Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1543 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (725 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (130 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 130 of 130 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACSMs Health & Fitness Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACTIVE : Journal of Physical Education, Sport, Health and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ágora para la Educación Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education     Open Access  
American Journal of Sexuality Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Applied Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Apunts. Medicina de l'Esport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Arab Journal of Nutrition and Exercise     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Exercise in Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arquivos de Ciências do Esporte     Open Access  
Arquivos em Movimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arrancada     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Athletic Training & Sports Health Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
BMC Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Childhood Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
eJRIEPS : Ejournal de la recherche sur l'intervention en éducation physique et sport     Open Access  
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Éthique & Santé     Full-text available via subscription  
Fat Studies : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Body Weight and Society     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Fisioterapia em Movimento     Open Access  
Fitness & Performance Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food Science and Human Wellness     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Sports and Active Living     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Gelanggang Pendidikan Jasmani Indonesia     Open Access  
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geron     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Health and Physical Education Pedagogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Health Education Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Health Marketing Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Home Healthcare Now     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Human Movement     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Human Movement Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
IISE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesia Performance Journal     Open Access  
İnönü Üniversitesi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
International Journal of Men's Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
International Journal of Obesity Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Spa and Wellness     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sport, Exercise & Training Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Isokinetics and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of American College Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Athlete Development and Experience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Human Sport and Exercise     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Motor Learning and Development     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Physical Activity and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Physical Activity and Hormones     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Activity Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Physical Education and Human Movement     Open Access  
Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sport and Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Sport Sciences and Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Jurnal Pendidikan Kesehatan Rekreasi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Kerbala Magazine of Physical Edu. Seiences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Kinesiology : International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Kinesiology     Open Access  
Kinesiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Krankenhaus-Hygiene - Infektionsverhütung     Full-text available via subscription  
Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Médecine & Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription  
Mental Health and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
MHSalud : Movimiento Humano y Salud     Open Access  
Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Obesity Research & Clinical Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Obesity Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Obesity Science & Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Obesity Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pain Management in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
PALAESTRA : Adapted Sport, Physical Education, and Recreational Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Physical Activity and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Preventing Chronic Disease     Free   (Followers: 2)
Psychology of Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Quality in Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Race and Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBONE - Revista Brasileira de Obesidade, Nutrição e Emagrecimento     Open Access  
RBPFEX - Revista Brasileira de Prescrição e Fisiologia do Exercício     Open Access  
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Retos : Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deportes y Recreación     Open Access  
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Atividade Física & Saúde     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Ciências do Esporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Educação Física e Esporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista da Educação Física : UEM     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología del Ejercicio y el Deporte     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte : International Journal of Medicine and Science of Physical Activity and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue phénEPS / PHEnex Journal     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
SIPATAHOENAN : South-East Asian Journal for Youth, Sports & Health Education     Open Access  
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Sport and Fitness Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Sport Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Sport Sciences for Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport- und Präventivmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
SPORTIVE : Journal Of Physical Education, Sport and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Strength & Conditioning Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Timisoara Physical Education and Rehabilitation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise     Open Access  
Yoga Mimamsa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Здоровье человека, теория и методика физической культуры и спорта     Open Access  


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise
Number of Followers: 4  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2096-6709 - ISSN (Online) 2662-1371
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Comparison of Loaded Countermovement Jump with Different Variable
           Resistance Intensities on Inducing Post-Activation Potentiation
    • Abstract: Purpose The aim of the study was to establish the optimum variable resistance (VR) intensity for loaded countermovement jump (LCMJ) to induce post-activation potentiation (PAP). Methods Eleven male athletes (age 23 ± 2.3 years, height 1.77 ± 0.05 m, body mass 73.7 ± 9.0 kg) attended one familiarization and four testing sessions. Subjects performed their own pre-competition warm up before performing two countermovement jumps (CMJ) for baseline measure. Subsequently, they performed 2 × 3 unloaded (UCMJ) or loaded CMJ (LCMJ) with one of the three VR intensities, Orange (6.7 ± 0.6 kg), Red (14.0 ± 0.9 kg) and Blue (24.0 ± 1.4 kg), in random order, before performing two more CMJ for post-test measure. Each testing session was separated by at least 48 h. Results There was significant increase in jump height in all conditions (P < 0.05), but no significant difference in change in jump height between conditions (P > 0.05). There were small to moderate effect when comparing Orange and the other conditions. Peak force and velocity increased in Red (P < 0.05) and Orange (P < 0.05), respectively. Change in jump height was significantly correlated to change in peak velocity (r = 0.46, P = 0.002) and peak power (r = 0.46, P = 0.002). Conclusion The findings of the study showed that UCMJ and LCMJ were effective in improving jump height acutely, and an intensity level of about 10% body weight contributed by VR seems to be the optimum resistance level.
