Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1473 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (86 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (676 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (117 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 117 of 117 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACSMs Health & Fitness Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACTIVE : Journal of Physical Education, Sport, Health and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ágora para la Educación Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
American Journal of Sexuality Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Applied Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Apunts. Medicina de l'Esport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Exercise in Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arquivos de Ciências do Esporte     Open Access  
Athletic Training & Sports Health Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
BMC Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Childhood Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Éthique & Santé     Full-text available via subscription  
Fat Studies : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Body Weight and Society     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Fisioterapia em Movimento     Open Access  
Fitness & Performance Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food Science and Human Wellness     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Sports and Active Living     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gelanggang Pendidikan Jasmani Indonesia     Open Access  
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geron     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Health and Physical Education Pedagogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Health Education Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Health Marketing Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Home Healthcare Now     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Human Movement     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Human Movement Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
IISE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesia Performance Journal     Open Access  
İnönü Üniversitesi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 56)
International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
International Journal of Men's Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90)
International Journal of Obesity Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Spa and Wellness     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sport, Exercise & Training Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Isokinetics and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of American College Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Human Sport and Exercise     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Motor Learning and Development     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Physical Activity and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Physical Activity and Hormones     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Education and Human Movement     Open Access  
Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Sport and Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Sport Sciences and Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Kinesiology : International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Kinesiology     Open Access  
Kinesiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Krankenhaus-Hygiene - Infektionsverhütung     Full-text available via subscription  
Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Médecine & Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription  
Mental Health and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Movimiento Humano y Salud     Open Access  
Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Obesity Research & Clinical Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Obesity Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Obesity Science & Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Obesity Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pain Management in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
PALAESTRA : Adapted Sport, Physical Education, and Recreational Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Physical Activity and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Preventing Chronic Disease     Free   (Followers: 2)
Psychology of Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Quality in Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBONE - Revista Brasileira de Obesidade, Nutrição e Emagrecimento     Open Access  
RBPFEX - Revista Brasileira de Prescrição e Fisiologia do Exercício     Open Access  
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport     Hybrid Journal  
Retos : Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deportes y Recreación     Open Access  
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Atividade Física & Saúde     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Ciências do Esporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Educação Física e Esporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista da Educação Física : UEM     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología del Ejercicio y el Deporte     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte : International Journal of Medicine and Science of Physical Activity and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue phénEPS / PHEnex Journal     Open Access  
SIPATAHOENAN : South-East Asian Journal for Youth, Sports & Health Education     Open Access  
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Sport and Fitness Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Sport Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Sport Sciences for Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport- und Präventivmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Strength & Conditioning Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Timisoara Physical Education and Rehabilitation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise     Open Access  
Yoga Mimamsa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Здоровье человека, теория и методика физической культуры и спорта     Open Access  


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Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2075-4663
Published by MDPI Homepage  [222 journals]
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 11: The Effectiveness of a Primary School Based
           Badminton Intervention on Children’s Fundamental Movement Skills

    • Authors: Duncan, Noon, Lawson, Hurst, Eyre
      First page: 11
      Abstract: This study examined the effects of the Badminton World Federation (BWF) Shuttle Time program on fundamental movement skills (FMS) in English children. A total of 124 children; 66 in key stage 1 (ages 6–7 years) and 58 in key stage 2 (10–11 years) undertook the Shuttle Time program, once weekly for six weeks (n = 63) or acted as controls (n = 61). Pre, post and ten-weeks post, both process and product FMS were determined. Children in the intervention group, aged 6–7 years, had higher total process FMS (via test of gross motor development-2) compared to the control group at post and ten-weeks post intervention (both p = 0.0001, d = 0.6 and 0.7, respectively). There were no significant differences in process FMS scores for children aged 10–11 years. Ten-meter sprint speed decreased pre to post and was maintained at ten-weeks post for the intervention groups aged 6–7 years (p = 0.0001, d = 0.6) and 10–11 years (p = 0.001, d = 0.2) compared to control. Standing long jump distance increased pre to post (p = 0.0001, d = 0.8) and was maintained at ten-weeks post (p = 0.0001, d = 0.5) for the intervention group. Medicine ball throw performance increased pre to post (p = 0.0001, d = 0.3) for the intervention group. The BWF Shuttle Time program is beneficial in developing FMS for key stage 1 children (ages 6–7).
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8020011
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 12: Effects of Creatine Supplementation on
           Lower-Limb Muscle Endurance Following an Acute Bout of Aerobic Exercise in
           Young Men

    • Authors: Vieira, de Paula, Gentil, Pichard, Candow, Pimentel
      First page: 12
      Abstract: We aimed to determine whether creatine supplementation influences lower-limb muscle endurance following an acute bout of aerobic exercise (AE) in young healthy men. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, 11 men (26.5 ± 6.2 years, body mass index 26.6 ± 2.1 kg/m2),with 12 months of experience in strength training (three times/week) and AE (two times/week) were randomized to receive creatine (20 g/day plus 20 g/day maltodextrin) and placebo (40 g/day maltodextrin) for 7 days, separated by a washout period of 14 days, before performing an acute bout of AE (30 min on treadmill at 80% baseline maximum velocity) which was followed by four sets of bilateral leg extension endurance exercise using a 10-repetition maximum protocol (10 RM)). There was a significant decrease in the number of repetitions performed in the third (Placebo: −20% vs. Creatine: −22%) and fourth set (Placebo: −22% vs. Creatine: −28%) compared with the first set (p < 0.05), with no differences between creatine and placebo. Additionally, no differences were observed between creatine and placebo for the total number of repetitions performed across all four sets (Placebo: 33.9 ± 7.0 vs. Creatine: 34.0 ± 6.9 repetitions, p = 0.97), nor for total work volume (Placebo: 3030.5 ± 1068.2 vs. Creatine: 3039.8 ± 1087.7 kg, p = 0.98). Short-term creatine supplementation has no effect on lower-limb muscle endurance following an acute bout of aerobic exercise in trained young men.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8020012
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 13: The Effect of ProHydrolase® on the Amino Acid
           and Intramuscular Anabolic Signaling Response to Resistance Exercise in
           Trained Males

    • Authors: Townsend, Morimune, Jones, Beuning, Haase, Boot, Heffington, Littlefield, Henry, Marshall, VanDusseldorp, Feito, Mangine
      First page: 13
      Abstract: This double-blind study examined effects of a protease enzyme blend (Prohydrolase®) added to whey protein on post-resistance exercise aminoacidemia and intramuscular anabolic signaling were investigated in ten resistance-trained males. Participants completed 4 sets of 8–10 repetitions in the leg press and leg extension exercises at 75% of 1-repetition maximum. Participants then consumed either 250 mg of Prohydrolase® + 26 g of whey protein (PW), 26 g whey alone (W), or non-nutritive control (CON) in counterbalanced order. Blood samples were obtained prior to exercise (baseline) and then immediately-post (IP), 30-, 60-, 90-, 120-, and 180-min post-exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken at baseline, 1-h (1H), and 3-h (3H) post-exercise. Phosphorylation of AKTSer437 was decreased (3H only: p < 0.001), mTORSer2448 was increased (1H: p = 0.025; 3H: p = 0.009), and p70S6KThr412 remained unchanged similarly for each condition. Plasma leucine, branch-chained amino acids, and essential amino acid concentrations for PW were significantly higher than CON (p < 0.05) at 30 min and similar to W. Compared to IP, PW was the only treatment with elevated plasma leucine levels at 30 min (p = 0.007; ∆ = 57.8 mmol/L, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 20.0, 95.6) and EAA levels at 180 min (p = 0.003; ∆ = 179.1 mmol/L, 95% CI: 77.5, 280.7). Area under the curve amino acid analysis revealed no differences between PW and W. While no different than W, these data indicate that PW was the only group to produce elevated amino acid concentrations 30-min and 180-min post-ingestion.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8020013
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 3: The Effects of Chest Wall Loading on Perceptions
           of Fatigue, Exercise Performance, Pulmonary Function, and Muscle Perfusion

    • Authors: Giuriato, Gundersen, Verma, Pelletier, Bakewell, Ives
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Background: Load carriage (LC), which directly affects the chest wall and locomotor muscles, has been suggested to alter the ventilatory and circulatory responses to exercise, leading to increased respiratory muscle work and fatigue. However, studies exploring the impact of LC on locomotion increased internal work, complicating their interpretation. To overcome this issue, we sought to determine the effect of chest wall loading with restriction (CWL + R) on cycling performance, cardiopulmonary responses, microvascular responsiveness, and perceptions of fatigue. Methods: In a randomized crossover design, 23 young healthy males (22 ± 4 years) completed a 5 km cycling time trial (TT) in loaded (CWL + R; tightened vest with 10% body weight) and unloaded conditions. After baseline pulmonary function testing (PFT; forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FEV1; forced vital capacity, FVC), cardiopulmonary indices (HR, heart rate; O2 uptake, VO2; ventilation, VE; tidal volume, VT; and breathing frequency, Bf), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), lactate (BLa), and microvascular responses (oxy-, deoxy-, total hemoglobin; and tissue saturation; StO2) of the vastus lateralis using near infrared spectroscopy were collected during the TT; and PFT was repeated post-exercise. Results: Pre-exercise, CWL + R reduced (p < 0.05) FVC (5.6 ± 0.8 versus 5.5 ± 0.7 L), FEV1 (4.8 ± 0.7 versus 4.7 ± 0.6 L), and FEV1/FVC (0.9 ± 0.1 versus 0.8 ± 0.1). CWL + R modified power output (PO) over time (interaction, p = 0.02), although the 5 km time (461 ± 24 versus 470 ± 27 seconds), VT (3.0 ± 0.3 versus 2.8 ± 0.8 L), Bf, VE, HR, VO2, microvascular and perceptual (visual analog scale, or VAS, and RPE) responses were unchanged (p > 0.05). CWL + R increased (p < 0.05) the average BLa (7.6 ± 2.6 versus 8.6 ± 3 mmol/L). Conclusions: Modest CWL + R negatively affects pre-exercise pulmonary function, modifies cycling power output over time, and increases lactate production during a 5 km cycling trial, although the cardiorespiratory, microvascular, and perceptual responses were unaffected.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-01-01
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8010003
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 4: Acute Low-Dose Hyperoxia during a Single Bout of
           High-Intensity Interval Exercise Does Not Affect Red Blood Cell
           Deformability and Muscle Oxygenation in Trained Men—A Randomized
           Crossover Study

