Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1473 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (86 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (676 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (117 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 117 of 117 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACSMs Health & Fitness Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACTIVE : Journal of Physical Education, Sport, Health and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ágora para la Educación Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
American Journal of Sexuality Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Applied Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Apunts. Medicina de l'Esport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Exercise in Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arquivos de Ciências do Esporte     Open Access  
Athletic Training & Sports Health Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
BMC Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Childhood Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Éthique & Santé     Full-text available via subscription  
Fat Studies : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Body Weight and Society     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Fisioterapia em Movimento     Open Access  
Fitness & Performance Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food Science and Human Wellness     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Sports and Active Living     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gelanggang Pendidikan Jasmani Indonesia     Open Access  
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geron     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Health and Physical Education Pedagogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Health Education Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Health Marketing Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Home Healthcare Now     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Human Movement     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Human Movement Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
IISE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesia Performance Journal     Open Access  
İnönü Üniversitesi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 56)
International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
International Journal of Men's Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90)
International Journal of Obesity Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Spa and Wellness     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sport, Exercise & Training Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Isokinetics and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of American College Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Human Sport and Exercise     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Motor Learning and Development     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Physical Activity and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Physical Activity and Hormones     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Education and Human Movement     Open Access  
Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Sport and Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Sport Sciences and Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Kinesiology : International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Kinesiology     Open Access  
Kinesiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Krankenhaus-Hygiene - Infektionsverhütung     Full-text available via subscription  
Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Médecine & Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription  
Mental Health and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Movimiento Humano y Salud     Open Access  
Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Obesity Research & Clinical Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Obesity Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Obesity Science & Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Obesity Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pain Management in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
PALAESTRA : Adapted Sport, Physical Education, and Recreational Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Physical Activity and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Preventing Chronic Disease     Free   (Followers: 2)
Psychology of Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Quality in Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBONE - Revista Brasileira de Obesidade, Nutrição e Emagrecimento     Open Access  
RBPFEX - Revista Brasileira de Prescrição e Fisiologia do Exercício     Open Access  
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport     Hybrid Journal  
Retos : Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deportes y Recreación     Open Access  
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Atividade Física & Saúde     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Ciências do Esporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Educação Física e Esporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista da Educação Física : UEM     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología del Ejercicio y el Deporte     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte : International Journal of Medicine and Science of Physical Activity and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue phénEPS / PHEnex Journal     Open Access  
SIPATAHOENAN : South-East Asian Journal for Youth, Sports & Health Education     Open Access  
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Sport and Fitness Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Sport Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Sport Sciences for Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport- und Präventivmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Strength & Conditioning Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Timisoara Physical Education and Rehabilitation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise     Open Access  
Yoga Mimamsa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Здоровье человека, теория и методика физической культуры и спорта     Open Access  


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.112
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 33  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1715-5312 - ISSN (Online) 1715-5320
Published by NRC Research Press Homepage  [21 journals]
  • Examining lifestyle behaviours and weight status of primary
           schoolchildren: using Mozambique to explore the data gaps in low- and
           middle-income countries
    • Authors: Taru Manyanga
      Pages: 1 - 1
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles.
      The emergency of malnutrition and physical inactivity among children as serious public health challenges in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is concerning and requires urgent attention. The main objective of this dissertation was to examine relationships between lifestyle behaviours and weight status among schoolchildren in Mozambique and use findings to highlight important data gaps that exist in LMICs. Narrative literature searches conducted identified data gaps and research needs. A published protocol was used for this dissertation (n = 683) to facilitate data comparability. Anthropometric and accelerometry data were objectively measured while data about lifestyle behaviours and environmental factors were collected using context-adapted questionnaires. As part of this dissertation, 6 manuscripts were developed and submitted for publication in peer-reviewed scientific journals. Results showed a dearth of information and that overweight/obesity is an emerging public health concern, especially among urban children. Moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), active transport, and maternal body mass index (BMI) were important modifiable correlates of weight status for Mozambican children. Distinct differences in prevalences of lifestyle behaviours were observed between urban and rural children in Mozambique. Compared with children from 12 other countries, children from Mozambique had lower BMI, higher daily MVPA, lower daily sedentary time, and comparable sleep duration. Linear distributions of study site-specific BMI, minutes of daily MVPA, and daily sedentary time by country human development index were observed. Findings revealed important differences between urban and rural children, supporting the need to include both in study samples and especially in LMICs where most people live in rural areas.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2020-01-14T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0863
  • The sarcoplasmic reticulum and SERCA: a nexus for muscular adaptive
    • Authors: Daniel Gamu, Emma Sara Juracic, Karlee J. Hall, A. Russell Tupling
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 1, Page 1-10, January 2020.
      We are currently facing an “obesity epidemic” worldwide. Promoting inefficient metabolism in muscle represents a potential treatment for obesity and its complications. Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) pumps in muscle are responsible for maintaining low cytosolic Ca2+ concentration through the ATP-dependent pumping of Ca2+ from the cytosol into the SR lumen. SERCA activity has the potential to be a critical regulator of body mass and adiposity given that it is estimated to contribute upwards of 20% of daily energy expenditure. More interestingly, this fraction can be modified physiologically in the face of stressors, such as ambient temperature and diet, through its physical interaction with several regulators known to inhibit Ca2+ uptake and muscle function. In this review, we discuss advances in our understanding of Ca2+-cycling thermogenesis within skeletal muscle, focusing on SERCA and its protein regulators, which were thought previously to only modulate muscular contractility. Novelty ATP consumption by SERCA pumps comprises a large proportion of resting energy expenditure in muscle and is dynamically regulated through interactions with small SERCA regulatory proteins. SERCA efficiency correlates significantly with resting metabolism, such that individuals with a higher resting metabolic rate have less energetically efficient SERCA Ca2+ pumping in muscle (i.e., lower coupling ratio). Futile Ca2+ cycling is a versatile heat generating mechanism utilized by both skeletal muscle and beige fat.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2019-05-22T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0067
  • Looking beyond PGC-1α: emerging regulators of exercise-induced skeletal
    • Authors: Hashim Islam, David A. Hood, Brendon J. Gurd
      Pages: 11 - 23
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 1, Page 11-23, January 2020.
