Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1543 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (725 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (130 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 130 of 130 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACSMs Health & Fitness Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACTIVE : Journal of Physical Education, Sport, Health and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ágora para la Educación Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education     Open Access  
American Journal of Sexuality Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Applied Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Apunts. Medicina de l'Esport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Arab Journal of Nutrition and Exercise     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Exercise in Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arquivos de Ciências do Esporte     Open Access  
Arquivos em Movimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arrancada     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Athletic Training & Sports Health Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
BMC Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Childhood Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
eJRIEPS : Ejournal de la recherche sur l'intervention en éducation physique et sport     Open Access  
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Éthique & Santé     Full-text available via subscription  
Fat Studies : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Body Weight and Society     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Fisioterapia em Movimento     Open Access  
Fitness & Performance Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food Science and Human Wellness     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Sports and Active Living     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Gelanggang Pendidikan Jasmani Indonesia     Open Access  
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geron     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Health and Physical Education Pedagogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Health Education Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Health Marketing Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Home Healthcare Now     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Human Movement     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Human Movement Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
IISE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesia Performance Journal     Open Access  
İnönü Üniversitesi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
International Journal of Men's Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
International Journal of Obesity Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Spa and Wellness     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sport, Exercise & Training Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Isokinetics and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of American College Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Athlete Development and Experience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Human Sport and Exercise     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Motor Learning and Development     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Physical Activity and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Physical Activity and Hormones     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Activity Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Physical Education and Human Movement     Open Access  
Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sport and Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Sport Sciences and Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Jurnal Pendidikan Kesehatan Rekreasi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Kerbala Magazine of Physical Edu. Seiences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Kinesiology : International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Kinesiology     Open Access  
Kinesiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Krankenhaus-Hygiene - Infektionsverhütung     Full-text available via subscription  
Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Médecine & Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription  
Mental Health and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
MHSalud : Movimiento Humano y Salud     Open Access  
Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Obesity Research & Clinical Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Obesity Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Obesity Science & Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Obesity Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pain Management in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
PALAESTRA : Adapted Sport, Physical Education, and Recreational Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Physical Activity and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Preventing Chronic Disease     Free   (Followers: 2)
Psychology of Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Quality in Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Race and Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBONE - Revista Brasileira de Obesidade, Nutrição e Emagrecimento     Open Access  
RBPFEX - Revista Brasileira de Prescrição e Fisiologia do Exercício     Open Access  
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Retos : Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deportes y Recreación     Open Access  
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Atividade Física & Saúde     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Ciências do Esporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Educação Física e Esporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista da Educação Física : UEM     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología del Ejercicio y el Deporte     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte : International Journal of Medicine and Science of Physical Activity and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue phénEPS / PHEnex Journal     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
SIPATAHOENAN : South-East Asian Journal for Youth, Sports & Health Education     Open Access  
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Sport and Fitness Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Sport Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Sport Sciences for Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport- und Präventivmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
SPORTIVE : Journal Of Physical Education, Sport and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Strength & Conditioning Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Timisoara Physical Education and Rehabilitation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise     Open Access  
Yoga Mimamsa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Здоровье человека, теория и методика физической культуры и спорта     Open Access  


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Frontiers in Sports and Active Living
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2624-9367
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [86 journals]
  • Editorial: Hurdling the Challenges of the 2019 IAAF World Championships

    • Authors: Olivier Girard, Sebastien Racinais
      PubDate: 2019-12-03T00:00:00Z
  • Sport Readaptation: Where Do We Draw the Lines Between Professionals'

    • Authors: Daniel Rojas-Valverde, Juan Carlos Gutiérrez-Vargas, Braulio Sánchez-Ureña
      PubDate: 2019-11-27T00:00:00Z
  • Effect of a 16-Day Altitude Training Camp on 3,000-m Steeplechase Running
           Energetics and Biomechanics: A Case Study

