- BETWEEN PLACES AND FLOWS: TOWARDS A NEW AGENDA FOR NEIGHBOURHOOD RESEARCH
IN AN AGE OF MOBILITY
- Authors: Ronald van Kempen; Bart Wissink
Pages: 95 - 108
Abstract: This article discusses the role of the neighbourhood in an era of increased mobility. It explores the consequences of the “new mobilities paradigm”, which argues that the growing importance of flows – of people, goods and information – results in a deterritorialization of social practices. Rows thus gain prominence in comparison to places like regions and neighbourhoods. At the same time, however, neighbourhoods continue to play a role in the actions and imaginations of people, neighbourhood organizations, and government policies. People still live in neighbourhoods, and governments still try to solve often severe social problems through neighbourhood policies. We argue that the neighbourhood has to be re‐imagined as a collection of hybrid nodes connecting a multiplicity of flows that bind actors and objects in order to understand the potential effectiveness of these policies. From this new mobilities perspective, we make suggestions for future neighbourhood research.
- BLOCK, NEIGHBOURHOOD OR DISTRICT? THE IMPORTANCE OF GEOGRAPHICAL SCALE
FOR AREA EFFECTS ON EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT
- Authors: Ingar Brattbakk
Pages: 109 - 125
Abstract: Researchers show an increasing interest in the question of how a neighbourhood influences its residents. The crucial question is whether place‐related factors have an independent effect on individual life chances. This study examines adolescent development, with educational attainment as the dependent variable. It further addresses contextual effects that emerge at different intra‐urban geographical scales by exploring spatial effects at block, neighbourhood and district level in Oslo, Norway. How does the population composition at the three scales affect the level of future educational attainment for adolescents? What are the most important aspects of the population? Is the impact of various population indicators similar or different across the three scales? A number of causal mechanisms, which operate at different geographical scales, such as social interaction, shared social spaces, stigmatization and institutional resources are discussed. The study has a longitudinal approach, and includes register‐based information about the whole population of Oslo and a young target population. The analysis is based on two‐, three‐ and four‐level modelling. The results reveal significant effects on the youth's future educational attainment at all geographical levels and for all tested measures of social and demographic area composition. The share of low‐educated neighbours seems to have the strongest impact. Contradictory to most other studies, the results show that the highest geographical level (district) has the strongest effect. This surprising result is tentatively interpreted to emerge from a combination of three interwoven mechanisms: the youths' extended activity spaces and social interactions, the institutional aspects (schools), and place stigmatization.
- SPACES OF ENCOUNTER–DISPLACEMENT: CONTEMPORARY LABOUR MIGRANTS'
RETURN VISITS TO LATVIA
- Authors: Aija Lulle
Pages: 127 - 140
Abstract: The context of this paper is return visits to the homeland of labour migrants in Europe. The paper draws on data from the author's ethnographic fieldwork on the island of Guernsey and in Latvia during 2010–2012. By theorizing the relevance which the research participants attached to the phenomenon of corporeal co‐presence in relation to these visits, the paper bridges a timegeographic perspective with phenomenological interpretations. It explains how actual experience during the return path is influenced by both past trajectories and future anticipation. Return visits are conceptualized as spaces of encounter‐displacement and illustrated through examples of sensory and emotional experiences of anticipating for the return, the actual travel, time spent in the home area, and departure. The paper suggests that a focus on the body scale can help researchers to gain important insights into how the path is shaped through the corporeal experiences and how it shapes interpretations about home and possible future orientations.
- REALITIES OF DOING RESPONSIBILITIES: PERFORMANCES AND PRACTICES IN TOURISM
- Authors: Harng Luh Sin
Pages: 141 - 157
Abstract: With the ever increasing popularity of tours, flights and hotels that put ethics and responsibility at the forefront of their operations, what exactly does it mean to be responsible in tourism? Is it really so easy to be responsible? What actually happens on the ground in places where one tries to be responsible? Using fieldwork primarily conducted in/on Thailand, this research aims to unpack notions of responsibility in tourism, and argues that there is a need to go beyond simplistic idea(l)s and discourses about responsibilities, and instead interrogate actual and practical aspects of doing responsibilities. Fieldwork for this article is based on interviews with key decision makers in travel‐related companies, and interviews and participant observation at two case studies, namely Exotissimo Travel based in Bangkok, and the Elephant Camp (pseudonym). It highlights several aspects of the “realities” of doing responsibilities which complicates our ideas of what responsibility is about – that doing responsibilities is not at all easy; involves a continual questioning and negotiation of who is responsible for what; and how responsibilities in tourism can in fact be done to please tourists. This article therefore argues that there is no, and possibly cannot be, a conclusive statement on what responsibility is in practice, or what should or should not be considered as responsibilities. Instead, it brings to light the importance of contextualizing responsibilities and stresses the complex and plural nature in which responsibilities play out on the ground.
- SPACE, PRESSURES AND THE MANAGEMENT OF THE GREEK LANDSCAPE
- Authors: Georgios Tsilimigkas; Thanasis Kizos
Pages: 159 - 175
Abstract: Landscapes are the result of the interaction of natural and human factors, with many dimensions; they are part of natural and cultural heritage and an important component of the quality of life. Greece has heterogeneous and mixed landscapes issuing from both geomorphology and the impact of complex human systems. Despite the existence of many and early legislative efforts, Greece has a relatively poor history of spatial planning and landscape has been particularly neglected. The adoption of the European Landscape Convention (ELC) in 2010 provides an updated strategic context for integrating landscape in spatial planning. In this article, we seek to contribute to the discussion of landscape policies and the inclusion of the landscape level in the spatial planning national framework. We identify the dominant landscape types by categorizing landscapes at the national scale with reference to the (combined) presence of three different components: geomorphology, land cover and coasts/islands. Then, we investigate the most important processes of change for each type and link these processes with spatial planning policy. The identification of these dynamics sheds light on current and future trajectories of the changes of Greek landscapes, thus providing challenges for its management in the context of the ELC. The case study concerns the regional level; we focus on Attica, Thessaly, Epirus and the Cyclades and identify the principal characteristics according to the proposed landscape typology.
- IS SOCIAL CAPITAL USEFUL FOR EXPLAINING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN POLISH
- Authors: Jarosław Działek
Pages: 177 - 193
Abstract: The concept of social capital is widely perceived as a promising tool for explaining differences in economic development between countries and regions. According to this theory, weak links (bridging social capital) and social trust in an area favour its better access to other forms of capital, that is, economic and human capital. However, strong links (bonding social capital) may stifle creativity and entrepreneurship. Since the vast majority of research on the impact of social capital on economic development focuses on highly developed Western European countries, it seems particularly interesting to evaluate the usefulness of this approach when applied to post‐communist countries with their different experiences. The objective of this article is to identify the spatial variation of different forms of social capital in regions of Poland and then to test a hypothesis on the impact of this capital on regional economic development. The results demonstrate that despite the existing differences between regions there are no significant relationships between levels of social capital and economic development. This may be explained either by low social capital levels or by the overall degree of Polish economic development.