      Despite its widespread acceptance as the “master regulator” of mitochondrial biogenesis (i.e., the expansion of the mitochondrial reticulum), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) appears to be dispensable for the training-induced augmentation of skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and respiratory function. In fact, a number of regulatory proteins have emerged as important players in skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and many of these proteins share key attributes with PGC-1α. In an effort to move past the simplistic notion of a “master regulator” of mitochondrial biogenesis, we highlight the regulatory mechanisms by which nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ), PPARβ, and leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat-containing protein (LRP130) may contribute to the control of skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis. We also present evidence supporting/refuting the ability of sulforaphane, quercetin, and epicatechin to promote skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and their potential to augment mitochondrial training adaptations. Targeted activation of specific pathways by these compounds may allow for greater mechanistic insight into the molecular pathways controlling mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle. Dietary activation of mitochondrial biogenesis may also be useful in clinical populations with basal reductions in mitochondrial protein content, enzyme activities, and/or respiratory function as well as individuals who exhibit a blunted skeletal muscle responsiveness to contractile activity. Novelty The existence of redundant pathways leading to mitochondrial biogenesis refutes the simplistic notion of a “master regulator” of mitochondrial biogenesis. Dietary activation of specific pathways may provide greater mechanistic insight into the exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2019-06-03T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0069
  • A herbal premix containing Macrotyloma uniflorum, ginger, and whey
           curtails obesity in rats fed a high-fat diet by a novel mechanism
    • Authors: Vandana S. Panda, Taasin Shah, Sudhamani S
      Pages: 24 - 34
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 1, Page 24-34, January 2020.
      The present study designed and evaluated a polyherbal premix comprising Macrotyloma uniflorum, whey protein, Zingiber officinale, and Mentha piperita. Animals were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 30 days and were daily administered the premix (1.5 g/kg) in milk (PM) and water (PW), aerobic exercise (AE), premix in milk and water along with AE (PMAE and PWAE), ferulic acid (100 mg/kg), and the reference drug fluoxetine (6 mg/kg). All treatments showed significant reduction in food intake, weight gain, abdominal circumference, and body mass index compared with their initial values. All treatments generated a faster peak of the satiety marker cholecystokinin compared with the HFD group and control groups; PMAE and PWAE exhibited sustained satiety. The HFD-elevated blood glucose levels were significantly attenuated on the 30th day by all treatments when compared with their 15th day and basal values; PMAE exhibited the best results. All treatments significantly attenuated the HFD-elevated serum insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, C-reactive protein, triglycerides, total cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein levels and significantly restored the HFD-depleted high-density lipoprotein and adiponectin levels. HFD-elevated thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values were attenuated successfully and the HFD-depleted reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase levels were significantly restored by all treatments. The histological findings corroborated the biochemical results. Novelty The polyherbal premix brought about appetite regulation and induction of satiety to control obesity in HFD-fed rats through homeostasis of energy metabolism. The premix along with exercise is a complete way to combat obesity.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2019-05-14T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0139
  • Ketogenic diet in combination with voluntary exercise impacts markers of
           hepatic metabolism and oxidative stress in male and female Wistar rats
    • Authors: Mary P. Moore, Rory P. Cunningham, Taylor J. Kelty, Luigi R. Boccardi, Nhu Y. Nguyen, Frank W. Booth, R. Scott Rector
      Pages: 35 - 44
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 1, Page 35-44, January 2020.
      Ketogenic diets (KDs) are shown to benefit hepatic metabolism; however, their effect on the liver when combined with exercise is unknown. We investigated the effects of a KD versus a “western” diet (WD) on markers of hepatic lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in exercising rats. Male and female Wistar rats with access to voluntary running wheels were randomized to 3 groups (n = 8–14 per group): standard chow (SC; 17% fat), WD (42% fat), or KD (90.5% fat) for 7 weeks. Body fat percentage (BF%) was increased in WD and KD versus SC, although KD females displayed lower BF% versus WD (p ≤ 0.05). Liver triglycerides were higher in KD and WD versus SC but were attenuated in KD females versus WD (p ≤ 0.05). KD suppressed hepatic markers of de novo lipogenesis (fatty acid synthase, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase) and increased markers of mitochondrial biogenesis/content (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-1α, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), and citrate synthase activity). KD also increased hepatic glutathione peroxidase 1 and lowered oxidized glutathione. Female rats exhibited elevated hepatic markers of mitochondrial biogenesis (TFAM), mitophagy (light chain 3 II/I ratio, autophagy-related protein 12:5), and cellular energy homeostasis (phosphorylated 5′AMP-activated protein kinase/5′AMP-activated protein kinase) versus males. These data highlight that KD and exercise beneficially impacts hepatic metabolism and oxidative stress and merits further investigation. Novelty KD feeding combined with exercise improved hepatic oxidative stress, suppressed markers of de novo lipogenesis, and increased markers of mitochondrial content versus WD feeding. Males and females responded similarly to combined KD feeding and exercise. Female rats exhibited elevated hepatic markers of autophagy/mitophagy and energy homeostasis compared with male rats.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2019-05-22T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0042
  • Interindividual variability and individual responses to exercise training
           in adolescents with obesity
    • Authors: Jeremy J. Walsh, Jacob T. Bonafiglia, Gary S. Goldfield, Ronald J. Sigal, Glen P. Kenny, Steve Doucette, Stasia Hadjiyannakis, Angela S. Alberga, Denis Prud’homme, Brendon J. Gurd
      Pages: 45 - 54
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 1, Page 45-54, January 2020.