    • Authors: Jean Slawinski, François Chiron, Benjamin Millot, Adrien Taouji, Franck Brocherie
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a 16-day training camp at moderate altitude on running energetics and biomechanics in an elite female 3,000-m steeplechase athlete (personal best: 9 min 36.15 s). The 16-day intervention included living and training at 1,600 m altitude. A maximal incremental test was performed at sea level to determine the maximal oxygen uptake (V∙O2max). Before (pre-) and after (post-) intervention, the participant performed a specific training session consisting of 10 × 400 m with 5 hurdles with oxygen uptake (V∙O2), blood lactate, stride length and stride rate being measured. A video analysis determined take-off distance and landing around the hurdle (DTH and DLH), take-off velocity and landing around the hurdle (VTH and VLH), and the maximal height over the hurdle (MH). The results demonstrated that the mean V∙O2 maintained during the ten 400 m trials represented 84–86% of V∙O2max and did not change from pre- to post-intervention (p = 0.22). Mean blood lactate measured on the 6 last 400-m efforts increased significantly (12.0 ± 2.2 vs. 17.0 ± 1.6 mmol.l−1; p < 0.05). On the other hand, post-intervention maximal lactate decreased from 20.1 to 16.0 mmol.l−1. Biomechanical analysis revealed that running velocity increased from 5.12 ± 0.16 to 5.49 ± 0.19 m.s−1 (p < 0.001), concomitantly with stride length (1.63 ± 0.05 vs. 1.73 ± 0.06 m; p < 0.001). However, stride rate did not change (3.15 ± 0.03 vs. 3.16 ± 0.02 Hz; p = 0.14). While DTH was not significantly different from pre- to post- (1.34 ± 0.08 vs. 1.40 ± 0.07 m; p = 0.09), DLH was significantly longer (1.17 ± 0.07 vs. 1.36 ± 0.05 m; p < 0.01). VTH and VLH significantly improved after intervention (5.00 ± 0.14 vs. 5.33 ± 0.16 m.s−1 and 5.18 ± 0.13 vs. 5.51 ± 0.22 m.s−1, respectively; both p < 0.01). Finally, MH increased from pre- to post- (52.5 ± 3.8 vs. 54.9 ± 2.1 cm; p < 0.05). A 16-day moderate altitude training camp allowed an elite female 3,000-m steeplechase athlete to improve running velocity through a greater glycolytic—but not aerobic—metabolism.
      PubDate: 2019-11-22T00:00:00Z
  • Skill Training Periodization in “Specialist” Sports Coaching—An
           Introduction of the “PoST” Framework for Skill Development

    • Authors: Fabian W. Otte, Sarah-Kate Millar, Stefanie Klatt
      Abstract: Across sports and movement science, training periodization has been recognized as key for athlete development and performance. While periodization with regard to physiology has a proven history, the structuring and periodization of motor learning and skill development is seemingly less researched and practiced. Despite the existence of numerous theoretical accounts underpinning skill acquisition training and more recently emerging periodization models, a cohesive framework to practically support coaches in the context of “specialist coaching” appears to be needed. The use of “specialist coaches” for individualized, one-on-one or small group trainings displays a growing trend in team ball sports. Despite limiting the replication of game-representative environments (i.e., by constraining the number of involved athletes in training), “specialist coaches” in performance sport constantly aim to achieve marginal gains and refinements in athlete development. In order to support these “specialist coaches” and fill a research gap on skill training periodization, the current paper seeks to review and transfer contemporary skill acquisition training theory (driven by the constraints-led approach) into a practically-applicable “Periodization of Skill Training” framework (“PoST” framework). This framework provides valuable conceptual and practical support for “specialist coaches” in performance sport; which will in turn, enhance, and refine adaptive movement variability for sport skills and manipulate skill training environments (i.e., over the course of macro- and micro-cycles, and for the planning of single training sessions). Practical examples from soccer goalkeeping (i.e., a “specialist coaching” context, often constrained to a small number of players in the training environment) will underline the proposed framework.
      PubDate: 2019-11-15T00:00:00Z
  • Heat Stress Challenges in Marathon vs. Ultra-Endurance Running

    • Authors: Nicolas Bouscaren, Guillaume Y. Millet, Sebastien Racinais
      Abstract: Several studies have investigated the effect of hot and humid ambient conditions on running exercise up to the marathon. However, studies on exercise longer than marathon are sparse. Events exceeding 6 h can be defined as ultra-endurance and have variable characteristics (e.g., distance, elevation profile, technical difficulty, altitude, night running) making hazardous the transposition of the current knowledge obtained in marathon to ultra-endurance running. Thus, the aim of this manuscript was to discuss the potential differences between marathon and ultra-endurance running in terms of heat stress challenges. The high running intensity (especially for the fastest runners), the urban context with high albedo effect materials, and the hot self-generated microclimate in mass-participation events (especially for the average to slow runners) are specific risk factors associated with marathon running in hot environments. Uphill running/walking (sometimes with poles), exotic destination with long-haul travel, desert environment and the necessity to sustain thermoregulatory and sweating responses for several days are risk factors more specific to ultra-endurance running. These differences call for specific research on the effect of hot ambient conditions in ultra-endurance disciplines to create appropriate recommendations.
      PubDate: 2019-11-13T00:00:00Z
  • Meteorological Risks in Doha 2019 Athletics World Championships: Health
           Considerations From Organizers

