Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1543 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (725 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (389 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (108 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (130 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (130 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 130 of 130 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACSMs Health & Fitness Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACTIVE : Journal of Physical Education, Sport, Health and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ágora para la Educación Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education     Open Access  
American Journal of Sexuality Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Applied Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Apunts. Medicina de l'Esport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Arab Journal of Nutrition and Exercise     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Exercise in Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arquivos de Ciências do Esporte     Open Access  
Arquivos em Movimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arrancada     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Athletic Training & Sports Health Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
BMC Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Childhood Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
eJRIEPS : Ejournal de la recherche sur l'intervention en éducation physique et sport     Open Access  
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Éthique & Santé     Full-text available via subscription  
Fat Studies : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Body Weight and Society     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Fisioterapia em Movimento     Open Access  
Fitness & Performance Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food Science and Human Wellness     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Sports and Active Living     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Gelanggang Pendidikan Jasmani Indonesia     Open Access  
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geron     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Health and Physical Education Pedagogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Health Education Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Health Marketing Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Home Healthcare Now     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Human Movement     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Human Movement Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
IISE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesia Performance Journal     Open Access  
İnönü Üniversitesi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
International Journal of Men's Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
International Journal of Obesity Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Spa and Wellness     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sport, Exercise & Training Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Isokinetics and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of American College Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Athlete Development and Experience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Human Sport and Exercise     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Motor Learning and Development     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Physical Activity and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Physical Activity and Hormones     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Activity Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Physical Education and Human Movement     Open Access  
Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sport and Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Sport Sciences and Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Jurnal Pendidikan Kesehatan Rekreasi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Kerbala Magazine of Physical Edu. Seiences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Kinesiology : International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Kinesiology     Open Access  
Kinesiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Krankenhaus-Hygiene - Infektionsverhütung     Full-text available via subscription  
Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Médecine & Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription  
Mental Health and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
MHSalud : Movimiento Humano y Salud     Open Access  
Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Obesity Research & Clinical Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Obesity Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Obesity Science & Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Obesity Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pain Management in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
PALAESTRA : Adapted Sport, Physical Education, and Recreational Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Physical Activity and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Preventing Chronic Disease     Free   (Followers: 2)
Psychology of Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Quality in Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Race and Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBONE - Revista Brasileira de Obesidade, Nutrição e Emagrecimento     Open Access  
RBPFEX - Revista Brasileira de Prescrição e Fisiologia do Exercício     Open Access  
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport     Hybrid Journal  
Retos : Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deportes y Recreación     Open Access  
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Atividade Física & Saúde     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Ciências do Esporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Educação Física e Esporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista da Educação Física : UEM     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología del Ejercicio y el Deporte     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte : International Journal of Medicine and Science of Physical Activity and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue phénEPS / PHEnex Journal     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
SIPATAHOENAN : South-East Asian Journal for Youth, Sports & Health Education     Open Access  
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Sport and Fitness Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Sport Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Sport Sciences for Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport- und Präventivmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
SPORTIVE : Journal Of Physical Education, Sport and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Strength & Conditioning Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Timisoara Physical Education and Rehabilitation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise     Open Access  
Yoga Mimamsa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Здоровье человека, теория и методика физической культуры и спорта     Open Access  

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.112
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 34  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1715-5312 - ISSN (Online) 1715-5320
Published by NRC Research Press Homepage  [21 journals]
  • Introduction to the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Adults aged
           18–64 years and Adults aged 65 years or older: an integration of
           physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep
    • Authors: Robert Ross, Mark Tremblay
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 10 (Suppl. 2), Page v-xi, October 2020.

      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-10-15T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0843
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 10 (Suppl. 2) (2020)
       
  • Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Adults aged 18–64 years and
           Adults aged 65 years or older: an integration of physical activity,
           sedentary behaviour, and sleep
    • Authors: Robert Ross, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Lora M. Giangregorio, Ian Janssen, Travis J. Saunders, Michelle E. Kho, Veronica J. Poitras, Jennifer R. Tomasone, Rasha El-Kotob, Emily C. McLaughlin, Mary Duggan, Julie Carrier, Valerie Carson, Sebastien F. Chastin, Amy E. Latimer-Cheung, Tala Chulak-Bozzer, Guy Faulkner, Stephanie M. Flood, Mary Kate Gazendam, Genevieve N. Healy, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, William Kennedy, Kirstin N. Lane, Amanda Lorbergs, Kaleigh Maclaren, Sharon Marr, Kenneth E. Powell, Ryan E. Rhodes, Amanda Ross-White, Frank Welsh, Juana Willumsen, Mark S. Tremblay
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 10 (Suppl. 2), Page S57-S102, October 2020.
      The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology assembled a Consensus Panel representing national organizations, content experts, methodologists, stakeholders, and end-users and followed an established guideline development procedure to create the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Adults aged 18–64 years and Adults aged 65 years or older: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep. These guidelines underscore the importance of movement behaviours across the whole 24-h day. The development process followed the strategy outlined in the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. A large body of evidence was used to inform the guidelines including 2 de novo systematic reviews and 4 overviews of reviews examining the relationships among movement behaviours (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep, and all behaviours together) and several health outcomes. Draft guideline recommendations were discussed at a 4-day in-person Consensus Panel meeting. Feedback from stakeholders was obtained by survey (n = 877) and the draft guidelines were revised accordingly. The final guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations for a healthy day (24-h), comprising a combination of sleep, sedentary behaviours, and light-intensity and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity. Dissemination and implementation efforts with corresponding evaluation plans are in place to help ensure that guideline awareness and use are optimized. Novelty First ever 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Adults aged 18–64 years and Adults aged 65 years or older with consideration of a balanced approach to physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep Finalizes the suite of 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Canadians across the lifespan
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-10-15T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0467
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 10 (Suppl. 2) (2020)
       
  • Knowledge translation of the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for
           Adults aged 18–64 years and Adults aged 65 years or older: a
           collaborative movement guideline knowledge translation process
    • Authors: Jennifer R. Tomasone, Stephanie M. Flood, Amy E. Latimer-Cheung, Guy Faulkner, Mary Duggan, Rebecca Jones, Kirstin N. Lane, Frances Bevington, Julie Carrier, Matt Dolf, Kevin Doucette, Emma Faught, Madelaine Gierc, Nicole Giouridis, Reut Gruber, Nora Johnston, Kaitlyn D. Kauffeldt, William Kennedy, Amanda Lorbergs, Kaleigh Maclaren, Robert Ross, Kim Tytler, Alexandra J. Walters, Frank Welsh, Melissa C. Brouwers
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 10 (Suppl. 2), Page S103-S124, October 2020.
      Establishing a step-by-step process that provides practitioners with a blueprint for translating movement guidelines into action stands to optimize the investment in guideline development, improve guideline promotion and uptake, and ultimately enhance population health. The purpose of this paper is to describe how the Knowledge-to-Action framework and integrated knowledge translation were operationalized to systematically inform our knowledge translation (KT) efforts for the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Adults aged 18–64 years and Adults aged 65 years or older. In October 2018, the need for a KT Process, operating in tandem with the Guideline Development Process, led to the establishment of a KT team with a specific structure and terms of reference. The KT team collaboratively agreed on decision-making principles prior to selecting target audiences to focus their efforts. We undertook formative research to assess the local context and determinants of guideline dissemination and implementation efforts among target audiences. Plans for the subsequent steps and research are outlined. We highlight recommendations and lessons learned for applying the process in other settings. Novelty We outline a collaborative and systematic process and research program for the knowledge translation of movement guidelines. This paper provides an innovative and replicable blueprint to optimize future movement guideline knowledge translation efforts.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-10-15T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0601
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 10 (Suppl. 2) (2020)
       
  • Optimal messaging of the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Adults
           aged 18–64 years and Adults aged 65 years and older
    • Authors: Emma Faught, Alexandra J. Walters, Amy E. Latimer-Cheung, Guy Faulkner, Rebecca Jones, Mary Duggan, Tala Chulak-Bozzer, Kirstin N. Lane, Melissa C. Brouwers, Jennifer R. Tomasone
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 10 (Suppl. 2), Page S125-S150, October 2020.
      The Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Adults aged 18–64 years and Adults aged 65 years and older (“Guidelines”) integrate recommendations for physical activity, sedentary, and sleep behaviours. Given the novelty of these integrated Guidelines, it was important to consider messaging strategies that would be most effective in reaching Canadian adults. The purpose of this study was to examine optimal messaging of the Guidelines as it pertains to communication channels and messages. Representative samples of Guideline end-users (N = 1017) and stakeholders (N = 877) each completed a cross-sectional survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated along with tests of statistical significance. Inductive content analysis was used to code stakeholders’ comments (i.e., suggestions, concerns) on a draft version of the Guidelines. Most end-users had recently referred to online medical resources; family, friends, and co-workers; and physicians as communication channels for information regarding the movement behaviours. End-users and stakeholders felt that generic messages would foster self-efficacy to meet the Guidelines. Stakeholders highlighted a variety of considerations to ensure the Guidelines are inclusive towards diverse groups within the Canadian population. Findings will inform Guideline messaging. Novelty Most end-users referred to online medical resources; family, friends, and co-workers; and physicians as communication channels. End-users and stakeholders indicated that generic messages would foster self-efficacy to meet the Guidelines. Stakeholders expressed concerns about the inclusivity of the Guidelines for diverse socioeconomic groups.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-10-15T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0494
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 10 (Suppl. 2) (2020)
       
