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  Subjects -> ANIMAL WELFARE (Total: 92 journals)
Showing 1 - 22 of 22 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acrocephalus     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Animal Sentience : An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Animal Welfare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Archives Animal Breeding     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Botanical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
British Birds     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
British Poultry Abstracts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access  
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access  
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access  
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
European Journal of Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal for Parasitology : Parasites and Wildlife     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Italian Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Animal Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Learning and Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access  
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access  
Majalah Ilmiah Peternakan     Open Access  
Media Peternakan - Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural History Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Access Animal Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pastoralism : Research, Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rangifer     Open Access  
Research Journal of Parasitology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista Argentina de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal     Open Access  
Revista Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access  
Revue de primatologie     Open Access  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies     Open Access  
Social Choice and Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Society and Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
South African Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
South African Journal of Wildlife Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Stockfarm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
TRACE ∴ Finnish Journal for Human-Animal Studies     Open Access  
Ursus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Veeplaas     Full-text available via subscription  
Vestnik Zoologii     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Zoologica Poloniae : The Journal of Polish Zoological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal Cover Animal Research International
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   ISSN (Print) 1597-3115
   Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [266 journals]
  • Evaluation of the use of pentazocine in combination with diazepam and
           ketamine for surgical anaesthesia in rabbits
    • Authors: Rita Ijeoma Udegbunam, Sunday Ositadimma Udegbunam, Austine Chukwudum Onuba, Nnenna Ebere Ugwu
      Abstract: The effect of pentazocine on diazepam/ketamine anaesthesia was evaluated in this study. Pentazocine (10 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly (im) prior to injection of diazepam (2 mg/kg, iv) and ketamine (15 mg/kg, im) in pentazocine /diazepam/ketamine (P/D/K) group. In the diazepam/ketamine group, anaesthesia was induced using diazepam (2 mg/kg, iv) and ketamine (15 mg/kg, im). All rabbits were laparotomized after induction of anaesthesia. Intra operatively, anaesthetic indices, physiologic variables and pain responses of rabbits were studied. Blood glucose and serum cortisol of rabbits were monitored post laparotomy. The durations of analgesia and anaesthesia were significantly shorter (p<0.05) in the P/D/K group. Respiratory rates of P/D/K group were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of D/K group. Pain scores of P/D/K group were significantly higher (p<0.05) than scores obtained in D/K group. At 30 and 90 minutes post laparotomy, blood glucose and serum cortisol of P/D/K group were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of D/K group. This study showed that pentazocine/diazepam/ketamine drug combination did not produce surgical anaesthesia in rabbits.Keywords: Ketamine, Diazepam, Pentazocine, Combined therapy, Surgical anaesthesia, Rabbit
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of anaesthetic characteristics of propofol in non-premedicated
           rabbits with experimentally induced post renal unilateral ureteral
           obstruction
    • Authors: Rita Ijeoma Udegbunam, Kenneth Chiedozie Ogbanya, Uzochi Ihuoma Ewunonu, Sunday Ositadimma Udegbunam, Austin Chukwudum Onuba, Nnenna Ebere Ugwu
      Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate the anaesthetic characteristics of propofol in rabbits with unilateral ureteral obstruction. Rabbits in two groups (B and C) were anaesthetized respectively with 10 mg/kg propofol intravenously (IV) on days 7 and 14 post unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Healthy rabbits in group A served as the control group and were anaesthetized with propofol (10 mg/kg, IV). Duration of anaesthesia obtained in the control group was significantly (p<0.05) shorter compared to anaesthetic duration of groups B and C. Time of recovery from anaesthesia in group A was significantly (p<0.05) faster compared to that obtained in group C. Quality of induction, recovery quality and depth of anaesthesia were noted to be good in the three groups of rabbits. Apnoea was observed more in diseased rabbits (groups B and C) compared to the healthy rabbits. Heart rate of rabbits in groups A and B increased but decreased in group C post propofol injection (PPI). Respiratory rates (RR) of rabbits in all the groups decreased PPI with the highest respiratory depression noted in group C. Haematocrit of all rabbits increased though not significantly (p>0.05) while white blood cell counts of rabbits decreased PPI. Total serum protein (TSP) and blood urea nitrogen levels of the three groups of rabbits increased PPI though not significantly (p>0.05). Serum potassium, chlorine and bicarbonate levels of rabbits in all the three study groups increased PPI. Propofol at the dose used in this study induced rapid induction and recovery from anaesthesia, adequate depth of anaesthesia with no untoward haematologic and serum biochemical effects in UUO rabbits. However it’s marked respiratory depressant effect and ability to increase serum potassium levels may preclude its use in advanced UUO.Keywords: Ureteral obstruction, Propofol, Potassium, Apnoea, Anaesthesia
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Histopathological changes in the gill and liver of Clarias gariepinus
           exposed to acute concentrations of Vernonia amygdalina
    • Authors: Bala Sambo Audu, Jamiu Oyewole Omirinde, Innocent Jonah Gosomji, Ponnak Ezekiel Wazhi
      Abstract: Vernonia amygdalina is a tropical African woody shrub with diverse phytochemical constituents recently linked with insecticidal properties that could replace the harmful agrochemical pesticide usage around aquatic environment. This study investigates the histopathological changes in the liver and gills of Clarias gariepinus exposed to acute toxic concentrations of V. amygdalina. C. gariepinus juveniles of varied weight (7.28 ± 0.03 g) and length (4.82 ± 0.06 cm) were exposed to graded aqueous concentrations (0.188, 0.375, 0.75, 1.50 and 3.00 g/l) of V. amygdalina. The varied concentrations of V. amygdalina precipitated varied dose-dependent histopathological distortions in the hepatic (central venous congestion and hepatocellular degeneration) and gill parenchyma (lamellar hyperplasia, clubbing and occluded inter-lamellar space) of exposed C. gariepinus. The liver (hepatocyte nuclear diameter and surface area) and gill (secondary lamellar length, width, interlamellar distance and surface area) morphometrics were strikingly altered varied concentrations of V. amygdalina. V. amygdalina seems to be toxic to fish and therefore has to be cautiously applied when used as insecticides to control unwanted organisms around the fish habitats.Keywords: Vernonia amygdalina, Clarias gariepinus, Histopathology, Liver, Gill
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Comparative evaluation of the influence of species, age and sex on carcass
           characteristics of camels, cattle, sheep and goats in Sahel environment
    • Authors: Gerald Nwachi Akpa, Hassan Yohanna Abbaya, Mahaman Edouard Saley
      Abstract: This study, comparative evaluation of sources of supply of edible meat from camel with cattle, sheep and goats in Sahel environment was conducted at Zinder Abattoir in Niger Republic. The factors considered were species, sex and age. Species significantly influenced (p˂0.01) the meat evaluation indices with camel being highest in most of the meat indices. Cattle yielded highest head and skin weights. Goat yielded highest dressing percentage. The sheep had no superiority in any index. Sex of the animal had no significant effect (p>0.05) on meat evaluation indices in camel and goats. It significantly affected (p<0.05; 0.01) the indices in cattle and sheep; except for hind quarter weights and edible offals in sheep (p>0.05). Age of the animals significantly (p<0.01) affected the meat evaluation indices in camel, cattle and sheep. It only significantly affected (p<0.05; 0.01) hind quarter weight, legs weight and edible offals in goats. The correlation observed among the meat evaluation indices showed some variable correlated relationship (p<0.05 – 0.01; r = 0.25 – 0.97 and r = 0.29 – 0.93) and (p> 0.05; r = -0.03 – 0.24 and r = 0.00 – 0.20). In conclusion, camel and ruminants meat productive performance can be assessed through their respective meat indices. Camels could serve as good sources of meat supply in the arid environment to supply the needed animal protein to the populace.Keywords: Camel, Ruminants, Meat evaluation indices, Meat supply, Sahel environment