    • Authors: Stéphane Bermon, Paolo Emilio Adami
      Abstract: The Doha 2019 IAAF World Championships represent a challenge for athletes, workforce and spectators who could compete, work or attend under likely extreme meteorological conditions. This short article summarizes the methodology used by the IAAF and the Local Organizing Committee doctors to analyze and reduce risks, while complying as much as possible with existing recommendations or policies. The main steps to be completed are identification and description of weather-related risks, description and whenever possible testing of all their possible mitigation measures during test events, revision of these risks once mitigation implemented, and finally drafting a contingency plan for remaining exceptional and impactful occurrences. Such risk management methodology could apply to other sports, ideally from the host city selection to the delivery of the competitive event.
      PubDate: 2019-11-12T00:00:00Z
  • Analysis of a Biathlon Sprint Competition and Associated Laboratory
           Determinants of Performance

    • Authors: Harri Luchsinger, Rune Kjøsen Talsnes, Jan Kocbach, Øyvind Sandbakk
      Abstract: Biathlon is an Olympic winter-sport where cross-country (XC) skiing in the skating technique is combined with rifle shooting. In the biathlon sprint competition for men, three laps of 3.3-km are interspersed with a 5-shot shooting sequence in the prone and standing position. Our purpose was to investigate the contribution from overall XC skiing performance, the performance in different terrain sections and shooting performance to the overall biathlon sprint race performance, as well as the relationship to laboratory-measured capacities obtained during treadmill roller ski skating. Eleven elite male biathletes were tracked by a Global Positioning System (GPS) device and a heart rate (HR) monitor during an international 10-km biathlon sprint competition. Within a period of 6 weeks prior to the competition, physiological responses, and performance during submaximal and maximal treadmill roller skiing were measured. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that XC skiing time, shooting performance, shooting time and range time explained 84, 14, 1.8, and 0.2% of the overall sprint race performance (all p < 0.01). Time in uphill, varied, and downhill terrains were all significantly correlated to the total XC skiing time (r = 0.95, 0.82, 0.72, respectively, all p < 0.05). Percent of maximal HR (HRmax) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during submaximal roller skiing, and time-to-exhaustion during incremental roller skiing correlated significantly with overall biathlon sprint race performance and overall XC skiing time (r = 0.64–0.95, all p < 0.05). In conclusion, XC skiing performance provided greatest impact on biathlon sprint performance, with most of the variance determined by XC skiing performance in the uphill terrain sections. Furthermore, the ability to roller ski with a low RPE and %HRmax during submaximal speeds, as well as time-to-exhaustion during incremental roller skiing significantly predicted biathlon performance. Such laboratory-derived measures may therefore be validly used to distinguish biathletes of different performance levels and to track progress of their XC skiing capacity.
      PubDate: 2019-11-12T00:00:00Z
  • Pacing and Performance in the 6 World Marathon Majors

    • Authors: José Joaquín Díaz, Andrew Renfree, Eduardo J. Fernández-Ozcorta, Miguel Torres, Jordan Santos-Concejero
      Abstract: The main goal of this study was to analyse the pacing strategies displayed by the winners of the six World Marathon Majors in order to determine which race offers the greatest potential for future world record attempts. For data analysis, the total distance of the marathon was divided into eight sections of 5 km and a final section of 2.195 km, and time needed to complete each section was calculated in seconds. When we analyzed the mean winning time in the last 13 editions of each of the World Marathon Majors, we observed differences between New York and London (ES = 1.46, moderate effect, p = 0.0030), New York and Berlin (ES = 0.95, small effect, p = 0.0001), London and Boston (ES = 0.08, small effect, p = 0.0001), Boston and Berlin (ES = 0.10, small effect, p = 0.0001), Boston and Chicago (ES = 0.16, small effect, p = 0.0361), Berlin and Tokyo (ES = 0.20, small effect, p = 0.0034), Berlin and Chicago (ES = 0.27, small effect, p = 0.0162). This study shows that Berlin and London are likely candidates for future world record attempts, whilst such a performance is unlikely in New York or Boston.
      PubDate: 2019-11-08T00:00:00Z
  • The Impact of Sex and Performance Level on Pacing Behavior in a 24-h