  • Development and application of an outcome-centric approach for conducting
           overviews of reviews
    • Authors: Michelle E. Kho, Veronica J. Poitras, Ian Janssen, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Travis J. Saunders, Lora M. Giangregorio, Jennifer R. Tomasone, Amanda Ross-White, Robert Ross
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 10 (Suppl. 2), Page S151-S164, October 2020.
      There are gaps in current guidance concerning how to conduct overviews of systematic reviews in an outcome-centric manner. Herein we summarize the methods and lessons learned from conducting 4 outcome-centric overviews to help inform the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Adults aged 18–64 years and Adults aged 65 years or older on the topics of resistance training, balance and functional training, sedentary behaviour, sleep duration. We defined “critical” and “important” outcomes a priori. We used AMSTAR 2 to assess review quality and sought 1 systematic review per outcome. If multiple reviews were required to address subgroups for an outcome, we calculated the corrected covered area (CCA) to quantify overlap. We report our methodology in a PRISMA table. Across the 4 overviews, authors reviewed 1110 full texts; 45 were retained (low to high quality per AMSTAR 2), representing 950 primary studies, enrolling over 5 385 500 participants. Of 46 outcomes, we identified data for 35. Nineteen outcomes required>1 review (CCA range: 0% to 71.4%). Our outcome-centric overviews addressed unique aspects of overviews, including selection and quality assessment of included reviews, and overlap. Lessons learned included consistent application of methodological principles to minimize bias and optimize reporting transparency. Novelty Overviews of reviews synthesize systematic reviews in a rigorous and transparent manner. Outcome-centric systematic reviews assess the quality of evidence for primary studies contributing to an outcome. This manuscript describes the development and application of extending the concept of outcome-centric systematic reviews to the design and conduct of outcome-centric overviews.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-10-15T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0564
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 10 (Suppl. 2) (2020)
       
  • Resistance training and health in adults: an overview of systematic
           reviews
    • Authors: Rasha El-Kotob, Matteo Ponzano, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Ian Janssen, Michelle E. Kho, Veronica J. Poitras, Robert Ross, Amanda Ross-White, Travis J. Saunders, Lora M. Giangregorio
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 10 (Suppl. 2), Page S165-S179, October 2020.
      The objective of this overview of systematic reviews was to determine the benefits and harms of resistance training (RT) on health outcomes in adults aged 18 years or older, compared with not participating in RT. Four electronic databases were searched in February 2019 for systematic reviews published in the past 10 years. Eligibility criteria were determined a priori for population (community dwelling adults), intervention (exclusively RT), comparator (no RT or different doses of RT), and health outcomes (critical: mortality, physical functioning, health-related quality of life, and adverse events; important: cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, mental health, brain health, cognitive function, cancer, fall-related injuries or falls, and bone health). We selected 1 review per outcome and we used the GRADE process to assess the strength of evidence. We screened 2089 records and 375 full-text articles independently, in duplicate. Eleven systematic reviews were included, representing 364 primary studies and 382 627 unique participants. RT was associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease incidence, and an improvement in physical functioning. Effects on health-related quality of life or cognitive function were less certain. Adverse events were not consistently monitored or reported in RT studies, but serious adverse events were not common. Systematic reviews for the remaining important health outcomes could not be identified. Overall, RT training improved health outcomes in adults and the benefits outweighed the harms. (PROSPERO registration no.: CRD42019121641.) Novelty This overview was required to inform whether there was new evidence to support changes to the recommended guidelines for resistance training.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-10-15T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0245
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 10 (Suppl. 2) (2020)
       
  • Balance and functional training and health in adults: an overview of
           systematic reviews
    • Authors: Emily Claire McLaughlin, Rasha El-Kotob, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Ian Janssen, Michelle E. Kho, Veronica J. Poitras, Robert Ross, Amanda Ross-White, Travis J. Saunders, Catherine Sherrington, Lora M. Giangregorio
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 10 (Suppl. 2), Page S180-S196, October 2020.
      This overview of systematic reviews examined the effect of balance and functional strength training on health outcomes in adults aged 18 years or older, to inform the Canadian 24-hour Movement Guidelines. Four electronic databases were searched for systematic reviews published between January 2009 and May 2019. Eligibility criteria were determined a priori for population (community-dwelling adults), intervention (balance and functional training), comparator (no intervention or different types/doses), and outcomes (critical: falls and fall-related injuries; adverse events; important: physical functioning and disability; health-related quality of life; physical activity; and sedentary behaviour). Two reviewers independently screened studies for eligibility and performed AMSTAR 2 assessment. One review was selected per outcome. Of 3288 records and 355 full-text articles, 5 systematic reviews were included, encompassing data from 15 890 participants in 23 countries. In adults 65 years and older, balance and functional training and Tai Chi reduced the rate of falls and the number of people who fell, and improved aspects of physical functioning and physical activity. The effect on health-related quality of life and falls requiring hospitalization was uncertain. While inconsistently monitored, only 1 serious adverse event was reported. No evidence was available in adults under age 65 years. Included systematic reviews and primary evidence reported by review authors ranged in quality. Overall, participation in balance and functional training reduced falls and improved health outcomes in adults 65 years of age and older. PROSPERO registration no.: CRD42019134865. Novelty This overview informs updated guidelines for balance training in adults. Balance and functional training reduced falls and improved health outcomes.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-10-15T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0279
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 10 (Suppl. 2) (2020)
       
  • Sedentary behaviour and health in adults: an overview of systematic
           reviews
    • Authors: Travis J. Saunders, Travis McIsaac, Kevin Douillette, Nick Gaulton, Stephen Hunter, Ryan E. Rhodes, Stephanie A. Prince, Valerie Carson, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Sebastien Chastin, Lora Giangregorio, Ian Janssen, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Michelle E. Kho, Veronica J. Poitras, Kenneth E. Powell, Robert Ross, Amanda Ross-White, Mark S. Tremblay, Genevieve N. Healy
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 10 (Suppl. 2), Page S197-S217, October 2020.
      The purpose of this overview of systematic reviews was to determine the relationship between different types and patterns of sedentary behaviour and selected health outcomes in adults and older adults. Five electronic databases were last searched in May, 2019, with a 10-year search limit. Included reviews met the a priori population (community-dwelling adults aged 18 years and older), intervention/exposure/comparator (various types and/or patterns of sedentary behaviour), and outcomes criteria. Eighteen systematic reviews were included in the evidence synthesis. High levels of sedentary behaviour are unfavourably associated with cognitive function, depression, function and disability, physical activity levels, and physical health-related quality of life in adults. Reducing or breaking up sedentary behaviour may benefit body composition and markers of cardiometabolic risk. Total sedentary behaviour and TV viewing were most consistently associated with unfavourable health outcomes, while computer and Internet use may be favourably associated with cognitive function for older adults. The quality of evidence within individual reviews (as assessed by review authors) varied from low to high, while the certainty of evidence was low to very low. These findings have important public health implications, suggesting that adults should avoid high levels of sedentary behaviour and break-up periods of prolonged sitting. (PROSPERO registration nos.: CRD42019123121 and CRD42019127157.) Novelty High levels of sedentary behaviour are unfavourably associated with important health outcomes in adults. Reducing or breaking up sedentary behaviour may benefit body composition and markers of cardiometabolic risk. Computer and Internet use may be favourably associated with cognitive function in older adults.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-10-15T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0272
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 10 (Suppl. 2) (2020)
       
