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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1453 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (86 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (661 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (382 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (105 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (115 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (115 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 115 of 115 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACSMs Health & Fitness Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACTIVE : Journal of Physical Education, Sport, Health and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ágora para la Educación Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
American Journal of Sexuality Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Applied Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Apunts. Medicina de l'Esport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Exercise in Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arquivos de Ciências do Esporte     Open Access  
Athletic Training & Sports Health Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
BMC Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Childhood Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Éthique & Santé     Full-text available via subscription  
Fat Studies : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Body Weight and Society     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Fisioterapia em Movimento     Open Access  
Fitness & Performance Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food Science and Human Wellness     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Gelanggang Pendidikan Jasmani Indonesia     Open Access  
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geron     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Health and Physical Education Pedagogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Health Education Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Health Marketing Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Home Healthcare Now     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human Movement     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Human Movement Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IISE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesia Performance Journal     Open Access  
İnönü Üniversitesi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 56)
International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Men's Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
International Journal of Obesity Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Spa and Wellness     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sport, Exercise & Training Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Isokinetics and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of American College Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Human Sport and Exercise     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Motor Learning and Development     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Physical Activity and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Physical Activity and Hormones     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Education and Human Movement     Open Access  
Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Sport and Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Sport Sciences and Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Kinesiology : International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Kinesiology     Open Access  
Kinesiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Krankenhaus-Hygiene - Infektionsverhütung     Full-text available via subscription  
Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Médecine & Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription  
Mental Health and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Movimiento Humano y Salud     Open Access  
Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Obesity Research & Clinical Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Obesity Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Obesity Science & Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Obesity Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pain Management in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
PALAESTRA : Adapted Sport, Physical Education, and Recreational Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Physical Activity and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Preventing Chronic Disease     Free   (Followers: 2)
Psychology of Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access  
RBONE - Revista Brasileira de Obesidade, Nutrição e Emagrecimento     Open Access  
RBPFEX - Revista Brasileira de Prescrição e Fisiologia do Exercício     Open Access  
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport     Hybrid Journal  
Retos : Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deportes y Recreación     Open Access  
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Atividade Física & Saúde     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Ciências do Esporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Educação Física e Esporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista da Educação Física : UEM     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología del Ejercicio y el Deporte     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte : International Journal of Medicine and Science of Physical Activity and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue phénEPS / PHEnex Journal     Open Access  
SIPATAHOENAN : South-East Asian Journal for Youth, Sports & Health Education     Open Access  
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Sport and Fitness Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Sport Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Sport Sciences for Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport- und Präventivmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Strength & Conditioning Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Timisoara Physical Education and Rehabilitation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise     Open Access  
Yoga Mimamsa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Здоровье человека, теория и методика физической культуры и спорта     Open Access  

           

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Journal Cover
Human Movement Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.756
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 16  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0167-9457
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3168 journals]
  • Common and specific gait patterns in people with varying anatomical levels
           of lower limb amputation and different prosthetic components
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 66Author(s): Tiwana Varrecchia, Mariano Serrao, Martina Rinaldi, Alberto Ranavolo, Silvia Conforto, Cristiano De Marchis, Andrea Simonetti, Ida Poni, Simona Castellano, Alessio Silvetti, Antonella Tatarelli, Lorenzo Fiori, Carmela Conte, Francesco DraicchioAbstractThe present study’s aim was to identify the kinematic and kinetic gait patterns and to measure the energy consumption in people with amputation according to both the anatomical level of amputation and the type of prosthetic components in comparison with a control group matched for the gait speed. Fifteen subjects with unilateral transtibial amputation (TTA), forty with unilateral transfemoral amputation (TFA) (9 with mechanical, 17 with CLeg and 14 with Genium prosthesis) and forty healthy subjects were recruited. We computed the time-distance gait parameters; the range of angular motion (RoM) at hip, knee and ankle joints, and at the trunk and pelvis; the values of the 2 peaks of vertical force curve; the full width at half maximum (FWHM) and center of activity (CoA) of vertical force; the mechanical behavior in terms of energy recovery (R-step) and energy consumption. The main results were: i) both TTA and TFA show a common gait pattern characterized by a symmetric increase of step length, step width, double support duration, pelvic obliquity, trunk lateral bending and trunk rotation RoMs compared to control groups. They show also an asymmetric increase of stance duration and of Peak1 in non-amputated side and a decrease of ankle RoM in amputated side; ii) only TFA show a specific gait pattern, depending on the level of amputation, characterized by a symmetric reduction of R-step and an asymmetric decrease of stance duration, CoA and FWHM and an increase of Peak1 in the amputated side and of hip and knee RoM, CoA and FWHM in the non-amputated side; iii) people with amputation with Genium prosthesis show a longer step length and increased hip and knee RoMs compared to people with amputation with mechanical prosthesis who conversely show an increased pelvic obliquity: these are specific gait patterns depending of the type of prosthesis. In conclusion, we identified both common and specific gait patterns in people with amputation, either regardless of, or according to their level of amputation and the type of prosthetic component.
       
  • Utility of center of pressure measures during obstacle crossing in
           prediction of fall risk in people with Parkinson’s disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 66Author(s): Núbia Ribeiro da Conceição, Priscila Nóbrega de Sousa, Marcelo Pinto Pereira, Lilian Teresa Bucken Gobbi, Rodrigo VitórioAbstractIntroductionPostural instability during walking and tripping over obstacles are the main causes of falls in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Preliminary limited evidence suggests that the length of the prospective follow-up period affects falls prediction in PD, with shorter periods leading to more accurate prediction. Thus, the primary aim of the present study was to test the performance of center of pressure (CoP) variables during obstacle crossing to predict fall risk in people with PD during subsequent periods of four, six, and 12 months. We also compared CoP variables during obstacle crossing between fallers and non-fallers.MethodsForty-two individuals with PD, in mild to moderate stages, completed the baseline obstacle crossing assessment and reported falls for 12 months. Participants walked at their self-selected pace and were instructed to cross an obstacle (half knee height) positioned in the middle of an 8-m long pathway. A force platform was used to analyze CoP parameters of the stance phase of the trailing limb (most affected limb). The ability of each outcome measure to predict fall risk at four, six, and 12 months was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curve analyses.ResultsTen individuals (23.8%) were considered fallers at four months, twelve individuals (28.5%) at six months, and twenty-one individuals (50%) at 12 months. CoP amplitude and CoP velocity in the mediolateral direction significantly predicted fall risk at four, six, and 12 months. As judged by the area under the curve, mediolateral CoP velocity showed the best performance at four months, while mediolateral CoP amplitude showed the best performance at six months. Fallers presented greater values of mediolateral CoP velocity and amplitude than non-fallers.ConclusionThese findings suggest that mediolateral CoP velocity and amplitude during obstacle crossing might be useful to predict fall risk in people with PD. Therefore, larger studies are encouraged.
       
  • Self-reported walking difficulty and knee osteoarthritis influences limb
           dynamics and muscle co-contraction during gait
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Annalisa Na, Thomas S. BuchananAbstractKnee osteoarthritis (OA) gait is characterized by simultaneous flexor and extensor use, or co-contraction. Co-contraction can stabilize and redirect joint forces. However, co-contraction can push and pull on the femur and tibia that exacerbate OA symptoms and make walking difficult. Such movements are quantifiable by limb dynamics (i.e., linear acceleration and jerk); thus, this study examines limb dynamics and its relationship with co-contraction and OA related walking difficulty.Three groups of age-and-sex-matched subjects with and without OA and walking difficulty (N = 13 per group) walked with electromyography (EMG) on the knee extensors and flexors and inertial measurement units (IMUs) at the femur and tibia. We calculated co-contraction from antagonistic EMG signals and linear acceleration and its derivative jerk from IMUs. We determined group differences using one-way ANOVAs, nonparametric equivalence, and effect sizes, and main and interaction effects of walking difficulty with regression modeling.Medium effect sizes and differences for femoral acceleration (d = 0.64; P = .02) and jerk (d = 0.51; P = .01) were observed between with and without knee OA. Medium to large effect sizes (r = 0.33 to 0.51 and d = 0.81 to 0.97) and differences (P = .01 to 0.05) for tibial acceleration and jerk were obsevered between with and without walking difficulty. Walking difficulty moderated the relationship between tibial jerk and co-contraction (p 
       
  • Effects of vision and cognitive load on anticipatory and compensatory
           postural control
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Zhi Zhang, Ying Gao, Jian WangAbstractThis study assessed the effects of vision and cognitive load on anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and compensatory postural adjustments (CPAs) in response to an externally triggered postural perturbation. A ball-hitting test was repeated under different visual conditions (eyes open, EO; eyes closed, EC) and cognitive loads (no load, 3-subtraction task, time-limited 3-subtraction task). Data were collected separately for I) surface electromyography from the right side of the biceps brachii (BIC) and erector spinae (ES) to detect the latency and response intensity (RI); and II) displacement of the centre of pressure (ΔCOP) to detect the standard deviation (ΔCOPSD) and maximum value (ΔCOPmax) in the anterior-posterior direction. Compared with the results under the EC condition, the ES latency was shorter and the RI of the BIC was lower under the EO condition. Accordingly, the ΔCOPSD and ΔCOPmax were increased in the APAs phase and decreased in the CPAs phase. Cognitive load had no effect on APAs and CPAs or on ΔCOP in the APAs phase. However, ΔCOPmax was decreased in the CPAs phase during the EC condition. In conclusion, vision played an important role in APAs and CPAs for muscle activation and ΔCOP. Cognitive load had no effect on neuromuscular APAs or CPAs except when the postural perturbation occurred when visually unexpected.
       