    • Authors: Nils Freitag, Tim Böttrich, Pia D. Weber, Giorgio Manferdelli, Daniel A. Bizjak, Marijke Grau, Tanja C. Sanders, Wilhelm Bloch, Moritz Schumann
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Recent technological developments provide easy access to use an artificial oxygen supply (hyperoxia) during exercise training. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a commercially available oxygen compressor inducing low-dose hyperoxia, on limiting factors of endurance performance. Thirteen active men (age 24 ± 3 years) performed a high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) session (5 × 3 min at 80% of Wmax, separated by 2 min at 40% Wmax) on a cycle ergometer, both in hyperoxia (4 L∙min−1, 94% O2, HYP) or ambient conditions (21% O2, NORM) in randomized order. The primary outcome was defined as red blood cell deformability (RBC-D), while our secondary interest included changes in muscle oxygenation. RBC-D was expressed by the ratio of shear stress at half-maximal deformation (SS1/2) and maximal deformability (EImax) and muscle oxygenation of the rectus femoris muscle was assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy. No statistically significant changes occurred in SS1/2 and EImax in either condition. The ratio of SS1/2 to EImax statistically decreased in NORM (p < 0.01; Δ: −0.10; 95%CI: −0.22, 0.02) but not HYP (p > 0.05; Δ: −0.16; 95%CI: −0.23, −0.08). Muscle oxygenation remained unchanged. This study showed that low-dose hyperoxia during HIIE using a commercially available device with a flow rate of only 4 L·min−1 may not be sufficient to induce acute ergogenic effects compared to normoxic conditions.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8010004
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 5: Relative Age Effect of Sport Academy Adolescents,
           a Physiological Evaluation

    • Authors: Ek, Wollmer, Karlsson, Peterson, Thorsson, Olsson, Malmborg, Dencker
      First page: 5
      Abstract: The relationship between birth quarter distribution and physiological characteristics related to athletic skills, in adolescent sport academy students has not been fully investigated. In a cross-sectional study, we recruited 86 boys and 52 girls aged 12–14 years during their first term at a sport academy school. We measured body size, cardiac size, pulmonary function, body composition, lower body power, cardiorespiratory fitness parameters, and running endurance by standard methods and analyzed these estimates in relation to birth quarter by ANOVA. Birth quarter distribution in our cohort was compared with birth quarter distribution in the same ages in the whole of Sweden and analyzed by logistic regression. The academy had an overrepresentation of students born in the first quartile of the year compared to those born in the last quartile (odds ratio 2.3 (95% CI: 1.1–4.7)). When comparing the physiological characteristics between birth quarters, uniformity is prominent since out of 26 performed physiological and anthropometric tests only four showed statistically significant group differences. We thus believe that the selection process to the sport academy favours athletes with higher chronological age, i.e., a so-called relative age effect is present.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8010005
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 6: Assessing the Wider Implementation of the SHARP
           Principles: Increasing Physical Activity in Primary Physical Education

    • Authors: Emma Powell, Lorayne Angela Woodfield, Alexander James Powell, Alan Michael Nevill
      First page: 6
      Abstract: To assess the wider application of the SHARP (Stretching whilst moving, High repetition of skills, Accessibility, Reducing sitting and standing, and Promotion of physical activity) Principles intervention on children’s moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in physical education (PE), when applied by teachers and coaches. A quasi-experimental intervention was employed in nine primary schools (experimental, n = 6: control, n = 3) including teachers (n = 10), coaches (n = 4), and children (aged 5 to 11 years, n = 84) in the West Midlands, UK. Practitioners applied the SHARP Principles to PE lessons, guided by an innovative behaviour change model. The System for Observing Fitness and Instruction Time (SOFIT) was used to measure children’s MVPA in 111 lessons at pre- (n = 60) and post-intervention (n = 51). Seven interviews were conducted post-intervention to explore practitioners’ perceptions. Two-way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) revealed that teachers increased children’s MVPA by 27.7%. No statistically significant change in children’s MVPA was observed when taught by the coaches. The qualitative results for teachers were ‘children’s engagement’, a ‘pedagogical paradigm shift’, and ‘relatedness’; and for coaches ‘organisational culture’ and ‘insufficient support and motivation’. The SHARP Principles intervention is the most effective teaching strategy at increasing MVPA in primary PE when taught by school based staff (rather than outsourced coaches), evidencing increases almost double that of any previously published study internationally and demonstrating the capacity to influence educational policy and practice internationally.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8010006
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 7: Skeletal Muscle Myofibrillar Protein Abundance Is
           Higher in Resistance-Trained Men, and Aging in the Absence of Training May
           Have an Opposite Effect

    • Authors: Christopher G. Vann, Paul. A. Roberson, Shelby C. Osburn, Petey W. Mumford, Matthew A. Romero, Carlton D. Fox, Johnathon H. Moore, Cody Haun, Darren T. Beck, Jordan R. Moon, Andreas N. Kavazis, Kaelin C. Young, Veera L. D. Badisa, Benjamin M. Mwashote, Victor Ibeanusi, Rakesh K. Singh, Michael D. Roberts
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Resistance training generally increases skeletal muscle hypertrophy, whereas aging is associated with a loss in muscle mass. Interestingly, select studies suggest that aging, as well as resistance training, may lead to a reduction in the abundance of skeletal muscle myofibrillar (or contractile) protein (per mg tissue). Proteomic interrogations have also demonstrated that aging, as well as weeks to months of resistance training, lead to appreciable alterations in the muscle proteome. Given this evidence, the purpose of this small pilot study was to examine total myofibrillar as well as total sarcoplasmic protein concentrations (per mg wet muscle) from the vastus lateralis muscle of males who were younger and resistance-trained (denoted as YT, n = 6, 25 ± 4 years old, 10 ± 3 self-reported years of training), younger and untrained (denoted as YU, n = 6, 21 ± 1 years old), and older and untrained (denoted as OU, n = 6, 62 ± 8 years old). The relative abundances of actin and myosin heavy chain (per mg tissue) were also examined using SDS-PAGE and Coomassie staining, and shotgun proteomics was used to interrogate the abundances of individual sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins between cohorts. Whole-body fat-free mass (YT > YU = OU), VL thickness (YT > YU = OU), and leg extensor peak torque (YT > YU = OU) differed between groups (p < 0.05). Total myofibrillar protein concentrations were greater in YT versus OU (p = 0.005), but were not different between YT versus YU (p = 0.325). The abundances of actin and myosin heavy chain were greater in YT versus YU (p < 0.05) and OU (p < 0.001). Total sarcoplasmic protein concentrations were not different between groups. While proteomics indicated that marginal differences existed for individual myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins between YT versus other groups, age-related differences were more prominent for myofibrillar proteins (YT = YU > OU, p < 0.05: 7 proteins; OU > YT = YU, p < 0.05: 11 proteins) and sarcoplasmic proteins (YT = YU > OU, p < 0.05: 8 proteins; OU > YT&YU, p < 0.05: 29 proteins). In summary, our data suggest that modest (~9%) myofibrillar protein packing (on a per mg muscle basis) was evident in the YT group. This study also provides further evidence to suggest that notable skeletal muscle proteome differences exist between younger and older humans. However, given that our n-sizes are low, these results only provide a preliminary phenotyping of the reported protein and proteomic variables.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8010007
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 8: Modelling Training Adaptation in Swimming Using
           Artificial Neural Network Geometric Optimisation

    • Authors: Justin Carrard, Petr Kloucek, Boris Gojanovic
      First page: 8
      Abstract: This study aims to model training adaptation using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) geometric optimisation. Over 26 weeks, 38 swimmers recorded their training and recovery data on a web platform. Based on these data, ANN geometric optimisation was used to model and graphically separate adaptation from maladaptation (to training). Geometric Activity Performance Index (GAPI), defined as the ratio of the adaptation to the maladaptation area, was introduced. The techniques of jittering and ensemble modelling were used to reduce overfitting of the model. Correlation (Spearman rank) and independence (Blomqvist β) tests were run between GAPI and performance measures to check the relevance of the collected parameters. Thirteen out of 38 swimmers met the prerequisites for the analysis and were included in the modelling. The GAPI based on external load (distance) and internal load (session-Rating of Perceived Exertion) showed the strongest correlation with performance measures. ANN geometric optimisation seems to be a promising technique to model training adaptation and GAPI could be an interesting numerical surrogate to track during a season.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-01-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8010008
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 9: The Weather Impact on Physical Activity of 6–12
           Year Old Children: A Clustered Study of the Health Oriented Pedagogical
           Project (HOPP)