      PubDate: 2020-02-26
  • High-Intensity Interval Training Prescribed Within the Secondary
           Severe-Intensity Domain Improves Critical Speed But Not Finite Distance
    • Abstract: Purpose Improvements in D′ (the fatigability constant for running) subsequent to training interventions remain elusive. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) within the severe intensity domain for short durations (< 2-min) have been theorized to improve D′. The purpose of the present study was to assess this in a group of moderately trained individuals. Methods Eighteen participants completed graded exercise testing (GXT), 40-m sprint testing and a 3-min all-out test (3MT) for running to determine key mechanistic and physiological parameters. Participants were randomly assigned into one of two groups based on intensity prescription (G140% = 140% of critical speed [CS]), or time intervals (G90-s = 90-s) to complete a twice-weekly training intervention for 6-weeks followed by re-assessment. Results No between-group differences were present either prior to or following the intervention. Substantial and meaningful improvements were detected during the post-intervention period for both groups for VO2max (G140%: + 7.60%; G90-s: + 11.67%), speed evoking VO2max (sVO2max; G140%: + 4.33%; G90-s: + 2.92%), gas exchange threshold (GET; G140%: + 12.02%; G90-s: + 20.52%), speed evoking GET (sGET; G140%: + 4.17%; G90-s: + 7.92%), CS (G140%: M = 0.62 m/s; G90-s: M = 0.46 m/s), D′ (G140%: M = − 56.34 m; G90-s: M = − 18.36 m), FI% (G140% M = − 6.75%; G90-s: M = − 4.38%) and maximal distance (G140%: M = 49.67 m; G90-s: M = 58.38 m). Conclusions The prescribed intensities and durations were insufficient to elicit improvements in D′. Improvements in D′ may be dependent on very short-duration intervals (i.e. < 60 to 90-s) at speeds exceeding 140% CS but below maximal sprint speed.
      PubDate: 2020-02-16
  • Sex-Related Differences in Performance Fatigability Independent of Blood
           Flow Following a Sustained Muscle Action at a Low Perceptual Intensity
    • Abstract: The purpose of this investigation was to use the RPE clamp protocol to examine sex-related differences in performance fatigability and neuromuscular responses as the result of a sustained isometric leg extension muscle action anchored to RPE = 2. Twenty adults (10 men, 10 women) performed sustained muscle actions at RPE = 2 for 5-min. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) were performed prior to and following the sustained muscle actions. Neuromuscular (electromyographic and mechanomyographic) parameters and force were recorded, and the values were normalized to respective MVICs and calculated every 5% across the 5-min work bout. Femoral artery blood flow (FABF) was assessed at pretest, immediately posttest, and 5-min posttest. Polynomial regression was used to define the individual and composite normalized neuromuscular and force versus time relationships during the sustained muscle action. Mixed factorial ANOVAs were used to examine differences in performance fatigability and blood flow. For performance fatigability, the men (62.4 ± 14.4 kg–43.1 ± 11.5 kg) exhibited a significantly (P < 0.05) greater decrease pretest to posttest in MVIC than the women (44.1 ± 4.8 kg vs. 38.1 ± 6.1 kg). There were different fatigue-induced neuromuscular patterns of responses between the men and women across time. For blood flow responses, however, there was no sex-related difference, but pretest (283.3 ± 70.8 mL/min) was significantly (P < 0.05) less than immediately posttest (424.5 ± 133.5 mL/min) and 5-min posttest (324.4 ± 78.3 mL/min). Thus, men demonstrated a greater degree of performance fatigability than the women, which was independent of differences in FABF. Factors such as the neuromuscular system and muscle morphology likely contributed to the difference in performance fatigability.