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Blood metabolites of intensively reared gravid west African dwarf goats
           fed pulverized biofibre wastes based diets
    • Authors: Gladys Abiemwense Ibhaze, Adebowale Noah Fajemisin
      Abstract: Under intensive management, the haematological and some biochemical parameters were studied using twelve (12) West African dwarf (WAD) goats weighing 11.90 – 13.05 kg. Does were fed three dietary treatments; pulverized maize-cob/cassava peel (PMC/CsP), pulverized maize-cob/brewers’ grain (PMC/BG) and pulverized maizecob/ cassava peel/brewers’ grain (PMC/CsP/BG) such that four individually housed animals, each serving as a replicate. Animals were synchronized using prostaglandin (PGF2α) at 1 ml/10 kg intramuscularly to bring all the animals to oestrus and were then exposed to a proven buck for mating after 24 hour of administration. Prior to synchronization of the animals, three animals from each treatment were randomly selected and blood collected via the jugular vein into different sterilized specimen bottles with or without anti-coagulant (EDTA) for haematological and serum biochemical evaluations respectively. This was repeated at 20 weeks of gestation. The completely randomized design was adopted. Results showed that at the non-gravid and gravid stages, goats on PMC/BG had significantly higher (p<0.05) packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), mean cell volume (MCV) and mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), while goats on PMC/CsP/BG had significantly increased (p<0.05) white blood cell (WBC). Total proteins, urea, creatinine and alanine amino transferase (ALT) did not show significant difference (p>0.05) in the non-gravid and gravid goats, while aspartate amino transferase (AST) was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the non-gravid goats fed PMC/BG (90.01 iu/l). It can therefore be concluded that diets used in this study did not show adverse implications on the health of the animals hence its suitability as alternative feed source for gravid goats.Keywords: Pregnant goats, Dietary treatments, Pulverized maize-cob, Cassava peel, Brewers’ grain, Intensive management, Haematology, Serum biochemistry
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Haematological changes and evidence of multiple organ involvement in
           natural babesiosis in Nigerian dogs
    • Authors: Temidayo Olutayo Omobowale, Benjamin Obukowho Emikpe, Olugbenga Olayinka Alaka, Helen Oyebukola Nottidge
      Abstract: This study describes some haematological changes and the multiple organ damage observed in Nigerian dogs that died of canine babesiosis. 17 infected dogs with babesiosis, diagnosed by the detection of parasites in Giemsa stained thin blood smears and another 17 apparently healthy large breeds of dogs presented at the University of Ibadan Veterinary Teaching Hospital were enrolled in this study. Infected dogs were further sub-divided into the uncomplicated and complicated groups based on disease manifestations, while the full blood count and erythrocyte morphology were done using standard techniques. Tissue samples (brain, heart, lungs, kidneys, spleen and liver) were taken from five dogs that died of natural canine babesiosis and histopathological processed using standard techniques. Babesia negative dogs had lower neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio when compared with Babesia positive dogs. Complicated groups had higher neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio. Anisocytosis was the commonest encountered morphological abnormality. All of the five dogs used for the histopathological study had multiple organ lesions that involved the lungs 3(60 %), kidney 2(40 %), heart 2(40 %), brain 1(20 %), spleen 2(40 %) and liver 5(100 %). In conclusion, this study showed that neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio is a good diagnostic index to detect complications in babesiosis and also that multiple organ dysfunction is a major phenomenon in the pathophysiology of babesiosis in Nigerian dogs.Keywords: Canine babesiosis, Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, Multiple organ damage, Nigerian dogs
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Phenotypic evaluation of growth traits in two Nigerian local chicken