  • Sleep duration and health in adults: an overview of systematic reviews
    • Authors: Jean-Philippe Chaput, Caroline Dutil, Ryan Featherstone, Robert Ross, Lora Giangregorio, Travis J. Saunders, Ian Janssen, Veronica J. Poitras, Michelle E. Kho, Amanda Ross-White, Julie Carrier
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 10 (Suppl. 2), Page S218-S231, October 2020.
      The objective of this overview of systematic reviews was to examine the associations between sleep duration and health outcomes in adults. Four electronic databases were searched in December 2018 for systematic reviews published in the previous 10 years. Included reviews met the a priori determined population (community-dwelling adults aged 18 years and older), intervention/exposure/comparator (various levels of sleep duration), and outcome criteria (14 outcomes examined). To avoid overlap in primary studies, we used a priority list to choose a single review per outcome; reviews that examined the effect of age and those that looked at dose–response were prioritized. A total of 36 systematic reviews were eligible and 11 were included. Reviews included comprised 4 437 101 unique participants from 30 countries. Sleep duration was assessed subjectively in 96% of studies and 78% of studies in the reviews were prospective cohort studies. The dose–response curves showed that the sleep duration that was most favourably associated with health was 7–8 h per day. Modification of the effect by age was not apparent. The quality of the evidence ranged from low to high across health outcomes. In conclusion, the available evidence suggests that a sleep duration of 7–8 h per day is the one most favourably associated with health among adults and older adults. (PROSPERO registration no.: CRD42019119529.) Novelty This is the first overview of reviews that examines the influence of sleep duration on a wide range of health outcomes in adults. Seven to 8 h of sleep per day was most favourably associated with health. Effect modification by age was not evident.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-10-15T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0034
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 10 (Suppl. 2) (2020)
       
  • Sleep timing, sleep consistency, and health in adults: a systematic review
    • Authors: Jean-Philippe Chaput, Caroline Dutil, Ryan Featherstone, Robert Ross, Lora Giangregorio, Travis J. Saunders, Ian Janssen, Veronica J. Poitras, Michelle E. Kho, Amanda Ross-White, Sarah Zankar, Julie Carrier
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 10 (Suppl. 2), Page S232-S247, October 2020.
      The objective of this systematic review was to examine the associations between sleep timing (e.g., bedtime/wake-up time, midpoint of sleep), sleep consistency/regularity (e.g., intra-individual variability in sleep duration, social jetlag, catch-up sleep), and health outcomes in adults aged 18 years and older. Four electronic databases were searched in December 2018 for articles published in the previous 10 years. Fourteen health outcomes were examined. A total of 41 articles, including 92 340 unique participants from 14 countries, met inclusion criteria. Sleep was assessed objectively in 37% of studies and subjectively in 63% of studies. Findings suggest that later sleep timing and greater sleep variability were generally associated with adverse health outcomes. However, because most studies reported linear associations, it was not possible to identify thresholds for “late sleep timing” or “large sleep variability”. In addition, social jetlag was associated with adverse health outcomes, while weekend catch-up sleep was associated with better health outcomes. The quality of evidence ranged from “very low” to “moderate” across study designs and health outcomes using GRADE. In conclusion, the available evidence supports that earlier sleep timing and regularity in sleep patterns with consistent bedtimes and wake-up times are favourably associated with health. (PROSPERO registration no.: CRD42019119534.) Novelty This is the first systematic review to examine the influence of sleep timing and sleep consistency on health outcomes. Later sleep timing and greater variability in sleep are both associated with adverse health outcomes in adults. Regularity in sleep patterns with consistent bedtimes and wake-up times should be encouraged.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-10-15T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0032
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 10 (Suppl. 2) (2020)
       
  • A systematic review of compositional data analysis studies examining
           associations between sleep, sedentary behaviour, and physical activity
           with health outcomes in adults
    • Authors: Ian Janssen, Anna E. Clarke, Valerie Carson, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Lora M. Giangregorio, Michelle E. Kho, Veronica J. Poitras, Robert Ross, Travis J. Saunders, Amanda Ross-White, Sebastien F.M. Chastin
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 10 (Suppl. 2), Page S248-S257, October 2020.
      This systematic review determined if the composition of time spent in movement behaviours (i.e., sleep, sedentary behaviour (SED), light physical activity, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) is associated with health in adults. Five electronic databases were searched in August 2019. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were peer-reviewed, examined community-dwelling adults, and used compositional data analysis to examine the associations between the composition of time spent in movement behaviours and health outcomes. Eight studies (7 cross-sectional, 1 prospective cohort) of>12 000 unique participants were included. Findings indicated that the 24-h movement behaviour composition was associated with all-cause mortality (1 of 1 analyses), adiposity (4 of 4 analyses), and cardiometabolic biomarkers (8 of 15 analyses). Reallocating time into MVPA from other movement behaviours was associated with favourable changes to most health outcomes and taking time out of SED and reallocating it into other movement behaviours was associated with favourable changes to all-cause mortality. The quality of evidence was very low for all health outcomes. In conclusion, these findings support the notion that the composition of movement across the entire 24-h day matters, and that recommendations for sleep, SED, and physical activity should be combined into a single public health guideline. (PROSPERO registration no.: CRD42019121641.) Novelty The 24-h movement behaviour composition is associated with a variety of health outcomes. Reallocating time into MVPA is favourably associated with health. Reallocating time out of SED is associated with favourable changes to mortality risk.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-10-15T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0160
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 10 (Suppl. 2) (2020)
       
  • Dissemination and implementation of national physical activity, sedentary
           behaviour, and/or sleep guidelines among community-dwelling adults aged 18
           years and older: a systematic scoping review and suggestions for future
           reporting and research
    • Authors: J.R. Tomasone, K.D. Kauffeldt, T.L. Morgan, K.W. Magor, A.E. Latimer-Cheung, G. Faulkner, A. Ross-White, V. Poitras, M.E. Kho, R. Ross
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 10 (Suppl. 2), Page S258-S283, October 2020.
      Strategies for dissemination (purposive distribution of a guideline to specific audiences) and implementation (actions to support the general public in meeting guideline recommendations/behavioural benchmarks) of national movement guidelines (physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour, and sleep) have yet to be synthesized. The purpose of this systematic scoping review was to identify strategies for dissemination and implementation of national PA, sedentary behaviour, and/or sleep guidelines among community-dwelling adults (aged>18 years) and/or stakeholders in Canada and analogous countries. Five search approaches (e.g., published literature, grey literature, targeted web-based, custom Google, and content expert consultation) identified records (e.g., empirical studies, organizational reports, website pages, or guideline messages) that discussed and/or evaluated dissemination or implementation strategies for a prespecified list of guidelines. A modified strategy classification system was developed to chart the data. Forty-seven reports met inclusion criteria. Dissemination strategies (n = 42) were more frequently reported than implementation strategies (n = 24). Implementation strategies were more frequently evaluated (n = 13 vs. 7 dissemination strategies) and associated with positive outcomes. The 13 studies that evaluated strategies were at high or serious risk of bias. We identified limited information about the dissemination and implementation of national movement guidelines and identified strategies were rarely evaluated. Greater efforts are required to increase the impact of guidelines among the general public and stakeholders and to build the evidence base in this field. (Open Science Framework registration: https://osf.io/4tyw3.) Novelty An adapted movement guideline dissemination and implementation strategy classification framework is provided. Knowledge translation efforts should be documented and evaluated to advance science and practice in the movement guideline field.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-10-15T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0251
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 10 (Suppl. 2) (2020)
       
  • CSEP Special Supplement: Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Adults
           aged 18–64 years and Adults aged 65 years or older / Supplément
           spécial de la SCPE : Directives canadiennes en matière de mouvement sur
           24 heures pour les adultes âgés de 18 à 64 ans et les adultes âgés de
           65 ans et plus
    • Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 10 (Suppl. 2), Page iii-iii, October 2020.

      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-10-15T05:32:58Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0874
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 10 (Suppl. 2) (2020)
       