      This study investigated the impact of exercise training on interindividual variability and response rates in body composition and cardiometabolic outcomes in adolescents with obesity. Postpubertal males and females (n = 143) were randomly assigned to 6 months of a diet-only control or aerobic, resistance, or combined exercise training. Body composition indices were percentages of body fat mass and lean body mass and waist circumference. Biomarkers of cardiometabolic health were systolic blood pressure and plasma fasting glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Interindividual variability was examined by comparing the standard deviation of individual responses (SDIR) to a smallest robust change (SRC). The typical error of measurement was used to classify responses. SDIR exceeded the SRC for percent body fat mass in all exercise groups (SRC = 1.04%; aerobic SDIR = 1.50%; resistance SDIR = 1.22%; combined SDIR = 2.29%), percent lean body mass (SRC = 1.38%; SDIR = 3.2%,), systolic blood pressure (SRC = 2.06 mm Hg; SDIR = 4.92 mm Hg) in the resistance group, and waist circumference (SRC = 2.33 cm; SDIR = 4.09 cm), and fasting glucose (SRC = 0.08 mmol/L; SDIR = 0.28 mmol/L) in the combined group. However, half of the reported variables (11/21) did not have a positive SDIR. Importantly, adverse response rates were significantly lower in all 3 exercise groups compared with control for body composition. Although exercise had a small influence on interindividual variability for indices of body composition, the rate of adverse responses did not increase for any outcome. Novelty Interindividual variability and individual responses to exercise training have not been investigated in adolescents with obesity. Six months of exercise training does not increase interindividual variability in adolescents with obesity. Exercise created a positive, uniform shift in responses.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2019-05-23T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0088
  • Eight weeks of fish oil supplementation does not prevent sitting-induced
           leg endothelial dysfunction
    • Authors: Takuma Morishima, Yosuke Tsuchiya, Jaume Padilla, Eisuke Ochi
      Pages: 55 - 60
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 1, Page 55-60, January 2020.
      Prolonged sitting impairs leg endothelial function and this impairment is thought to be mediated by a sustained reduction in blood flow-induced shear stress. However, whether nutritional strategies can be used to prevent sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction remains unknown. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that 8 weeks of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation would prevent endothelial dysfunction associated with sitting. Nineteen healthy men were randomly assigned to a placebo group or EPA+DHA group in a double-blind fashion. The EPA+DHA group was administered EPA-rich fish oil, containing 600 mg EPA and 260 mg DHA per day for 8 weeks. The placebo group received matching capsules for the same duration of time. Popliteal artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured at baseline and before and after a 3-h sitting period. During sitting, blood pressure, popliteal artery diameter, and blood velocity were measured every hour. Throughout the sitting period, popliteal artery blood flow and shear rate were markedly and similarly reduced in both groups (P < 0.05). However, counter to the hypothesis, 3 h of sitting impaired popliteal artery FMD to the same extent in both groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, daily EPA and DHA supplementation is not effective at preventing the detrimental effects of prolonged sitting on leg endothelial function. Novelty We provide evidence that sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction in young healthy subjects cannot be remediated by a nutritional strategy known to produce cardiovascular benefits. This could be partially due to the low total dose of EPA and DHA administered.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2019-10-31T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0138
  • Critical skating intensity on a slide board: physiological and
           neuromuscular responses and correlation with performance on ice
    • Authors: Tatiane Piucco, Julia Phillips, Jordan Finnie, Andrew Rados, Ricardo Dantas de Lucas
      Pages: 61 - 66
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 1, Page 61-66, January 2020.
      The aim of this study was to assess the physiological and neuromuscular responses at critical skating intensity on a slide board and to investigate the correlations between critical cadence (CC) and skating performances on ice. Thirteen well-trained speed skaters (age,19.8 ± 4.2 years; weight, 69.6 ± 9.06 kg) performed a maximal skating incremental test (IT) on a slide board. CC was determined from 3 to 4 trials to exhaustion lasting from 3.1 ± 0.7 to 13.9 ± 3.1 min, using linear and hyperbolic mathematical fittings. A time to exhaustion test at CC (TTE-CC) was performed. CC values (55.3 ± 5.0 ppm) were significantly higher than cadence at the respiratory compensation point (RCP) (53.5 ± 4.0 ppm). Mean duration of TTE-CC was 22.9 ± 4.8 min. Peak values of oxygen uptake, heart rate (HR), ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during TTE-CC were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than the peak values reached during the IT. Oxygen uptake, HR, ventilation, RER, and RPE significantly increased from 25% to 100% of TTE-CC. Muscle activity (integrated electromyography) significantly increased after 75% of TTE-CC for vastus lateralis and gluteus maximus muscles. Oxygen uptake at CC was better associated to skating performance on 500, 1000, 1500, and 5000 m than peak oxygen uptake at IT and oxygen uptake at RCP. Physiological responses indicate that critical skating intensity on slide board occurred within the heavy exercise domain where oxygen uptake increases but does not reach its maximum. Critical cadence could be used as a better indicator of performance and training prescription for long track speed skating distances.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2019-05-24T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0016
  • Uric acid is a key player in salt-induced endothelial dysfunction: the
           therapeutic role of Stigma maydis (corn silk) extract
    • Authors: Adewumi Oluwafemi Oyabambi, Emmanuel Damilare Areola, Lawrence Aderemi Olatunji, Ayodele Olufemi Soladoye
      Pages: 67 - 71
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 1, Page 67-71, January 2020.