    • Authors: Iana Kharlova, Wei Hai Deng, Jostein Mamen, Asgeir Mamen, Maren Valand Fredriksen, Per Morten Fredriksen
      First page: 9
      Abstract: It is commonly known that children do not engage in a sufficient amount of physical activity. Weather conditions and day length may influence physical activity of children. Little is known about the relationship between physical activity and seasons. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between weather conditions and physical activity in 6–12 year old children based on hip-worn Actigraph wGT3X–BT accelerometer data. The study sample consisted of 2015 subjects aged 6–12 years from the Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP) study carried out in Horten municipality and Akershus county, Norway. Six days of sedentary and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity data was gathered in January–June and September–October, 2015, presented as daily averages. The accelerometer-monitored physical activity of children grouped within nine schools was matched with regional weather conditions and assessed with the means of linear mixed models. Increased day length was associated with decreased sedentary behavior. Warmer temperature and dry weather were associated with increased moderate-to-vigorous physical activity after adjusting for age and sex. One-hour increase in daylight resulted in a decrease of sedentary time by, on average, 2 min (95% CI = (−2.577, −0.798)). For every 5 °C increase in temperature (range: −0.95 and 15.51 °C) and dry weather, average moderate-to vigorous physical activity increased by 72 and 67 min (males and females, respectively) (p < 0.001). Days with precipitation had, on average, 10 fewer minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity compared with days without precipitation (95% CI = (−16.704, −3.259)). Higher temperatures and dry weather led to higher physical activity levels, seeing larger increases among boys than girls. A school-based physical activity intervention program should be adjusted regarding local weather conditions in line with the present findings.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8010009
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 10: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Sports in 2019

    • Authors: Sports Editorial Office Sports Editorial Office
      First page: 10
      Abstract: The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...]
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8010010
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 1: Positional Differences in Peak- and Accumulated-
           Training Load Relative to Match Load in Elite Football

    • Authors: Ivan Baptista, Dag Johansen, Pedro Figueiredo, António Rebelo, Svein A. Pettersen
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Quantification of training and match load is an important method to personalize the training stimulus’ prescription to players according to their match demands. The present study used time-motion analysis and triaxial-accelerometer to quantify and compare: a) The most demanding passages of play in training sessions and matches (5-min peaks); b) and the accumulated load of typical microcycles and official matches, by playing position. Players performance data in 15 official home matches and 11 in-season microcycles were collected for analysis. Players were divided into four different playing positions: Centre-backs, wing-backs, centre midfielders, and centre forwards. The results show that match demands were overperformed for acceleration counts (acccounts) (131%–166%) and deceleration counts (deccounts) (108%–134%), by all positions. However, relative to match values, training values for sprint distance (sprintdist) and high-intensity run distance (HIRdist) were considerably lower (36%–61% and 57%–71%) than for accelerations and decelerations. The most pronounced difference on the 5-min peaks was observed in sprints (sprintpeak), with wing-backs achieving during the microcycle only 64% of the sprintpeak in matches, while centre backs, centre midfielders, and centre forwards levelled and overperformed the match values (107%, 100%, and 107%, respectively). Differences observed across playing positions in matches and microcycles underline the lack of position specificity of common training drills/sessions adopted by coaches in elite football.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-12-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8010001
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 2: Profiling Collapsing Half Marathon
           Runners—Emerging Risk Factors: Results from Gothenburg Half Marathon

    • Authors: Amir Khorram-Manesh, Therese Löf, Mats Börjesson, Finn Nilson, Sofia Thorsson, Fredrik Lindberg, Eric Carlström
      First page: 2
      Abstract: Among several serious medical conditions, arrhythmia and heat stroke are two important causes of death during endurance races. Clinically, collapsing might be the first sign of these serious conditions and may mimic the more common and benign exercise-associated collapse. Several risk factors have been reported in the literature. We aimed to conduct a qualitative study to find a perceived risk profile among runners who collapsed and who were transported by ambulances to the nearest hospital during Gothenburg’s half marathon (2010–2017). Collapsing runners seem to lack the ability to make a decision to withdraw from the contest despite being exhausted. They feel the pain, but are unable to put meaning to their feeling, to adjust their pacing, and to handle other influences. Consequently, they do not overcome the problem or assess the situation. These individual mental characteristics may indicate a unique profile for collapsing runners. Pre-race health control and educational initiatives aiming at mental preparedness and information before endurance races might be a necessary step to avoid life-threatening complications.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-12-25
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8010002
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 196: The Effects of Energy Drink Consumption on
           Cognitive and Physical Performance in Elite League of Legends Players

    • Authors: Casey J. Thomas, Jeffrey Rothschild, Conrad P. Earnest, Aaron Blaisdell
      First page: 196
      Abstract: To examine the cognitive and physical changes associated with consuming an energy drink concurrent to video gaming, we examined a convenience sample of nine elite League of Legends (LoL) e-sport players (21 ± 2 y, BMI 25.6 ± 3.4 kg/m2) consuming an energy drink (ReloadTM) or placebo (Placebo) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial. Participants completed the same test battery prior to treatment consumption and after playing each of three competitive LoL games. Primary outcomes included measures of attention (Erikson Flanker Test), reaction time (Go/No-Go test) and working memory (n-back test). Secondary outcomes examined fatigue (hand grip strength and finger tap speed). Statistical analysis was performed by repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) and reported as the mean (standard deviation [SD]) or mean change (95% confidence interval [CI]). Participants reported sleeping 8.1 (1.2) h/night, playing LoL 10.3 (2.1) h/d, playing other video games 1.8 (2.8) h/d, and exercising 4.2 (1.7) times per week. Overall, we observed no significant time, group, or group-by-time interactions for any measured performance index with the exception of a significant improvement for the n-back test, where the Reload group demonstrated a significant within-group improvement: Reload [−171 ms (95% CI, −327.91, −14.09), p < 0.004], Placebo [−92 ms (95% CI, −213.63, 29.63)]. However, no between-group differences were noted (38.50 ms, 95% CI, −141.89, 64.89, p = 0.803). Our findings suggest that elite eSport athletes do not demonstrate a mental or physical improvement in performance relative to the treatment supplement or indices measured in this study.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-08-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7090196
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 197: Improving Practice and Performance in

    • Authors: Aaron T. Scanlan, Vincent J. Dalbo
      First page: 197
      Abstract: Basketball is ranked in the top three team sports for participation in the Americas, Australia, Europe, Southeast Asia, and Western Pacific nations, making it one of the most popular team sports worldwide [...]
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-08-27
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7090197
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 198: The Impact of an Ice Slurry-Induced
           Gastrointestinal Heat Sink on Gastrointestinal and Rectal Temperatures
           Following Exercise

    • Authors: Thomas A. Deshayes, Adrien De La Flore, Jonathan Gosselin, Jeff Beliveau, David Jeker, Eric D.B. Goulet
      First page: 198
      Abstract: Gastrointestinal temperature (Tgint) measurement with a telemetric pill (TP) is increasingly used in exercise science. Contact of cool water with a TP invalidates Tgint assessment. However, what effect a heat sink created in the proximity of a TP may have on the assessment of Tgint remains unknown. We examined the impact of an ice slurry-induced heat sink on Tgint and rectal temperature (Trec) following exercise. After 20 min of seating (20–22 °C, 25–40% relative humidity (RH)), 11 men completed two intersperse exercise periods (31–32 °C, 35% RH) at 75–80% of estimated maximal heart rate until a Trec increase of 1 °C above baseline level. Following the first exercise period, participants were seated for 45 min and ingested 7.5 g·kg−1 of thermoneutral water, whereas, following the second period, they ingested 7.5 g·kg−1 of ice slurry. Both Tgint and Trec were measured continuously. The TPs were swallowed 10 h prior to the experiments. A bias ≤0.27 °C was taken as an indication that Tgint and Trec provided similar core temperature indices. Mean biases and 95% limits of agreement during passive sitting, first exercise, water ingestion, second exercise, and ice slurry ingestion periods were 0.16 ± 0.53, 0.13 ± 0.41, 0.21 ± 0.70, 0.17 ± 0.50, and 0.18 ± 0.66 °C, respectively. The rates of decrease in Tgint and Trec did not differ between the water and ice slurry ingestion periods. Our results indicate that ice slurry ingestion following exercise does not impact TP-derived assessment of Tgint compared with Trec.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-08-27
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7090198
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 199: Pre-Anticipatory Anxiety and Autonomic Nervous
           System Response to Two Unique Fitness Competition Workouts

    • Authors: Gerald T. Mangine, Brian M. Kliszczewicz, Joseph B. Boone, Cassie M. Williamson-Reisdorph, Emily E. Bechke
      First page: 199
      Abstract: To evaluate the feasibility of on-site collection of subjective anxiety, autonomic nervous system activity, and salivary catecholamines surrounding high-intensity functional training (HIFT) competition, ten experienced HIFT competitors completed baseline assessments of anxiety and heart rate variability (HRV). Then, in two consecutive weeks (Workout 1 and 2) within the competition, HRV was recorded and examined in 5-min segments prior to exercise (PRE) and across a 30-min period after competitors completed their choice of the prescribed or scaled each workout. Subjective anxiety ratings and saliva samples were collected at PRE and immediately-(IP), 30-min (30P), and 60-min post-exercise (60P). Saliva samples were analyzed for concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine. Generalized linear mixed models with repeated measures revealed significant (p < 0.05) differences between workouts for all measures. Compared to Workout 1, anxiety (~50%), epinephrine (173–340%), norepinephrine (29–234%) were greater in Workout 2 and various HRV-derived indices were more depressed. Additionally, some HRV-derived indices appeared to be modulated (p < 0.05) by competitive level and sex at PRE and throughout the 30-min recovery period. These data suggest that autonomic activity may differ between the competitive and laboratory settings, and that the response may be further modulated by the workout’s design, the athlete’s sex, and competitive level.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-08-27
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7090199
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 200: The Effects of an Eight over Cricket Bowling
           Spell upon Pace Bowling Biomechanics and Performance within Different
           Delivery Lengths