      PubDate: 2020-02-12
  • Joint Contact Forces with Changes in Running Stride Length and Midsole
    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine if lower extremity joint loading was influenced by stride length or shoe midsole cushioning. Ten subjects completed 10 trials of overground running at an average speed of 4.43 m/s in each of three conditions: normal running, running with a stride length (SL) reduced by 10% of normal, and running with a cushioned midsole stiffness (i.e., mechanical impact reduction of 13.7–10.9 g). Reaction forces calculated from inverse dynamics were summed with muscle forces estimated from a musculoskeletal model using static optimization to obtain joint contact forces at the hip, knee and ankle joints. Peak components of the contact forces [axial, anterior–posterior, and medial–lateral (ML)] were examined using parametric statistics (α = 0.05). Reducing stride length resulted in significant decreases in absolute peak ankle contact forces in the axial direction (normal: − 14.5 ± 1.5 BW; reduced SL: − 14.0 ± 1.6 BW) and the ML direction (normal: 0.67 ± 0.23 BW; reduced SL: 0.61 ± 0.21 BW). Reducing stride length also reduced the peak absolute axial forces at the knee (normal: − 10.6 ± 1.3 BW; reduced SL: − 9.8 ± 1.2 BW) and the hip (normal: − 7.26 ± 2.24 BW; reduced SL: − 6.75 ± 2.10 BW). The cushioned shoe did not statistically reduce the peak absolute contact forces from the normal stride condition at any of the joints. Post hoc stress analysis suggested that the observed changes in anterior hip force would increase stress more than any of the other statistically significant results. Reductions in stride length appear to decrease some joint contact variables but cushioning in the heel region of the shoe does not.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
  • Blood Flow-Restricted Training in Older Adults: A Narrative Review
    • Abstract: Background Low-intensity resistance training (LI-RT) combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) is an alternative to traditional moderate–high-intensity resistance training to increase strength and muscle mass. However, the evidence about the efficacy of this novel training method to increase strength and muscle mass in healthy and older adults with pathologies is limited. Furthermore, the possible risk and adverse effects with BFR training methodology in older adults should be considered. Objectives (1) To summarize the current evidence on training with BFR strategies in older adults aiming to improve strength and to increase muscle mass; and (2) to provide recommendations for resistance and aerobic training with BFR in older adults based on the studies reviewed. Methods Studies that investigated the chronic responses to resistance training or aerobic training with BFR related to strength and muscle mass changes in older adults were identified. Two independent researchers conducted the search in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases from their inception up to November 1, 2018. Results Seventeen out of 35 studies, which performed resistance or aerobic training with BFR in older adults focused on strength and muscle mass outcomes, were included in this review. Studies performing resistance and aerobic training with BFR found better improvements in strength and higher increase in muscle mass compared to non-BFR groups that performed the same training protocol. High-intensity resistance training (HI-RT) without BFR provided greater improvements in strength and a similar increase in muscle mass compared to light-intensity resistance training (LI-RT) with BFR. Conclusions Current evidence suggests that LI-RT and/or aerobic training with BFR improves strength and increases muscle mass in older people. Light-intensity training without BFR would normally not obtain such benefits. Therefore, LI-RT and aerobic training with BFR is an alternative to traditional methods to improve strength and by way of an increase in muscle mass, which are important in the elderly who have progressive muscle atrophy and are at higher risk of falls.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
  • Mitochondrial ROS and Aging: Understanding Exercise as a Preventive Tool
    • Abstract: Sarcopenia, which is characterized by reduction in muscle mass and strength, contributes to several age-related conditions, including insulin resistance and frailty. Despite the importance of maintaining muscle mass for healthy aging, the mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia are not fully elucidated. Nevertheless, mitochondria appear to play a key role in the underlying condition, and importantly, respond robustly to exercise interventions. Mitochondria are intracellular organelles largely attributed to maintaining ATP concentrations, however, the importance of this organelle in overall cellular homeostasis has been expanded in the last decades to include redox signaling, calcium homeostasis, inflammation, and apoptosis. Several lines of evidence suggest that mitochondrial bioenergetics are altered in aged skeletal muscle, resulting in an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, while conversely genetic/pharmacological approaches that attenuate mitochondrial ROS promote healthy aging and maintenance of muscle mass. These observations suggest that increased free radicals are one of the bases of the aging process and related sarcopenia. Here, we reviewed the current knowledge regarding mitochondrial function and redox balance in aged human skeletal muscle, highlighting the implications of redox unbalance on skeletal muscle mass maintenance and muscle health. Additionally, we describe the benefits of exercise and nutrition interventions in the context of improving mitochondrial bioenergetics and functional outcomes regarding skeletal muscle mass and function.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