           genotypes
    • Authors: Vivian Udumma Oleforuh-Okoleh, Romanus Francis Kurutsi, Hanson Modhiochi Ideozu
      Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate growth traits, including body weight, body length, chest girth, leg length, shank length and shank circumference, using data obtained from 150 mixed sex birds originating from improved Nigerian local chicken (75 normal feather and 75 naked neck genotypes) of 4 – 16 weeks of age. Body weight of each genotype and at various ages was regressed on other growth traits studied. During the early growth phase (4 – 8 weeks), there were significant variations (p<0.05) between the normal feather and naked neck birds in body weight, body length, leg length and shank circumference with the normal feather having higher values. No disparity (p>0.05) was observed in the two genotypes for all traits by the 16th week of age. Strong and highly significant (p<0.001) correlation coefficients (r) were estimated between body weight and other growth traits in the normal feather (0.62 – 0.94) and naked neck (0.73 – 0.94). Apart from the 4th week of age, strong and positive correlations were obtained between body weight and the other traits (p<0.001). Significant and high coefficient of determination R2 was obtained when body weight was regressed on the other growth traits in the normal feather and naked neck population (0.89 and 0.90 respectively). The R2 was also high (>0.77) for all ages except at 4 weeks of age (0.04), indicating that most of these traits could be used to forecast body weight precisely at various ages.Keywords: Local chicken, Normal feather, Naked neck, Body weight, Growth traits, Linear model
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Growth performance, carcass response and cost benefit analysis of cockerel
           fed graded levels of cassava (Manihot esculenta) grit supplemented with
           Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf meal
    • Authors: Sylvester Esbame Okosun, Stanley Abiodun Eguaoje
      Abstract: A sixteen week trial was conducted to assess the effect of replacing cassava grit supplemented with Moringa leaf meal (MLM) for maize on the performance of 120 “day old” Harco cockerel chickens. Four experimental cockerel starter and finisher diets were formulated with diet 1 formulated to contain 0 % cassava grit while diet 2, 3 and 4 were formulated to contain cassava grit at 33.3, 66.6 and 100 % replacement for maize with 5 % of Moringa leaf meal inclusion in diets 2, 3 and 4 respectively. Chicks were randomly assigned to the four treatment diets in a completely randomized designed (CRD). Growth performance at finisher phase revealed that average live weight was significantly (p<0.05) highest 2.17 kg/bird in birds fed 66.6 % CGM. Weekly weight gain was also significantly (p<0.05) highest 0.86kg/bird among birds placed on 66.6 % CGM. Feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio were also significantly (p<0.05) affected by the treatment diets. The cost benefit analysis at finisher phase cost of fed consume ( ₦171.83/bird) was also highest in birds fed 66.6 % CGM. Cost of feed per kilogram weight gain has comparable values of ( ₦93.67 and  ₦93.21/bird) among birds fed diet 2 and 3. Total cost of production was least ( ₦640.74/bird) in birds fed 66.6 % CGM. Net profit ( ₦859.26) was highest in birds fed 66.6 % CGM. From this study, it is concluded that cassava grit can replace maize up to 66.6 % inclusion level with 5 % moringa leaf meal supplement in cockerel diet for optimum performance as well as good economic returnsKeywords: Cockerel, Cassava grit, Moringa leaf meal, Biological performance, Cost-benefit
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • The composition, abundance and distribution of zooplankton of River Niger
           at Onitsha stretch, Nigeria
    • Authors: Vivian-Deborah Nneka Arazu, Anthony Ekata Ogbeibu
      Abstract: The zooplankton assemblage of River Niger at Onitsha stretch was investigated at five sampling stations from January 2008 to December 2009. Some physical and chemical parameters were studied. Among these are: transparency, total alkalinity, conductivity, total dissolved solid (TDS), total suspended solid (TSS), total solid (TS), water level, nitrate, lead, iron and calcium varied significantly (p<0.01). Air and water temperature were significantly different (p<0.05) across the five stations. A total of 26 species of cladocera, 8 species of copepoda and 23 species of rotifera were encountered. The general diversity using Shannon Wiener and Margalef’s indices for zooplankton showed higher diversity in decreasing order of stations 2 > 4 > 3 > 5 >1. Similarity indices using Jaccard’s Bray Curtis and Euclidean distance indices showed that stations 1 and 5 and stations 2 and 4 respectively are more similar to each other, while station 3 is closer to 1 and 5 than it is to 2 and 4. The effect of adverse human activities and perturbations affect the composition and distribution of zooplankton at this study stretch.Keywords: Composition, Abundance, Distribution, Zooplankton, Onitsha, River Niger
