- “GREEN FIX” AS CRISIS MANAGEMENT. OR, IN WHICH WORLD IS
MALMÖ THE WORLD'S GREENEST CITY?
- Pages: 275 - 290
Abstract: As economic and ecological crises evolve in combination, some policy strategies might aim at killing the two birds with one stone. One recent example can be found in Malmö, Sweden, where crisis management has operated, we propose, as a green fix. The district of Västra hamnen (Western Harbour) is at the centre of the reinvention of the city: once the home of a world‐leading shipyard, it is now a no less prominent neighbourhood of ecological virtues. Through outlining the history of Malmö in general and the Western Harbour in particular, we identify how the municipality and local capital in concert increasingly used “green” strategies in the urban policies that started as crisis management in the 1990s. Today Malmö is reckoned to be among the world's greenest cities, and we reflect on the importance of this international recognition for the city. Finally, we develop a critique of the green fix as concealing crucial factors of scale, and hence running the risk of myopia.
- ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS AND URBAN ABANDONMENT: CASE STUDIES AND TYPOLOGICAL
- Pages: 291 - 308
Abstract: The article discusses the phenomenon of urban abandonment as a result of environmental hazards. Seen as an outcome of environmental drivers, the underlying assumption is that a characteristic of environmental hazards is their spatial and temporal constancy of impact, whereby processes and phenomena having taken place in the past have their analogies in the present. In order to generate insights for future research and policy development, there is a need to pay greater attention to the precarious relationship between humans and the natural environment, not least by drawing lessons from the past through the study of historical cases. The article clarifies the dynamic interactions of drivers and their progression through various stages of urban abandonment. This is done by recourse to an analysis of some general trends and an in‐depth examination of three selected case studies from Poland. It has two objectives. The first is to identify the historical role of environmental drivers in the process of urban abandonment, while the second one is to contribute to the typology of environmentally related processes of urban abandonment in order to better identify future calamities. With respect to the former, the findings reveal that the relation between environmental hazards and urban abandonment is pertinent in regions with specific geographic conditions and pertains only to certain categories of urban settlements. With respect to the latter, by drawing on these findings, we propose some alterations and amendments to McLeman's comprehensive model of settlement abandonment in the context of global environmental change.
- BROGÅRD BACKWARDS: THE HIGH‐END GOLF LANDSCAPE AND THE
MORPHOLOGY OF MANORIAL SPACE
- Pages: 309 - 324
Abstract: When Bro Hof Slott Golf Club – a high‐end, highprofile golf development in Upplands‐Bro, northwest of Stockholm – opened, the Brogård manor house became its clubhouse. Here a recent history of Bro Hof Slott as leisure space intermingles with a much longer history of Brogård as a landscape shaped through 400 years of nobility ownership. In place‐marketing and in short accounts, the estate's history is frequently reduced to merely a succession of names, sometimes combined with an appraisal of the scenic setting manorial ownership produced. The many hands, hooves and struggles historically shaping this landscape thus go missing, necessitating a more sustained focus on landscape morphology. How the estate landscape could be turned into an upmarket golf development is unintelligible without scrutinizing the nobility as a structuring force and the manorial landscape's current place in planning politics. Nobility power translated into extensive control of what could take place in the countryside. Brogård waschaped by crofters, tenant farmers and statare (labourers paid predominantly in kind) subordinate to the will of the estate owner, but also by all those processes resituating the nobility as class. Shaping the countryside, the nobility was in turn shaped by social movements, macro‐economic shifts and political decisions, together resulting in the particularities of the space now handled by municipal planning and appropriated to become Bro Hof Slott Golf Club. Through telling this story, I reconnect to a plea for acknowledging politics and political economy in analysing tourism and its spaces, while focus simultaneously lies on the dialectical entanglement of material landscape and its present‐day valuation.
- GHANA'S COCOA FRONTIER IN TRANSITION: THE ROLE OF MIGRATION AND LIVELIHOOD
- Authors: Michael Helt Knudsen; Jytte Agergaard
Pages: 325 - 342
Abstract: Since the first commercial planting of cocoa in Ghana more than a century ago, the production of cocoa has been a key factor in the redistribution of migrants and has played a pivotal role in the development of both sending and receiving communities. This process has been acknowledged in the literature for decades. However, how migration flows have changed in response to changing livelihoods dynamics of the frontier and how this has impacted on the development of the frontier has only attracted limited attention. Based on a study of immigration to Ghana's current cocoa frontier in the Western Region, this article aims to examine how immigration and frontier dynamics in the Western region are contributing to livelihood transitions and small town development, and how this process is gradually becoming delinked from the production of cocoa. The article focuses on how migration dynamics interlink with livelihood opportunities and strategies. It is argued that migrants to the current frontier can be divided into at least four different types based on their migration, settlement and livelihood practices. Accordingly, to understand how the cocoa frontier changes as well as its continuation beyond the frontier crop, there is a need for a broader understanding of the frontier concept, and how frontier transformation interacts with migration and livelihood dynamics.
- DETERMINANTS OF IMMIGRANTS’ ENTRY TO HOMEOWNERSHIP IN THREE NORDIC
CAPITAL CITY REGIONS
- Authors: Timo M. Kauppinen; Hans Skifter Andersen, Lina Hedman
Pages: 343 - 362
Abstract: The extent of homeownership among immigrants may be seen as an indicator of integration and as a determinant of ethnic residential segregation. Studies have shown differences in the determinants of homeownership between immigrants and natives, indicating that variation in homeownership is not only a function of differences in economic resources. These studies have largely focused on Anglo‐American contexts, using mostly cross‐sectional data. We apply survival analysis methods to analyse the determinants of entry to homeownership in the capital regions of three Nordic countries – Denmark, Finland and Sweden – utilizing longitudinal individual‐level register‐based datasets. We find that differences in entry to homeownership between natives and different immigrant groups cannot be explained by differences in socio‐economic background factors. We also find differences in the effects of these factors. Effects of income are generally weaker among non‐Western immigrants and immigrants are less responsive to changes in household composition. The share of non‐Western immigrants in the neighbourhood is only weakly related to entry to homeownership, while immigrants and natives living in public rental housing tend to be slightly less inclined to move to homeownership. Weaker income effects among immigrants, weak effects of ethnic segregation and the importance of the public rental sector differentiate our results from earlier findings. Weaker income effects may indicate that uncertainty about the future also affects middle‐income immigrants. Differences between the three contexts in housing markets and policies do not seem to matter much, although the results indicate that difficult access to the private rental sector may push immigrants to homeownership.