  • Healthy brain, healthy life: a review of diet and exercise interventions
           to promote brain health and reduce Alzheimer’s disease risk
    • Authors: Bradley J. Baranowski, Daniel M. Marko, Rachel K. Fenech, Alex J.T. Yang, Rebecca E.K. MacPherson
      Pages: 1055 - 1065
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 10, Page 1055-1065, October 2020.
      With the world’s population aging at a rapid rate, the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has significantly increased. These statistics are alarming given recent evidence that a third of dementia cases may be preventable. The role of lifestyle factors, such as diet and exercise, can directly alter the risk of disease development. However, an understanding of the effectiveness of dietary patterns and exercise strategies to reduce AD risk or improve brain function is not fully understood. The aim of this review is to discuss the effects of diet and exercise on AD risk. Key components of the Western and Mediterranean diets are discussed in relation to AD progression, as well as how physical activity promotes brain health. Components of the Western diet (saturated fatty acids and simple carbohydrates) are detrimental to the brain, impair cognition, and increase AD pathologies. While components of the Mediterranean diet (polyunsaturated fatty acids, polyphenols, and antioxidants) are considered to be neuroprotective. Exercise can significantly reduce the risk of AD; however, specific exercise recommendations for older adults are limited and optimal intensity, duration, and type remains unknown. This review highlights important modifiable risk factors for AD and points out potential avenues for future research. Novelty Diet and exercise are modifiable factors that can improve brain health and reduce the risk of AD. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, polyphenols, and antioxidants are neuroprotective. Exercise reduces neuroinflammation, improves brain insulin sensitivity, and increases brain derived neurotrophic factor.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-07-27T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0910
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Starting strong: Dietary, behavioral, and environmental factors that
           promote “strength” from conception to age 2 years
    • Authors: Robert Murray
      Pages: 1066 - 1070
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 10, Page 1066-1070, October 2020.
      Beginning with conception and continuing through childhood and adolescence, the word “strength” connotes the totality of optimal early bone and tissue growth; neural wiring of the brain; and acquisition of fine motor, gross motor, language, and socioemotional skills. The robustness of each of these attributes depend on 3 critical epigenetic (external) factors: the quality of nutrition; positive adult nurturing; and experiences acquired within a stimulating, safe environment that affords free exploration. This review highlights the relationship between the epigenetic factors in the period of conception to age 2 years and a child’s future health, cognitive capacity, and social aptitude, which collectively comprise their “strength”. This paper was presented as part of the 2018 Strength Summit conference entitled, The Role of Strength in Optimal Health and Well-being. Novelty Strength in infants signifies the totality of optimal early growth and neural wiring of the brain. Strength at this life stage also includes the acquisition of motor, language, and socioemotional skills. Three epigenetic factors are critical during birth to 24 months: nutrition, nurturing, and free exploration.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-05-22T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0073
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Growing up strong: The importance of physical, mental, and emotional
           strength during childhood and adolescence with focus on dietary factors
    • Authors: Heather J. Leidy, Jess A. Gwin
      Pages: 1071 - 1080
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 10, Page 1071-1080, October 2020.
      Childhood and adolescence are critical time periods for growth and development. Given the current physical and psychological health concerns affecting United States youth, an emerging area of interest exists supporting the importance of physical and psychological aspects of strength for health, resilience, and well-being through these life stages. This synopsis highlights the key concepts that were presented within the 2018 Strength Summit conference, entitled The Role of Strength in Optimal Health and Well-being. During the conference, strength was broadly defined as the ability to successfully respond to a challenge. Although much of the current research focuses on strength from a muscle function and performance perspective, mental and emotional strength are also important components of overall health and well-being, especially in children and adolescents. This paper provides a brief overview of the clinical and/or research-based strength outcomes, summarizes the relationship between strength and health, and discusses evidence-based dietary factors that promote strength in children and adolescents. Novelty Building physical, mental, and emotional strength during childhood and adolescence lays the foundation for health and well-being. Emerging evidence indicate positive associations between diet quality and strength in children and adolescents. Promising areas include the promotion of family-based meals, with focus on breakfast, for improved strength in United States youth.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-07-10T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0058
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Acute exercise effects on postprandial fat oxidation: meta-analysis and
           systematic review
    • Authors: Regis C. Pearson, Alyssa A. Olenick, Edward S. Green, Nathan T. Jenkins
      Pages: 1081 - 1091
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 10, Page 1081-1091, October 2020.
      The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize and evaluate current literature examining the effects of exercise on postprandial fat oxidation, as well as to provide future direction. A quantitative review was performed using meta-analytic methods. A moderator analysis was performed to investigate potential variables that could influence the effect of exercise on postprandial fat oxidation. Fifty-six effects from 26 studies were retrieved. There was a moderate effect of exercise on postprandial fat oxidation (Cohen’s d = 0.58 (95% CI, 0.39 to 0.78)). Moderator analysis revealed that sex, age, weight status, training status, exercise type, exercise intensity, timing of exercise, and composition of the meal challenge significantly affected the impact of prior exercise on postprandial fat oxidation. The moderator analysis also indicated that most previous studies have investigated the impact of prior moderate-intensity endurance exercise on postprandial fat oxidation in young, healthy, lean men. Suggested priorities for future research in this area include (i) an examination of sex differences in and/or female-specific aspects of postprandial metabolism; (ii) a comprehensive evaluation of exercise modalities, intensities, and durations; and (iii) a wider variety of test meal compositions, especially those with higher fat content. Novelty A systematic review of the impact of exercise on postprandial fat oxidation was performed using meta-analytic methods. Analysis revealed a moderate effect of exercise on postprandial fat oxidation. The presented data support a need for future studies to investigate sex differences and to include comprehensive evaluations of exercise modalities, intensities, and duration.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0917
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Éléments structurant les programmes d’activité physique dans la lutte
           contre le surpoids et l’obésité : état des lieux et suggestions
    • Authors: Coralie Dumoulin, Eric Reynes, Sophie E. Berthouze
      Pages: 1099 - 1106
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 10, Page 1099-1106, October 2020.
      À ce jour, les programmes d’activité physique (AP) visant les personnes atteintes de surpoids et d’obésité s’organisent autour des recommandations érigées pour la population générale. Toutefois, ces personnes présentent des caractéristiques particulières qui nécessitent un accompagnement adapté. Afin de pouvoir amorcer un travail de recommandation, l’objectif de cet article était de répertorier les critères utilisés pour décrire et étudier les programmes d’AP à destination des personnes atteintes de surpoids et d’obésité et les suivis post-programmes. Une revue systématique des méta-analyses et revues systématiques portant sur la prise en charge du surpoids et de l’obésité adulte a permis, notamment, de mettre en évidence que peu d’éléments descriptifs des programmes sont rapportés de manière systématique, et que les programmes sont rarement suffisamment détaillés pour pouvoir calculer une dose d’AP ou permettre leur comparaison. Ces convergences, disparités ou manques dans la description des programmes d’AP, ont permis d’engager une réflexion sur l’intérêt des différents critères ainsi que sur l’intérêt de leur systématisation dans les dispositifs de prise en charge de la gestion du poids incluant l’AP, pour ce que nous espérons être une première étape vers l’élaboration de recommandations en matière de prise en charge du surpoids et de l’obésité par l’AP. Les nouveautés Objectif : répertorier les critères de description des programmes d’AP dans la prise en charge du surpoids et de l’obésité. Critères à systématiser : calcul dose d’AP, individualisation programme. Critères à développer : taux d’abandon comme indicateur d’adaptation du programme, stratégie de gestion de la fatigue.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-04-13T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0890
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Receptor for advanced glycation end products modulates oxidative stress
           and mitochondrial function in the soleus muscle of mice fed a high-fat
           diet
    • Authors: Fritz Line Velayoudom-Cephise, Mariola Cano-Sanchez, Sylvie Bercion, Frédéric Tessier, Yichi Yu, Eric Boulanger, Remi Neviere
      Pages: 1107 - 1117
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 10, Page 1107-1117, October 2020.
      Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and activation of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) are implicated in the progression of pathologies associated with aging, chronic inflammation, diabetes, and cellular stress. RAGE activation is also implicated in cardiovascular complications of type 2 diabetes, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, accelerated vascular diseases, and cardiomyopathy. Studies investigating the effects of AGE/RAGE axis activation on skeletal muscle oxidative stress and metabolism are more limited. We tested whether a high-fat diet (HFD) would alter circulating AGE concentration, skeletal muscle AGE accumulation, and oxidative stress in wild-type and RAGE-deficient mice. The physiological significance of AGE/RAGE axis activation in HFD-fed mice was evaluated in terms of exercise tolerance and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex activity. HFD elicited adiposity, abnormal fat distribution, and oral glucose intolerance. HFD also induced accumulation of Nε-carboxymethyl-l-lysine, increased protein carbonyl levels, and impaired respiratory chain complex activity in soleus muscle. Ablation of RAGE had no effects on weight gain and oral glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. Peak aerobic capacity and mitochondrial cytochrome-c oxidase activity were restored in HFD-fed RAGE−/− mice. We concluded that RAGE signaling plays an important role in skeletal muscle homeostasis of mice under metabolic stress. Novelty HFD in mice induces accumulation of AGEs, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction in the soleus muscle. RAGE, the multi-ligand receptor for AGEs, modulates oxidative stress and mitochondrial electron transport chain function in the soleus muscle of HFD-fed mice.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-04-14T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0936
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Effects of cultured dairy and nondairy products added to breakfast cereals
           on blood glucose control, satiation, satiety, and short-term food intake
           in young women
    • Authors: Kathleen Mather, Ruth Boachie, Younes Anini, Shirin Panahi, G. Harvey Anderson, Bohdan L. Luhovyy
      Pages: 1118 - 1126
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 10, Page 1118-1126, October 2020.
      Breakfast cereals are often consumed with dairy products or nondairy alternatives; however, the effect of the combination on blood glucose and food intake control is not well investigated. In a randomized, crossover study, 24 healthy women (age: 22.7 ± 2.5 years; body mass index: 22.1 ± 1.5 kg/m2) consumed, to satiation, 1 of 3 treatments: Greek yogurt with granola (150 kcal, 9.2 g protein, 2.6 g fat, 2.0 g dietary fibre, and 21.5 g available carbohydrate/100 g); cultured coconut product with granola (146 kcal, 3.2 g protein, 3.2 g fat, 5.6 g dietary fibre, and 21.9 g available carbohydrate/100 g); or water control. The data were analyzed with repeated-measures ANOVA. The 2 h blood glucose iAUC was 52% lower after the dairy compared with nondairy treatment (P < 0.0001). While there were no differences in food intake between the caloric treatments consumed to satiation, protein intake was 3 times higher and fibre intake was 4 times lower after the dairy compared with nondairy treatment. Both caloric treatments resulted in similar suppression of ad libitum food intake at 2 h (P < 0.003) and subjective appetite over 2 h (P < 0.0001) compared with water. The cumulative food intake over 2 h was lower after water (P < 0.05). The 1.8-fold increase in postprandial insulin after dairy compared with nondairy treatment may explain the reduction in blood glucose without an increase in subsequent energy intake. Novelty Blood glucose in young females is lower after a breakfast with granola in a high-protein cultured dairy than when in a high-fibre nondairy cultured product. Subjective appetite over 2 h and food intake 2 h later was similarly lower after both breakfasts but cumulative intake was higher compared with breakfast skipping.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-04-15T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0772
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Hypoglycaemic effect of catalpol in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced
           prediabetes
    • Authors: Dengqiu Xu, Xiaofei Huang, Hozeifa M. Hassan, Lu Wang, Sijia Li, Zhenzhou Jiang, Luyong Zhang, Tao Wang
      Pages: 1127 - 1137
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 10, Page 1127-1137, October 2020.
      Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major health problem and a societal burden. Individuals with prediabetes are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Catalpol, an iridoid glycoside, has been reported to exert a hypoglycaemic effect in db/db mice, but its effect on the progression of prediabetes is unclear. In this study, we established a mouse model of prediabetes and examined the hypoglycaemic effect, and the mechanism of any such effect, of catalpol. Catalpol (200 mg/(kg·day)) had no effect on glucose tolerance or the serum lipid level in a mouse model of impaired glucose tolerance-stage prediabetes. However, catalpol (200 mg/(kg·day)) increased insulin sensitivity and decreased the fasting glucose level in a mouse model of impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance-stage prediabetes. Moreover, catalpol increased the mitochondrial membrane potential (1.52-fold) and adenosine triphosphate content (1.87-fold) in skeletal muscle and improved skeletal muscle function. These effects were mediated by activation of the insulin receptor-1/glucose transporter type 4 (IRS-1/GLUT4) signalling pathway in skeletal muscle. Our findings will facilitate the development of a novel approach to suppressing the progression of diabetes at an early stage. Novelty Catalpol prevents the progression of prediabetes in a mouse model of prediabetes. Catalpol improves insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. The effects of catalpol are mediated by activation of the IRS-1/GLUT4 signalling pathway.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-04-15T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0075
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Heart rate variability and recovery following maximal exercise in
           endurance athletes and physically active individuals
    • Authors: Robert F. Bentley, Emily Vecchiarelli, Laura Banks, Patric E.O. Gonçalves, Scott G. Thomas, Jack M. Goodman
      Pages: 1138 - 1144
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 10, Page 1138-1144, October 2020.
      The purpose of this study was to determine potential adverse cardiac effects of chronic endurance training by comparing sympathovagal modulation via heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate recovery (HRR) in middle-aged endurance athletes (EA) and physically active individuals (PA) following maximal exercise. Thirty-six (age, 53 ± 5 years) EA and 19 (age, 56 ± 5 years) PA were recruited to complete a 2-week exercise diary and graded exercise to exhaustion. Time domain and power spectral HRV analyses were completed on recorded R-R intervals. EA had a greater HRR slope following exercise (95% confidence interval, 0.0134–0.0138 vs. 0.0101–0.0104 beats/s; p < 0.001). While EA had greater HRR at 1–5 min after exercise (all p < 0.01), PA and EA did not differ when expressed as a percentage of baseline heart rate (130 ± 19 vs. 139 ± 19; p = 0.2). Root mean square of successive differences in R-R intervals (rest and immediately after exercise) were elevated in EA (p < 0.05). Low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) spectral components were nonsignificantly elevated after exercise (p = 0.045–0.147) in EA while LF/HF was not different (p = 0.529–0.986). This data suggests greater HRR in EA may arise in part due to a lower resting HR. While nonsignificant elevations in HF and LF in EA produces a LF/HF similar to PA, absolute spectral component modulation differed. These observations require further exploration. Novelty Acute effects of exercise on HRV in EA compared with a relevant control group, PA, are unknown. EA had greater HRR and nonsignificant elevations in LF and HF compared with PA, yet LF/HF was not different. Future work should explore the implications of this observation.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-04-15T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0154
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Addition of pectin-alginate to a carbohydrate beverage does not maintain
           gastrointestinal barrier function during exercise in hot-humid conditions
           better than carbohydrate ingestion alone
    • Authors: Tessa R. Flood, Stefano Montanari, Marley Wicks, Jack Blanchard, Holly Sharp, Lee Taylor, Matthew R. Kuennen, Ben J. Lee
      Pages: 1145 - 1155
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 10, Page 1145-1155, October 2020.
      The objective of this study was to compare the effects of consuming a 16% maltodextrin+fructose+pectin-alginate (MAL+FRU+PEC+ALG) drink against a nutrient-matched maltodextrin+fructose (MAL+FRU) drink on enterocyte damage and gastrointestinal permeability after cycling in hot and humid conditions. Fourteen recreational cyclists (7 men) completed 3 experimental trials in a randomized placebo-controlled design. Participants cycled for 90 min (45% maximal aerobic capacity) and completed a 15-min time-trial in hot (32 °C) humid (70% relative humidity) conditions. Every 15 min, cyclists consumed 143 mL of either (i) water; (ii) MAL+FRU+PEC+ALG (90 g·h−1 CHO/16% w/v); or (iii) a ratio-matched MAL+FRU drink (90 g·h−1 CHO/16% w/v). Blood was sampled before and after exercise and gastrointestinal (GI) permeability, which was determined by serum measurements of intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) and the percent ratio of lactulose (5 g) to rhamnose (2 g) recovered in postexercise urine. Compared with water, I-FABP decreased by 349 ± 67pg·mL−1 with MAL+FRU+PEC+ALG (p = 0.007) and by 427 ± 56 pg·mL−1 with MAL+FRU (p = 0.02). GI permeability was reduced in both the MAL+FRU+PEC+ALG (by 0.019 ± 0.01, p = 0.0003) and MAL+FRU (by 0.014 ± 0.01, p = 0.002) conditions relative to water. In conclusion, both CHO beverages attenuated GI barrier damage to a similar extent relative to water. No metabolic, cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, or performance differences were observed between the CHO beverages. Novelty Consumption of multiple-transportable CHO, with or without hydrogel properties, preserves GI barrier integrity and reduces enterocyte damage during prolonged cycling in hot-humid conditions.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-05-04T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0118
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Effects of high-intensity intervals and moderate-intensity exercise on
           baroreceptor sensitivity and heart rate variability during recovery
    • Authors: Joel S. Burma, Paige V. Copeland, Alannah Macaulay, Omeet Khatra, Jonathan D. Smirl
      Pages: 1156 - 1164
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 10, Page 1156-1164, October 2020.
      Numerous studies have examined heart rate variability (HRV) and cardiac baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) variables during recovery both acutely (under 3 h) and long-term (24, 48, and 72 h) postexercise. However, there is little literature examining HRV and BRS measures between these timepoints. Spontaneous short-term HRV and cardiac BRS measures were collected in 9 participants before and at zero, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after 3 separate conditions: moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE; 45 min at 50% heart rate reserve), high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE; 25 min including ten 1-min intervals at 85% heart rate reserve), and control (30 min quiet rest). HRV measures in the time domain were only affected immediately following HIIE and MICE at hour zero (all p < 0.043), whereas frequency-domain metrics were unaltered (all p> 0.102). These measures were highly consistent across the control day (all p> 0.420). Cardiac BRS was assessed via low-frequency (LF) gain, and revealed reductions following HIIE at hour zero (p < 0.012). Cardiac BRS LF gain remained consistent following MICE and control interventions (all p> 0.280). The common practice of waiting 12 to 24 h is overly conservative as the current findings demonstrate measures return to baseline at ∼60 min after exercise. Moreover, these metrics demonstrated high levels of within- and between-day reliability. Novelty Previously a 12-h minimum restriction from exercise was required before participation in HRV/BRS studies. Recovery from moderate-intensity exercise for HRV and BRS metrics was
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-04-28T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0810
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Effect of strength training and antioxidant supplementation on perceived
           and performance fatigability in breast cancer survivors: a randomized,
           double-blinded, placebo-controlled study
    • Authors: Filipe Dinato de Lima, Cláudio L. Battaglini, Sandro Nobre Chaves, Lucas Ugliara, Jonathan Sarandy, Ricardo Moreno Lima, Martim Bottaro
      Pages: 1165 - 1173
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 10, Page 1165-1173, October 2020.
      This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study aimed to investigate the effect of strength training (ST) combined with vitamin C and E supplementation on perceived and performance fatigability in breast cancer survivors (BCS). Twenty-five BCS were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: vitamins (VIT; n = 12; 51.0 ± 9.0 years) or placebo (PLA; n = 13; 48.2 ± 8.3 years). Both groups performed a 10-week ST protocol, twice a week. The VIT group was supplemented with vitamins C (500 mg/day) and E (180 mg/day) and the PLA group with polydextrose (1 g/day), once a day after breakfast. At the beginning and at the end of the training period, perceived fatigability was assessed using Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI)-20 (general fatigue and physical fatigue). Performance fatigability was assessed during 30 maximal isokinetic knee extensions at 120°/s. General fatigue decreased similarly in the VIT (p = 0.004) and PLA (p = 0.011) groups. Physical fatigue decreased similarly in the VIT (p = 0.011) and PLA (p = 0.001) groups. Performance fatigability also decreased similarly in the VIT (p = 0.026) and PLA (p < 0.001) groups. There was no difference between groups at any moment (p> 0.05). In summary, antioxidant supplementation does not add any positive synergistic effect to ST in terms of improving perceived or performance fatigability in BCS. This clinical trial is registered in the Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry, number RBR-843pth (UTN no.: U1111-1222-6511). Novelty ST with maximal repetitions reduces perceived and performance fatigability of BCS. Vitamins C and E supplementation does not add any positive synergistic effect to ST in terms of reducing fatigability in BCS.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-04-29T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0166
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Examining the decay in serum ferritin following intravenous iron infusion:
           a retrospective cohort analysis of Olympic sport female athletes
    • Authors: Alannah K.A. McKay, Paul S.R. Goods, Martyn J. Binnie, Carmel Goodman, Peter Peeling
      Pages: 1174 - 1177
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 10, Page 1174-1177, October 2020.
      The long-term decay rate of serum ferritin post-iron infusion in athletic populations is currently unknown. Here, we modelled the decay rate of serum ferritin in female athletes after an intravenous iron infusion (n = 22). The post-infusion serum ferritin response and the rate of decay was highly variable between athletes; however, we demonstrate that follow-up blood testing at 1 (154 μg/L; 77–300 μg/L) and 6 months (107 μg/L; 54–208 μg/L) post-infusion is appropriate to observe treatment efficacy and effectiveness. Novelty Female athletes should have serum ferritin assessed at 1 and 6 months following an intravenous iron infusion to determine efficacy and effectiveness.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-06-16T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0132
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Micronutrient fortification of caffeinated energy drinks and supplemented
           foods marketed in Canada
    • Authors: Rehona Zamani, Valerie Tarasuk
      Pages: 1178 - 1183
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 10, Page 1178-1183, October 2020.
      To examine the micronutrient content of discretionarily fortified products marketed under Canada’s current regulations, we conducted an in-store and online search for products granted Temporary Marketing Authorizations in 2018. We located 129 caffeinated energy drinks and 98 other beverage products. Most were fortified at levels well below permitted maximums, but 82.2% of energy drinks and 35.7% of other beverage products contained nutrients above 100% of Daily Values, suggesting that current fortification practices are largely gratuitous. Novelty The micronutrients in a sample of discretionarily fortified products marketed under Canada’s current regulations were generally below permitted maximum levels, but many greatly exceeded nutrient requirements.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-06-26T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0918
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Correction: A multi-ingredient nutritional supplement enhances exercise
           training-related reductions in markers of systemic inflammation in healthy
           older men
    • Authors: Kirsten E. Bell, Tim Snijders, Michael A. Zulyniak, Dinesh Kumbhare, Gianni Parise, Adrian Chabowski, Stuart M. Phillips
      Pages: 1 - 1
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-09-28T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0763
       