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Pathomorphology and aerobic bacteria associated with pneumonia in small
           ruminants slaughtered at the Nsukka abattoir
    • Authors: Iniobong Chukwuebuka Ugochukwu, Chioma Inyang Aneke, Chukwunonso Kenechukwu Ezeasor, Wayuta Philip Msheila, S.I. Idoko, A.Y. Kwabugge, Shodeinde Vincent Olu Shoyinka, Chijioke Nwankwo Chineme, Kennedy Fionkfu Chah, Emmanuel Ikenna Ugochukwu
      Abstract: Pneumonia occurs in all ages of sheep and goats, in all breeds, in every country of the world causing heavy economic losses. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of pneumonia and aerobic bacteria flora associated with it in small ruminants slaughtered at the Nsukka abattoir. Pneumonic lung of small ruminants were examined for gross lesions. Lung samples were collected and processed using standard protocols for histopathological and bacteriological examinations. Lung samples from 342 goats and 40 sheep were examined. A total of 116(30.36 %) lungs had various types of pneumonia. Two major types of pneumonia were observed during histopathological examination; bronchopneumonia 64(55.17 %) and interstitial pneumonia 52(44.82 %). Out of the 116 pneumonic lungs collected over a six months period, 98 were caprine lungs and 18 were ovine lungs. Aerobic bacteria isolated from the pneumonic lungs were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mannheimia haemolytica, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Pasteurella multocida respectively. There was no significant seasonal, species and breed associations (p>0.05) between pneumonic lesions observed and the associated aerobic bacteria.Keywords: Small ruminants, Pneumonia, Interstitial pneumonia, Bronchopneumonia, Aerobic bacteria flora
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Effect of sub-acute exposure to bonny light crude oil on plasma
           biochemistry and liver histopathology of albino rat
    • Authors: Christopher Efe Oritseweyinmi Ikanone, Oluseyi Adeboye Akinloye, Regina Ngozi Ugbaja, Samuel Olatunbosun Omotainse, Olusola Lawrence Ajayi, Tolumide Michael Shopein
      Abstract: The study investigated the consequences of the effect of sub-acute exposure to Nigerian Bonny Light Crude Oil (BLCO) crude oil on the blood chemistry and integrity of the liver of male albino rats. A total of 20 male wistar rats were used for the study. Exposure to crude oil was achieved by oral administration of increasing doses (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 ml of BLCO/g body weight) to the rats every day for two weeks. The initial and final body weights were recorded. The toxic effects on the liver were accessed using commercial kits and histopathological studies were carried out using standard histopathological technique. The results revealed that liver cells were damaged due to the crude oil administered. There was significant increase (p<0.05) in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and total and direct bilirubin concentrations, and a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the total protein concentration as compared with the control group. Histopathological examinations indicated that crude oil caused severe pathological changes, it also revealed mild to severe disruption of the normal architectural structure of the liver accompanied by the death of many liver cells and the presence of pocket of blood within the liver parenchyma and cholangitis in the group treated with the highest dose (1.00 ml of BLCO /g body weight). The results therefore indicate that the sub-acute administration of the crude oil brought about impaired function of the liver which could lead to liver disease at very low doses and are such the use of the crude oil as a therapy to poisons, convulsion and other gastrointestinal disorders should be discouraged.Keywords: Crude oil, Blood chemistry, Enzymes, Histopathology, Hepatocytes
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Histogenesis of the stomach of helmeted guinea fowl (Numida
           meleagris
    )
    • Authors: Innocent Jonah Gosomji, Sulaiman Olawoye Salami, James Oliver Nzalak, Muhammed Umar Kawu, Godwin Chidozie Okpe, Yilzem George Gurumyen, Jamiu Oyewole Omirinde, Edward Christopher Dung, Naanman James Plang