  • Unstable coupling of body sway with imposed motion precedes visually
           induced motion sickness
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Hannah J. Walter, Ruixuan Li, Justin Munafo, Christopher Curry, Nicolette Peterson, Thomas A. StoffregenAbstractMotion sickness is preceded by differences in the quantitative kinematics of body sway between individuals who (later) become sick and those who do not. In existing research, this effect has been demonstrated only in measures of body sway, relative to the earth. However, body sway can become coupled with imposed oscillatory motion of the illuminated environment, and the nature of this coupling may differ between individuals who become sick and those who do not. We asked whether body sway would become coupled to complex oscillations of the illuminated environment, and whether individual differences in such coupling might be precursors of motion sickness. Standing participants (women) were exposed to complex oscillation of the illuminated environment. We examined the strength of coupling as a function of time during exposure. Following exposure, some participants reported motion sickness. The nature and temporal evolution of coupling differed between participants who later reported motion sickness and those who did not. Our results show that people can couple the complex dynamics of body sway with complex imposed motion, and that differences in the nature of this coupling are related to the risk of motion sickness.
       
  • The effect of using paddles on hand propulsive forces and Froude
           efficiency in arm-stroke-only front-crawl swimming at various velocities
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Takaaki Tsunokawa, Hirotoshi Mankyu, Hideki Takagi, Futoshi OgitaAbstractThrough pressure measurement and underwater motion capture analysis, this study aimed to elucidate the effects of hand paddles on hand propulsive forces, mechanical power, and Froude efficiency in arm-stroke-only front-crawl swimming at various velocities. Eight male swimmers swam under two conditions in randomized order, once using only their hands and once aided by hand paddles on both hands. Each participant swam 10 times a distance of 16 m in each condition, for a total of 20 trials. To elucidate the relationship between propulsive forces and swimming velocity, each participant was instructed to swim each of the two sets of 10 trials at an arbitrarily different swimming velocity. During the trials, pressure sensors and underwater motion capture cameras were used together to analyze the pressure forces acting on the hand and hand kinematics, respectively. Six pressure sensors were attached to the right hand, and pressure forces acting on the right hand were estimated by multiplying the areas with the pressure differences between the palm and dorsal side of the hand. Acting directions of pressure forces were analyzed using a normal vector perpendicular to the hand or hand paddle, calculated from coordinates obtained using underwater motion capture analysis. As a result, there were no differences in propulsive forces and mechanical power to overcome water resistance (PD) with or without hand paddles at the same swimming velocities. However, the use of hand paddles decreased stroke rate and hand velocities, so mechanical power to push the water at the hand (PK) decreased. Using hand paddles thus increased Froude efficiency (ηF). These results suggest that training load decreases when swimmers swim at the same velocities while using hand paddles. This insight could prove useful for coaches and swimmers when using hand paddles for training to help ensure that they are used in accordance with their intended training purpose. If swimmers use hand paddles increasing propulsive force or PK, they should swim at a higher swimming velocity with hand paddles than without.
       
  • Anticipatory postural adjustments during a Fitts’ task: Comparing young
           versus older adults and the effects of different foci of attention
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Saleh M. Aloraini, Cheryl M. Glazebrook, Kathryn M. Sibley, Jonathan Singer, Steven PassmoreAbstractAnticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) are an integral part of standing balance. Previous research with balance control has shown that adopting an external focus of attention, compared to an internal focus of attention, yields better performance during motor skills. Despite the importance of APAs, especially among older adults, and the potential benefits of adopting an external focus of attention, studies investigating methods for improving APAs are limited. The aim of this study was to compare behavioral, kinematic and APAs measures while adopting different foci of attention among young and older adults when performing a lower extremity Fitts’ task. Ten young adults (mean age 24 years ± 4.37) and ten older adults (mean age 75 years ± 5.85) performed a lower-extremity reaching task (Fitts’ task) while adopting an external focus (focus on target) and an internal focus (focus on limb) in a within-subject design. A motion capture system was used to record participants’ movement data. Custom software derived movement time (MT), peak velocity (PV), time to peak velocity (ttPV) and variability at target (SDT). Electromyography (EMG) was used to determine APAs onset and magnitude. The findings showed that an external focus of attention led to significantly shorter MT, higher PV, shorter ttPV and more accuracy when reaching the target (SDT) for both age groups. Also, EMG results showed that, with an external focus, APAs onset occurred earlier and APAs magnitude was more efficient. As predicted by Fitts’ Law, participants spent more time executing movements to targets with higher indices of difficulty. Older adults compared to young adults were more adversely affected by the increase of difficulty of the Fitts’ task, specifically, on measures of APAs. In conclusion, adopting an external focus of attention led to better overall movement performance when performing a lower extremity Fitts’ task. The task used in the present study can distinguish between APAs for older and young adults. We recommend that future studies expand on our findings in order to establish a performance-based objective measure of APAs to assess clinical interventions for postural control impairment.
       
  • Rhythmic priming across effector systems: A randomized controlled trial
           with Parkinson’s disease patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Thenille Braun Janzen, Marion Haase, Michael H. ThautAbstractThis study investigated the immediate effects of auditory-motor entrainment across effector systems by examining whether Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation training of arm or finger movements would modulate gait speed. Forty-one participants with idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease were randomly assigned to 3 groups. Participants in the finger-tapping group tapped in synchrony with a metronome set to 20% faster pace than the pre-training walking cadence, whereas participants in the other group were asked to swing both arms in an alternating motion in synchrony with the metronome. Participants in the control condition did not receive training. To assess gait parameters pre- and post-training, participants walked on a 14-meter flat walkway at his/her preferred walking cadence with no auditory cueing. Results indicated that there was a significant increase in gait velocity after the finger tapping training (p 
       
  • The effect of aging on termination of voluntary movement while standing: A
           study on community-dwelling older adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Satoshi Kasahara, Hiroshi SaitoAbstractFor older adults, falls often occur when transitioning from motion to a complete stop, as the motor control required during this phase is very complex and challenging. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of aging on the motor control required to terminate motion. Twenty-five healthy older adults (aged>65 years) and 25 healthy young adults (20–23 years) performed a rapid stopping task while standing on a force plate. The rapid stopping task was conducted by analyzing center of pressure (COP) on the force plate during a visually guided tracking experiment. To assess the ability to terminate motion, we measured the velocity waveform for the COP, along with the reaction, propulsion, braking, and total movement times. Both the reaction and movement times of the older-adult group were significantly longer than those of the younger-adult group (all, p 
       
  • Differences in timing and magnitude of lumbopelvic rotation during active
           and passive knee extension in sitting position in people with and without
           low back pain: A cross-sectional study
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Amin Behdarvandan, Mohammad Jafar Shaterzadeh-Yazdi, Hossein Negahban, Mohammad MehravarAbstractRepetitive lumbopelvic rotation (LPR) during active limb movements has been indicated as a factor that contributes to low back pain (LBP). Prior studies suggest that people with LBP demonstrate greater and earlier LPR during limb movements in prone.We examined timing and magnitude of LPR during sitting active knee extension in people with and without LBP. We also investigated differences of LPR during active and passive knee extension in LBP group. 38 men (mean age: 38.4)10.6) years) with chronic mechanical LBP and 38 matched healthy men (mean age: 36.6(8.4) years) were examined. Kinematic data were collected by motion capture system and analyzed using OpenSim software. The difference between the start time of knee extension and start time of LPR was calculated and was normalized to knee extension movement time. Maximum angular displacement for LPR was also calculated across time.People with LBP demonstrated earlier LPR during knee extension than healthy subjects (P 
       
  • Sex comparisons of the bilateral deficit in proximal and distal upper body
           limb muscles
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Xin Ye, William M. Miller, Sunggun Jeon, Joshua C. CarrAbstractBilateral deficit (BLD) describes a phenomenon that the force produced during maximal simultaneous bilateral contraction is lower than the sum of those produced unilaterally. The aim of this study was to examine the potential sex-related differences in BLD in upper body proximal and distal limb muscles. Ten men and eight women performed single-joint maximal contractions with their elbow flexors and index finger abductors at separate laboratory visits, during which the maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MVICs) were performed unilaterally and bilaterally with a randomized order in the designated muscle group. Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from the prime movers of the designated muscle groups (biceps brachii and first dorsal interosseous) during the maximal contractions. Both men and women demonstrated BLD in their elbow flexors (deficit: men = −11.0 ± 6.3%; women = −10.2 ± 5.0%). Accompanied by this force deficit was the reduced EMG amplitude from the dominant biceps brachii (collapsed across sex: p = 0.045). For the index finger abductors, only men (deficit = −13.7 ± 6.1%), but not women showed BLD. Our results suggested that the BLD in the proximal muscle group is likely induced by the decreased maximal muscle activity from the dominant prime mover. The absence of BLD in women’s index finger muscle is largely due to the inter-subject variability possibly related to the sex hormone flux and unique levels of interhemispheric inhibition.
       