    • Authors: Allan Inoue, Tony Meireles Santos, Florentina J. Hettinga, Daniel de Souza Alves, Bruno Ferreira Viana, Bruno de Souza Terra, Flávio Oliveira Pires
      Abstract: Purpose: We analyzed the impact of sex, performance level and substantial speed reductions (SSR) on pacing in the VI Rio 24-h Marines Ultramarathon. This will provide insights into the importance of minimizing speed variations in relation to optimal pacing in endurance events.Methods: Runners (30 males and 21 females), classified as high- (HP) and low-performance (LP) ran the race while having their time recorded every 400 m. The pacing was analyzed as the first 10% (initial epoch), the following 80% (intermediate epoch) and the last 10% of the race (final epoch). The time percentage spent at speeds 8.0 km·h−1 (running speed) was calculated.Results: Runners showed a reverse J-shaped pacing (P < 0.001) regardless of sex and performance level, although male (P < 0.004) and HP runners (P < 0.001) have preserved a higher mean speed throughout the race. Male and HP runners spent more time at running speed (P < 0.001) and less time at SSR (P < 0.001) than female and LP runners. Total distance was inversely correlated with the number of SSR and speed CV in male (r = −0.47 and r = −0.64, respectively) and female (r = −0.61 and r = −0.47, respectively).Conclusion: Male, HP runners showed less SSR, conserving a higher mean speed with less variation throughout the race. Results suggest that conservative pacing strategies, with lower speeds in the beginning and higher speeds toward the end, may be the most adequate for different endurance running disciplines. Results also show different competition dynamics between men and women, which warrants further exploration in ultramarathons as well as other IAAF events.
      PubDate: 2019-11-06T00:00:00Z
  • Did the Relative Age Effect Change Over a Decade in Elite Youth Ski

    • Authors: Lisa Steidl-Müller, Erich Müller, Carolin Hildebrandt, Christian Raschner
      Abstract: The relative age effect (RAE) represents an asymmetry in birth quarter distribution, favoring athletes born early in the selection year and discriminating against late born athletes. The RAE was proven to be present in all age categories of national and international levels of alpine ski racing. Due to the existence of the RAE in all categories, it can be assumed that a selection error takes place favoring early born and early maturing youth ski racers. However, whether selection strategies have changed during the last years due to the high amount of research done in this field, has not been investigated so far in this sport. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess whether the magnitude of the RAE in youth ski racers aged 10–14 years has changed during the last decade by comparing the periods 2005–2009 (“former” athletes) and 2015–2019 (“current” athletes). Pupils of a well-known skiing-specific secondary modern school as well as members of the provincial ski team, who all competed at national levels, were included in the study. Next to the birth months, anthropometric characteristics (body height, weight, body mass index) were assessed. Chi-square tests were used to compare differences between the observed and expected relative age quarter distributions across five age categories (U11–U15). Additionally, Kruskal–Wallis-H-Tests were performed to assess differences in anthropometric characteristics between athletes of the four relative age quarters. Mann–Whitney U-Tests were performed to assess possible differences in anthropometric characteristics between former and current ski racers. A highly significant RAE was present in both former [χ2(3, 764) = 60.36; p < 0.001; ω = 0.31] and current youth ski racers [χ2(3, 702) = 43.13; p < 0.001; ω = 0.29] with an over-representation of athletes of Q1 (30.3–34.2%) and a clear under-representation of athletes of Q4 (14.8–15.0%). Generally, results indicated no change in the magnitude of the RAE in youth alpine ski racing over the past 10–15 years, emphasizing the robust nature of this phenomenon. No significant differences were found in any of the anthropometric characteristics between athletes of the four relative age quarters in both former and current athletes, indicating that relatively younger athletes of the last relative age quarter seem to have to have advanced anthropometric characteristics for being selected. Changes in the talent selection process should be performed to reduce the impact of the RAE.
      PubDate: 2019-11-05T00:00:00Z
  • Humans Optimize Ground Contact Time and Leg Stiffness to Minimize the
           Metabolic Cost of Running