  • Metabolic Adaptations to Exercise Training
    • Abstract: The health benefits of exercise have attracted substantial attention, because regular exercise can strengthen muscles and improve endurance. Physical activity is an integral part of an overall healthy lifestyle, which helps protect against chronic diseases, such as obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In consideration of the differences in duration, intensity, and type of activity of exercise, it is likely to involve different signaling pathways and bring different benefits in different tissues. Here we review our growing knowledge of exercise training adaptations and regulation in cellular processes related to energy metabolism, aging and autophagy, and many important findings remain to be discovered.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
  • Kinetics of Changes in Hemoglobin After Ascent to and Return from High
    • Abstract: Decreased oxygen availability in sojourners requires adjustments in tissue oxygen supply, the most effective of which is an increase in the hemoglobin (Hb) concentration. It is achieved by two independent processes: a fast increase in Hb is achieved by decreasing plasma volume due to enhanced renal Na- and water excretion. A further but slow increase in Hb concentration is achieved by stimulation of erythropoiesis by mechanisms depending on stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor 2α resulting in elevated levels of erythropoietin in blood. The magnitude of decrease in plasma volume and of stimulation of erythropoiesis depends on the degree and duration of exposure to hypoxia at high altitude. Upon descent from high to low altitude elevated O2-transport capacity is no longer needed. Thus, plasma volume can be restored and excess erythrocytes can be removed from circulation. This latter process is called erythrolysis. Its effectiveness seems to depend on the altitude to which individuals had been exposed. Whereas most of the excess erythrocytes seem to be removed from circulation within 1–2 weeks after a stay at altitudes > 3500 m, total Hb mass seems to remain elevated for up to 4 weeks when individuals had been exposed to more moderate altitudes, e.g. in the range of 2500 m. These are the altitudes where athletes typically perform altitude training. Thus, it appears that improved performance in the weeks after return from altitude training depends in part on maintaining elevated total Hb mass, which is known to increase aerobic capacity.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
  • Effects of Foot Rotation on ACL Injury Risk Variables During Drop Landing
    • Abstract: Purpose Landing is considered a “high-risk” movement for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Foot progression angle (FPA) during landing has been shown to influence hip, knee, and ankle mechanics. The purpose of this study was to compare five FPA conditions during drop landings between males and females. Methods Twenty males and females were tested using five FPA conditions: self-selected, toe-in 15°, toe-in 30°, toe-out 15°, and toe-out 30°. Right hip, knee, and ankle joint kinematics and kinetics were collected using a 12-camera motion capture system and two force plates. Five successful trials were collected and compared between FPA conditions. Results The main effect for FPA condition was statistically different for initial contact hip flexion, hip abduction, hip internal rotation, knee flexion, knee abduction, knee external rotation, and ankle inversion angles compared to self-selected FPA at P < 0.05. Peak hip extension, hip abduction, knee adduction, knee internal rotation, ankle plantar flexion, and ankle inversion moments were also found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Overall, females experienced greater initial knee abduction angle (P = 0.028), hip abduction moment (P = 0.006), knee extension moment (P = 0.033), and knee internal rotation moment (P = 0.044), regardless of FPA condition. Males experienced greater initial contact hip abduction angle (P = 0.0017), regardless of FPA condition. Conclusion The results suggest that landing with large toe-in FPA will increase the magnitude of ACL injury risk variables, and females demonstrated a greater magnitude in these variables compared to males. Injury prevention programs may seek to target FPA as part of training activities to avoid large FPA toe-in landings.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