  • Ankle dorsiflexion range of motion is associated with kinematic but not
           kinetic variables related to bilateral drop-landing performance at various
           drop heights
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Louis P. Howe, Theodoros M. Bampouras, Jamie North, Mark WaldronAbstractLimited evidence is available concerning ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (DF ROM) and its relationship with landing performance from varying drop heights. The aim of this investigation was to determine the relationship between ankle DF ROM and both kinetic and kinematic variables measured during bilateral drop-landings from 50%, 100% and 150% of countermovement jump height. Thirty-nine participants were measured for their ankle DF ROM using the weight-bearing lunge test, after which five bilateral drop-landings were performed from 50%, 100% and 150% of maximal countermovement jump height. Normalized peak vertical ground reaction force (vGRF), time to peak vGRF and loading rate was calculated for analysis, alongside sagittal-plane initial contact angles, peak angles and joint displacement for the hip, knee and ankle. Frontal-plane projection angles were also calculated. Ankle DF ROM was not related to normalized peak vGRF, time to peak vGRF or loading rate (P > 0.05), regardless of the drop height. However, at drop heights of 100% and 150% of countermovement jump height, there were numerous significant (P 
       
  • Practice variability promotes an external focus of attention and enhances
           motor skill learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Lee-Kuen Chua, Maria Katrina Dimapilis, Takehiro Iwatsuki, Reza Abdollahipour, Rebecca Lewthwaite, Gabriele WulfAbstractVariability in practice has been shown to enhance motor skill learning. Benefits of practice variability have been attributed to motor schema formation (variable versus constant practice), or more effortful information processing (random versus blocked practice). We hypothesized that, among other mechanisms, greater practice variability might promote an external focus of attention on the intended movement effect, while less variability would be more conducive to a less effective internal focus on body movements. In Experiment 1, the learning of a throwing task was enhanced by variable versus constant practice, and variable group participants reported focusing more on the distance to the target (external focus), while constant group participants focused more on their posture (internal focus). In Experiment 2, golf putting was learned more effectively with a random compared with a blocked practice schedule. Furthermore, random group learners reported using a more effective distal external focus (i.e., distance to the target) to a greater extent, whereas blocked group participants used a less effective proximal focus (i.e., putter) more often. While attentional focus was assessed through questionnaires in the first two experiments, learners in Experiment 3 were asked to report their current attentional focus at any time during practice. Again, the learning of a throwing task was more effective after random relative to blocked practice. Also, random practice learners reported using more external focus cues, while in blocked practice participants used more internal focus cues. The findings suggest that the attentional foci induced by different practice schedules might be at least partially responsible for the learning differences.
       
  • Cancelling discrete and stopping ongoing rhythmic movements: Do they
           involve the same process of motor inhibition'
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): M. Hervault, R. Huys, C. Farrer, J.C. Buisson, P.G. ZanoneAbstractMotor inhibition is considered to be an important process of executive control and to be implicated in numerous activities in order to cancel prepared actions and, supposedly, to suppress ongoing ones. Usually, it is evaluated using a “stop-signal task” in which participants have to inhibit prepared discrete movements. However, it is unknown whether other movement types involve the same inhibition process. We therefore investigated whether the inhibition process for discrete movements is involved in stopping ongoing rhythmic movements as well.Twenty healthy adults performed two counterbalanced tasks. The first task was used to estimate the stop-signal reaction time (SSRTd) needed to inhibit prepared discrete key-pressing movements. In the second task, participants drew graphic patterns on a tablet and had to stop the movement when a stop-signal occurred. We calculated the rhythmic stop signal-reaction time as the time needed to initiate stopping such ongoing rhythmic movement (SSRTr) and the same latency relative to the period of the rhythmic movement (relSSRTr). We measured these delays under different movement frequencies and motor coordination conditions and further investigated whether they varied as a function of several parameters of the rhythmic movements (speed, mean and variance of the relative phase, and movement phase at several time events).We found no correlation between inhibition measures in the two tasks. In contrast, generalized linear models showed a moderate yet significant influence of the motion parameters on the inhibition of ongoing rhythmic movements. We therefore conclude that the motor inhibition processes involved in cancelling prepared discrete movements and stopping ongoing rhythmic movements are dissimilar.
       
  • Influence of target uncertainty on reaching movements while standing in
           stroke
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Camila Astolphi Lima, Sandra Regina Alouche, Alessandra Maria Schiavinato Baldan, Paulo Barbosa de Freitas, Sandra Maria Sbeghen Ferreira FreitasAbstractStroke individuals frequently have balance problems and impaired arm movements that affect their daily activities. We investigated the influence of target uncertainty and the side of the brain lesion on the performance of arm movements and postural adjustments during reaching in a standing position by stroke individuals. Participants stood on force plates and reached a target displayed on the center of a monitor screen under conditions differentiated by the prior knowledge of the target location at the beginning of the movement. Individuals who had a stroke in the right side of the brain performed the tasks with the ipsilesional, right upper limb while the individuals with a left stroke performed with the ipsilesional, left upper limb. Healthy individuals performed with right and left limbs, which data were later averaged for statistical analysis. Kinematic analysis of the arm and lower limb joints and displacements of the center of pressure of each lower limb were compared between target conditions and groups. Stroke individuals showed larger center of pressure displacements of the contralesional compared to the ipsilesional limb while these displacements were symmetrical between lower limbs for the healthy individuals, regardless of the target condition. The target uncertainty affected both the characteristics of the arm movements and postural adjustments before movement onset. Right stroke individuals used more ankle joint movements under the uncertain compared to the certain condition. The uncertainty in target location affects the arm reaching in upright standing, but the effects depend on the side of the brain lesion.
       
  • Modulation of tendon tap reflex activation of soleus motor neurons with
           reduced stability tandem stance
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Gordon R. ChalmersAbstractReduced stability while standing typically decreases the soleus muscle Hoffmann (H-) reflex amplitude, purportedly to prevent the Ia afferent signal from excessively activating spinal motor neurons during the unstable stance. H-reflex measures, however, by excluding the spindle do not reflect the actual effect of the Ia pathway (i.e. the combined effects of spindle sensitivity and Ia presynaptic inhibition) on motor neuron activation, as tendon tap reflex measures can. But the effect of stance stability on soleus muscle tendon tap reflex amplitude is largely unknown. This study examined 30 young adults (mean(s), 21(2) years) as they stood in a wide stable stance position and an unstable tandem stance with a reduced base of support. Standing body sway, the amplitude of the soleus muscle tendon tap reflex, background EMG and tap force were measured in both stances. A repeated measured design t-test was calculated for each variable. Most subjects (69%) decreased tendon tap reflex amplitude when in the tandem stance position (mean decrease 11.6%), compared to the wide stance (wide stance 0.248(0.124) mV, tandem stance 0.219(0.119) mV, p 
       
  • Dynamic simulation of flat water kayaking using a coupled
           biomechanical-smoothed particle hydrodynamics model
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Simon M. Harrison, Paul W. Cleary, Raymond C.Z. CohenAbstractKayak racing performance is known to be dependent on technique, strength and equipment, but the relationship between these factors and performance is not well understood. Complete experimental measures of stroke technique and the interactions between the water and the paddle and the boat are not practical in a racing environment. Instead, simulation using computational fluid dynamics can be used to study this system. A coupled biomechanical-Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (B-SPH) model of the kayaking athlete is presented. Verification and validation of the model are confirmed using drag force data from the literature and a spatial resolution study. Using this model and stroke kinematics (developed from the combination of literature data and digitised motion of an amateur level athlete from video), calculations are made of (a) the fluid response to interactions with the paddle and kayak; (b) speed of the kayak; and (c) magnitudes of force and impulse on the paddle and the hands. Key features of the fluid response are related to the loading on the athlete and the speed of the kayak. Perturbations to stroke technique are explored to give new insights into the relationships between technique and racing performance.
       
  • Task specificity and the timing of discrete aiming movements
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Tsung-Yu Hsieh, Yeou-Teh Liu, Karl M. NewellAbstractIn discrete aiming movements the task criteria of time-minimization to a spatial target (e.g., Fitts, 1954) and time-matching to a spatial-temporal goal (e.g., Schmidt et al., 1979) tend to produce different functions of the speed-accuracy trade-off. Here we examined whether the task-related movement speed-accuracy characteristics were due to differential space-time trade-offs in time-matching, velocity-matching and time-minimizing task goals. Twenty participants performed 100 aiming trials for each of 15 combinations of task-type (3) and space-time condition (5). The prevalence of the primary types of sub-movement (none, pre-peak, post-peak, undershooting and overshooting) was determined from the kinematics of the movement trajectory. There were comparable distributions of trajectory sub-movement profiles and space-time movement outcomes across the three tasks at the short movement duration that became increasingly dissimilar over decreasing movement velocity and increasing movement time conditions. Movement time was the most influential variable in mediating sub-movement characteristics and the spatial/temporal outcome accuracy and variability of discrete aiming tasks – a role that was magnified in the explicit task demands of time-matching. The time-matching and time-minimization task goals in discrete aiming induce qualitatively different control processes that progressively contribute beyond the minimal time conditions to task-specific space-time accuracy and variability characteristics of the respective movement speed-accuracy functions.
       