  • Age and sex-related decline of muscle strength across the adult lifespan:
           a scoping review of aggregated data
    • Authors: E.M.K. Haynes, N.A. Neubauer, K.M.D. Cornett, B.P. O’Connor, G.R. Jones, J.M. Jakobi
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Ahead of Print.
      Muscle strength is sex-related and declines with advancing age; yet, a comprehensive comparative evaluation of age-related strength loss in human females and males has not been undertaken. To do so, segmented piecewise regression analysis was performed on aggregated data from studies published from 1990 to 2018 and are available in CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases. The search identified 5613 articles that were reviewed for physical assessment results stratified by sex and age. Maximal isometric and isokinetic 60°·s−1 knee extension (KE) and knee flexion (KF) contractions from 57 studies and 15 283 subjects (N = 7918 females) had sufficient data reported on females and males for meaningful statistical evaluation to be undertaken. The analysis revealed that isometric KE and KF strength undergo similar rapid declines in both sexes late in the sixth decade of life. Yet, there is an abrupt age-related decline in KE 60°·s−1 peak torque earlier in females (aged 41.8 years) than males (aged 66.7 years). In the assessment of KF peak torque, an age-related acceleration in strength loss was only identified in males (aged 49.3 years). The results suggest that age-related isometric strength loss is similar between sexes while the characteristics of KE and KF peak torque decline are sex-related, which likely explains the differential rate of age-related functional decline. Novelty Inclusion of muscle strength and torque of KE and KF data from>15 000 subjects. Isometric KE and KF strength loss are similar between sexes. Isokinetic 60°·s−1 KE torque decline accelerates 25 years earlier in females and female age-related KF peak torque decline does not accelerate with age.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-06-29T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0081
       
  • Associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and urinary
           oxidized guanine in colorectal cancer patients: results from the ColoCare
           Study
    • Authors: Richard Viskochil, Biljana Gigic, Tengda Lin, Stephanie Skender, Jürgen Böhm, Petra Schrotz-King, Karen Steindorf, Robert Owen, Jane C. Figueiredo, Christopher I. Li, Erin M. Siegel, Sheetal Hardikar, David Shibata, Adetunji T. Toriola, Martin Schneider, Alexis Ulrich, Cornelia M. Ulrich, Jennifer Ose
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Ahead of Print.
      To determine associations between physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), and oxidative stress in colorectal cancer patients, ColoCare Study participants in Germany wore an accelerometer 6 and/or 12 months after surgery. Spearman partial correlations were used to assess associations between PA and urinary concentrations of oxidized guanine, a validated marker of oxidative stress. There were no significant associations between PA or SB and oxidized guanine in n = 76 measurements (ng/mg creatinine; r = 0.03, p = 0.76 for PA, r = –0.05, p = 0.69 for SB). Novelty Objectively measured PA was not associated with a marker of oxidative stress in colorectal cancer patients.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-06-22T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0836
       
  • The accurate prediction of sweat rate from energy expenditure and air
           temperature: a proof-of-concept study
    • Authors: Kurt J. Sollanek, Mia Liu, Andrei Carballo, Aaron R. Caldwell, Samuel N. Cheuvront
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Ahead of Print.
      This proof-of-concept study used a web application to predict runner sweat losses using only energy expenditure and air temperature. A field study (FS) of n = 37 runners was completed with n = 40 sweat loss observations measured over 1 h (sweat rate, SR). Predictions were also compared with 10 open literature (OL) studies in which individual runner SR was reported (n = 82; 109 observations). Three prediction accuracy metrics were used: for FS, the mean absolute error (MAE) and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) were calculated to include a 95% confidence interval [CI]; for OL, the percentage concordance (PC) was examined against calculation of accumulated under- and over-drinking potential. The MAE for FS runners was 0.141 kg [0.105, 0.177], which was less than estimated scale weighing error on 85% of occasions. The CCC was 0.88 [0.82, 0.93]. The PC for OL was 96% for avoidance of both under- and over-drinking and 93% overall. All accuracy metrics and their CIs were below acceptable error tolerance. Input errors of ±10% and ±1 °C for energy expenditure and air temperature dropped the PC to between 84% and 90%. This study demonstrates the feasibility of accurately predicting SR from energy expenditure and air temperature alone. Novelty Results demonstrate that accurate runner SR prediction is possible with knowledge of only energy expenditure and air temperature. SR prediction error was smaller than scale weighing error in 85% of observations. Accurate runner SR prediction could help mitigate the common risks of over- and under-drinking.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-06-04T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0236
       