  • A Multi-Constituent Pilot Study Improves Health Behaviors in Underserved
           Elementary Students
    • Abstract: Few successful strategies address lifestyle and behavior change towards food and exercise among underserved children. Children spend the majority of their day in a school setting, providing an optimal environment to target behavior change with limited resources. Purpose This school-based pilot study was a collaborative effort among professionals from a state university, a county department of health, a county school system, and a nearby regional public hospital to improve knowledge, intentions, and self-efficacy about nutrition and physical activity among underserved children. Methods Thirty-three, fifth grade students were recruited from a low socioeconomic elementary school (Mean = 10.55 ± 0.56 years). Students were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 19), or control group (n = 14) for 8 weeks. Once per week, the treatment group received 30 min of nutritional advice, and completed 30 min of functional exercises. Anthropometric and body composition assessments were made, and eating and physical activity behaviors were recorded using the CATCH Kids Club After-School Student Questionnaire at baseline, and at the end of week 8. A 2-way repeated-measure analysis of variance and paired-t tests with Bonferroni adjustments were used to analyze any differences. Results Physical activity, intentions, and knowledge for a healthy nutrition behavior increased significantly in the treatment group. However, causal inferences could not be made at this time. Conclusions This public sector partnership demonstrated that a simple school-based intervention can play a role in healthy choices among underserved children.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
  • Methodological Considerations Which Could Improve Spinal Cord Injury
    • Abstract: Advances in spinal cord injury-based research in the last 50 years have resulted in significant improvements to therapy options. However, the efficacy of such research could be further enhanced if threats to internal and external validity were addressed. To provide perspective, a sample topic was identified: the effects of acute and chronic exercise on clinical and sub-clinical markers of cardiovascular health. The intention was not a systematic review, nor a critique of exercise-based research, but rather a means to generate further discussion. Thirty-one articles were identified, and four common issues were found relating to: (1) sampling; (2) study design; (3) control group; and (4) clinical inference. These concerns were largely attributed to insufficient resources, and challenges associated with recruiting individuals with spinal cord injury. Overcoming these challenges will be difficult, but some opportunities include: (1) implementing multi-center trials; (2) sampling from subject groups appropriate to the research question; (3) including an appropriate control group; and (4) clearly defining clinical inference. These opportunities are not always feasible, and some easier to implement than others. However, addressing these concerns may assist in progressing spinal cord injury-based research, thereby helping to ensure steady advancement of therapy options for persons with spinal cord injury.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
  • The Minimum Number of Attempts for a Reliable Isometric Strength Test
    • Abstract: Purpose The maximal isometric strength test is widely used in general, athletic, and clinical populations. However, this test has often been used without considering how many trials are needed or appropriate to obtain reliable test scores. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the maximal isometric strength test in upper and lower body for the purpose of determining the reliability of best isometric strength score and the ideal number of trials for a reliable test score. Methods One hundred and twelve healthy adults were assigned to four different groups (elbow flexion with the vertical and horizontal forearm positions, knee flexion, and knee extension). After familiarization, all participants performed three maximal isometric voluntary contractions with the designated muscle group. The reliability of best isometric strength test score was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) from a one-way ANOVA model. The Spearman–Brown prophecy formula was used to identify the minimum number of trials needed. Results The reliability of the best maximal isometric strength test scores out of three trials were high (ICC = 0.92 to 0.98). At least two trials of maximal isometric strength test for knee flexion and one trial for elbow flexion and knee extension would be necessary to achieve an acceptable reliability coefficient of 0.80. In addition, one trial of elbow flexion would be enough for women, but men would need two trials. Conclusions Our results suggest that overall, at least two trials would be necessary to test isometric strength in upper and lower body muscles in both sexes.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
  • Does Engaging in Acute Exercise Prior to Memory Encoding and During Memory