  • Synergistic influences of sensory and central stimuli on non-voluntary
           rhythmic arm movements
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): I.A. Solopova, D.S. Zhvansky, V.A. Selionov, Y. IvanenkoAbstractIn recent years, neuromodulation of the cervical spinal circuitry has become an area of interest for investigating rhythmogenesis of the human spinal cord and interaction between cervical and lumbosacral circuitries, given the involvement of rhythmic arm muscle activity in many locomotor tasks. We have previously shown that arm muscle vibrostimulation can elicit non-voluntary upper limb oscillations in unloading body conditions. Here we investigated the excitability of the cervical spinal circuitry by applying different peripheral and central stimuli in healthy humans. The rationale for applying combined stimuli is that the efficiency of only one stimulus is generally limited. We found that low-intensity electrical stimulation of the superficial arm median nerve can evoke rhythmic arm movements. Furthermore, the movements were enhanced by additional peripheral stimuli (e.g., arm muscle vibration, head turns or passive rhythmic leg movements). Finally, low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex significantly facilitated rhythmogenesis. The findings are discussed in the general framework of a brain-spinal interface for developing adaptive central pattern generator-modulating therapies.
       
  • An examination of muscle force control in individuals with a functionally
           unstable ankle
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Sheng-Che Yen, Kevin K. Chui, Ying-Chih Wang, Marie B. Corkery, Mohsen Nabian, Amir Bahador FarjadianAbstractPrevious studies suggest that functional ankle instability (FAI) may be associated with deficits in the ability to sense muscle forces. We tested individuals with FAI to determine if they have reduced ability to control ankle muscle forces, which is a function of force sense. Our test was performed isometrically to minimize the involvement of joint position sense and kinesthesia. A FAI group and a control group were recruited to perform an ankle force control task using a platform-based ankle robot. They were asked to move a cursor to hit 24 targets as accurately and as fast as possible in a virtual maze. The cursor movement was based on the direction and magnitude of the forces applied to the robot. Participants underwent three conditions: pre-test (baseline), practice (skill acquisition), and post-test (post skill acquisition). The force control ability was quantified based on the accuracy performance during the task. The accuracy performance was negatively associated with the collision count of the cursor with the maze wall. The FAI group showed reduced ability to control ankle muscle forces compared to the control group in the pre-test condition, but the difference became non-significant in the post-test condition after practice. The change in performance before and after practice may be due to different degrees of reliance on force sense.
       
  • Effects of foot progression angle adjustment on external knee adduction
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Sizhong Wang, Kitty H.C. Chan, Rachel H.M. Lam, Daisy N.S. Yuen, Carmen K.M. Fan, Thomas T.C. Chu, Heiner Baur, Roy T.H. CheungAbstractFoot progression angle adjustment was shown to reduce external knee adduction moment (EKAM) and knee adduction angular impulse (KAAI) during level ground walking. However, evidence on effects of foot progression angle adjustment on the above surrogate measures of medial knee loading during stair climbing is limited. Hence, this study examined the effects of toe-in and toe-out gait on EKAM and KAAI during stair ascent and descent. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected from thirty-two healthy adults during stair ascent and descent with toe-in, toe-out and natural gait. A repeated measures ANOVA indicated that toe-in gait significantly reduced the first EKAM peak (P 
       
  • Shoulder kinematics and kinetics of team handball throwing: A scoping
           review
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Sebastian Deisting Skejø, Merete Møller, Jesper Bencke, Henrik SørensenIn recent years a number of studies have investigated shoulder biomechanics in handball throwing. The purpose of this scoping review is to summarize the current handball research in terms of shoulder joint kinematics and kinetics and identify gaps in the current research. Nineteen articles relevant to this topic were identified and included. The handball throw is characterized by large external shoulder rotation followed by a rapid internal rotation with minor changes in shoulder flexion and abduction. Generally timing sequence, joint angles and joint velocities were not affected by different conditions such as throwing type, arm position, ball weight and gender. However, large differences in shoulder angles and angular velocities were found between studies, which most likely are explained by methodological differences. Unfortunately, the information provided in the articles did not make it possible to transform measurements from one study to another and thereby eliminate the methodological differences. Only one study reported shoulder kinetics and found that kinetics were not affected by fatigue. This scoping review highlights the need for better descriptions of the methods used to obtain shoulder kinematics and for studies investigating shoulder kinetics in handball throwing.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Foot and shoe responsible for majority of soft tissue work in early stance
           of walking
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Eric C. Honert, Karl E. ZelikAbstractSoft tissues located throughout the human body are known to perform substantial mechanical work through wobbling and deforming, particularly following foot impacts with the ground. Yet, it is not known which specific tissues in the body are responsible for the majority of the soft tissue work. The purpose of this study was to quantify how much of the soft tissue work after foot contact was due to the foot and shoe, vs. from tissues elsewhere in the body, and how this distribution of work changed with walking speed and slope. We collected ground reaction forces and whole-body kinematics while ten subjects walked at five speeds (0.8–1.6 m/s) and on seven different slopes (9 degrees downhill to 9 degrees uphill). Using a previously-published Energy-Accounting analysis, we found that the majority of the soft tissue work during early stance was due to deformation of the foot and shoe. The percentage of work did not vary significantly with speed but did vary significantly with slope. The foot and shoe were responsible for ∼60–70% of the soft tissue work during level and uphill walking, and 80–90% during downhill walking.
       
  • Hip muscle response to a fatiguing run in females with iliotibial band
           syndrome
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Allison M. Brown, Rebecca A. Zifchock, Mark Lenhoff, Jinsup Song, Howard J. HillstromAbstractImpaired hip muscle function has often been cited as a contributing factor to the development of iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS), yet our full understanding of this relationship is not well established. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of fatigue on hip abductor muscle function in females with ITBS. Female runners, 20 healthy and 12 with a current diagnosis of ITBS, performed a treadmill run to fatigue. Prior-to and following the run to fatigue, gluteus medius strength and median frequency values (an indicator of fatigue resistance) were measured. Additionally, onset activation timing of the gluteus medius and tensor fascia latae was measured during overground running. Both healthy and injured runners demonstrated decreased gluteus medius strength following the run to fatigue (p = 0.01), but there was no interaction between groups (p = 0.78). EMG onset activation timing did not differ between groups for the gluteus medius (P = 0.19) and tensor fascia latae muscles (P = 0.52). Injured runners demonstrated decreased gluteus medius initial median frequency values suggestive of fatigue (P = 0.01). These findings suggest that the gluteus medius muscle of female runners with ITBS does not demonstrate gross strength impairments but does demonstrate less resistance to fatigue. Clinicians should consider implementation of a gluteus medius endurance training regimen into a runner’s rehabilitation program.
       
  • Effects of attentional focus on movement coordination complexity
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Daniela V. Vaz, Bruna S. Avelar, Renan A. ResendeAbstractAttentional focus affects performance and learning of motor tasks. An external attentional focus (on the effects of movement) can lead to more efficient and effective movements compared to an internal focus (on body movement itself). According to the “constrained action hypothesis”, an external focus facilitates fast and reflexive movement control while an internal focus leads to disruption of automatic coordination processes. Such disruption should be apparent in the complexity of movement. In this study, multiscale entropy measures were used to investigate if the external focus is related to superior coordination complexity compared to internal focus. Twenty participants were divided in two groups that balanced over an unstable platform in fourteen trials over two days, either with internal or external focus of attention instructions, followed by seven retention trials on the third day. Multiscale entropy measures were used to quantify complexity of motions of the platform, the participant, and the composite of participant and platform motions. Results were contrary to expectations. For the external focus group, despite better overall performance, multiscale entropy values of participant and composite motions were lower in some scales compared to the internal focus group, especially in the first and last days. This may be consistent with previous findings that predictability increases during learning of a balance task. Results also indicate the need to identify the correct physiological interpretation of single or multiscale entropy measures. Further investigation is needed to establish if entropy differences are causally related to performance and learning advantages of the external focus.
       
  • Inter-joint coordination patterns differ between younger and older runners
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Kathryn Harrison, Yong Ung Kwon, Adam Sima, Bhushan Thakkar, Gregory Crosswell, Jacqueline Morgan, D.S. Blaise WilliamsAbstractOlder runners are at greater risk of certain running-related injuries. Previous work demonstrated that aging influences running biomechanics, and suggest a compensatory relation between changes in the proximal and distal joints. Previous comparisons of interjoint coordination strategies between young and older runners could potentially have missed relevant differences by averaging coordination measures across time.ObjectiveTo compare coordination strategies between male runners under the age of 30 to those over the age of 60.MethodsTwelve young (22 ± 3 yrs, 1.80 ± 0.07 m, 78.0 ± 12.1 kg) and 12 older (63 ± 3 yrs, 1.78 ± 0.06 m, 73.2 ± 15.8 kg) male runners ran at 3.35 m/s on an instrumented treadmill. Ankle frontal plane, tibial transverse plane, knee sagittal plane, and hip frontal plane motion were measured. Inter-joint coordination was calculated using a modified vector coding technique. Coordination patterns and variability time series were compared between groups throughout stance using ANOVA for circular data.ResultsAt the ankle, older runners use in-phase propulsion (inversion, tibia external rotation) pattern following midstance (46–47% stance) while young runners are still in an in-phase collapse pattern (eversion, tibia external rotation). In coordination of the knee and hip, older runners maintained an in-phase collapse pattern (knee flexion, hip adduction) approaching midstance (35–37% stance), while younger runners use an out of phase strategy (knee extension, hip adduction). In coordination of the ankle and hip in the frontal plane, older runners again maintained an in phase collapse pattern up to midstance (34–39% stance), while younger runners used an out of phase strategy (ankle inversion, hip adduction). Variability was similar between age groups.ConclusionOlder runners appear to display altered coordination patterns during mid-stance, which may indicate protective biomechanical adaptations. These changes may also have implications for performance in older runners.
       