  • Electrically evoked force loss of the knee extensors is equivalent for
           young and old females and males
    • Authors: Alexandra F. Yacyshyn, Chris J. McNeil
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Ahead of Print.
      Data are scant on sex-related differences for electrically evoked contractions, which assess intrinsic contractile properties while limiting spinal and supraspinal adaptations to mitigate fatigue. Furthermore, the few studies that exist use stimulus frequencies considerably higher than the natural motor unit discharge rate for the target force. The purpose of this study was to compare force loss to electrically evoked contractions at a physiological stimulus frequency among young females (n = 12), young males (n = 12), old females (n = 11), and old males (n = 11). The quadriceps of the dominant leg were fatigued by 3 min of intermittent transcutaneous muscle belly stimulation (15 Hz stimulus train to initially evoke 25% of maximal voluntary force). Impairment of tetanic contractile impulse (area under the curve) did not differ between sexes for young or old adults or between age groups, with a pooled value of 55.2% ± 12.4% control at the end of fatigue. These data contrast with previous findings at 30 Hz, when the quadriceps of females had greater fatigue resistance than males for young and old adults. The present results highlight the impact stimulus frequency has on intrinsic fatigability of muscle; the findings have implications for future fatigue paradigms and treatment approaches when utilizing electrical stimulation for rehabilitation. Novelty Fatigue was not different between sexes with a stimulation frequency comparable to discharge rates during voluntary contractions. These results highlight that stimulus frequency not only influences fatigue development but also between-group differences.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-05-29T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0199
       
  • Neuromuscular electrical stimulation and protein during bed rest increases
           CD11b+ skeletal muscle macrophages but does not correspond to muscle size
           or insulin sensitivity
    • Authors: Paul T. Reidy, Logan T. Edvalson, Alec I. McKenzie, Jonathan J. Petrocelli, Ziad S. Mahmassani, Micah J. Drummond
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Ahead of Print.
      With this cohort, we previously demonstrated preservation of thigh lean tissue with neuromuscular electrical stimulation combined with protein supplementation (NMES+PRO) treatment during bed rest in healthy older adults. Because macrophage polarization plays a significant role in the repair and maintenance of muscle size and insulin sensitivity, we hypothesized that muscle macrophages would be induced by NMES+PRO and would correspond to an increase in lean mass and an attenuated insulin resistance response altered by bed rest. Older adults (60–80 years old; body mass index < 30 kg/m2) underwent 5 days of bed rest and were randomized to either thrice daily treatment of NMES+PRO (n = 8) or CON (n = 8). Lean mass, insulin sensitivity, and markers of muscle macrophages, inflammation, and connective tissue were determined before and after bed rest. Glucose intolerance and insulin resistance occurred after bed rest but there was not a treatment effect (p> 0.10). Proinflammatory-like macrophages (CD11b+, CD206−) increased (p < 0.05) with NMES+PRO treatment and was different than CON. Minor changes in noncontractile tissue were observed. However, changes in muscle macrophages or extracellular matrix were not related to the preservation of thigh lean mass or insulin resistance. Daily NMES+PRO treatment during bed rest induced a muscle proinflammatory-like macrophage response and was unrelated to muscle size or metabolic function. This study is listed as clinical trial NCT02566590. Novelty Neuromuscular electrical stimulation combined with protein supplementation (NMES+PRO) increased proinflammatory-like macrophages and extracellular matrix content in older adults after bed rest. NMES+PRO changes in macrophages and noncontractile tissue macrophages were not related to muscle size preservation or insulin sensitivity.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-05-29T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0064
       
  • Age-, sex-, and region-specific differences in skeletal muscle size and
           quality
    • Authors: Matt S. Stock, Dustin J. Oranchuk, Adam M. Burton, David C. Phan
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Ahead of Print.
      Ultrasonography-derived cross-sectional area (CSA) and echo intensity (EI) are increasingly utilized by investigators to study muscle size and quality, respectively. We sought to examine age, sex, and region (proximal, middle, distal) differences in vastus lateralis and rectus femoris CSA and EI, and determine whether correction for subcutaneous fat thickness influences the magnitude of EI differences. Fifteen younger men (mean age = 23 years), 15 younger women (aged 21 years), 11 older men (aged 74 years), and 15 older women (aged 70 years) participated. Clear differences were observed among age, sex, and region for vastus lateralis CSA (p ≤ 0.013, d = 0.38–0.73), whereas rectus femoris CSA was only different between younger and older participants at the proximal region (p = 0.017, d = 0.65). Uncorrected EI was greatest at the distal region of both muscles (p < 0.001, d = 0.59–1.38), with only the younger men having significantly lower EI values than the other groups (p ≤ 0.043, d = 0.37–0.63). Subcutaneous fat correction resulted in a marked increase in the magnitude of sex-specific EI differences (p ≤ 0.032, d ≥ 0.42). Additionally, subcutaneous fat correction increased the uniformity of EI throughout the thigh. These findings highlight considerable region-specific differences in muscle size and quality among younger and older men and women and highlight the need to correct for subcutaneous fat thickness when examining EI. Novelty Rectus femoris CSA is similar between younger and older adults except at the most proximal site evaluated. Age- and sex-specific differences in uncorrected EI are nonuniform across the thigh. Correction for subcutaneous fat thickness substantially increased EI in women, resulting in greater sex differences.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-05-25T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0114
       
  • Cycling reduces blood glucose excursions after an oral glucose tolerance
           test in pregnant women: a randomized crossover trial
    • Authors: Mette Bisgaard Andersen, Per Glud Ovesen, Merete Daugaard, Eva Bjerre Ostenfeld, Jens Fuglsang
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an acute bout of cycling immediately after oral glucose intake on glucose metabolism in pregnant women at risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Fifteen pregnant women with BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2 were enrolled in a randomized crossover controlled study and underwent two oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) ingesting 75 g of glucose followed by either 20 min of stationary cycling at moderate intensity (65%–75% maximal heart rate) or rest. Using continuous glucose monitors, glucose was measured up to 48 h after the OGTT. Glucose, insulin, and C-peptide were determined at baseline and after 1 and 2 h. One hour after glucose intake, mean blood glucose was significantly lower after cycling compared with rest (p = 0.002). Similarly, mean glucose peak level was significantly lower after cycling compared with after rest (p = 0.039). Lower levels of insulin and C-peptide were observed after 1 h (p < 0.01). Differences in glucose measurements after 2 h and up to 48 h were not statistically different. We found that 20 min of cycling at moderate intensity after glucose intake reduced blood glucose excursions in pregnant women at risk for GDM. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03644238. Novelty Bullets In pregnant women, we found that cycling after glucose intake resulted in significantly lower glucose levels compared with rest. The exercise intervention studied is feasible for pregnant women and could be readily used to reduce glucose excursions.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-05-22T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0020
       
  • The effect of head and neck per-cooling on neuromuscular fatigue following
           exercise in the heat
    • Authors: Ralph Joseph Frederick Hills Gordon, Neale Anthony Tillin, Christopher James Tyler
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Ahead of Print.
      The effect of localised head and neck per-cooling on central and peripheral fatigue during high thermal strain was investigated. Fourteen participants cycled for 60 min at 50% peak oxygen uptake on 3 occasions: thermoneutral control (CON; 18 °C), hot (HOT; 35 °C), and HOT with head and neck cooling (HOTcooling). Maximal voluntary force (MVF) and central activation ratio (CAR) of the knee extensors were measured every 30 s during a sustained maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Triplet peak force was measured following cycling, before and after the MVC. Rectal temperatures were higher in HOTcooling (39.2 ± 0.6 °C) and HOT (39.3 ± 0.5 °C) than CON (38.1 ± 0.3 °C; P < 0.05). Head and neck thermal sensation was similar in HOTcooling (4.2 ± 1.4) and CON (4.4 ± 0.9; P> 0.05) but lower than HOT (5.9 ± 1.5; P < 0.05). MVF and CAR were lower in HOT than CON throughout the MVC (P < 0.05). MVF and CAR were also lower in HOTcooling than CON at 5, 60, and 120 s, but similar at 30 and 90 s into the MVC (P> 0.05). Furthermore, they were greater in HOTcooling than HOT at 30 s, whilst triplet peak force was preserved in HOT after MVC. These results provide evidence that central fatigue following exercise in the heat is partially attenuated with head and neck cooling, which may be at the expense of greater peripheral fatigue. Novelty Central fatigue was greatest during hyperthermia. Head and neck cooling partially attenuated the greater central fatigue in the heat. Per-cooling led to more voluntary force production and more peripheral fatigue.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0079
       