           Consolidation have an Additive Effect on Long-Term Memory Function'
    • Abstract: Previous work has demonstrated that acute exercise prior to memory encoding may enhance long-term memory. Similarly, other work demonstrates that acute exercise during the memory consolidation period may also enhance long-term memory function. However, no study has evaluated whether long-term memory is enhanced when an acute bout of exercise occurs during both of these time periods, when compared to just prior to memory encoding. A within-subject randomized controlled intervention was employed. On separate laboratory visits, participants completed two main protocols, including (1) exercise before memory encoding and (2) exercise before and after memory encoding. Long-term memory was assessed, via a word-list task, from a 20-min delay period and a 24-h delay period. We observed a significant main effect for time, F(8, 176) = 529.5, P < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.96, but no significant main effect for condition, F(1, 22) = 0.08, P = 0.77, ηp2 = 0.004, or time by condition interaction, F(8, 176) = 0.19, P = 0.99, ηp2 = 0.009. In conclusion, there was no difference in long-term memory function when comparing acute exercise only prior to memory encoding vs. acute exercise both before and immediately after memory encoding.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
  • Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell (HSPC) Mobilization Responses to
           Different Exercise Intensities in Young and Older Adults
    • Abstract: Introduction Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) are responsible for the reconstitution of blood cells and thought to contribute to peripheral tissue repair. Following acute exercise in young adults, HSPC are mobilized from their niche in bone marrow into circulation, however the kinetics of mobilization following exercise is not well understood in older adults. In the present study, we aimed to investigate how exercise intensity influences mobilization of specific subpopulations of HSPC, and how mobilization is affected by aging. Methods Healthy older men (OM; 69.9 ± 2.0 years) and young men (YM; 21.5 ± 0.8 years) performed three separate bouts of exercise on a cycle ergometer: 70% of their peak work rate (WRpeak) until volitional fatigue, 30% of their WRpeak work matched to the 70% WRpeak trial, and a high intensity interval training (HIIT) trial. Blood samples were collected before, immediately post, and 10, 30, and 60 min post-exercise. Total blood cells, hematocrit, and mononuclear cells isolated by density gradient centrifugation were quantified using flow cytometry. Results Mononuclear cells, CD34+, CD34+/CD38+, CD34+/CD110+, CD3+/CD(16 + 56)+, CD11c+/CD123−, and CD11c−/CD123+ cells per millilitre of blood increased immediately post-exercise, but predominately in the 70% WRpeak trial in both OM and YM. Conclusion Taken together, our evidence suggests that higher intensity exercise but also volume is necessary for the mobilization of HSPC. Furthermore, the pattern of mobilization was nearly identical in OM as compared to YM though to a lesser extent than their younger counterparts.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
  • Comparisons of Subjective and Objective Measures of Free-Living Daily
           Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in College Students
    • Abstract: Purpose To compare physical activity and sedentary behavior between four commonly used subjective and objective measures: the 7-day Physical Activity Recall (7DPAR), International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), pedometer, and accelerometer. Methods A total of 130 college students completed four measures for the same 7 days. Body composition was measured using a bioelectric impedance analyzer. Wilcoxon signed rank tests and Spearman correlations were performed to compare estimates between activity measures. The Spearman correlations between different activity measures were further examined separately for the higher and the lower body fat groups. Results Compared with accelerometer-derived data, both the 7DPAR and the IPAQ overestimated light physical activity (P < 0.001) while underestimated sedentary behavior (P < 0.001). Across comparisons, the highest correlation was found between accelerometers and pedometers on steps/day (r = 0.72, P < 0.001). The 7DPAR and the IPAQ were correlated with each other for all physical activity variables and sedentary behavior (r = 0.37–0.45). There were low correlations (r = 0.20–0.47) between the 7DPAR, the IPAQ, and accelerometers in sedentary behavior, light physical activity, and vigorous physical activity. Higher correlations between different activity modalities were observed among individuals with lower body fat (r = 0.41–0.80) than among those with higher body fat (r = 0.31–0.65). Conclusions The 7DPAR and the IPAQ yielded comparable estimation of moderate physical activity relative to accelerometers. There were significant differences in sedentary time across activity measures. Body compositions should be considered when comparing the estimates of activity levels between subjective and objective instruments.