      Hyperuricemia has been implicated in the pathogenesis and complications of cardiovascular diseases with associated elevated oxidant events. There is evidence that excessive salt intake results in cardiometabolic disturbances but the mechanism is elusive. Also, Stigma maydis (corn silk) is noted for its antioxidant properties among other beneficial roles. This study, therefore, aimed to establish the effect of high-salt diet (SD) on uric acid (UA) production and the role of S. maydis in salt-induced phenotypes. Four groups of randomly selected rats (n = 5) were fed with normal rat feed, corn silk extract (500 mg/kg), SD (8%) and corn silk extract plus high-salt feed. After 6 weeks of the experimental procedure, each animal was anesthetized by exposure to chloroform vapor and blood samples collected by cardiac puncture. Data were expressed in means ± SEM and p values
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2019-06-03T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2018-0849
  • Corticospinal excitability to the biceps and triceps brachii during
           forward and backward arm cycling is direction- and phase-dependent
    • Authors: Anna. P. Nippard, Evan. J. Lockyer, Duane. C. Button, Kevin. E. Power
      Pages: 72 - 80
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 1, Page 72-80, January 2020.
      The purpose of this study was to evaluate corticospinal excitability to the biceps and triceps brachii during forward (FWD) and backward (BWD) arm cycling. Corticospinal and spinal excitability were assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation and transmastoid electrical stimulation to elicit motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and cervicomedullary evoked potentials (CMEPs), respectively. MEPs and CMEPs were recorded from the biceps and triceps brachii during FWD and BWD arm cycling at 2 positions, 6 and 12 o’clock. The 6 o’clock position corresponded to mid-elbow flexion and extension during FWD and BWD cycling, respectively, while 12 o’clock corresponded to mid-elbow extension and flexion during FWD and BWD cycling, respectively. During the flexion phase, MEP and CMEP amplitudes of the biceps brachii were higher during FWD cycling. However, during the extension phase, MEP and CMEP amplitudes were higher during BWD cycling. For the triceps brachii, MEP amplitudes were higher during FWD cycling regardless of phase. However, CMEP amplitudes were phase-dependent. During the flexion phase, CMEPs of the triceps brachii were higher during FWD cycling compared with BWD, but during the extension phase CMEPs were higher during BWD cycling compared with FWD. The data suggest that corticospinal and spinal excitability to the biceps brachii is phase- and direction-dependent. In the triceps brachii, spinal, but not corticospinal, excitability is phase-dependent when comparing FWD and BWD cycling. Novelty This is the first study to assess corticospinal excitability during FWD and BWD locomotor output. Corticospinal excitability during arm cycling depends on the direction, phase, and muscle being assessed.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2019-06-05T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0043
  • Arterial stiffness and haemodynamic regulation in adolescent anorexia
           nervosa versus obesity
    • Authors: Ingrid Tonhajzerova, Andrea Mestanikova, Alexander Jurko, Marian Grendar, Peter Langer, Igor Ondrejka, Tomas Jurko, Igor Hrtanek, Dana Cesnekova, Michal Mestanik
      Pages: 81 - 90
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 1, Page 81-90, January 2020.
      Cardiovascular complications contribute to higher morbidity and mortality in patients with anorexia nervosa. We aimed to study biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in anorexic, normal-weight, and obese adolescents with focus on complex cardiovascular autonomic regulation and early arteriosclerotic damage. We examined 20 adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa, 20 obese girls, and 20 healthy normal-weight controls. Collected data: body composition analysis, 5 min recordings of R–R intervals and beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP), and arterial stiffness evaluated using cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). Evaluated parameters: beat-to-beat heart rate and BP variability, haemodynamic parameters (total peripheral resistance (TPR) cardiac output), CAVI, and anthropometric indices, including novel body roundness index (BRI). Adolescents with anorexia nervosa had increased CAVI associated with lower arterial constriction indexed by low-frequency band of BP variability compared with normal-weight peers (p = 0.03, p = 0.04, respectively) and obese adolescents (p < 0.01, p = 0.01, respectively). After normalization of CAVI and TPR by BRI, the relationship between CAVI and TPR was significant for all groups with the highest slope in the anorexia nervosa group (R2 = 0.724, p < 0.01). This is the first study revealing early arteriosclerotic damage in anorexic girls with increased CAVI. Complex analysis of cardiovascular autonomic regulation, and early arteriosclerotic, hemodynamic, and anthropometric changes in spectrum anorexia nervosa, normal weight, and obesity could help to understand the mechanisms of increased cardiovascular risk in malnutrition. Novelty Girls with anorexia nervosa showed signs of early arteriosclerotic damage indexed by CAVI. Insufficient sympathetic cardiovascular control was found already in adolescents with anorexia nervosa. The effect of body composition on CAVI was best predicted by novel body roundness index.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2019-06-04T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2018-0867
  • Consumption of Greek yogurt during 12 weeks of high-impact loading
           exercise increases bone formation in young, adult males – a secondary
           analysis from a randomized trial
    • Authors: Aaron D. Bridge, Joseph Brown, Hayden Snider, Wendy E. Ward, Brian D. Roy, Andrea R. Josse
      Pages: 91 - 100
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 1, Page 91-100, January 2020.