    • Authors: Samuel J. Callaghan, Robert G. Lockie, Warren A. Andrews, Walter Yu, Robert F. Chipchase, Sophia Nimphius
      First page: 200
      Abstract: Pace bowlers must often perform extended bowling spells with maximal ball release speed (BRS) while targeting different delivery lengths when playing a multi-day match. This study investigated the effect of an eight over spell upon pace bowling biomechanics and performance at different delivery lengths. Nine male bowlers (age = 18.8 ± 1.7 years) completed an eight over spell, while targeting different lengths (short: 7–10 m, good: 4–7 m, full: 0–4 m from the batter’s stumps, respectively) in a randomized order. Trunk, knee and shoulder kinematics and ground reaction forces at front foot contact (FFC), as well as run-up velocity and BRS were measured. Paired sample t-tests (p ≤ 0.01), Hedges’ g effect sizes, and statistical parametrical mapping were used to assess differences between mean variables from the first and last three overs. No significant differences (p = 0.05–0.98) were found in any discrete or continuous variables, with the magnitude of difference being trivial-to-medium (g = 0.00–0.73) across all variables. Results suggest pace bowlers sustain BRS through a single eight over spell while tolerating the repeatedly high whole-body biomechanical loads as suggested by maintaining the kinematics or technique at the assessed joints during FFC. Practically, the findings are advantageous for bowling performance and support current bowling load monitoring practices.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-08-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7090200
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 201: Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diets in Male
           Endurance Athletes Demonstrate Different Micronutrient Contents and
           Changes in Corpuscular Haemoglobin over 12 Weeks

    • Authors: Fionn T. McSwiney, Lorna Doyle
      First page: 201
      Abstract: High-carbohydrate (HC) diets and low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (LCKD) are consumed by athletes for body composition and performance benefits. Little research has examined nutrient density of self-selected HC or LCKDs and consequent effect on blood haematology in an athlete population. Using a non-randomised control intervention trial, nutrient density over 3 days, total blood count and serum ferritin, within endurance athletes following a self-selected HC (n = 11) or LCKD (n = 9) over 12 weeks, was examined. At week 12, HC diet participants had greater intakes of carbohydrate, fibre, sugar, sodium, chloride, magnesium, iron, copper, manganese and thiamine, with higher glycaemic load (GL), compared to LCKD participants (P < 0.05). LCKD participants had greater intakes of saturated fat, protein, a higher omega 3:6 ratio, selenium, vitamins A, D, E, K1, B12, B2, pantothenic acid and biotin. Mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) decreased in LCKD participants after 12 weeks but remained unchanged in HC participants, with no change in serum ferritin in either group. This analysis cannot examine nutrient deficiency, but athletes should be made aware of the importance of changes in dietary type on micronutrient intakes and blood haematology, especially where performance is to be considered.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-08-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7090201
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 202: Stride and Step Length Obtained with Inertial
           Measurement Units during Maximal Sprint Acceleration

    • Authors: Cornelis J. de Ruiter, Jaap H. van Dieën
      First page: 202
      Abstract: During sprint acceleration, step length, step rate, ground contact, and airtime are key variables for coaches to guide the training process and technical development of their athletes. In the field, three of these variables are easily obtained with inertial measurement units (IMUs), but, unfortunately, valid estimates of step length with IMUs currently are limited to low speeds (<50% max). A simple method is proposed here to derive step length during maximal sprint acceleration, using IMUs on both feet and two timing gates only. Mono-exponential velocity-time functions are fitted to the 30-m (split) and 60-m times, which in combination with IMU-derived step durations yield estimates of step length. To validate this approach, sixteen well-trained athletes with IMUs on the insteps of both feet executed two 60-m maximal sprints, starting from a three-point position. As a reference, step lengths were determined from video data. The reference step lengths combined with IMU-derived step durations yielded a time series of step velocity that confirmed the appropriateness of a mono-exponential increase of step velocity (R2 ≥ 0.96). The comparison of estimated step lengths to reference measurements showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) and acceptable agreement (root mean square error, RMSE = 8.0 cm, bias ± Limits of Agreement = −0.15 ± 16 cm). Step length estimations further improved (RMSE = 5.7 cm, −0.16 ± 11 cm) after smoothing the original estimated step lengths with a third order polynomial function (R2 = 0.94 ± 0.04). In conclusion, during maximal sprint acceleration, acceptable estimates of stride and step length were obtained from IMU-derived step times and 30-m (split) and 60-m sprint times.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7090202
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 203: Multiple Fitness Improvements Found after
           6-Months of High Intensity Functional Training

    • Authors: Sarah J. Cosgrove, Derek A. Crawford, Katie M. Heinrich
      First page: 203
      Abstract: While short-term high intensity functional training (HIFT) effects have been established, fitness improvements from program participation exceeding 16 weeks are unknown. This study examined the effectiveness of participation in HIFT through CrossFit. During 2013–2014, fitness performance testing was incorporated into an ongoing university CrossFit program. Participants included 45 adults (23 women, 22 men) with 0–27 months of HIFT experience (grouped into 0–6 months and 7+ months). Participants completed three separate days of assessments across 10 fitness domains before and after participating in the program for six months. For each sex, 2 (Time) × 2 (Group) RANOVA were used for each fitness test. For women, significant Time effects were found for four fitness domains (i.e., flexibility, power, muscular endurance, and strength), and a Group × Time interaction for cardiorespiratory endurance, with the 0–6-month group improving more. For men, significant Time effects were found for flexibility, muscular endurance, and strength. These data provide evidence for multiple fitness improvements after six months of CrossFit participation with greater 1.5 mile run time improvement among women with less experience.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-09-02
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7090203
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 204: The Effects of Varying Glenohumeral Joint Angle
           on Acute Volume Load, Muscle Activation, Swelling, and Echo-Intensity on
           the Biceps Brachii in Resistance-Trained Individuals

    • Authors: Christopher Barakat, Renato Barroso, Michael Alvarez, Jacob Rauch, Nicholas Miller, Anton Bou-Sliman, Eduardo O. De Souza
      First page: 204
      Abstract: There is a paucity of data on how manipulating joint angles during isolation exercises may impact overall session muscle activation and volume load in resistance-trained individuals. We investigated the acute effects of varying glenohumeral joint angle on the biceps brachii with a crossover repeated measure design with three different biceps curls. One session served as the positive control (CON), which subjects performed 9 sets of bicep curls with their shoulder in a neutral position. The experimental condition (VAR), varied the glenohumeral joint angle by performing 3 sets in shoulder extension (30°), 3 sets neutral (0°), and 3 sets in flexion (90°). Volume load and muscle activation (EMG) were recorded during the training sessions. Muscle swelling and strain were assessed via muscle thickness and echo-intensity responses at pre, post, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. There were no significant differences between conditions for most dependent variables. However, the overall session EMG amplitude was significantly higher (p = 0.0001) in VAR compared to CON condition (95%-CI: 8.4% to 23.3%). Our findings suggest that varying joint angles during resistance training (RT) may enhance total muscle activation without negatively affecting volume load within a training session in resistance-trained individuals.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-09-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7090204
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 205: The Effects of Six-Weeks Change of Direction
           Speed and Technique Modification Training on Cutting Performance and
           Movement Quality in Male Youth Soccer Players

    • Authors: Thomas Dos’Santos, Alistair McBurnie, Paul Comfort, Paul A. Jones
      First page: 205
      Abstract: Cutting manoeuvres are important actions associated with soccer performance and a key action associated with non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury; thus, training interventions that can improve cutting performance and movement quality are of great interest. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the effects of a six-week change of dire[ction (COD) speed and technique modification training intervention on cutting performance and movement quality in male youth soccer players (U17s, n = 8) in comparison to a control group (CG) (U18s, n = 11) who continued ‘normal’ training. Cutting performance was assessed based on completion time and COD deficit, and the field-based cutting movement assessment score (CMAS) qualitative screening tool was used to assess cutting movement quality. Significant main effects for time (pre-to-post changes) (p ≤ 0.041, η2 = 0.224–0.839) and significant interaction effects of time and group were observed for cutting completion times, COD deficits, and CMASs. Improvements in completion time (p < 0.001, g = 1.63–1.90, −9% to −11% vs. −5% to 6%) and COD deficit (p ≤ 0.012, g = −1.63 to −2.43, −40–52% vs. −22% to −28%) for the COD intervention group (IG) were approximately two-times greater than the CG. Furthermore, lower CMASs (i.e., improved cutting movement quality) were only observed in the IG (p ≤ 0.025, g = −0.85 to −1.46, −23% to −34% vs. 6–19%) compared to the CG. The positive changes in CMASs were attributed to improved cutting technique and reduced incidences of high-risk deficits such as lateral trunk flexion, extended knee postures, knee valgus, hip internal rotation, and improved braking strategies. The results of this study indicate that COD speed and technique modification training, in addition to normal skills and strength training, improves cutting performance and movement quality in male youth soccer players. Practitioners working with male youth soccer players should implement COD speed and technique modification training to improve cutting performance and movement quality, which may decrease potential injury-risk.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-09-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7090205
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 206: Prevalence, Magnitude and Methods of Rapid
           Weight Loss Reported by Male Mixed Martial Arts Athletes in Ireland