  • Does limiting pre-movement time during practice eliminate the benefit of
           practicing while expecting to teach'
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Marcos Daou, Jence A. Rhoads, Taylor Jacobs, Keith R. Lohse, Matthew W. MillerAbstractPast research has revealed practicing and studying a motor skill with the expectation of teaching it to another person increases the amount of time participants spend preparing for movement during practice trials of the skill. However, it is unknown whether the increased motor preparation time explains the benefit of expecting to teach on motor learning. To address this question, we had participants practice golf putting with the expectation of teaching the skill to another participant the following day or the expectation of being tested on the skill the following day. We limited the motor preparation time for half of the participants who expected to teach and half of the participants who expected to test, and allowed the remaining participants to take as much motor preparation time as they liked. All participants were tested on their putting the next day. We predicted that participants who expected to teach would exhibit superior posttest performance, but this benefit would be exclusive to those participants who also practiced with unlimited motor preparation. Although the current data did not support this hypothesis, we also conducted an exploratory analysis in which we aggregated data from two prior experiments. This cumulative analysis suggested that expecting to teach does indeed enhance motor learning, but not through motor preparation during practice.
       
  • Oculomotor behavior and the level of repetition in motor practice: Effects
           on pupil dilation, eyeblinks and visual scanning
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Lucas Eduardo Antunes Bicalho, Maicon Rodrigues Albuquerque, Herbert Ugrinowitsch, Varley Teoldo da Costa, Juliana Otoni Parma, Thais dos Santos Ribeiro, Guilherme Menezes LageThe benefits of less repetitive practice in motor learning have been explained by the increased demand for memory processes during the execution of motor skills. Recently, a new perspective associating increased demand for perception with less repetitive practice has also been proposed. Augmented information gathering and visual scanning characterize this higher perceptual demand. To extend our knowledge about mental effort and perceptual differences in practice organization, the association between oculomotor behavior and type of practice was investigated. We required participants to press four keys with different absolute and relative timing goals during the acquisition phase. An eye-tracker captured visual scanning of the skill’s absolute and relative information displayed on the screen. Participants were tested 24 h after acquisition by a retention and transfer test. A higher level of both pupil dilation and amount of eyeblinks indicated an increased mental effort in less repetitive practice compared to more repetitive practice. Visual scanning of the skill’s relative and absolute information was specific to the type of practice. The findings indicate many differences in oculomotor behavior associated with the practice schedule.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Neuromuscular control in individuals with chronic ankle instability: A
           comparison of unexpected and expected ankle inversion perturbations during
           a single leg drop-landing
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Jeffrey D. Simpson, Ethan M. Stewart, Alana J. Turner, David M. Macias, Samuel J. Wilson, Harish Chander, Adam C. KnightAbstractWhile neuromuscular control deficits during inversion perturbations in chronic ankle instability (CAI) cohorts are well documented in the literature, anticipatory motor control strategies to inversion perturbations in CAI are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine neuromuscular control and ankle kinematics in individuals with CAI (n = 15) and matched controls (n = 15) during unexpected and expected single leg drop-landings onto a tilted surface rotated 20° in the frontal plane. Muscle activity from 200 ms pre- to post-landing was recorded from the tibialis anterior (TA), medial gastrocnemius (MG), peroneus longus (PL) and peroneus brevis (PB). Mean muscle activity, co-contraction index (CCI), and peroneal latency was analyzed. Ankle inversion angle at initial contact, time to maximum inversion angle, maximum inversion angle and velocity were also assessed. Significantly longer PL latency, less time to maximum inversion and greater maximum inversion angle was found in CAI compared to controls. Regarding landing condition, significantly greater maximum inversion angle, less inversion at initial contact, longer PB latency, less TA activity and frontal plane CCI during the post-landing phase was found during the unexpected perturbation. Prolonged PL latency and altered ankle kinematics suggests reduced frontal plane ankle stabilization in CAI. However, similar motor control strategies were utilized in both groups during the ankle inversion perturbations.
       
  • Exploring gait adaptations to perturbed and conventional treadmill
           training in Parkinson’s disease: Time-course, sustainability, and
           transfer
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Simon Steib, Sarah Klamroth, Heiko Gaßner, Cristian Pasluosta, Björn Eskofier, Jürgen Winkler, Jochen Klucken, Klaus PfeiferAbstractBackgroundGait impairment is a major motor symptom in Parkinson’s disease (PD), and treadmill training is an effective non-pharmacological treatment option.Research questionIn this study, the time course, sustainability and transferability of gait adaptations to treadmill training with and without additional postural perturbations were investigated.Methods38 PD patients (Hoehn & Yahr 1–3.5) were randomly allocated to eight weeks of treadmill training, performed twice-weekly for 40 min either with (perturbation treadmill training [PTT], n = 18) or without (conventional treadmill training [CTT], n = 20) additional perturbations to the treadmill surface. Spatiotemporal gait parameters were assessed during treadmill walking on a weekly basis (T0–T8), and after three months follow-up (T9). Additional overground gait analyses were performed at T0 and T8 to investigate transfer effects.ResultsTreadmill gait variability reduced linearly over the course of 8 weeks in both groups (p 
       
  • Neck posture is influenced by anticipation of stepping
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Jason L. Baer, Anita Vasavada, Rajal G. CohenBackgroundPostural deviations such as forward head posture (FHP) are associated with adverse health effects. The causes of these deviations are poorly understood. We hypothesized that anticipating target-directed movement could cause the head to get “ahead of” the body, interfering with optimal head/neck posture, and that the effect may be exacerbated by task difficulty and/or poor inhibitory control.MethodWe assessed posture in 45 healthy young adults standing quietly and when they anticipated walking to place a tray: in a simple condition and in conditions requiring that they bend low or balance an object on the tray. We defined FHP as neck angle relative to torso; we also measured head angle relative to neck and total neck length. We assessed inhibitory control using a Go/No-Go task, Stroop task, and Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS).ResultsFHP increased when participants anticipated movement, particularly for more difficult movements. Worse Stroop performance and lower MAAS scores correlated with higher FHP. False alarms on the Go/No-Go task correlated with a more extended head relative to the neck and with shortening of the neck when anticipating movement.ConclusionsMaintaining neutral posture may require inhibition of an impulse to put the head forward of the body when anticipating target-directed movement.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Minimal detectable change of kinematic and spatiotemporal parameters in
           patients with chronic stroke across three sessions of gait analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): M. Geiger, A. Supiot, D. Pradon, M.-C. Do, R. Zory, N. RocheAbstractThree-dimensional gait analysis is the gold standard for gait-assessment in patients with stroke. This technique is commonly used to assess the effect of treatment on gait parameters. In clinical practice, three gait analyses are usually carried out (baseline, after treatment and follow-up), the objectives were to define the reproducibility and the Minimum Detectable Change (MDC) for gait parameters in stance and swing measured using 3D-gait analysis, and to assess changes in MDC across three repeated 3D-gait analyses. Three gait analyses (V1, V2 and V3) were performed at 7-day intervals in twenty-six patients with chronic stroke. Kinematic data (in the sagittal plane, during swing and stance) and spatiotemporal data were evaluated for the paretic limb. Reliability was tested using repeated measures ANOVA with a Tukey post hoc test, and the MDC values were calculated for each parameter. Only the range of hip motion during swing changed significantly between V1 and V2, but no other kinematic parameters changed. No significant differences were observed for the spatiotemporal parameters. MDC values were always higher during the V1vsV2 comparison for both kinematic and spatiotemporal parameters. This is the first study to evaluate the MDC for kinematic and spatiotemporal parameters during stance and swing. Reliability of kinematic and spatiotemporal data across sessions was very good over the three sessions. MDC values were the lowest between V2 and V3 for most parameters. Use of the MDC will allow clinicians to more accurately determine the effect of treatments.
       
  • Control of oscillatory force tasks: Low-frequency oscillations in force
           and muscle activity
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Seoung Hoon Park, Changki Kim, Basma Yacoubi, Evangelos A. ChristouAbstractForce variability during steady force tasks is strongly related to low-frequency oscillations (
       
  • The effect of running on foot muscles and bones: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Alessandro Garofolini, Simon TaylorAbstractDespite the widespread evidence of running as a health-preserving exercise, little is known concerning its effect on the foot musculature and bones. While running may influence anatomical foot adaptation, it remains unclear to what extent these adaptations occur. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the studies that investigated the effects of running and the adaptations that occur in foot muscles and bones. The search was performed following the PRISMA guidelines. Relevant keywords were used for the search through PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus and SPORTDiscus. The methodological quality of intervention studies was assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. For cross-sectional studies, the Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used. Sixteen studies were found meeting the inclusion criteria. In general, the included studies were deemed to be of moderate methodological quality. Although results of relevant literature are limited and somewhat contradictory, the outcome suggests that running may increase foot muscle volume, muscle cross-sectional area and bone density, but this seems to depend on training volume and experience. Future studies conducted in this area should aim for a standard way of reporting foot muscle/bone characteristics. Also, herein, suggestions for future research are provided.
       