      Exercise combined with protein and calcium has been shown to benefit bone turnover and bone metabolism. Greek yogurt (GY) contains important nutrients that support bone but has yet to be studied with exercise for this purpose. Thirty untrained, university-aged, males were randomized to 2 groups (n = 15/group): GY (20 g protein, 208 mg calcium/dose) or placebo pudding (PP; 0 g protein, 0 g calcium/dose) consumed 3×/day on training days and 2×/day on nontraining days. Both groups underwent a resistance/plyometric training program for 12 weeks. Blood was obtained at weeks 0, 1, and 12 to measure procollagen-type-I-N-terminal-propeptide (P1NP) and C-terminal-telopeptide (CTX). After outlier treatment, P1NP increased more over time in GY versus PP (p = 0.002; interaction). Both groups decreased CTX over time (p = 0.046; time effect). Following 1 week of training, there was a trend towards a significant increase in CTX in PP with no change in GY (p = 0.062; interaction). P1NP changed more in GY than PP (baseline to week 12; p = 0.029) as did the P1NP/CTX ratio (p = 0.015) indicating a greater increase in formation with GY. Thus, GY added to a high-load, high-impact exercise program positively shifted bone turnover towards increased formation while attenuating resorption. GY could be a plausible postexercise food to support bone health in young adult males. Novelty Greek yogurt, with exercise, increased bone formation in young adult males over 12 weeks. After 1 week of an osteogenic exercise program, Greek yogurt tended to blunt a rise in bone resorption seen with the placebo. Greek yogurt is a plausible postexercise food that supports bone.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2019-10-25T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0396
  • High-intensity interval training followed by postexercise cold-water
           immersion does not alter angiogenic circulating cells, but increases
           circulating endothelial cells
    • Authors: Flávio de Castro Magalhães, Paula Fernandes Aguiar, Rosalina Tossige-Gomes, Sílvia Mourão Magalhães, Vinícius de Oliveira Ottone, Tiago Fernandes, Edilamar Menezes Oliveira, Marco Fabrício Dias-Peixoto, Etel Rocha-Vieira, Fabiano Trigueiro Amorim
      Pages: 101 - 111
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 45, Issue 1, Page 101-111, January 2020.
      High-intensity interval training (HIIT) induces vascular adaptations that might be attenuated by postexercise cold-water immersion (CWI). Circulating angiogenic cells (CAC) participate in the vascular adaptations and circulating endothelial cells (CEC) indicate endothelial damage. CAC and CEC are involved in vascular adaptation. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate postexercise CWI during HIIT on CAC and CEC and on muscle angiogenesis-related molecules. Seventeen male subjects performed 13 HIIT sessions followed by 15 min of passive recovery (n = 9) or CWI at 10 °C (n = 8). HIIT comprised cycling (8–12 bouts, 90%–110% peak power). The first and the thirteenth sessions were similar (8 bouts at 90% of peak power). Venous blood was drawn before exercise (baseline) and after the recovery strategy (postrecovery) in the first (pretraining) and in the thirteenth (post-training) sessions. For CAC and CEC identification lymphocyte surface markers (CD133, CD34, and VEGFR2) were used. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were performed pre- and post-training for protein (p-eNOSser1177) and gene (VEGF and HIF-1) expression analysis related to angiogenesis. CAC was not affected by HIIT or postexercise CWI. Postexercise CWI increased acute and baseline CEC number. Angiogenic protein and genes were not differently modulated by post-CWI. HIIT followed by either recovery strategy did not alter CAC number. Postexercise CWI increased a marker of endothelial damage both acutely and chronically, suggesting that this postexercise recovery strategy might cause endothelial damage. Novelty HIIT followed by CWI did not alter CAC. HIIT followed by CWI increased CEC. Postexercise CWI might cause endothelial damage.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2019-06-05T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0041
  • DHA supplementation decreases resting metabolic rate in healthy young
    • Authors: Sebastian Jannas-Vela, Shannon L. Klingel, David M. Mutch, Lawrence L. Spriet
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles.
      This study examined the independent effects of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid supplementation on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and substrate oxidation in young healthy females and males. EPA or DHA supplementation had no effect on RMR and substrate oxidation in males, while DHA reduced RMR by ∼7% (p < 0.01) in females. In conclusion, these data establish potential sex differences on RMR in response to DHA supplements. Novelty Supplementing with DHA decreases resting energy expenditure in healthy young females but not males.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2019-10-03T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0581
  • On the horizon of aging and physical activity research
    • Authors: Jennifer M. Jakobi, Jerome A. Dempsey, Ylva Hellsten, Richard Monette, Jayne M. Kalmar
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles.
      This viewpoint is the result of a Horizon Round Table discussion of Exercise and Aging held during the 2017 Saltin International Graduate School in Exercise and Clinical Physiology in Gatineau, Quebec. This expert panel discussed key issues and approaches to future research into aging, across human physiological systems, current societal concerns, and funding approaches. Over the 60-min round table discussion, 3 major themes emerged that the panel considered to be “On the Horizon” of aging research. These themes include (i) aging is a process that extends from womb to tomb; (ii) the importance of longitudinal experimental studies; and (iii) the ongoing need to investigate multiple systems using an integrative approach between scientists, clinicians, and knowledge brokers. With a focus on these themes, we aim to identify critical questions, challenges, and opportunities that face scientists in advancing the understanding of exercise and aging.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2019-07-17T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2018-0738
  • Acute effect of multiple sets of fatiguing resistance exercise on muscle
    • Authors: Masashi Taniguchi, Yosuke Yamada, Noriaki Ichihashi
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles.