    • Authors: Isabel S. Moore, Kelly J. Ashford, Charlotte Cross, Jack Hope, Holly S. R. Jones, Molly McCarthy-Ryan
      Abstract: Trained endurance runners appear to fine-tune running mechanics to minimize metabolic cost. Referred to as self-optimization, the support for this concept has primarily been collated from only a few gait (e.g., stride frequency, length) and physiological (e.g., oxygen consumption, heart rate) characteristics. To extend our understanding, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of manipulating ground contact time on the metabolic cost of running in trained endurance runners. Additionally, the relationships between metabolic cost, and leg stiffness and perceived effort were examined. Ten participants completed 5 × 6-min treadmill running conditions. Self-selected ground contact time and step frequency were determined during habitual running, which was followed by ground contact times being increased or decreased in four subsequent conditions whilst maintaining step frequency (2.67 ± 0.15 Hz). The same self-selected running velocity was used across all conditions for each participant (12.7 ± 1.6 km · h−1). Oxygen consumption was used to compute the metabolic cost of running and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded for each run. Ground contact time and step frequency were used to estimate leg stiffness. Identifiable minimums and a curvilinear relationship between ground contact time and metabolic cost was found for all runners (r2 = 0.84). A similar relationship was observed between leg stiffness and metabolic cost (r2 = 0.83). Most (90%) runners self-selected a ground contact time and leg stiffness that produced metabolic costs within 5% of their mathematical optimal. The majority (n = 6) of self-selected ground contact times were shorter than mathematical optimals, whilst the majority (n = 7) of self-selected leg stiffness' were higher than mathematical optimals. Metabolic cost and RPE were moderately associated (rs = 0.358 p = 0.011), but controlling for condition (habitual/manipulated) weakened this relationship (rs = 0.302, p = 0.035). Both ground contact time and leg stiffness appear to be self-optimized characteristics, as trained runners were operating at or close to their mathematical optimal. The majority of runners favored a self-selected gait that may rely on elastic energy storage and release due to shorter ground contact times and higher leg stiffness's than optimal. Using RPE as a surrogate measure of metabolic cost during manipulated running gait is not recommended.
      PubDate: 2019-11-04T00:00:00Z
  • Sports Organizations as Complex Systems: Using Cognitive Work Analysis to
           Identify the Factors Influencing Performance in an Elite Netball

    • Authors: Adam Hulme, Scott McLean, Gemma J. M. Read, Clare Dallat, Anthony Bedford, Paul M. Salmon
      Abstract: There is increasing interest in the adoption of a complex systems thinking approach when attempting to understand and optimize sports performance. Despite this, few studies have attempted to model elite sports organizations. The aim of this study was to use methods from the Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) framework to develop a model of an elite netball organization and identify wider organizational functions and constraints influencing performance. Two phases of CWA were used: (i) Work Domain Analysis (WDA); and, (ii) Social Organization and Co-operation Analysis (SOCA). A WDA model of the elite netball organization was developed via subject matter expert (SME) workshops, and a SOCA was undertaken to identify the different functions, roles, and responsibilities of key actors within the organization. The findings identify various factors that influence performance. Functions that appear to provide a competitive edge are discussed, including a strong club ethos, a shared responsibility for performance, and a focus on player and staff health and well-being. Factors that potentially have a negative impact on performance include organizational priorities not related to playing netball, and additional coach and athlete roles beyond coaching, training, and playing. The implications for understanding and optimizing elite sports organizations are discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-11-04T00:00:00Z
  • Exposing an “Intangible” Cognitive Skill Among Collegiate Football
           Players: III. Enhanced Reaction Control to Motion

    • Authors: Scott A. Wylie, Brandon A. Ally, Nelleke C. van Wouwe, Joseph S. Neimat, Wery P. M. van den Wildenberg, Theodore R. Bashore
      Abstract: Football is played in a dynamic, often unpredictable, visual environment in which players are challenged to process and respond with speed and flexibility to critical incoming stimulus events. To meet this challenge, we hypothesize that football players possess, in conjunction with their extraordinary physical skills, exceptionally proficient executive cognitive control systems that optimize response execution. It is particularly important for these systems to be proficient at coordinating directional reaction and counter-reaction decisions to the very rapid lateral movements routinely made by their opponents during a game. Despite the importance of this executive skill to successful on-field performance, it has not been studied in football players. To fill this void, we compared the performances of Division I college football players (n = 525) and their non-athlete age counterparts (n = 40) in a motion-based stimulus-response compatibility task that assessed their proficiency at executing either compatible (in the same direction) or incompatible (in the opposite direction) lateralized reactions to a target's lateral motion. We added an element of decision uncertainty and complexity by giving them either sufficient or insufficient time to preload the response decision rule (i.e., compatible vs. incompatible) prior to the target setting in motion. Overall, football players were significantly faster than non-athlete controls in their choice reactions to a target's lateral motion. The reactions of all participants slowed when issuing incompatible counter-reactions to a target's lateral motion. For football players, this cost was reduced substantially compared to controls when given insufficient time to preload the decision rule, indicating that they exerted more efficient executive control over their reactions and counter-reactions when faced with decision uncertainty at the onset of stimulus motion. We consider putative sources of their advantage in reacting to a target's lateral motion and discuss how these findings advance the hypothesis that football players utilize highly-proficient executive control systems to overcome processing conflicts during motor performance.
      PubDate: 2019-10-30T00:00:00Z
  • Mean Propulsive Velocity Is a Viable Method for Adjusting the
           Resistance-Training Load at Moderate Altitude