      PubDate: 2020-01-14
  • Editorial
    • PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Acute Post-Activation Potentiation Effects of Heavy High-Pulls on Clean
    • Abstract: Aim The concept of post-activation potentiation (PAP) is still novel from a training perspective and lacks breadth relative to weightlifting exercises. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of a conditioning activity (clean high pulls) on the performance of a main activity (clean) after the conditioning activity. Methods Eleven volunteers who engaged in weightlifting (Male = 5, Female = 6) participated in two different testing sessions (experimental vs. control). Baseline measurements were taken following the warm-up. The testing condition was performed and additional measurements were taken at 30 s, 2 min, 4 min, 6 min, 8 min, 10 min, and 12 min into recovery. A linear position transducer was used to collect peak power, peak velocity, and displacement of the barbell during the clean. Multiple 2 × 8 repeated measures ANOVAs were used to analyze the data along with a paired samples t test between baseline and “best” values. Results There was no interaction or main effect for condition (P > 0.05). However, there was a significant main effect for time (P < 0.05) for all variables. The “best” values were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than baseline values (peak power: experimental = 1354.76 ± 521.24 W vs. baseline 1216.03 ± 492.30 W; peak velocity: experimental = 2.66 ± 0.44 m/s vs. baseline 2.50 ± 0.44 m/s; displacement: experimental = 111.07 ± 12.09 cm vs. baseline 107.01 ± 11.32 cm). Conclusions The findings of this study are in partial agreement with previous literature where the warm-up was probably enough to elicit PAP. Therefore, recommendations for future studies could include utilizing a more elite population and to ensure all potential participants can squat at least 2 × their body weight.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Mitophagy Regulation in Skeletal Muscle: Effect of Endurance Exercise and
    • Abstract: Mitochondria are essential energy-providing organelles that are required in the maintenance of healthy skeletal muscle. As such, the removal of damaged mitochondria, through mitophagy, is necessary to maintain mitochondrial quality. In aging muscle, mitochondrial content and function are often found to be reduced compared to young individuals. This occurs despite the fact that measures of mitophagy are elevated, suggesting that mitophagy is insufficiently high to remove all of the dysfunctional organelles in aging muscle. Recent evidence has shown that acute exercise promotes mitophagic signaling, leading to organelle degradation. This exercise-induced signaling is attenuated in aging muscle, suggesting that aging muscle loses its capacity for mitochondrial turnover in response to exercise. This contributes to the reduction in muscle health in elderly individuals. Chronic exercise training improves mitochondrial content and function, even in aging muscle, leading to reduced mitophagy signaling. Thus, exercise training should be prescribed for both young and elderly populations to promote the maintenance of a healthy mitochondrial pool, through the stimulation of both organelle biogenesis and mitophagy.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Age-Related Differences in the Predictability of Fast Gait Speed with
           Absolute and Rapid Squat Strength
    • Abstract: Gait speed is now recognized as an important clinical tool in the older adult population. However, fast gait speed appears to better reflect lower-extremity muscle performance and declines more rapidly in advanced age than comfortable gait speed. We examined the ability of leg lean mass and absolute and rapid strength characteristics to predict fast gait speed in younger versus older adults. Twenty-four younger (12 men, 12 women; age = 22 ± 3 years) and 22 older (11 men, 11 women; age = 72 ± 6 years) adults participated in the study. Fast gait speed was assessed at 10- and 400-m distances. Leg lean mass was quantified with dual X-ray absorptiometry. Isometric squat peak torque and the rate of torque development at 200 ms (RTD200) were tested with a 120° knee joint angle. Statistical analyses included independent samples t tests, partial correlations, and stepwise regression. Large differences between age groups were observed for peak torque, RTD200, and gait speed (P ≤ 0.006, d ≥ 0.79), whereas the difference in leg lean mass was small (P = 0.246, d = 0.35). In older adults only, the partial correlation for 400-m speed versus RTD200 was significant (r = 0.463, P = 0.040). Stepwise regression revealed that peak torque was a significant predictor of 10-m (R2 = 0.257, P = 0.016) and 400-m (R2 = 0.239, P = 0.021) gait speed in older adults. As adults age, lower-extremity, multi-joint muscle strength becomes increasingly important in regulating fast gait speed, whereas lean mass is not predictive.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Longitudinal Monitoring of Athletes: Statistical Issues and Best Practices
    • Abstract: Athlete monitoring utilizing strength and conditioning as well as other sport performance data is increasing in practice and in research. While the usage of this data for purposes of creating more informed training programs and producing potential performance prediction models may be promising, there are some statistical considerations that should be addressed by those who hope to use this data. The purpose of this review is to discuss many of the statistical issues faced by practitioners as well as provide best practices recommendations. Single-subject designs (SSD) appear to be more appropriate for monitoring and statistically evaluating athletic performance than traditional group statistical methods. This paper discusses several SSD options available that produce measures of both statistical and practical significance. Additionally, this paper discusses issues related to heteroscedasticity, reliability, validity and provides recommendations for each. Finally, if data are incorporated into the decision-making process, it should be returned and utilized quickly. Data visualizations are often incorporated into this process and this review discusses issues and recommendations related to their clarity, simplicity, and distortion. Awareness of these issues and utilization of some best practice methods will likely result in an enhanced and more efficient decision-making process with more informed athlete development programs.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
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Heriot-Watt University
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