      Resistance exercise (RE) causes an acute increase of the muscle thickness (MT) considered to relate to an increase in tissue water content. Segmental bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (S-BIS) is a tool used to noninvasively assess intra- and extra-cellular water (ICW and ECW, respectively) of a given limb segment. The purpose of the present study was to examine the change of MT, ultrasound echo intensity (EI), ICW, and ECW after 3 sets of exhaustive RE. Eighteen untrained young males (age, 25.4 ± 4.1 years) performed RE consisting of 3 sets of knee extension concentric and eccentric contractions with 80% of 1-repetition maximum to failure. The MT and EI of the quadriceps measured by ultrasonography, and ECW/ICW ratio of the thigh assessed by S-BIS before (baseline) and after each set of RE (PostEx1, 2, and 3). The changes (Δ) in MT, EI, and ECW/ICW ratio were calculated as values of PostEx minus baseline values. The values of MT, EI, and ECW/ICW ratio at PostEx3 were significantly higher than baseline (effect size: MT, 1.11; EI, 0.47; and ECW/ICW ratio, 0.45). In addition, ΔMT was significantly and moderately correlated with ΔECW/ICW ratio (r = 0.61). Integrated data showed weak but significant correlation between ΔEI and ΔECW/ICW ratio as well (r = 0.31). The present results suggest multiple sets of exhaustive knee extension RE induce the acute increase of EI and ECW/ICW ratio as well as MT. The acute increase of muscle size after exercise can be at least partly explained by relative ECW increase.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2019-07-12T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2018-0813
  • Heart rate variability mediates motivation and fatigue throughout a
           high-intensity exercise program
    • Authors: Derek A. Crawford, Katie M. Heinrich, Nicholas B. Drake, Justin DeBlauw, Michael J. Carper
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles.
      High-intensity exercise interventions are often promoted as a time-efficient public health intervention to combat chronic disease. However, increased physical effort and subsequent fatigue can be barriers to long-term maintenance of high-intensity exercise programs. The purpose of the present study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV) mediated state traits related to exercise program adherence. Fifty-five healthy men and women (ages 19–35 years) used a commercially available smartphone application to monitor daily HRV status throughout a 6-week high-intensity exercise intervention. Participants reported state motivation to exercise and global physical fatigue immediately prior to each exercise session. Temporary shifts toward increased parasympathetic reactivation (p = 0.030) resulted in significant increases in daily fatigue (p < 0.001) and decreases in motivation to exercise (p = 0.028). Through modulation of exercise volume, in response to these temporary shifts in HRV, these effects were reversed (p < 0.001) via increased parasympathetic withdrawal (p = 0.018). For the first time, these data demonstrate a mediating effect of HRV on adherence-related trait states throughout a high-intensity exercise program. Applied strategies, such as appropriately timed exercise volume moderation, may be able to leverage this effect and help facilitate long-term exercise program maintenance. Novelty These data establish a link between expected shifts in HRV throughout high-intensity exercise programs with motivation to participate and physical fatigue. Modulation of training volume, in response to these shifts, can optimize adherence-related behavioral responses during high-exercise programs.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2019-07-09T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0123
  • Wavelet and principal component analysis of electromyographic activity and
           slow component of oxygen uptake during heavy and severe cycling exercise
    • Authors: Liping Qi, Xiao-Chi Ma, Dong-Dong Zhou, Shuo Guan, Feng-Shan Gao, Pei-Xin Cong
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles.
      The aim of the study was to investigate whether the slow component of oxygen uptake was concurrent with the recruitment of large α-motoneuron muscle fibres by using wavelet and principal component analysis (PCA) of electromyography (EMG) during heavy and severe cycling exercise. Eleven male subjects participated in the study. After establishing each subject’s maximum value of oxygen uptake through an incremental test on the cycle ergometer, the subjects performed 6-min cycling tests at heavy and severe intensity. EMG signals were collected from rectus femoris, biceps femoris long head, tibialis anterior, and medial gastrocnemius and processed by combined use of wavelet and PCA analysis. The time delays to the onset of slow component occurred significantly earlier during severe (105.22 ± 5.45 s) compared with during heavy (138.78 ± 15.09 s) exercise. ANOVA with repeated measures showed that for all muscles tested, the angle θ formed by the first and second principal components decreased significantly between time windows during heavy and severe exercise. However, significant increases of EMG mean power frequency (MPF) were found only during heavy exercise. Our results show the concurrence of the oxygen uptake slow component with the additional recruitment of muscle fibres, presumably less efficient large α-motoneuron fibres. Novelty The expected rise in MPF may be offset by muscle fatigue occurring in the later time windows of the slow component during severe exercise. The gradual shift to higher EMG frequencies throughout the slow-component phase was reflected in the progressive and significant decrease of angle θ.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2019-07-09T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0037
  • Primary defects in lipid handling and resistance to exercise in myotubes
           from obese donors with and without type 2 diabetes
    • Authors: Nils Gunnar Løvsletten, Arild C. Rustan, Claire Laurens, G. Hege Thoresen, Cedric Moro, Nataša Nikolić
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles.
      Several studies have shown that human primary myotubes retain the metabolic characteristic of their donors in vitro. We have demonstrated, along with other researchers, a reduced lipid turnover and fat oxidation rate in myotubes derived from obese donors with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Because exercise is known to increase fat oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle, we investigated if in vitro exercise could restore primary defects in lipid handling in myotubes of obese individuals with and without T2D compared with lean nondiabetic donors. Primary myotubes cultures were derived from biopsies of lean, obese, and T2D subjects. One single bout of long-duration exercise was mimicked in vitro by electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) for 24 h. Lipid handling was measured using radiolabeled palmitate, metabolic gene expression by real-time qPCR, and proteins by Western blot. We first showed that myotubes from obese and T2D donors had increased uptake and incomplete oxidation of palmitate. This was associated with reduced mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II, III, and IV protein expression in myotubes from obese and T2D subjects. EPS stimulated palmitate oxidation in lean donors, while myotubes from obese and T2D donors were refractory to this effect. Interestingly, EPS increased total palmitate uptake in myotubes from lean donors while myotubes from T2D donors had a reduced rate of palmitate uptake into complex lipids and triacylglycerols. Novelty Myotubes from obese and T2D donors are characterized by primary defects in palmitic acid handling. Both obese and T2D myotubes are partially refractory to the beneficial effect of exercise on lipid handling.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2019-07-05T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0265
  • Arachidonic acid status negatively associates with forearm bone outcomes
           and glucose homeostasis in children with an overweight condition or
    • Authors: Ivy L. Mak, Tamara R. Cohen, Catherine A. Vanstone, Hope A. Weiler
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles.
      Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are implicated in musculoskeletal health in adults. This study examined whether fatty acid status relates to bone health outcomes in children with overweight condition or obesity (body mass index z score, 3.1 ± 0.1; age, 9.0 ± 0.2 years; n = 108). Nondominant forearm bone density (distal one-third), geometry (4% site), and soft tissue composition (66%) were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid profile and indices of glucose homeostasis were measured. Differences in outcomes among RBC arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6) tertiles were tested using mixed-model ANOVA. Ultra-, mid-, and total-distal forearm bone mineral content, adjusted for sex, age, percentage body fat, race, and forearm length, were 10% to 13% greater in children in the first AA tertile relative to the third. Children in the second tertile had the highest bone cross-sectional area and estimated strength at the 66% radius. Muscle cross-sectional area was 15% lower in the third tertile compared with the first, along with higher fasting insulin concentrations (27%) and homeostasis model of assessment estimate of insulin resistance (31%). Higher RBC AA status aligns with deficits in forearm bone mass, geometry, and muscle mass in children with excess adiposity and early signs of insulin resistance. Novelty Higher arachidonic acid status is associated with lower forearm bone mass in children with overweight condition or obesity. Children with higher arachidonic acid status had increased fasting insulin concentrations and indices of insulin resistance.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2019-07-03T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0046
  • Evidence of a limb- and shear stress stimulus profile-dependent impact of
           high-intensity cycling training on flow-mediated dilation
    • Authors: Trevor J. King, Kyra E. Pyke
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles.
      Lower limb endurance training can improve conduit artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in response to transient increases in shear stress (reactive hyperemia; RH-FMD) in both the upper and lower limbs. Sustained increases in shear stress recruit a partially distinct transduction pathway and elicit a physiologically relevant FMD response (SS-FMD) that provides distinct information regarding endothelial function. However, the impact of training on SS-FMD is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of cycling training on handgrip exercise-induced brachial artery (BA) FMD (BA SS-FMD) and calf plantar-flexion-induced superficial femoral artery (SFA) FMD (SFA SS-FMD). RH-FMD was also assessed in both arteries. Twenty-eight young males were randomized to control (n = 12) or training (n = 16) groups. The training group cycled 30 min/day, 3 days/week for 4 weeks at 80% heart rate reserve. FMD was assessed in the BA and SFA before and after the intervention via Duplex ultrasound. Results are means ± SD. Training did not impact SS-FMD in either artery, and SFA RH-FMD was also unchanged (p> 0.05). When controlling for the shear rate stimulus via covariate analysis, BA RH-FMD improved in the training group (p = 0.05) (control – pre-intervention: 5.7% ± 2.4%, post-intervention: 5.3% ± 2.4%; training – pre-intervention: 5.4% ± 2.5%, post-intervention: 7.2% ± 2.4%). Thus, endurance training resulted in nonuniform adaptations to endothelial function, with an isolated impact on the BA’s ability to transduce a transient increase in shear stress. Novelty Training did not alter SS-FMD in the arm or leg. RH-FMD was augmented in the arm only. Thus training adaptations were limb- and shear stress profile-specific.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2019-06-28T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0151
  • Dietary sodium, potassium, and blood pressure in normotensive pregnant
           women: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    • Authors: Abbi D. Lane-Cordova, Lara R. Schneider, William C. Tucker, James W. Cook, Sara Wilcox, Jihong Liu
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles.
      Dietary sodium, potassium, and sodium-to-potassium ratio are linearly associated with blood pressure in nonpregnant adults. Earlier investigations suggested null or inverse associations of blood pressure and sodium during normotensive pregnancy; findings have not been confirmed in race/ethnically diverse women or while accounting for potassium. Our purpose was to evaluate associations of blood pressure with sodium and potassium and sodium-to-potassium ratio in race/ethnically diverse normotensive pregnant women. We used cross-sectional blood pressure and dietary data from 984 women in multiple cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (mean age = 27.6 ± 0.2 years). We tested for differences in blood pressure across quartiles of sodium intake using Kruskal–Wallis tests and linear regression to evaluate associations of sodium, potassium, and the sodium-to-potassium ratio with systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures. We adjusted for potential confounding variables: age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, body mass index, smoking, and month of pregnancy. SBP and DBP were similar across quartiles of sodium intake: quartile 1 (lowest sodium intake): 107/59; quartile 2: 106/59; quartile 3: 108/60; quartile 4 (highest sodium intake): 108/58 mm Hg, p> 0.60 for all. Sodium (β = 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): –0.20 to 0.52) and potassium (β = 0.18, 95% CI: –0.24 to 0.60) and the sodium-to-potassium ratio (β = –0.54, 95% CI: –1.55 to 0.47) were not associated with SBP or DBP. Results were similar in stratified analyses. Novelty Blood pressure was similar among quartiles of sodium or potassium intake, even in analyses stratified by race/ethnicity and trimester of pregnancy. There was no association of sodium or potassium with blood pressure. Blood pressure may be insensitive to dietary sodium and potassium during normotensive pregnancy.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2019-06-28T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0186
  • Perceptually regulated training does not influence the differentiated RPE
           response following 16-weeks of aerobic exercise in adults with spinal cord
    • Authors: Michael John Hutchinson, Sydney Ella Valentino, Julia Totosy de Zepetnek, Maureen Jane MacDonald, Victoria Louise Goosey-Tolfrey
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles.