    • Authors: Lara Rodríguez-Zamora, Paulino Padial, Brad Jon Schoenfeld, Belén Feriche
      Abstract: We examined the viability of using mean propulsive velocity (MPV) to adjust the load in the countermovement jump (CMJ) at moderate altitude. Twenty-four volunteers were assigned to a 4-week power-oriented resistance training (RT) program in either normoxia (N, 690 m) or intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IH, 2,320 m). The load was adjusted to maintain execution velocity of CMJ at 1m·s−1 of MPV. Relative peak power output (Prel), and percentage of velocity loss throughout the sets (VL) were determined for each session. The internal load was measured by the rating of perceived exertion (RPE). The absolute load lifted was higher in IH compared to N (75.6 ± 8.4 vs. 58.5 ± 12.3 kg P < 0.001). However, similar relative increases for both groups were found when comparing the final values (IH: 8.2%, P = 0.007; N: 9.8%, P = 0.03) with no changes in VL between groups (P = 0.36). Post-study Prel improved significantly only in IH (+7% W·kg−1, P = 0.002). Mean RPE was greater in IH vs. N (6.8 ± 1.5 vs. 5.6 ± 2, P < 0.001). The MPV seems to be a viable method for adjusting external load during RT at moderate altitude. However, given that RT at moderate altitude increases RPE, it is prudent to monitor internal load when using the MPV to best determine the actual physiological stress of the session.
      PubDate: 2019-10-24T00:00:00Z
  • Gene Expression Profiles for Macrophage in Tissues in Response to
           Different Exercise Training Protocols in Senescence Mice

    • Authors: Masataka Uchida, Naoki Horii, Natsuki Hasegawa, Shumpei Fujie, Eri Oyanagi, Hiromi Yano, Motoyuki Iemitsu
      Abstract: Age-induced chronic inflammation is prevented by aerobic and resistance exercise training. However, the effects of the mechanism of exercise on chronic inflammation in each tissue remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance and aerobic training on gene expression profiles for macrophage infiltration and polarization (M1/M2 ratio) with chronic inflammation in various tissues of aged model mice. Male 38-week-old SAMP1 (senescence-accelerated prone mouse 1) mice were randomly divided into three groups—sedentary (Aged-Sed-SAMP1), aerobic training (Aged-AT-SAMP1; voluntary running), and resistance training—for 12 weeks (Aged-RT-SAMP1; climbing ladder). Resistance and aerobic exercise training prevented an increase in circulating TNF-α levels (a marker of systemic inflammation) in aged SAMP1 mice, along with decreases in tissue inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-1β) mRNA expression in the heart, liver, small intestine, brain, aorta, adipose, and skeletal muscle, but it did not change the levels in the lung, spleen, and large intestine. Moreover, resistance and aerobic exercise training attenuated increases in F4/80 mRNA expression (macrophage infiltration), the ratio of CD11c/CD163 mRNA expression (M1/M2 macrophage polarization), and MCP-1 mRNA expression (chemokine: a regulator of chronic inflammation) in the chronic inflamed tissues of aged SAMP1 mice. These results suggested that resistance and aerobic exercise training-induced changes in gene expression for macrophage infiltration and polarization in various tissues might be involved in the prevention of age-related tissue chronic inflammation, and lead to a reduction of the increase in circulating TNF-α levels, as a marker of systemic inflammation, in aged SAMP1 mice.
      PubDate: 2019-10-18T00:00:00Z
  • Beyond the Tip of the Iceberg: Using Systems Archetypes to Understand
           Common and Recurring Issues in Sports Coaching