      Abstract: The histogenesis of the stomach (proventriculus and ventriculus) of helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) was studied using light microscopy and histochemical techniques. Fifteen (15) embryos were utilized for this study. The result showed that at 10th and 13th days of embryonic development, the primordial proventriculus and ventriculus were lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium surrounded by mesenchyme connective tissue. At 19th day of embryonic development, the epithelium of the proventriculus and ventriculus as well as the proventricular glands was lined by simple cuboidal epithelium. Tunics; tunica muscularis and serosa were evident at this stage. At 23rd day of embryonic development, tubular glands of the ventriculus became canalized. The 27th day of embryonic develoment of the primordial proventriculus showed an organized glandular lobules, central cavity and prominent muscle layer while the ventriculus showed the presence of cuticle, simple tubular glands, loose connective tissues of the lamina propria and muscle layer. This study has shown that primordial stomach appeared to be completly differentiated to definitive stomach by the 27th day with the potential of commencing functional role.Keywords: Embryo, Proventriculus, Ventriculus, Guinea fowl, Numida meleagris
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • The role of zoonotic and parasitic agent in bioterrorism the need for
           biosecurity and biosafety standard and compliance in Nigeria
    • Authors: Victor Okey Okonkwo, Henry Ejidike Udeze
      Abstract: As a result of new world era of terrorism in 21st century; terrorist have employed different types of weapons to kill and maim people in soft targets. The risk posed by biological agents as a weapon needs evaluation both historical and technological for a better understanding. From historical and technological point of view biological agents are more dangerous and more devastating than other weapons of warfare. The relative ease of production and readily available sources of acquisition coupled with the technical know-how encourages the proliferation of biological weapons. This paper focuses on the role of biological agents (zoonoses and parasites) in bioterrorism the need for biosafety standard compliance to further reduce threat on biosecurity in Nigeria and Africa in general. The threat and antics of bioterrorism is very important and must be taken seriously by all nations.Keywords: Biosecurity, Zoonotic, Parasitic agent, Bioterrorism, Biosafety, Nigeria
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Preliminary cytological study of Amietophrynus regularis (Reuss, 1833)
           from Afon, Kwara State, Nigeria
    • Authors: Olaoluwa John Ademola, Ahmed Ayo Agboola, Muhammed Babatunde Salaudeeen
      Abstract: Information on the karyotype of Amietophrynus regularis is scarce. 8 specimens of A. regularis were collected from Afon, Kwara State, Nigeria. The specimens were injected intraperitoneally with 0.5 % colchicine and left for 5 hours before they were sacrificed. Chromosomes were prepared from the bone marrow of the femur. 80 metaphase spreads were scored and the diploid chromosome number ranged from 2n = 38 to 2n = 42. The modal number of chromosome was found to be 2n = 40 with percentage occurrence of 47.5 %.Keywords: Amietophrynus regularis, Afon, Chromosome, Metaphase, Karyotype
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Status of Dorcas gazelle (Gazella dorcas) in the area south of green
           mountain, Libya in 2007: challenges and opportunities for the future
    • Authors: Walid Algadafi, Christopher Hugh Young, Lynn Besenyei, Catherine Mary Tobin, Joma Ifhima
      Abstract: Threats to Dorcas gazelle were examined and the rate of decrease in population was estimated in the area south of the Green Mountain in North-East Libya. The results were collected from questionnaires and focal interviews. All previous studies had reported significant decreased in Dorcas gazelle population throughout Libya during the last years of the twentieth century. The results showed that Dorcas gazelle continues to exist but in very low numbers. The number of groups of gazelle has decreased and the estimated rate of decline has increased to between 60 and 90 % in 2007. The decline has been noticeable with typical herd sizes of approximately 50 – 100 gazelle being reported before 1970, 10 – 15 gazelle seen in the 1970s, 5 – 10 gazelle in the 1980s and from the 1990s onwards, group sizes of only 3 or fewer gazelles. Shared use of habitat with domestic sheep and predators does not appear to be detrimental to Dorcas gazelle, but the main threat for this animal is humans, who lack awareness of its natural value. Some respondents believed that Dorcas gazelle had left their habitat and migrated to other safe areas, but this study showed that the number of Dorcas gazelle was decreasing rapidly, mainly because of overhunting. Further research is needed into the current distribution and numbers of surviving Dorcas gazelle. Aerial and ground surveys of areas of potential habitat should be carried out to establish the current status and distribution. There is an urgent need for the implementation of management programme to conserve the gazelle involving the participation of local people.Keywords: Gazella dorcas, Green Mountain, North-East Libya, Questionnaire survey, Conservation, Hunting