  • Evaluating movement performance: What you see isn’t necessarily what
           you get
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Megan McAllister, Patrick CostiganAbstractWith the goal of reducing injury and enhancing performance, movement screening tools score an individual’s movements against a standard and because it is a predictor of injury symmetry is often included in the score. Movement quality screening tools only consider kinematic asymmetry, which may underestimate the degree of asymmetry present during movement. Consider joint forces: if these forces are atypical, additional stress is created and control is reduced, which can lead to injury if the asymmetry is not addressed. The purpose of this study is to investigate movement symmetry in the kinematic, kinetic and muscle activity components of movement during a parallel squat.Thirty-four healthy individuals completed five body-weight, parallel squats. A motion capture system, two portable force plates, and electromyography (EMG) sensors recorded the squat motion, ground reaction forces and muscle activity. The variables of interest were the joint angles, joint moments, and EMG waveforms. Cross-correlations and normalized root-mean-square values were calculated for the left and right ankles, knees, and hips for each variable. A repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) tested for differences in symmetry (cross-correlation and nRMS) between the kinematic, kinetic, and muscle activity components at the ankle, knee, and hip during the squat.At all joints the kinematic component had the highest degree of symmetry, and the kinetic and muscle activity components showed poorer symmetry, with the muscle activity component being the least symmetric. The differences in symmetry between movement components suggests that movement performance evaluations should not rely exclusively on kinematics and observation to identify potential movement faults.
       
  • Effects of scapular retraction/protraction position and scapular elevation
           on shoulder girdle muscle activity during glenohumeral abduction
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Samuele Contemori, Roberto Panichi, Andrea BiscariniAbstractAccording to scapulohumeral rhythm, shoulder abduction is followed through scapular upward rotation to ensure joint mobility and stability. Of interest, the shoulder abduction can be performed holding the scapula in different positions and in association with scapular elevation, with possible effects on shoulder muscle activity. Therefore, the aim of the study was to analyze the activity of relevant shoulder muscles and the activity ratios between the scapulothoracic muscles, during shoulder abduction performed in different combinations of scapular position (neutral, retracted, protracted) and scapular elevation.The electromyographic activity of middle deltoid, serratus anterior, upper, middle and lower fibers of trapezius was recorded during shoulder abduction movements executed holding the scapula in neutral, retracted and protracted position, and subsequently a shoulder elevation movement. The activation of each muscle and the scapulothoracic muscles activity ratios were determined every 15 degrees, from 15° to 120° of abduction.Scapular retraction led to higher activation of the entire trapezius muscle, whereas protraction induced higher upper trapezius, middle deltoid and serratus anterior activity, along with lower activity of middle and lower trapezius. Shoulder elevation led to higher activity of the upper trapezius and middle deltoid. Moreover, it induced lower activation of the serratus anterior and middle and lower trapezius, thus leading to high ratios between the upper trapezius and the other scapulothoracic muscles, especially between 15 and 75 degrees of abduction.This study highlights that shoulder abduction performed with scapular protraction and in combination with scapular elevation leads to increased activity of the middle deltoid and upper trapezius, resulting in imbalances between the scapulothoracic muscles that could hamper the optimal scapulohumeral rhythm. The abduction performed in the aforementioned scapular conditions also induce potential reciprocal inhibition effects between the movers and stabilizers muscles of scapula, suggesting different motor control strategies of integrating a common shoulder movement with various modification of the scapular position.
       
  • Upright standing after stroke: How loading-unloading mechanism
           participates to the postural stabilization
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Patrice R. Rougier, Dominic PérennouAbstractPostural strategies employed by hemiparetic stroke patients need to be better understood to guide rehabilitation. Of the two complementary mechanisms used to stabilize the standing posture, loading-unloading (LU) and pressure distribution (PD), it is hypothesized that the former would be predominantly used. To this aim, posturographic assessments, through a dual force-platform, were performed in 30 Hemiparetics tested 3 months after a unilateral stroke, and 30 matched healthy Controls. Original indices (from 0 to 1) were calculated to assess LU and PD contributions. The results show that along the mediolateral axis, the LU contribution was very high and similar in Hemiparetics and in Controls (0.80 ± 0.07 vs 0.76 ± 0.09 a.u; p > 0.05), indicating a predominant hip involvement. Along the anteroposterior axis, the PD contribution was very close to 1 in controls (0.96 ± 0.03 a.u.) indicating an exclusive ankle involvement. Despite a lower contribution in Hemiparetics (0.88 ± 0.11 a.u.; p 
       
  • Rowing together: Interpersonal coordination dynamics with and without
           mechanical coupling
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Laura S. Cuijpers, Ruud J.R. Den Hartigh, Frank T.J.M. Zaal, Harjo J. de PoelAbstractAlthough most research on interpersonal coordination focuses on perceptual forms of interaction, many interpersonal actions also involve interactions of mechanical nature. We examined the effect of mechanical coupling in a rowing task from a coupled oscillator perspective: 16 pairs of rowers rowed on ergometers that were physically connected through slides (mechanical coupling condition) or on separate ergometers (no mechanical coupling condition). They rowed in two patterns (in- and antiphase) and at two movement frequencies (20 and 30 strokes per minute). Seven out of sixteen pairs showed one or more coordinative breakdowns, which only occurred in the antiphase condition. The occurrence of these breakdowns was not affected by mechanical coupling, nor by movement frequency. For the other nine pairs, variability of steady state coordination was substantially lower in the mechanical coupling condition. Together, these results show that the increase in coupling strength through mechanical coupling stabilizes coordination, even more so for antiphase coordination.
       
  • Adaptive perception of changes in affordances for walking on a ship at sea
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Hannah J. Walter, Ruixuan Li, Jeffrey B. Wagman, Thomas A. StoffregenAbstractOcean waves cause oscillatory motion of ships. Oscillatory ship motion typically is greater in roll (i.e., the ship rolling from side to side) than in pitch (i.e., tipping from front to back). Affordances for walking on a ship at sea should be differentially influenced by ship motion in roll and pitch. When roll exceeds pitch, the maximum walkable distance within a defined path should be greater when walking along the ship’s short, or athwart axis than when walking along its long, or fore-aft axis. When pitch exceeds roll, this relation should be reversed. We asked whether such changes in ship motion would be reflected in judgments of direction-specific affordances for walking. Participants (experienced maritime crewmembers) judged how far they could walk along a narrow path on the ship deck. On different days, sailing conditions were such that the relative magnitude of pitch and roll was reversed. Judgments of direction-specific affordances for walking mirrored these changes in ship motion. The accuracy of judgments was consistent across directions, and across changes in ship motion. We conclude that experienced maritime crewmembers were sensitive to dynamic variations in affordances for walking that were, themselves, a function of dynamic properties of the animal-environment system.
       
  • The effects of age and musculoskeletal pain on force variability among
           manual workers
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Kristoffer Larsen Norheim, Afshin Samani, Jakob Hjort Bønløkke, Øyvind Omland, Pascal MadeleineAbstractThe present study investigated the influence of age and musculoskeletal pain on force variability during a continuous isometric handgrip force task performed at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction carried out until failure. We recruited 96 male manual workers aged 51–72 years. The participants were stratified according to their age (50–59 and 60+ years) and by pain status (no pain, acute pain and chronic pain). The amplitude and structure of variability expressed as respectively standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CV), and sample entropy (SaEn) were calculated from the endurance task. The oldest group had an approximately 18% longer endurance time than the youngest group. No between-group differences were found in SD or CV, whereas a significant interaction between age and pain stage was found for SaEn. The youngest group showed lower SaEn than the oldest for both those with chronic pain and those without pain, indicating less force complexity, whereas a tendency for the opposite was found in the acute pain group. Within the pain stage groups, workers with acute pain had higher SaEn compared with both the no pain and chronic pain groups. These findings suggest that age and musculoskeletal pain differentially affects the structure of force variability in manual workers.
       
  • Postural control after unexpected external perturbation: Effects of
           Parkinson’s disease subtype
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): Victor Spiandor Beretta, Rodrigo Vitório, Paulo Cezar Rocha dos Santos, Diego Orcioli-Silva, Lilian Teresa Bucken GobbiAbstractDifferent clinical subtypes of Parkinson’s disease (PD) have long been recognized. Recent studies have focused on two PD subtypes: Postural Instability and Gait Difficulty (PIGD) and Tremor Dominant (TD). PIGD patients have greater difficulties in postural control in relation to TD. However, knowledge about the differences in reactive adjustment mechanisms following a perturbation in TD and PIGD is limited. This study aimed to compare reactive postural adjustments under unexpected external perturbation in TD, PIGD, and control group (CG) subjects. Forty-five individuals (15 TD, 15 PIGD, and 15 CG) participated in this study. Postural perturbation was applied by the posterior displacement of the support surface in an unexpected condition. The velocity (15 cm/s) and displacement (5 cm/s) of perturbation were the same for all participants. Center of pressure (CoP) and center of mass (CoM) were analyzed for two reactive windows after the perturbation (0–200 ms and 200–700 ms). The Bonferroni post hoc test indicated a higher range of CoP in the PIGD when compared to the CG (p = 0.021). The PIGD demonstrated greater time to recover the stable posture compared to the TD (p = 0.017) and CG (p = 0.003). Furthermore, the TD showed higher AP-acceleration peak of CoM when compared to the PIGD (p = 0.048) and CG (p = 0.013), and greater AP-acceleration range of CoM in relation to the CG (p = 0.022). These findings suggest that PD patients present worse reactive postural control after perturbation compared to healthy older individuals. CoP and CoM parameters are sensitive to understand and detect the differences in reactive postural mechanisms in PD subtypes.
       