    • Authors: Scott McLean, Gemma J. M. Read, Adam Hulme, Karl Dodd, Adam D. Gorman, Colin Solomon, Paul M. Salmon
      Abstract: Background: Systems thinking, a fundamental approach for understanding complexity, is beginning to gain traction in sports science. Systems archetypes (SAs) describe common recurring patterns of system behaviors and have been used extensively in other domains to explain the system wide influences on behavior. SAs look at the deeper levels of systemic structure by identifying what creates system behaviors, which supports the development of interventions to identify and resolve problem sources.Methods: Four commonly used SAs were used to explain the dynamics underpinning recurring issues for coaching in football: (1) Fixes that fail, (2) Shifting the burden, (3) Drifting goals, and (4) Success to the successful. The SAs models were built, refined and validated by seven subject matter experts (SMEs) including experienced football researchers, systems thinking experts, an international football coach, a skill acquisition specialist, and an experienced exercise scientist.Results: The findings show that the SAs fit well in the football coaching context, providing further evidence that a complex system thinking approach is required when considering football performance and its optimization. The developed SAs identify the factors that play a role in recurring issues in football coaching and highlight the systemic structures that contribute to the issues. The developed SAs identify the appropriate leverage points in the system where sustainable change can be made to improve coaching practice and subsequent performance of players.Discussion: A common theme emerging across the analyses was that systemic problems often arise in football when quick fixes are attempted. Whereas, improvements to system behavior usually require a delay after the implementation of the appropriate corrective action. The SAs developed in the current study also provide practical templates of common problems in football that can be used to prompt discussions around how to avoid ineffective interventions and instead make sustainable improvements across multiple aspects of football performance.
      PubDate: 2019-10-16T00:00:00Z
  • Racing Fast and Slow: Defining the Tactical Behavior That Differentiates
           Medalists in Elite Men's 1,500 m Championship Racing

    • Authors: Gareth N. Sandford, Benjamin T. Day, Simon A. Rogers
      Abstract: Background: 1,500 m running has long been a blue ribbon event of track championship racing. The eventual medalists employ common tactical behaviors such as a fast sustained pace from the start (gun-to-tape), or, slow initial laps that precede a precisely timed race kick. Before the kick, there are positional changes caused by surging, that can go uncharacterized. The inter-relationship of surge events, tactical positioning, and kick execution may have important implications for eventual medal winning outcomes and require further definition.Methods: In a randomized order, three middle-distance running experts were provided publically available video (YouTube) of 16 men's 1,500 m championship races across, European, World and Olympic championships. Each expert determined the occurrence of surges (defined as any point in the 1,500 m after the first 300 m where an athlete repositions by ≥3 places; or noticeably dictates a raise in the pace from the front) and the race kick. Following a second level verification of expert observations, tactical behaviors (quantity and distance marker within each race) mean distance from the finish were compared between fast (≤3:34.00, n = 5), medium (>3:34.00– ≤3:41.99, n = 7) and slow (≥3:42.00, n = 4) race categories.Results: Before the race kick, there were more surges in slow (5 ± 1.7, mean ±90% confidence limits) vs. fast races (1 ± 0.4, very large difference, very likely). The final surge before the race kick occurred earlier in fast (704 ± 133 m from the finish) vs. medium (427 ± 83 m, large difference, most likely), and slow races (370 ± 137 m, large difference, most likely). At initiation of the race kick in fast races, large positional differences were found between eventual gold (2 ± 1.2; likely) and silver (2.2 ± 1.6; likely) vs. bronze medalists (4.4 ± 1.2). In slow races, positional differences were unclear between eventual gold (4.3 ± 4.7), silver (4.8 ± 4.8) and bronze medalists (5.3 ± 1.5). Regardless of category, the race kick occurred on the last lap, with unclear differences between fast 244 ± 92 m medium 243 ± 56 m and slow 236 ± 142 m races.Conclusions: Presenting tactical behaviors by race categorization (slow, medium, fast race times), provides a novel understanding of the nuance of racing tactics. The present findings highlight the importance of considering within race athlete decision making across multiple-race scenarios during championship preparation.
      PubDate: 2019-10-14T00:00:00Z
  • Quantifying Collective Performance in Rugby Union