      This study investigated the effect of prolonged familiarisation with ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) on the peripheral (RPEP) and central (RPEC) RPE responses to moderate–vigorous exercise in adults with spinal cord injury (SCI). RPEP and RPEC characterise the exertion of the working musculature and cardiorespiratory systems, respectively. Nineteen participants (age, 41.4 ± 11.4 years; peak oxygen uptake, 19.2 ± 7.2 mL·kg−1·min−1) with chronic SCI were randomly assigned to RPE-guided (n = 11; EXP) or active control (n = 8; CON) groups. EXP performed 16-weeks of RPE-guided, supervised aerobic training for 20 min, twice weekly, at RPE 3–6 (Category-Ratio 10 scale). CON had access to the same exercise equipment but received no specific advice on their exercise-training regime. Participants completed a graded exercise test, using an arm crank ergometer at pre- and post-training to determine peak oxygen uptake, with RPEP and RPEC recorded every minute throughout tests. Sixteen weeks training did not improve peak oxygen uptake. RPE decreased post-training at 50% (p = 0.02) and 70% peak oxygen uptake (p = 0.03), though there was no effect of group at either intensity (p = 0.54, 0.42, respectively). At 70% peak oxygen uptake, RPEP was greater than RPEC (4.2 ± 1.7 vs 3.4 ± 1.8, p < 0.005). Training with RPE-guidance for 16 weeks had no additional effect on the differentiated RPE responses to moderate-vigorous exercise in adults with SCI. Novelty In adults with SCI, differentiated RPE responses were not different between those who did, and did not, perform 16 weeks of RPE-guided training. This challenges whether familiarisation with RPE is necessary to be an effective regulator of exercise intensity in this population.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2019-06-28T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0062
  • A high-salt meal does not augment blood pressure responses during maximal
    • Authors: Kamila U. Migdal, Austin T. Robinson, Joseph C. Watso, Matthew C. Babcock, Jorge M. Serrador, William B. Farquhar
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles.
      Augmented blood pressure (BP) responses during exercise are predictive of future cardiovascular disease. High dietary sodium (Na+) increases BP responses during static exercise. It remains unclear if high dietary Na+ augments BP responses during dynamic exercise. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that an acute high-Na+ meal would augment BP responses during dynamic exercise. Twenty adults (10 male/10 female; age, 26 ± 5 years; BP, 105 ± 10/57 ± 6 mm Hg) were given a high-Na+ meal (HSM; 1495 mg Na+) and a low-Na+ meal (LSM; 138 mg Na+) separated by at least 1 week, in random order. Serum Na+ and plasma osmolality were measured. Eighty minutes following the meal, participants completed a graded-maximal exercise protocol on a cycle ergometer. Heart rate, beat-by-beat BP, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and manual BP were measured at rest and during exercise. Both serum Na+ (HSM: Δ1.6 ± 2.0 vs LSM: Δ1.1 ± 1.8 mmol/L, P = 0.0002) and plasma osmolality (HSM: Δ3.0 ± 4.5 vs LSM: Δ2.0 ± 4.2 mOsm/(kg·H2O), P = 0.01) were higher following the HSM. However, the HSM did not augment BP during peak exercise (systolic BP: HSM: 170 ± 23 vs LSM: 171 ± 21 mm Hg, P = 0.81). These findings suggest that an acute high-salt meal does not augment BP responses during dynamic exercise in adults. Novelty The high-salt meal increased serum sodium and plasma osmolality compared with the low-salt meal. The high-salt meal did not augment blood pressure responses during maximal dynamic exercise. This is important as augmented blood pressure responses during exercise put individuals at greater risk for development of cardiovascular disease.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2019-06-25T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0217
  • Belief in the need for sodium supplementation during ultramarathons
           remains strong: findings from the Ultrarunners Longitudinal TRAcking
           (ULTRA) study
    • Authors: Martin D. Hoffman, Matthew D. White
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles.
      In the past, ultramarathon runners have commonly believed that consuming sodium supplements, as capsules or tablets, will prevent exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH), dehydration, muscle cramping, and nausea, but accumulating evidence indicates that sodium supplementation during ultramarathons is not necessary and may be potentially dangerous. In this work, beliefs about whether sodium supplements should be made available at ultramarathons were assessed during 2018 among 1152 participants of the Ultrarunners Longitudinal TRAcking (ULTRA) study, of which 85.2% had completed an ultramarathon during 2014–2018. Two-thirds (66.4%) of study participants indicated that sodium supplements should be made available at ultramarathons, supported by beliefs that they prevent EAH (65.5%) and muscle cramping (59.1%). Of those indicating that sodium supplements should not be made available, 85.0% indicated it is because runners can provide their own, 27.9% indicated it is because they are not necessary, and 12.1% indicated they could increase thirst drive and cause overhydration. In general, there was a tendency for those who were older, less active in running ultramarathons in recent years, and with a longer history of ultramarathon running to be less likely to know that sodium supplements do not help prevent EAH, muscle cramping, and nausea. Novelty Ultramarathon runners continue to have misunderstandings about the need for sodium supplementation during ultramarathons. Few ultramarathon runners recognize that supplementing sodium intake beyond that in food and drink is generally not necessary during ultramarathons or that it could result in overhydration. Continued educational efforts are warranted to help ensure safe participation in the sport.
      Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
      PubDate: 2019-06-04T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0238
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