  • Physiological response to eccentric and concentric cycling in patients
           with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    • Authors: Rolf Nickel, Felipe Troncoso, Orlando Flores, Roberto Gonzalez-Bartholin, Karen Mackay, Orlando Diaz, Mauricio Jalon, Luis Peñailillo
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Ahead of Print.
      We aimed to compare the cardiorespiratory, metabolic, and perceptual responses to high- and moderate-intensity eccentric cycling versus moderate-intensity concentric cycling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Ten patients with moderate COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) = 68.6% ± 20.4% of predicted; 68.3 ± 9.1 years) performed 30 min of moderate-intensity concentric (CONC-M: 50% maximum workload; Wmax), moderate-intensity eccentric (ECC-M: 50% Wmax), and high-intensity eccentric (ECC-H: 100% Wmax) cycling. Average power output, oxygen consumption (V̇O2), minute ventilation (VE), respiratory frequency (fR), oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and dyspnea were measured during cycling. Compared with CONC-M, lower V̇O2 (–52% ± 14%), VE (–47% ± 16%), fR (–21% ± 14%), HR (–14% ± 16%), SBP (–73% ± 54%), RPE (–36% ± 26%), and dyspnea (–41% ± 37%) were found during ECC-M. During ECC-H, a similar metabolic demand to CONC-M was found. However, average power output was 117% ± 79% higher during ECC-H. Eccentric cycling can be safely performed by COPD patients and induced lower cardiorespiratory, metabolic, and perceptual responses than concentric exercise when performed at the same workload. Novelty Moderate- and high-intensity eccentric cycling can be performed by COPD patients. Moderate-intensity eccentric cycling showed lower cardiorespiratory, metabolic, and perceptual demand than concentric cycling at the same workload in COPD patients. Even at double workload, eccentric cycling induces lower cardiorespiratory, metabolic, and perceptual demand than moderate-intensity concentric cycling.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-05-15T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0149
       
  • Caffeine increases peripheral fatigue in low- but not in high-performing
           cyclists
    • Authors: Pamela S. Santos, Leandro C. Felippe, Guilherme A. Ferreira, Sara K. Learsi, Patrícia G. Couto, Romulo Bertuzzi, Gleber Pereira, Adriano E. Lima-Silva
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Ahead of Print.
      The influence of cyclists’ performance levels on caffeine-induced increases in neuromuscular fatigue after a 4-km cycling time trial (TT) was investigated. Nineteen cyclists performed a 4-km cycling TT 1 h after ingesting caffeine (5 mg·kg−1) or placebo (cellulose). Changes from baseline to after exercise in voluntary activation (VA) and potentiated 1 Hz force twitch (Qtw,pot) were used as markers of central and peripheral fatigue, respectively. Participants were classified as “high performing” (HP, n = 8) or “low performing” (LP, n = 8) in accordance with their performance in a placebo trial. Compared with placebo, caffeine increased the power, anaerobic mechanical power, and anaerobic work, reducing the time to complete the trial in both groups (p < 0.05). There was a group versus supplement and a group versus supplement versus trial interaction for Qtw,pot, in which the postexercise reduction was greater after caffeine compared with placebo in the LP group (Qtw,pot = −34% ± 17% vs. −21% ± 11%, p = 0.02) but not in the HP group (Qtw,pot = −22% ± 8% vs. −23% ± 10%, p = 0.64). There was no effect of caffeine on VA, but there was a group versus trial interaction with lower postexercise values in the LP group than in the HP group (p = 0.03). Caffeine-induced improvement in 4-km cycling TT performance seems to come at the expense of greater locomotor muscle fatigue in LP but not in HP cyclists. Novelty Caffeine improves exercise performance at the expense of a greater end-exercise peripheral fatigue in low-performing athletes. Caffeine-induced improvement in exercise performance does not affect end-exercise peripheral fatigue in high-performing athletes. High-performing athletes seem to have augmented tolerance to central fatigue during a high-intensity time trial.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-05-14T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0992
       
  • Genotype scores in energy and iron-metabolising genes are higher in elite
           endurance athletes than in nonathlete controls
    • Authors: David Varillas Delgado, Juan José Tellería Orriols, Diana Monge Martín, Juan Del Coso
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Ahead of Print.
      Information about the association of energy and iron-metabolising genes with endurance performance is scarce. The objective of this investigation was to compare the frequencies of polymorphic variations of genes involved in energy generation and iron metabolism in elite endurance athletes versus nonathlete controls. Genotype frequencies in 123 male elite endurance athletes (75 professional road cyclists and 48 elite endurance runners) and 122 male nonathlete participants were compared by assessing 4 genetic polymorphisms: AMPD1 c.34C/T (rs17602729), PPARGC1A c.1444G/A (rs8192678) HFEH63D c.187C/G (rs1799945) and HFEC282Y c.845G/A (rs1800562). A weighted genotype score (w-TGS; from 0 to 100 arbitrary units (a.u.)) was calculated by assigning a corresponding weight to each polymorphism. In the nonathlete population, the mean w-TGS value was lower (39.962 ± 14.654 a.u.) than in the group of elite endurance athletes (53.344 ± 17.053 a.u). The binary logistic regression analysis showed that participants with a w-TGS> 38.975 a.u had an odds ratio of 1.481 (95% confidence interval: 1.244–1.762; p < 0.001) for achieving elite athlete status. The genotypic distribution of polymorphic variations involved in energy generation and iron metabolism was different in elite endurance athletes vs. controls. Thus, an optimal genetic profile in these genes might contribute to physical endurance in athlete status. Novelty Genetic profile in energy generation and iron-metabolising genes in elite endurance athletes is different than that of nonathletes. There is an implication of an “optimal” genetic profile in the selected genes favouring endurance sporting performance.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-05-07T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-0174
       
  • Physical activity perceptions, experiences, and beliefs of older adults
           with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer’s disease and their care
           partners
    • Authors: Lauren E. Bechard, Dorcas Beaton, Katherine S. McGilton, Maria Carmela Tartaglia, Sandra E. Black
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Ahead of Print.
      Physical activity (PA) participation provides functional and social benefits for persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but PA participation in these populations is low. To support health promotion initiatives for cognitively impaired older adults, this study explored the perceptions, experiences, and beliefs of older adults with cognitive impairment and their caregivers concerning PA. Ten care dyads (community-dwelling adult aged ≥65 years diagnosed with MCI or mild-to-moderate AD and their care partner) participated in semi-structured interviews informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework about their PA perceptions, experiences, and beliefs. Interpretive phenomenological analysis of interview transcripts yielded 4 emergent themes: (1) PA as a meaningful activity, (2) experience versus evidence as motivating, (3) participation is possible despite dementia, and (4) care partners as enablers. Findings from this study address a research gap concerning the PA perceptions, experiences, and beliefs of cognitively impaired older adults and their care partners. Novelty Older adults with MCI/AD want to and are capable of engaging in PA. Care partners are critical supporters of PA participation in MCI/AD. Adapted health promotion strategies could enhance PA in MCI/AD.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-05-05T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0730
       
  • Sex differences in motor unit discharge rates at maximal and submaximal
           levels of force output
    • Authors: J. Greig Inglis, David A. Gabriel
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Ahead of Print.
      This study evaluated potential sex differences in motor unit (MU) behaviour at maximal and submaximal force outputs. Forty-eight participants, 24 females and 24 males, performed isometric dorsiflexion contractions at 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Tibialis anterior electromyography was recorded both by surface and intramuscular electrodes. Compared with males, females had a greater MU discharge rate (MUDR) averaged across all submaximal intensities (Δ 0.45 pps, 2.56%). Males exhibited greater increases in MUDR above 40% MVC, surpassing females at 100% MVC (p’s < 0.01). Averaged across all force outputs, females had a greater incidence of doublet and rapid discharges and a greater percentage of MU trains with doublet and rapid (5–10 ms) discharges (Δ 75.55% and 61.48%, respectively; p’s < 0.01). A subset of males (n = 8) and females (n = 8), matched for maximum force output, revealed that females had even greater MUDR (Δ 1.38 pps, 7.47%) and percentage of MU trains with doublet and rapid discharges (Δ 51.62%, 56.68%, respectively; p’s < 0.01) compared with males at each force output, including 100% MVC. Analysis of the subset of strength-matched males and females suggest that sex differences in MU behaviour may be a result of females needing to generate greater neural drive to achieve fused tetanus. Novelty Females had higher MUDRs and greater percentage of MU trains with doublets across submaximal force outputs (20%–80% MVC). Differences were even greater for a strength matched subset. Differences in motor unit behaviour may arise from musculoskeletal differences, requiring greater neural drive in females.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-04-25T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0958
       
 
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