    • Authors: Guillaume Saulière, Jérôme Dedecker, Issa Moussa, Julien Schipman, Jean-François Toussaint, Adrien Sedeaud
      Abstract: Objectives: The aim of this study was to quantify collective experience based on cumulative shared selections of players and to assess its impact on team performance in international rugby union. We assume that the greater the experience, the better the group will perform.Methods: Scoresheets of all games involving at least one of all 10 nations participating at the Rugby Championship and the Six Nations Championship were collected from the end of the 1999 Rugby World Cup (RWC) up to the 2015 RWC. A single indicator quantifying the cumulative shared selections (CSS, the number of selections that each player has shared with the other ones) was computed for each match as a key collective experience indicator. The World Rugby Ranking points of each nation and the percentage of victories were used to estimate team performance. The study period was divided into sequences of 4 years corresponding to the period between two consecutive RWCs. For each sequence and nation, slopes and intercept of CSS trends were computed along with victory percentage and mean ranking points. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to establish the associations between team performance and experience.Results: In regards to the CSS trends, both intra- and inter-nation variability appears to exist. Positive and negative slopes can be observed for the same team from one 4-year cycle to the next. Still, CSS slope is found to be significantly associated with both ranking points (p value = 0.042, R2 = 0.13) and victory percentage (p value = 0.001, R2 = 0.42).Conclusion: The evolution of the CSS that quantifies the collective experience of a team is linked to its performance. Such an indicator could be helpful in the decision-making process of national coaching staff.
      PubDate: 2019-10-11T00:00:00Z
  • How to Evaluate and Improve Foot Strength in Athletes: An Update

    • Authors: Romain Tourillon, Boris Gojanovic, François Fourchet
      Abstract: The foot is a complex system with multiple degrees of freedom that play an essential role in running or sprinting. The intrinsic foot muscles (IFM) are the main local stabilizers of the foot and are part of the active and neural subsystems that constitute the foot core. These muscles lengthen eccentrically during the stance phase of running before shortening at the propulsion phase, as the arch recoils in parallel to the plantar fascia. They play a key role in supporting the medial longitudinal arch, providing flexibility, stability and shock absorption to the foot, whilst partially controlling pronation. Much of the foot rigidity in late stance has been attributed to the windlass mechanism – the dorsiflexion of the toes building tension up in the plantar aponeurosis and stiffening the foot. In addition, recent studies have shown that the IFM provide a necessary active contribution in late stance, in order to develop sufficient impedance in the metatarsal-phalangeal joints. This in turn facilitates the propulsive forces at push-off. These factors support the critical role of the foot in providing rigidity and an efficient lever at push-off. During running or sprinting, athletes need to generate and maintain the highest (linear) running velocity during a single effort in a sprinting lane. Acceleration and sprinting performance requires forces to be transmitted efficiently to the ground. It may be of particular interest to strengthen foot muscles to maintain and improve an optimal capacity to generate and absorb these forces. The current evidence supports multiple exercises to achieve higher strength in the foot, such as the “short foot exercise,” doming, toes curl, towing exercises or the more dynamic hopping exercises, or even barefoot running. Their real impact on foot muscle strength remains unclear and data related to its assessment remains scarce, despite a recognized need for this, especially before and after a strengthening intervention. It would be optimal to be able to assess it. In this article, we aim to provide the track and field community with an updated review on the current modalities available for foot strength assessment and training. We present recommendations for the incorporation of foot muscles training for performance and injury prevention in track and field.
      PubDate: 2019-10-11T00:00:00Z
  • Sport, Refugees, and Forced Migration: A Critical Review of the Literature

    • Authors: Ramón Spaaij, Jora Broerse, Sarah Oxford, Carla Luguetti, Fiona McLachlan, Brent McDonald, Bojana Klepac, Lisa Lymbery, Jeffrey Bishara, Aurélie Pankowiak
      Abstract: Researchers, policy makers, and practitioners increasingly pay attention to sport and physical activity as a means and context for refugee wellbeing and integration, influenced by wider political and policy concerns about forced migration. Considering this growing scholarly and policy attention, it is timely to take stock of, and critically reflect on, recent developments in this field of research. This paper offers an integrative, critical review of the scientific literature on the topic. It critically synthesizes what is known about the sport and physical activity experiences of people with refugee and forced migrant backgrounds, and identifies key issues and directions for future research in this field. This review of contemporary academic literature comprises 83 publications derived from fourteen languages published between 1996 and 2019. It shows a substantial increase in the volume of published research on the topic in recent years (2017–2019). Published research is concentrated primarily in Western countries around the themes of health promotion, integration and social inclusion, and barriers and facilitators to participation in sport and physical activity. The findings foreground the use of policy categories, deficit approaches, and intersectionalities as three pressing challenges in this area of research. Based on this synthesis, the authors identify four research gaps that require attention in future research: the experiential (embodied emotional) dimensions of sport and physical activity, the need to decolonize research, the space for innovative methodologies, and research ethics.
      PubDate: 2019-10-11T00:00:00Z
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