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Effects of antioxidants consumption and low protein diets on liver and
           intestine histopathology and performance of Japanese quails (Coturnix
           coturnix japonica)
    • Authors: Mohammadali Jafargolipour, Tohid Vahdatpour, Hamid Mahmoodpour, Sina Vahdatpour
      Abstract: The study investigated the effects of two types of antioxidants, a natural antioxidant (Eselenium) and a synthetic antioxidant (loxidan) in diets containing protein value lower than essential requirements, on performance and histopathological changes in the liver and intestine of Japanese quails. The experimental diets were: Group A – basal diet (control), Group B – 15 % crude protein reduction without recommended antioxidant, Group C – 15 % crude protein reduction plus 1 g/kg E-selenium, Group D – 15 % reduction in crude protein plus 0.2 g/kg loxidan, Group E – 30 % reduction in crude protein without recommended antioxidant, Group F – 30 % reduction in crude protein plus 1 g/kg E-selenium. Group G - 30 % reduction in crude protein plus 0.2 g/kg loxidan. Birds in groups B and E showed a significant reduction (p<0.05) in body weight compared to the control group. Birds fed E-selenium and loxidan exhibited significantly better (p<0.05) body weights compared to the birds in groups D and F groups. Birds in group E fed with 30 % reduction in the dietary protein had significantly higher (p<0.05) liver weights. The relative weight of the intestine decreased in the birds in groups B and E compared to the control group. 15 and 30 % reduction in dietary protein intake of birds caused mild hyperemia and edema of the intestine. The severity of liver congestion and edema were lower in group E birds when compared with birds in group B. Results indicated that the used of two kinds of antioxidants (natural and synthetic) effect on the performance parameters of Japanese quails which were exposed to nutritional stresses (such as reducing dietary protein) compensated parts of the adverse effects. Therefore, antioxidants intake is useful for recovery of quails performance fed low-protein diets.Keywords: E-Selenium, Loxidan, Intestine, Liver, Performance, Protein, Quail
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Comparison of rectal and axillary temperatures of Isa brown and Harco
           Black layers fed different levels of dietary acetylsalicylic acid
    • Authors: Samuel Olanrewaju Aro, Innocent Bamidele Osho, Olusola Olufisayo Awoneye
      Abstract: This experiment was performed to compare the axillary and rectal temperature of two breeds of commercial layers: Harco Black (HB) and Isa Brown (IB) in their early stage of production. Four diets with different acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) levels of 0.00 % - the control diet (T1), 0.025 % (T2), 0.050 % (T3) and 0.075 % (T4) were fed to the birds throughout the eight weeks of the study. The result showed that the ambient temperatures were well above the birds’ thermo-neutral zone in the mornings (25.50oC), afternoons (31.75oC) and evenings (30.08oC) throughout the duration of the experiment. There were no breed differences (p>0.05) in the axillary temperature measured either in the mornings (MAXT), afternoons (AAXT) or evenings (EAXT) but the morning (MRT), afternoon (ART) and evening rectal temperature (ERT) differed between the HB and IB breed. ERT and EAXT were significantly different (p<0.05) among treatments. Layers fed dietary inclusion of 0.075 % ASA had the lowest ERT (41.54oC) and those fed the control diet had the highest ERT (41.72oC) and evening EAXT (40.85oC). The administration of ASA reduced the EAXT by 0.26oC and ERT by 0.18oC. Also, there was a decrease in the rectal temperature as the level of ASA in the diets increased. In conclusion, 0.075 % of ASA in layers diets could ameliorate the ill effects of heat stress on laying chickens through its anti-pyretic effects. Comparatively, the rectal temperature proved to be the more sensitive method of determining the core body temperature which fluctuates in consonance with the ambient temperature. Also, the Isa Brown breed could tolerate more heat stress than the Harco Black.Keywords: Ambient temperature, Heat stress, Harco Black, Isa Brown, Layers, Rectal temperature
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2017)
       
 
 
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