasion resistance of cotton yarns sized with different size formulations were studied at 28℃ and various RHs. While the tensile strength of sized yarns with different size formulations was hardly affected by RH, both their abrasion resistance and weavability vary significantly with RH. Better abrasion resistance and weavability of cotton yarns sized with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and modified starch were achieved at 60% RH, and they were obtained at 70% RH for cotton yarns sized with PVA, modified starch and polyacrylic acid size. It was thus concluded that the selection of suitable size formulations could enable corresponding sized yarns to be weaved at lower RH. The suitable size formulation was composed of 60% oxidized starch, 30% PVA1799 and 10% polyacrylic acid size. It was noticed that better abrasion resistance of yarns sized with solely modified starches were obtained at 65% RH.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-06-28T07:43:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520934880
  • Characterizing the total within-sample variation in cotton fiber length
           using the High Volume Instrument fibrogram
    • Authors: Md Abu Sayeed, Mithcell Schumann, John Wanjura, Brendan R Kelly, Wayne Smith, Eric F Hequet
      First page: 175
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Within-sample variation in cotton fiber length is important when explaining variation in yarn quality. However, typical High Volume Instrument (HVI) length parameters, the Upper Half Mean Length (UHML) and Uniformity Index (UI), do not characterize the total within-sample variation in fiber length. HVI fiber length measurements are based on the fibrogram principle where the HVI generates a curve called a fibrogram and reports the UHML and UI. Our results, based on 19,628 commercial bales, reveal that the typical HVI length measurements do not characterize unique types of length variation. Fibrograms from a subset of 538 commercial samples suggest that the fibrograms capture additional within-sample variation in fiber length that is not being currently reported. Two additional sets of samples were then used to evaluate the importance of this additional length variation. Partial Least Square Regression models and leave-one-out cross-validation reveal that the HVI fibrogram explains yarn quality better than current HVI length parameters and is comparable with the Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS) length distribution by number. The validation results show that the models built with the HVI fibrogram are better than models with the current HVI length parameters and at least as good as the AFIS length distribution by number when predicting yarn quality. Fiber length variation captured by the whole fibrogram could provide a new tool to breeders for selecting breeding lines and spinners for purchasing cotton bales.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-06-28T07:43:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520935212
  • Determining the loop length during knitting and dyeing processes
    • Authors: Jorge Llinares Berenguer, Pablo Diaz-García, Pau Miró Martinez
      First page: 188
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Loop length is one of the most relevant variables to control while producing knitted fabrics because the final characteristics of the finished fabric depend on it to a great extent. The procedure followed to calculate it is based on standard UNE-EN 14970, and it is cumbersome, time-consuming and requires yarn-measuring equipment. This study investigated several single jersey and 1 × 1 rib structures produced with different yarn counts and 100% cotton yarns, and a 1 × 1 rib structure that was half-plated in alternating courses by defining four relaxation states of the different fabrics: two knits (knitting and dry relaxation and knitting and wet relaxation) and two dyed (dyed and dry relaxation and dyed and wet relaxation). The most significant dimensional variables were characterized in all the relaxation states and models were presented that explain the variability of the yarn length absorbed by the loop using other variables that are much simpler to analyze.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-06-29T04:56:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520931898
  • Indexing surface smoothness and fiber softness by sound frequency analysis
           for textile clustering and classification
    • Authors: Hye Jin Kim, Seonyoung Youn, Jeein Choi, Hyeonji Kim, Myounghee Shim, Changsang Yun
      First page: 200
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Cutting-edge technology is being used in the fashion industry for three-dimensional (3D) virtual fitting programs to meet the demand for clothing manufacturing as well as textile simulating. For expanding the textile choices of the program users, this research looks at the indexation of tactile sensations, the texture of fabrics, which has been subjectively evaluated by the human hand. Firstly, this study objectively measured and indexed the surface smoothness and fiber softness of 749 fabrics through a tissue softness analyzer that mimics human hands. Secondly, after statistical analyses of the drape coefficient, each bending distance and Young's modulus for the initial tensile strength in the warp–weft directions, the thickness, and the weight of the fabrics, it was found that drape (Pearson coefficient = 0.532) and bending properties are the key factors in the fabric surface smoothness (TS750), while the fiber softness (TS7) showed a weak correlation with thickness (Pearson coefficient = 0.364), followed by the log value of the Young's modulus in the weft direction. Thirdly, we classified nine clusters for TS750 based on the 11 regression variables with significant Pearson coefficients, and characterized each cluster in order of surface smoothness (TS750) after Duncan post-hoc tests and analyses of variance (all statistically significant, p 
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-06-30T05:12:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520935211
  • Design and simulation of flexible jute antenna with performance validation
           on bending and soaking conditions
    • Authors: M Pandimadevi, R Tamilselvi, M Parisa Beham
      First page: 219
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Recently, there has been an abrupt increase in the integration of community antenna to flexible, textile and wearable applications. The proposed work introduces the design of a flexible wearable patch antenna using a jute fiber substrate for better performance. The antenna has been designed and simulated with jute substrate at the operating frequency of 3.23 GHz. The antenna has been fabricated and tested under normal, wet, on-hand and bending conditions using a vector network analyzer. The various parameters such as reflection coefficient parameter and voltage standing wave ratio of the fabricated antenna are measured and compared with the simulation results. The tested results show that the performance of the antenna under normal, wet, on-hand and bending conditions is almost approximately equal. Due to better performance in soaking and bending conditions as well as low cost and adequate availability of jute material, the proposed antenna can be used in various applications such as biomedical, military, radio location, ground radar, search and rescue applications, and more.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-06-30T05:12:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520935978
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