  • Explicit and implicit motor sequence learning in children and adults; the
           role of age and visual working memory
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Human Movement Science, Volume 64Author(s): M. Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.W.G. Nijhuis-van der Sanden, B. SteenbergenAbstractThis study investigated explicit and implicit motor learning, and the influence of visual working memory (VWM) and age. Sixty children and 28 adults learned a nine-button sequence task explicitly and implicitly. Performance in explicit and implicit learning improved with age. Learning curves were similar across ages for implicit learning. In explicit learning, learning curves differed across ages: younger children started slower, but their learning rate was higher compared to older children. Learning curves were similar across VWM scores, but performance in explicit learning was positively influenced by VWM scores. Further research and implications for education and rehabilitation are discussed.
       
  • Reduced graphomotor procedural learning in children and adolescents with
           ADHD
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2019Source: Human Movement ScienceAuthor(s): Thomas A. Duda, Joseph E. Casey, Amanda M. O'Brien, Natalie Frost, Amanda M. PhillipsAbstractPurpose: The present study sought to determine if children and adolescents with ADHD demonstrate reduced procedural learning of a graphomotor program. Method: Thirty-two children and adolescents between age 9 and 15 with (n = 16) and without ADHD (n = 16) participated in the study. Each group of participants practiced a novel grapheme on a digitizing tablet 30 times. Participants with ADHD were off stimulant medication or were medication naïve. Results: Control participants demonstrated significant improvement in graphomotor fluency from the beginning to the end of practice, T = 2, z = −2.534, p = .009, whereas participants with ADHD did not, T = 4, z = −1.810, p = .074. Conclusions: Consistent with findings in adults with ADHD, results indicate that graphomotor procedural learning in children and adolescents with ADHD is attenuated. Findings have implications for future research that may inform remediation of handwriting difficulties, academic accommodations, and using digitizing technology for neuropsychological assessment.
       
  • Graphonomics: The study of handwriting and drawing skills to understand
           motor behavior and learning across the life span
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2019Source: Human Movement ScienceAuthor(s): Arend W.A. Van Gemmert
       
  • Fronto-parietal mirror neuron system modeling: Visuospatial
           transformations support imitation learning independently of imitator
           perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2018Source: Human Movement ScienceAuthor(s): Hyuk Oh, Allen R. Braun, James A. Reggia, Rodolphe J. GentiliAbstractAlthough the human mirror neuron system (MNS) is critical for action observation and imitation, most MNS investigations overlook the visuospatial transformation processes that allow individuals to interpret and imitate actions observed from differing perspectives. This problem is not trivial since accurately reaching for and grasping an object requires a visuospatial transformation mechanism capable of precisely remapping fine motor skills where the observer’s and imitator’s arms and hands may have quite different orientations and sizes. Accordingly, here we describe a novel neural model to investigate the dynamics between the fronto-parietal MNS and visuospatial processes during observation and imitation of a reaching and grasping action. Our model encompasses i) the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL), regions that are postulated to produce neural drive and sensory predictions, respectively; ii) the middle temporal (MT) and middle superior temporal (MST) regions that are postulated to process visual motion of a particular action; and iii) the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and intra-parietal sulcus (IPS) that are hypothesized to encode the visuospatial transformations enabling action observation/imitation based on different visuospatial viewpoints. The results reveal that when a demonstrator executes an action, an imitator can reproduce it with similar kinematics, independently of differences in anthropometry, distance, and viewpoint. As with prior empirical findings, similar model synaptic activity was observed during both action observation and execution along with the existence of both view-independent and view-dependent neural populations in the frontal MNS. Importantly, this work generates testable behavioral and neurophysiological predictions. Namely, the model predicts that i) during observation/imitation the response time increases linearly as the rotation angle of the observed action increases but remain similar when performing both clockwise and counterclockwise rotation and ii) IPL embeds essentially view-independent neurons while SPL/IPS includes both view-independent and view-dependent neurons. Overall, this work suggests that MT/MST visuomotion processes combined with the SPL/IPS allow the MNS to observe and imitate actions independently of demonstrator-imitator spatial relationships.
       
  • Handwriting on a tablet screen: Role of visual and proprioceptive feedback
           in the control of movement by children and adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2018Source: Human Movement ScienceAuthor(s): Jessica Guilbert, Denis Alamargot, Marie-France MorinAbstractTablets are increasingly being used in schools for a variety of handwriting tasks. Given that the control of handwriting relies on both visual and proprioceptive feedback, especially in younger writers, this raises the question of whether the texture of the tablet surface affects graphomotor execution. A series of recent studies found that when the smoothness of a tablet screen modifies proprioceptive feedback, the impact on graphomotor execution varies according to the level of the writer’s handwriting skills. However, as the writing on the screen remained visible in these studies, participants may have compensated for the decrease in proprioceptive feedback by relying more heavily on visual information. The aim of the present study was therefore to unravel the respective contributions of different types of sensory feedback during handwriting development and, consequently, the compensatory role of visual information when children and adults have to write on a tablet. To this end, we asked second and fifth graders and adult participants to write letters and pseudowords on a plastic board placed on top of a tablet screen. Participants wrote on either the smooth or the granular side of the plastic board (manipulation of surface friction), and with normal vision or behind a shield that hid the hand and handwriting from direct view (manipulation of vision). Kinematic parameters and legibility were recorded to assess handwriting performances. Results revealed a significant interaction between proprioceptive and visual feedback on letter size, pen speed and legibility, regardless of participants’ age. Furthermore, reducing the visual and proprioceptive feedback had a greater effect on the children’s handwriting performances than on those of adults. Overall, the present study provides new insight into the contribution of the different types of sensory feedback and their interaction with handwriting development. In addition, our results on the impact of tablet surface on graphomotor execution will serve as useful pointers for improving the design of this tool for children, such as increasing the degree of friction of the screen surface.
       
  • Syllabic processing in handwritten word production in German children and
           adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2018Source: Human Movement ScienceAuthor(s): Stefan Hess, Petroula Mousikou, Julius Verrel, Sascha SchroederAbstractSyllables are thought to be processing units in handwritten word production. Yet, little is known about whether the orthographic characteristics of different languages influence syllabic processing during handwriting, which is critical for the evaluation and further development of extant models of handwritten language production. In the present study, we manipulated syllabic ambiguity, a characteristic of the German language, to investigate the role of syllables in handwritten word production in German. Forty-four 10 to 12-year-old children and fourteen adults were asked to write on pen tablets five-letter disyllabic words that varied in terms of their syllabic ambiguity, while their handwriting was recorded with high spatiotemporal resolution. Productions were analyzed in terms of Mean Stroke Duration (MSD) and Writing Onset Duration (WOD). Increased MSD at syllable boundaries was observed across conditions for both children and adults. There was no difference in WOD across conditions. Our findings offer support for the idea that syllables are functional units in handwriting production in German and motivate the further development of the spelling module in models of handwritten language production.
       
  • Digitalized spiral drawing in Parkinson’s disease: A tool for evaluating
           beyond the written trace
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Human Movement ScienceAuthor(s): Jérémy Danna, Jean-Luc Velay, Alexandre Eusebio, Lauriane Véron-Delor, Tatiana Witjas, Jean-Philippe Azulay, Serge PintoAbstractOne of the current scientific challenges is to propose novel tools and tasks designed to identify new motor biomarkers in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Among these, a focus has placed on drawing tasks. Independently from clinical ratings, this study aimed to evaluate the pen movement and holding in digitalized spiral drawing in individuals with PD without and with medical treatment and in healthy controls. A three-step data-driven analysis was conducted. First, the effects of spatial and temporal constraints on several variables were determined. Second, the relationship between handedness and dominance of PD symptoms was investigated for the most relevant variables. Finally, a third analysis was conducted to assess the occurrence of changes associated with PD. The first analysis revealed that the number of velocity peaks and pen altitude variations were the most relevant variables in spiral drawing for evaluating the effect of the disease and medication. The second analysis revealed that the effect of medication was present for the movement fluency only, when spirals with spatial constraints were produced at a spontaneous speed by the hand on the side of dominant PD signs. Finally, the third analysis showed that the effect of medication was greater at the beginning of drawing than at the end. Digitalized spiral drawing makes it possible to observe precisely when the kinematic changes related to the disease occur during the task. Such a simple and quick task might be of great relevance to contribute to the diagnosis and follow-up of PD.
       
  • Characterization of the fine motor problems in patients with cognitive
           dysfunction – A computerized handwriting analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2018Source: Human Movement ScienceAuthor(s): Nan-Ying Yu, Shao-Hsia ChangAbstractThis study proposed a new technology to assess the accuracy of Chinese handwriting by comparing every stroke movement between a template model and a handwritten script. It tested the feasibility of a computerized evaluation in the parameterization of the handwriting deterioration caused by impaired cognitive function. This study recruited 22 participants with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and 14 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI); 18 age- and gender-matched healthy elderly individuals made up the health control. The graphomotor tasks included drawing four straight lines (vertical, horizontal, and two diagonal) as well as writing Chinese words with simple vertical, horizontal and diagonal strokes. The temporal and spatial data were calculated to measure the motor coordination.The results in geographic drawing tests reveal significant differences among the three groups in task accuracy and movement fluency, especially in nonequivalent and wrist movements. The accuracy control of the graphic drawing in the AD and aMCI groups was significantly lower than that for the subjects in the normal group. These two groups also showed longer pauses in stroke movement with the handwriting tasks. The handwriting accuracy in the AD and aMCI groups was found to be significantly different from that of the subjects in the normal group. The results of this study can be used as an indicative reference for early detection of AD or aMCI, an objective evaluation for the effectiveness of interventions, and an assessment of disease progression.
       