    • Authors: John Connor, Brendan Egan
      First page: 206
      Abstract: Rapid weight loss (RWL) is frequently practiced in weight category sports, including Mixed Martial Arts (MMA). The aim of the present study was to describe self-reported methods of RWL in a sample of competitive MMA athletes comprising of both amateur and professional fighters. The previously-validated Rapid Weight Loss Questionnaire, with the addition of questions on water loading and hot salt baths, was completed anonymously online by athletes (n = 30; all male, n = 15/15 professional/amateur) from MMA clubs around Dublin, Ireland. All but one (97%) of the athletes surveyed lost weight in order to compete, with the average weight loss being 7.9% ± 3.1% of habitual body mass. The RWL score (mean ± SD) for this sample was 37.9 ± 9.6, and a tendency for higher [6.0 (95%CI; −1.1, 13.1) (p = 0.093; d = 0.64)] RWL scores for professional (40.8 ± 8.9) compared to amateur (34.8 ± 9.6) athletes was observed. Frequencies of “always” or “sometimes” were reported as 90% for water loading, 76% for hot salt baths and 55% for 24 h of fasting. Fellow fighters (41%) and coaches/mentors (38%) were “very influential” on RWL practices of these athletes, with doctors (67%), dietitians (41%), and physical trainers (37%) said to be “not influential”. RWL is highly prevalent in MMA across both amateur and professional athletes, and RWL scores are higher than other combat sports. Water loading and hot salt baths are amongst the most commonly used methods of RWL despite little research on these methods for body mass reduction or effects on performance in weight category sports.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-09-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7090206
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 207: Validity and Reliability of Kinematics Measured
           with PUSH Band vs. Linear Encoder in Bench Press and Push-Ups

    • Authors: Roland van den Tillaar, Nick Ball
      First page: 207
      Abstract: Background: The aim of this study was to compare the validity and reliability of a PUSH band device with a linear encoder to measure movement velocity with different loads during the push-up and bench press exercises. Methods: Twenty resistance-trained athletes performed push-up and bench press exercises with four different loads: without weight vest, 10-20-30 kg weight vest, bench press: 50–82% of their assumed 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) in steps of 10 kg. A linear encoder (Musclelab) and the PUSH band measured mean and peak velocity during both exercises. Several statistical analyses were used to investigate the validity and reliability of the PUSH band with the linear encoder. Results: The main findings of this study demonstrated only moderate associations between the PUSH band and linear encoder for mean velocity (r = 0.62, 0.70) and peak velocity (r = 0.46, 0.49) for both exercises. Furthermore, a good level of agreement (peak velocity: ICC = 0.60, 0.64; mean velocity: ICC = 0.77, 0.78) was observed between the two measurement devices. However, a significant bias was found with lower velocity values measured with the PUSH band in both exercises. In the push-up, both the linear encoder and PUSH band were deemed very reliable (ICC > 0.98; the coefficient of variation (CV): 5.9–7.3%). Bench press reliability decreased for the PUSH band (ICC < 0.95), and the coefficient of variance increased to (12.8–13.3%) for the velocity measures. Calculated 1 RM with the two devices was the same for the push-up, while in bench press the PUSH band under-estimated the 1 RM by 14 kg compared to the linear encoder. Conclusions: It was concluded that the PUSH band will show decreased reliability from velocity measures in a bench press exercise and underestimate load-velocity based 1 RM predictions. For training, the PUSH band can be used during push-ups, however caution is suggested when using the device for the purposes of feedback in bench press at increasing loads.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-09-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7090207
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 208: Motivation Regulation among Black Women

    • Authors: Candace S. Brown
      First page: 208
      Abstract: There is a paucity of information on motivation among U.S. minority triathletes. This study aimed to understand the extrinsic motivation and regulators of Black women triathletes using a modified version of the valid Motivations of Marathoners Scale and semi-structured interviews, for triathletes. The Self Determination Theory guided the dual method assessment of the extrinsic motivators and the regulators external, introjection, and integrated. Using MANOVA, data from (N = 121) triathletes were compared across participant categories of age, body mass index, and distance. Results showed a significant age difference with younger women displaying more motivation. Descriptive means indicated integration as the greatest regulator of motivation. The statements ‘to compete with myself’ and ‘to be more fit,’ had the highest means among the women. A sub-sample of 12 interviews were conducted revealing 16 extrinsic themes. Six were related to the regulator integration and two unexpectantly related to the regulator, identified. Integrated themes, including coping mechanisms, finishing course, improvement, accomplishment, and physical awareness were most represented. This research fills gaps of understanding extrinsic motivation and the regulators of a group not previously explored. Future research on motivation among triathletes may benefit knowing how motivations are regulated, as to promote personalized training and participation.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-09-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7090208
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 209: Kinematic and Kinetic Analyses of the Vertical
           Jump with and without Header as Performed by Para-Footballers with
           Cerebral Palsy

    • Authors: Raúl Reina, José Elvira, Manuel Valverde, Alba Roldán, Javier Yanci
      First page: 209
      Abstract: Vertical jump is a relevant variable in the classification of football for individuals with cerebral palsy. In this regard, the literature is limited. There are no studies assessing vertical jumping ability through kinematic methods and in more specific football game situations, such as jumps with a header. The goals of the present study were to assess how the modification of jumping conditions (without and with a header) might affect the kinematic and kinetic parameters of counter movement jumping, and whether the functional profiles of the players constrain their ability to jump vertically, both with and without a header. Thirteen male football players with cerebral palsy (27.7 ± 5.7 years old) and different functional profiles participated in this study. All the players performed ten counter movement jumps with arms swing, five headed a ball and five did not. The kinematic parameters were recorded with a 3D motion analysis system, and the kinetic parameters using a force platform. Significantly smaller angles of the hips (dg = 0.75–0.79; p < 0.01) and knees (dg = 1.04–1.15; p < 0.05), as well as greater ankle extension (dg = −0.71; p < 0.05), were observed during the eccentric phase of the jumps with a header. There were also asymmetries between legs in ankle extension during jumps with a header (dg = −1.06; p < 0.05), which could be an adjustment element for the precision of the jumps (i.e., header action). It should be mentioned that the jumping pattern could be partially affected by the functional profile of football players with cerebral palsy.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-09-12
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7090209
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 210: Running Propensities of Athletes with Hamstring

    • Authors: Dai Sugimoto, Brian D. Kelly, David L. Mandel, Duncan A. d’Hemecourt, Sara C. Carpenito, Charles A. d’Hemecourt, Pierre A. d’Hemecourt
      First page: 210
      Abstract: The current study aims to compare the mechanical propensities between healthy runners and runners with hamstring injuries. Retrospective case-control video analysis was used. A total of 35 (12 male and 23 female) videos of runners with hamstring injuries were compared with videos of sex-, age-, mass-, and height-matched healthy control runners. The main outcome variables were trunk posture angles, overstride angles, and foot strike patterns. An independent t-test and chi-squared tests were employed to analyze the main outcome variables between the runners with hamstring injuries and the healthy control runners. The statistical significance of less than 0.05 (p < 0.05) was used. The runners with hamstring injuries had a 1.6° less forward-trunk posture angles compared with the healthy control runners (p = 0.043). Also, the runners with hamstring injuries demonstrated a 4.9° greater overstride angles compared with the healthy control runners (p = 0.001). Finally, the runners with hamstring injuries had a tendency of rearfoot strike, while the healthy control runners showed a forefoot strike pattern (p = 0.004). In conclusion, the runners with hamstring injuries demonstrated different running mechanical propensities compared with the healthy runners.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-09-12
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7090210
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 211: Individual Adaptation in Cross-Country Skiing
           Based on Tracking during Training Conditions

    • Authors: Stefan Adrian Martin, Roxana Maria Hadmaș
      First page: 211
      Abstract: Research on heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and blood pressure (BP) during specific training stages is less common in endurance athletes, whereas resting BP and HR are less studied in relationship to HRmax. In the current study, the objective was to conduct a medium-term HR, BP and MAP analysis while tracking individual training outcomes. The study was conducted during the 2017–2018 season, over 43 days and 1033 km of training volume, on 12 competitive male cross-country ski athletes. One VO2max test was performed 10 days before the start of the training program. After the test, training volume and intensity was preset for each subject, according to the general training methodology. Early morning HR, MAP and BP measurements were taken as part of the basic functional analysis. Training volume was correlated to both distance (p = 0.01, r = 0.85, CI95% = 0.80 to 0.88) and training HR%, namely the percentage of HRmax (p = 0.01, r = −0.47, CI95% = −0.58 to −0.34). Both the supine (sHR) and orthostatic HR (oHR) values were significantly correlated with the training intensity. We obtained a significant correlation between sHR and oHR values and the training objective (p = 0.01). An increased oHR was correlated to high intensity training activity (HIT) during the second training session (p = 0.01). Heart rate and blood pressure measurements represent predictive functional adaptation parameters over different training phases. We highlight a link between sHR, oHR, MAP data, and the athletes’ ability to perform in lower effort zones during physical exertion. However, we failed to validate MAP as a cardiovascular stress indicator following high intensity training.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-09-12
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7090211
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 212: Identifying Unique Contributions of the
           Coach–Athlete Working Alliance, Psychological Resilience and Perceived
           Stress on Athlete Burnout among Norwegian Junior Athletes

    • Authors: Emilie F. W. Raanes, Maria Hrozanova, Frode Moen
      First page: 212
      Abstract: The main purpose of the current study was to examine how the coach-athlete working alliance, psychological resilience and perceived stress are uniquely associated with burnout among junior athletes in sport. A sample of 670 Norwegian junior athletes practicing a variety of sports participated in the study. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that the bond dimension of the working alliance, the protective factors ‘planned future’ and ‘structured style’, as well as perceived stress, all contributed uniquely to the explanation of athlete burnout. A dominance analysis identified perceived stress to have the strongest relative influence on athlete burnout among the set of variables investigated in this study. The findings are discussed in terms of applied implications and possible future research.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7090212
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 213: Effects of Protective American Football
           Headgear on Peripheral Vision Reaction Time and Visual Target Detection in
           Division I NCAA Football Players

    • Authors: Rachel A. Miller, Rebecca R. Rogers, Tyler D. Williams, Mallory R. Marshall, Justin R. Moody, Robert W. Hensarling, Christopher G. Ballmann
      First page: 213
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of protective football headgear on peripheral vision reaction time and visual target detection. Twenty-five Division I NCAA football players (age = 20.5 yrs ± 0.9, height = 185.9 cm ± 6.8, body mass = 99.2 kg ± 19.2, BMI = 29.6 ± 4.5) participated. In a crossover counterbalanced study design, subjects participated in one visit with three conditions: Baseline (BL) without headgear, helmet only (HO), helmet with an eye shield (HE). Subjects completed a 1-min peripheral vision reaction time test for each condition separated by 3-min recovery periods. Tests were administered using a 64 light Dynavision D2 Visuomotor board. Target detection (total hit score) was higher during BL than HO (p < 0.001) and HE (p < 0.001). Average (p < 0.001), peak (p < 0.001), minimum (p < 0.001), and median (p < 0.001) peripheral reaction times were faster during BL than HO and HE. No significant differences were observed for any measures between HO and HE conditions (p > 0.05). Findings indicate that protective football headgear impaired reaction time to peripheral visual stimuli. The addition of an eye shield to the helmet had a small non-significant effect on reaction time and target detection. These results may hold important implications in helmet design and player safety.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-09-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7090213
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 180: Effect of a Home-based Exercise Program on
           Shoulder Pain and Range of Motion in Elite Wheelchair Basketball Players:
           A Non-Randomized Controlled Trial

    • Authors: Saleky García-Gómez, Javier Pérez-Tejero, Marco Hoozemans, Rubén Barakat
      First page: 180
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a 10 week shoulder home based exercise program (SHEP) on shoulder pain (SP) and range of motion (ROM) in a group of elite wheelchair basketball (WB) players. A convenience sample of elite WB players (n = 36, 15 males and 21 females), mean age of 26 years (SD 7.6, range 15–45)) were assigned to either an exercise or a control group, according to the use of the wheelchair during daily activities. The shoulder pain index for wheelchair basketball players (SPI-WB), functional tests and ROM were measured at baseline and after a 10 week intervention. In the analysis of the SPI-WB scores, for the exercise and control groups separately, there were no significant reductions of SPI-WB scores after intervention. Related to the analysis between groups after 10 weeks of intervention, there were no significant differences in changes between the exercise and control groups (Z = 0.840, p > 0.05, r = 0.743). In this regard, there was a significant change after the intervention for shoulder extension ROM (Z = 2.81, p ≤ 0.05, r = 0.249). Shoulder Pain did not increase along the 10 weeks of the SHEP development in WB players who reported SP before the intervention program. However, in those players who started the intervention without SP, as no increase in SP was observed and players were free of injury. An exercise program could be a tool to maintain shoulder health and prevent injuries in elite WB players.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-07-24
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7080180
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 181: Perfectionism, Body Satisfaction and Dieting in
           Athletes: The Role of Gender and Sport Type

    • Authors: Katarina Prnjak, Ivan Jukic, James J. Tufano
      First page: 181
      Abstract: Athletes are often at a greater risk for disordered eating development due to their perfectionistic tendencies, as well as physical performance- and appearance-related demands of various sports in which they compete. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the possibility of independent contributions of perfectionism and body satisfaction on dieting behaviour among male and female athletes. Two-hundred-eighty (192 male; 88 female) athletes provided their answers on the Eating Attitudes Test 26 (EAT-26), Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale (PANPS) and modified Body Image Satisfaction Scale from Body Image and Body Change Inventory. No gender or sport type differences were observed in dieting behaviour and body satisfaction was the only significant predictor of dieting for female athletes. Mediation analysis demonstrated that body satisfaction is a mediator between both adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism and dieting. These findings emphasize the important role that body satisfaction has in disordered eating development in female athletes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-07-24
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7080181
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 182: Outdoor Therapy: An Interpretative
           Phenomenological Analysis Examining the Lived-Experience, Embodied, and
           Therapeutic Process through Interpersonal Process Recall

    • Authors: Heidi Schwenk
      First page: 182
      Abstract: This research explores an innovative methodology for understanding the process and practice of UK-based outdoor therapists. Recent studies address the need to expand circles of knowledge, and capture the lived-experience of outdoor practitioners to examine the ‘altered’ therapeutic process and frame. Interpersonal process recall (IPR) methodology offers a nuanced and contextualised lived-experience of outdoor therapists. IPR includes three phases: (1) initial-interview; (2) post-session-reflective-recording; and (3) an IPR-interview to replay and explore the participants’ recorded reflections of the outdoor therapy session. The sample included three UK-based outdoor therapists. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to qualitatively analyze the data. The study presents the theme of ‘transitional landscapes—transitional thinking’, which explores the embodied experience, the parallel process between the client and therapist, and watching for drift. The findings provide insight for training and supervision and generates constructive dialogue amongst outdoor therapists. The research supports IPR as a methodology offering participant and researcher experiential and reflective positions. Parallels are drawn in relation to existing research, literature, and contemporary professional issues surrounding outdoor therapy as a mental health treatment.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7080182
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 183: Effect of Jump Direction on Joint Kinetics of
           Take-Off Legs in Double-Leg Rebound Jumps

    • Authors: Yasushi Kariyama
      First page: 183
      Abstract: Vertical (VDJ) and horizontal (HDJ) double-leg rebound jumps are used as plyometric exercises in direction-specific training regimens for various sports. We investigated the effects of jump direction on joint kinetics of the take-off legs in double-leg rebound jumps. Twelve Japanese male track and field athletes performed VDJ, 100% HDJ, 50% HDJ (50% of 100% HDJ distance), and 75% HDJ (75% of 100% HDJ distance). Kinematic and kinetic data in the sagittal plane were calculated using a force platform and high-speed video camera. Hip negative power during the eccentric phase decreased from VDJ to 50% HDJ (VDJ, −4.40 ± 4.25 W/kg; 50% HDJ, −0.83 ± 2.10; 75% HDJ, −0.33 ± 0.83; 100% HDJ, 0 ± 0), while hip positive power increased from VDJ to 100% HDJ (VDJ, 4.19 ± 2.73 W/kg; 50% HDJ, 9.37 ± 2.89; 75% HDJ, 11.15 ± 3.91; 100% HDJ, 18.51 ± 9.83). Knee negative power increased from VDJ to 75% HDJ (VDJ, −14.48 ± 7.67 W/kg; 50% HDJ, −18.98 ± 7.13; 75% HDJ, −21.57 ± 8.54; 100% HDJ, −23.34 ± 12.13), while knee positive power decreased from VDJ to 75% HDJ (VDJ, 23.18 ± 9.01 W/kg; 50% HDJ, 18.83 ± 5.49; 75% HDJ, 18.10 ± 5.77; 100% HDJ, 16.27 ± 6.22). Ankle joint kinetics remained unchanged. Differences in hip and knee joint kinetics between VDJ and HDJ were associated with direction control, becoming more pronounced as jump distance increased.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-07-26
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7080183
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 184: Using A Soft Conformable Foot Sensor to Measure
           Changes in Foot Strike Angle During Running

    • Authors: Herman van Werkhoven, Kathryn A. Farina, Mark H. Langley
      First page: 184
      Abstract: The potential association between running foot strike analysis and performance and injury metrics has created the need for reliable methods to quantify foot strike pattern outside the laboratory. Small, wireless inertial measurement units (IMUs) allow for unrestricted movement of the participants. Current IMU methods to measure foot strike pattern places small, rigid accelerometers and/or gyroscopes on the heel cap or on the instep of the shoe. The purpose of this study was to validate a thin, conformable IMU sensor placed directly on the dorsal foot surface to determine foot strike angles and pattern. Participants (n = 12) ran on a treadmill with different foot strike patterns while videography and sensor data were captured. Sensor measures were compared against traditional 2D video analysis techniques and the results showed that the sensor was able to accurately (92.2% success) distinguish between rearfoot and non-rearfoot foot strikes using an angular velocity cut-off value of 0°/s. There was also a strong and significant correlation between sensor determined foot strike angle and foot strike angle determined from videography analysis (r = 0.868, p < 0.001), although linear regression analysis showed that the sensor underestimated the foot strike angle. Conformable sensors with the ability to attach directly to the human skin could improve the tracking of human dynamics and should be further explored.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7080184
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 185: Effects of Listening to Preferred versus
           Non-Preferred Music on Repeated Wingate Anaerobic Test Performance