  • Direct-effects and after-effects of dynamic adaptation on intralimb and
           interlimb transfer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 June 2018Source: Human Movement ScienceAuthor(s): Yuming Lei, Areej Akbar, Jinsung WangAbstractAfter-effects following sensorimotor adaptation are generally considered as evidence for the formation of an internal model, although evidence lacks on whether the absence of after-effects necessarily indicates that the adaptation did not result in the formation of an internal model. Here, we examined direct- and after-effects of dynamic adaptation with one arm at one workspace on subsequent performance with the other arm, as well as the same arm at another workspace. During training, subjects performed reaching movements under a novel dynamic condition with the right arm; during testing, they performed reaching movements with the left or right arm at a new workspace, under either the same dynamic condition (direct-effects) or a normal condition (after-effects). Results showed significant transfer within the same arm in terms of both direct- and after-effects, but significant transfer across the arms only in terms of direct-effects. These findings suggest that the formation of an internal model does not always result in after-effects. They also support the idea that the neural representation developed after sensorimotor adaptation comprise some aspects that are effector independent and other aspects that are effector dependent; and that direct- and after-effects following sensorimotor adaptation mainly reflect the effector-independent and the effector-dependent aspects, respectively.
       
  • Quantitative assessment of drawing tests in children with dyslexia and
           dysgraphia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2018Source: Human Movement ScienceAuthor(s): Manuela Galli, Veronica Cimolin, Giacomo Stella, Maria Francesca De Pandis, Andrea Ancillao, Claudia CondoluciAbstractDrawing tests in children diagnosed with dyslexia and dysgraphia were quantitatively compared. Fourteen children with dysgraphia, 19 with dyslexia and 13 normally developing were asked to copy 3 figures: a circle, a square and a cross. An optoelectronic system allowed the acquisition of the drawing track in three-dimensions. The participants’ head position and upper limb movements were measured as well. A set of parameters including movement duration, velocity, length of the trace, Range of Motion of the upper limb, was computed and compared among the 3 groups. Children with dyslexia traced the circle faster than the other groups. In the cross test, dyslexic participants showed a reduced execution time and increased velocity while drawing the horizontal line. Children with dyslexia were also faster in drawing certain sides of square with respect to the other groups.
       
  • Investigating how children produce rotation and pointing movements when
           they learn to write letters
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018Source: Human Movement ScienceAuthor(s): Laurence Séraphin Thibon, Guillaume Barbier, Coriandre Vilain, Thomas R. Sawallis, Silvain Gerber, Sonia KandelAbstractHow do children learn to write letters' During writing acquisition, some letters may be more difficult to produce than others because certain movement sequences require more precise motor control (e.g., the rotation that produces curved lines like in letter O or the pointing movement to trace the horizontal bar of a T). Children of ages 6–10 (N = 108) wrote sequences of upper-case letters on a digitizer. They varied in the number of pointing and rotation movements. The data revealed that these movements required compensatory strategies in specific kinematic variables. For pointing movements there was a duration decrease that was compensated by an increase in in-air movement time. Rotation movements were produced with low maximal velocity but high minimal velocity. At all ages there was a global tendency to keep stability in the tempo of writing: pointing movements exhibited a duration trade-off whereas rotation movements required a trade-off on maximal and minimal velocity. The acquisition of letter writing took place between ages 6 and 7. At age 8 the children shifted focus to improving movement control. Writing automation was achieved around age 10 when the children controlled movement duration and fluency. This led to a significant increase in writing speed.
       
  • A paradigm for emulating the early learning stage of handwriting:
           Performance comparison between healthy controls and Parkinson’s disease
           patients in drawing loop shapes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2018Source: Human Movement ScienceAuthor(s): Rosa Senatore, Angelo MarcelliAbstractWe present a novel paradigm, aimed at emulating the early stage of handwriting learning in proficient writers, by asking them to produce a familiar shape through a novel (unfamiliar) motor plan. Handwriting of beginner writers is characterized by slower movements, reduced spatial precision, lower fluency and reduced force regulation compared to those observed in the handwriting production of proficient writers. Features observed in the ink trace obtained with the novel motor plan and performance comparison of the handwriting obtained by familiar and unfamiliar motor plan suggest that the proposed paradigm is able to elicit non-automated movements in proficient writers.As that produced by beginner writers, handwriting of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients is characterized by lack of fluency, slowness and abrupt changes of direction. Furthermore, PD patients show impaired performance in learning novel motor behaviors, as well as in executing motor behaviors acquired before the onset of the disease. We used the proposed paradigm for comparing the performance achieved by healthy controls in writing a familiar shape through a novel motor plan with those obtained by PD patients performing a well-known motor plan for drawing the same shape. Our analysis points out some similarities between performance obtained by healthy controls and those obtained by PD patients, sustaining the hypothesis that the fine tuning of the motor plan parameters involved in the handwriting production is impaired by PD.
       
  • Training children aged 5–10 years in manual compliance control to
           improve drawing and handwriting
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2018Source: Human Movement ScienceAuthor(s): Geoffrey P. Bingham, Winona Snapp-ChildsAbstractA large proportion of school-aged children exhibit poor drawing and handwriting. This prevalence limits the availability of therapy. We developed an automated method for training improved manual compliance control and relatedly, prospective control of a stylus. The approach included a difficult training task, while providing parametrically modifiable support that enables the children to perform successfully while developing good compliance control. The task was to use a stylus to push a bead along a 3D wire path. Support was provided by making the wire magnetically attractive to the stylus. Support was progressively reduced as 3D tracing performance improved. We report studies that (1) compared performance of Typically Developing (TD) children and children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), (2) tested training with active versus passive movement, (3) tested progressively reduced versus constant or no support during training, (4) tested children of different ages, (5) tested the transfer of training to a drawing task, (6) tested the specificity of training in respect to the size, shape and dimensionality of figures, and (7) investigated the relevance of the training task to the Beery VMI, an inventory used to diagnose DCD. The findings were as follows. (1) Pre-training performance of TD and DCD children was the same and good with high support but distinct and poor with low support. Support yielded good self-efficacy that motivated training. Post training performance with no support was improved and the same for TD and DCD children. (2) Actively controlled movements were required for improved performance. (3) Progressively reduced support was required for good performance during and after training. (4) Age differences in performance during pre-training were eliminated post-training. (5) Improvements transferred to drawing. (6) There was no evidence of specificity of training in transfer. (7) Disparate Beery scores were reflected in pre-training but not post-training performance. We conclude that the method improves manual compliance control, and more generally, prospective control of movements used in drawing performance.
       
  • The control of amplitude and direction in a bimanual coordination task
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2018Source: Human Movement ScienceAuthor(s): Zhujun Pan, Arend W.A. Van GemmertAbstractBimanual coordination requires task-specific control of the spatial and temporal characteristics of the movements of both hands. The present study focused on the spatial relationship between hand movements when their amplitude and direction were manipulated. In the experiment in question, participants were instructed to draw two lines simultaneously. These two lines were instructed to be drawn in mirror symmetric or perpendicular directions of each other while the length was instructed to be the same or different. The coordinative quality of amplitude control was compared when the task required symmetric and asymmetric bimanual spatial coordination patterns. Results showed that the amplitude accuracy decreased when different amplitudes and/or directions had to be generated simultaneously. The coordinative quality of direction was also compared when the task required symmetric and asymmetric bimanual spatial coordination patterns. Unlike amplitude, the direction accuracy was largely independent of coordination symmetry/asymmetry of direction or amplitude. The results suggest that the coordinative quality of amplitude control does not only interfere with amplitude asymmetry, but it also interferes with direction asymmetry. Moreover, in bimanual coordination amplitude control is more vulnerable to the influence of direction control demands than vice versa.
       
  • Does transcranial direct current stimulation during writing alleviate
           upper limb freezing in people with Parkinson’s disease' A pilot
           study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2018Source: Human Movement ScienceAuthor(s): Sanne Broeder, Elke Heremans, Marcelo Pinto Pereira, Evelien Nackaerts, Raf Meesen, Geert Verheyden, Alice NieuwboerAbstractTranscranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the primary motor cortex (M1) can boost motor performance in Parkinson’s disease (PD) when it is applied at rest. However, the potential supplementary therapeutic effect of the concurrent application of tDCS during the training of motor tasks is largely unknown. The present study examined the effects of tDCS on upper limb motor blocks during a freezing-provoking writing task (the funnel task) requiring up- and down-stroke movements at alternating amplitudes. Ten PD patients and 10 age-matched controls underwent two sessions of writing combined with 20 min of anodal or sham tDCS on the left M1 in a randomized cross-over design. The primary outcome was the number of upper limb freezing episodes during five trials of the funnel task on a touch-sensitive tablet. PD patients showed a significant reduction in freezing episodes during tDCS compared to sham. No effects of tDCS were found for the amplitude, variability and speed of the strokes outside the freezing episodes. However, patients who reported freezing episodes in daily life (N = 6) showed a beneficial effect of tDCS on stroke characteristics. These results indicate a subgroup-dependent variability in response to non-invasive brain stimulation applied during the performance of motor tasks in PD. This warrants future studies to examine tDCS as an adjuvant tool for training programs aimed to reduce motor deficits related to freezing.
       
 
 
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