    • Authors: Christopher G. Ballmann, Daniel J. Maynard, Zachary N. Lafoon, Mallory R. Marshall, Tyler D. Williams, Rebecca R. Rogers
      First page: 185
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of listening to preferred or non-preferred music on repeated sprint performance. Fourteen physically active males (ages 18–25 years) were recruited for this study. In a counterbalanced crossover study design, participants completed two separate visits. During each visit, participants listened to either preferred or non-preferred music and completed 3 × 15 s Wingate Anaerobic Tests (WAnTs) separated by 2 min active recovery periods. Each visit was separated by a minimal recovery period of 48 h. Anaerobic performance measures, heart rate, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and motivation were analyzed. Mean power (p = 0.846, effect size (ES) = 0.019), anaerobic capacity (p = 0.686, ES = 0.058), and total work (p = 0.677, ES = 0.039) were not significantly different between preferred and non-preferred music conditions. Mean heart rate (p = 0.608; ES = 0.125) was also unchanged. Motivation to exercise (p < 0.001; ES = 1.520) was significantly higher in the preferred music condition. Additionally, the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) (p = 0.028; ES = 0.540) was significantly lower during the preferred music condition. Our results show that listening to preferred music showed no ergogenic benefit during repeated anaerobic cycling sprints when compared to non-preferred music. However, preferred music increased motivation to exercise and decreased perceived exertion. The results from this study could hold important implications for the application of music and enduring repeated high-intensity sprint exercise.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7080185
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 186: The Effectiveness of Progressive and
           Traditional Coaching Strategies to Improve Sprint and Jump Performance
           Across Varying Levels of Maturation within a General Youth Population

    • Authors: Regan Standing, Peter Maulder
      First page: 186
      Abstract: Literature pertaining to youth development has identified the importance of understanding the physical, intellectual and emotional needs of adolescents prior to, during, and after their peak height velocity (PHV) period. The purpose of this study was to compare the use of a ‘traditional’ and ‘progressive’ coaching style to train a general male youth population to improve sprint and jump performances whilst assessing enjoyment to comment on long-term application. Maximal sprint times, sprint kinematics, unilateral jump distances and repetitive tuck jump scores were measured alongside anthropometric variables to characterise performance. The results revealed significant (p < 0.05) pre/post differences in anthropometric variables across all maturation groups, and each of the maturational levels displayed a tendency to favor a particular coaching or control condition. Pre-PHV groups responded most effectively to the progressive style of coaching, displaying improvements in horizontal jump performances, and −0.7% to −2.7% improvements in all sprint times, despite also showing the largest increase in tuck jump scores (25.8%). The circa-PHV group produced their greatest improvements in the traditional intervention, as displayed through significant improvements (p < 0.05) in 20-m sprint times and dominant-leg horizontal jump performance, whilst also revealing the greatest deterioration in tuck jump scores (14.2%). Post-PHV displayed the greatest improvements in the control setting, suggesting that the natural benefits gained through adolescent development were greater than the influence of the training interventions. In conclusion, the results suggest that matching coaching strategies and delivery techniques to the period of biological maturation may have implications for both performance and athlete safety.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7080186
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 187: Acute Metabolic Changes with Thigh-Positioned
           Wearable Resistances during Submaximal Running in Endurance-Trained

    • Authors: Allister P. Field, Nicholas Gill, Paul Macadam, Dan Plews
      First page: 187
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the acute metabolic effects of different magnitudes of wearable resistance (WR) attached to the thigh during submaximal running. Twenty endurance-trained runners (40.8 ± 8.2 years, 1.77 ± 0.7 m, 75.4 ± 9.2 kg) completed six submaximal eight-minute running trials unloaded and with WRs of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% body mass (BM), in a random order. The use of a WR resulted in a 1.6 ± 0.6% increase in oxygen consumption (VO2) for every 1% BM of additional load. Inferential based analysis found that the loading of ≥3% BM was needed to elicit any substantial responses in VO2, with an increase that was likely to be moderate in scale (effect size (ES) ± 90% confidential interval (CI): 0.24 ± 0.07). Using heart rate data, a training load score was extrapolated to quantify the amount of internal stress. For every 1% BM of WR, there is an extra 0.17 ± 0.06 estimated increase in training load. A WR ≥3% of BM was needed to elicit substantial responses in lactate production, with an increase which was very likely to be large in scale (ES ± 90% CI: 0.41 ± 0.18). A thigh-positioned WR provides a running-specific overload with loads ≥3% BM, resulting in substantial changes in metabolic responses.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7080187
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 188: Effects of Pre-Exercise High and Low Glycaemic
           Meal on Intermittent Sprint and Endurance Exercise Performance

    • Authors: Man Tong Chua, Govindasamy Balasekaran, Mohammed Ihsan, Abdul Rashid Aziz
      First page: 188
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of ingesting either a high glycaemic index (HGI) or low glycaemic index (LGI) carbohydrate meal (preceding a 12 h overnight fast and where the meal was ingested 45-min prior to activity) on intermittent sprint and endurance exercise performance. Ten male varsity athletes from intermittent sports (age 23.6 ± 1.7 years, VO2max 51.9 ± 4.7 mL·kg−1·min−1) underwent a peak velocity (Vpeak) test and familiarisation session, followed by two experimental sessions in random order. Experimental sessions involved the ingestion of either an HGI or LGI meal, followed by the completion of the modified Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (mLIST). There was no significant difference between HGI or LGI meals on sprint times (p = 0.62) and distance to exhaustion (p = 0.54) in the mLIST. Exercise heart rate, blood lactate and ratings of perceived exertion were also similar between the two meal trials throughout the mLIST (all p > 0.05). Subjective ratings of hunger, fullness, satiety and satisfaction were also not significantly different between the two meals. In conclusion, consuming either an HGI or LGI meal after a prolonged 12 h fast and ingesting the meal 45 min prior to exercise did not differ in either physiological, subjective and intermittent sprint and endurance performance outcomes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7080188
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 189: Effects of Linear Versus Changes of Direction
           Repeated Sprints on Intermittent High Intensity Running Performance in
           High-level Junior Football Players over an Entire Season: A Randomized

    • Authors: Edvard H Sagelv, Ivar Selnæs, Sigurd Pedersen, Svein Arne Pettersen, Morten B Randers, Boye Welde
      First page: 189
      Abstract: Background: Changes of direction (COD) repeated sprints (RSs) might have greater relevance to football than linear RSs. We aimed to compare the effects of linear and COD RSs on intermittent high intensity running (HIR) over an entire season. Methods: In total, 19 high-level male football players (16–19 years) randomly performed linear RSs or COD RSs twice a week during their competitive season over 22 weeks. Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2), and 10- and 20-m sprint was assessed pre-, mid- (11 weeks), and post-intervention (22 weeks). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was assessed pre- and post-intervention. Results: There was no interaction effect (time x group) in Yo-Yo IR2 (p = 0.36, pη2 = 0.06) or sprint tests (10 m: p = 0.55, pη2 = 0.04, 20 m: p = 0.28 pη2 = 0.08), and no change differences between groups. There was a main effect of time for Yo-Yo IR2 (p = 0.002, pη2 = 0.31) but not in sprints or VO2max. Conclusion: Linear and COD RS exercise twice a week over 22 weeks equally improves intermittent HIR performance but does not improve sprint time or aerobic power in high-level junior football players. However, due to our two-armed intervention, we cannot exclude possible effects from other exercise components in the players’ exercise program.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-08-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7080189
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 190: Rethinking Tourist Wellbeing through the
           Concept of Slow Adventure

    • Authors: Jelena Farkić, Steve Taylor
      First page: 190
      Abstract: The necessity for humans inhabiting the 21st century to slow down and take time to carry out daily practices frames the discourse of this research note. We suggest reconceptualising tourist wellbeing through the concept of slow adventure, as a response to the cult of speed and as a vehicle for engaging in deep, immersive and more meaningful experiences during journeys in the outdoors. We suggest that slow adventure has the potential to improve people’s general health and wellbeing through mindful enjoyment and consumption of the outdoor experience and thus bring people back to a state of mental and physical equilibrium. In so doing, we argue that extending the concept to include discussions around the psychological and social aspects of slow adventure is needed.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7080190
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 191: The Reliability of Using a Laser Device to
           Assess Deceleration Ability

    • Authors: Jonty Ashton, Paul A. Jones
      First page: 191
      Abstract: An important component of change of direction speed is the ability to decelerate. Objective methods to examine this quality have been rarely reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate the within- and between-session reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV), standard error of measurement (SEM) and smallest detectable difference (SDD)) of using a laser Doppler device (LAVEG—LAser VElocity Guard) to quantify deceleration ability in 20 amateur rugby union players. Each player performed one familiarisation and two experimental sessions (seven days apart) consisting of three maximal 15 m sprints from a standing start, with an immediate deceleration to a complete stop upon hearing an audible cue at the 15 m mark. Deceleration was evaluated by determining the distance required to decelerate to 75%, 50%, 25% and 0% (‘stopping distance’) of the velocity achieved at 15 m of the maximal sprint. Within-session relative reliability was moderate to good (ICC = 0.64–0.83) with borderline acceptable variation (CVs = 10.51%–16.71%) across all variables. Between-session reliability reported good to excellent relative reliability (ICC = 0.79–0.93) with acceptable absolute reliability, particularly for stopping distance (SEM: 6.54%; SDD: 9.11%). The assessment shows promise as a method to quantify deceleration ability in athletes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7080191
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 192: Editorial: Fatigue and Recovery in Football

    • Authors: Neil Clarke, Mark Noon
      First page: 192
      Abstract: The football codes (soccer, American football, Australian rules football, rugby league, and union and Gaelic football) are intermittent team sports with bouts of high-intensity activity interspersed with low-intensity activities or rest [...]
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-08-13
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7080192
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 193: Effects of Bio-Banding upon Physical and
           Technical Performance during Soccer Competition: A Preliminary Analysis

    • Authors: Will Abbott, Stuart Williams, Gary Brickley, Nicholas J Smeeton
      First page: 193
      Abstract: Bio-banded competition has been introduced to address the variation in physical maturity within soccer. To date, no research has investigated the effect of bio-banded competition relative to chronological competition. The current study investigated the effect of bio-banding upon physical and technical performance in elite youth soccer athletes. Twenty-five male soccer athletes (11–15 years) from an English Premier League soccer academy participated in bio-banded and chronological competition, with physical and technical performance data collected for each athlete. Athletes were between 85–90% of predicted adult stature, and sub-divided into early, on-time and late developers. For early developers, significantly more short passes, significantly less dribbles and a higher rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were evident during bio-banded competition compared to chronological competition (p < 0.05). Significantly more short passes and dribbles, and significantly fewer long passes were seen for on-time developers during bio-banded competition (p < 0.05). For late developers, significantly more tackles, and significantly fewer long passes were evident during bio-banded competition (p < 0.05). No significant differences in physical performance were identified between competition formats. Results demonstrated that bio-banded competition changed the technical demand placed upon athletes compared to chronological competition, without reducing the physical demands. Bio-banded competition can be prescribed to athletes of differing maturation groups dependent upon their specific developmental needs.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-08-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7080193
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 194: Meta-Analysis to Determine Normative Values for
           the Special Judo Fitness Test in Male Athletes: 20+ Years of
           Sport-Specific Data and the Lasting Legacy of Stanisław Sterkowicz

    • Authors: Katarzyna Sterkowicz-Przybycień, David H. Fukuda, Emerson Franchini
      First page: 194
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) results specific to the population of male judoka and to develop age category norms for junior and senior athletes. A systematic review of the existing literature was conducted to identify 281 publications reporting SJFT results between 1995 and 2018. The final meta-analysis included data from 37 relevant studies that reported SJFT results from 51 individual samples of 515 senior and 209 junior male athletes. The combined mean and SD for SJFT variables were calculated, and the Cohen’s d effect size with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the senior and junior age classifications were compared. Senior athletes demonstrated higher total number of throws (d = 0.41, CI = 0.25–0.57, p <0.001) and heart rate (HR) immediately after the SJFT (d = 0.18, CI = 0.02–0.35, p = 0.025) with limited differences for HR one minute after the SJFT between groups. The SJFT index was lower for seniors compared to juniors (d = 0.38, CI = 0.22–0.54, p <0.001) indicating better overall performance by the more advanced athletes. Percentile rankings were used to develop SJFT classificatory tables for male senior and junior judo athletes. Training staff can use the age group classifications in the evaluation process of their athletes and for the purpose of monitoring training.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-08-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7080194
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 195: Trunk and Upper Body Fatigue Adversely Affect
           Running Economy: A Three-Armed Randomized Controlled Crossover Pilot Trial

    • Authors: Scott N. Drum, Ludwig Rappelt, Lars Donath
      First page: 195
      Abstract: Trunk muscle fatigue and its negative relationship with running economy (RE) is frequently recognized by practitioners but lacks evidence-based support. Thus, this three-armed randomized controlled crossover pilot trial (RCT) examined the effects of trunk and upper body fatigue protocols on RE, trunk muscle isometric rate of force production, and lactate response in runners. Seven well-trained runners (2 males and 5 females) randomly underwent control (CON), trunk fatigue (TRK), and upper body fatigue (UPR) protocols on three different lab visits. Both workload-matched fatigue protocols—consisting of 24 min of a circuit weight routine—elicited comparable rates of perceived exertion, heart rate responses, and lactate accumulations. As expected, core muscle strength assessed with isometric testing immediately before and after both fatigue protocols, decreased notably. RE (VO2/kg bodyweight averaged for 1 min) was determined during a 15 min individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) run at 4, 9 and 14 min. The IAT (13.9 to 15.8 km/h) was determined on lab visit one using an incremental treadmill running protocol to volitional exhaustion. RE differed, although not significantly, between CON and both fatigue protocols by 0.75 (4th min) to 1.5 ml/min/kg (9th and 14th min) bodyweight (Time × Mode Interaction: p = 0.2, np2 = 0.40) with a moderate to large effect size. Despite no signficance, the largest RE differences were observed between TRK and CON (and underscored by the moderate to large effect size). This preliminary pilot RCT revealed that both UPR and TRK conditions might adversely impact running economy at a high intensity, steady state running pace. Future studies should elucidate if these findings are replicable in large scale trials and, in turn, whether periodized core training can beneficially preserve RE.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-08-19
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7080195
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 165: The Acceleration and Deceleration Profiles of
           U-18 Women’s Basketball Players during Competitive Matches

    • Authors: María Reina, Javier García-Rubio, José Pino-Ortega, Sergio J. Ibáñez
      First page: 165
      Abstract: The ability of a player to perform high-intensity actions can be linked to common requirements of team sports, and the ability to accelerate can be an important factor in successfully facing the opponent. The aim of this study was to determine the acceleration and deceleration profiles of U-18 women’s basketball players during competitive matches. This study categorized accelerations and decelerations by playing position and quarter. Forty-eight U-18 female basketball players from the same Spanish league participated in this study. Each player was equipped with a WimuProTM inertial device. Accelerations/decelerations were recorded. The number of accelerations and decelerations, intensity category, and type were recorded. These variables varied between quarters (first quarter, second quarter, third quarter, and fourth quarter) and playing positions (Guard, Forward and Center). The shorter but more intense accelerations took place in the last quarter, due to the tight results of the matches. Besides, players in the Guard positions performed more accelerations and their intensity was greater than that of other positions. An acceleration profile was established for the quarters of a basketball game, and was shown to depend on the playing position, being different for Guards, Forwards and Centers in U-18 women’s basketball players.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-07-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7070165
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 166: Understanding the Use of Dietary Supplements
           among Athlete and Non-Athlete University Students: Development and
           Validation of a Questionnaire

    • Authors: Dalia El Khoury, John J.M. Dwyer, Lindsay Fein, Paula Brauer, Sydney Brennan, Irene Alfaro
      First page: 166
      Abstract: Background: The purpose of this study is to develop and test the validity and reliability of a questionnaire to evaluate dietary supplement use based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Methods: The questionnaire has sections on demographics, physical activity, dietary supplements, and cognitive constructs based on the TPB. Three stages are followed. In Stage 1, elicitation interviews are conducted on five varsity athletes, five physically active non-athletes, and five physically inactive University of Guelph (UofG) students. In Stage 2, comments and ratings of the TPB-based statements are gathered from 10 subject matter experts to check for content validity. In Stage 3, Cronbach’s α is calculated to determine the internal consistency of the cognitive constructs by a pilot test on 84 Applied Human Nutrition UofG students. Results: Interviews assisted in the formulation of the cognitive constructs’ statements, including intentions, attitudes, injunctive norms, descriptive norms, and perceived behavioural control. Content validity ensured that these constructs did not overlap. Few statements from the cognitive constructs were omitted based on findings from the reliability test, achieving acceptable Cronbach’s α values across all constructs (≥0.70). Conclusions: This supplement use questionnaire will be used in a future study to investigate the use and determinants of dietary supplements among Canadian athlete and non-athlete UofG students.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7070166
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 167: Chronic Fish Oil Consumption with Resistance
           Training Improves Grip Strength, Physical Function, and Blood Pressure in
           Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    • Authors: Sang-Rok Lee, Edward Jo, Andy V. Khamoui
      First page: 167
      Abstract: Fish oil (FO) has received great attention for its health-enhancing properties. However, its potential synergistic effects with resistance training (RT) are not well established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of FO supplementation during 12-weeks of RT on handgrip strength, physical function, and blood pressure (BP) in community-dwelling older adults. Twenty-eight healthy older adults (10 males, 18 females; 66.5 ± 5.0 years) were randomly assigned to three groups: Control (CON), resistance training (RT), resistance training with FO (RTFO). Handgrip strength, physical function [five times sit-to-stand (5T-STS), timed up and go (TUG), 6-m walk (6MW), 30-s sit-to-stand (30S-STS)], and BP were measured pre- and post-intervention. ANOVA was used with significance set at P ≤ 0.05. Handgrip strength significantly increased in RT (+5.3%) and RTFO (+9.4%) but decreased in CON (−3.9%). All physical function outcomes increased in RT and RTFO. CON exhibited significantly decreased TUG and 30S-STS with no change in 5T-STS and 6MW. BP substantially decreased only in RTFO, systolic blood pressure (−7.8 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (−4.5 mmHg), mean arterial pressure (−5.6 mmHg), while no change was found in CON and RT. Chronic RT enhanced strength and physical function, while FO consumption combined with RT improved BP in community-dwelling older adults.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7070167
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 168: The Influence of Maturity Offset, Strength, and
           Movement Competency on Motor Skill Performance in Adolescent Males

    • Authors: Andrew W. Pichardo, Jon L. Oliver, Craig B. Harrison, Peter S. Maulder, Rhodri S. Lloyd, Rohan Kandoi
      First page: 168
      Abstract: This study aimed to examine the extent to which maturity offset, strength, and movement competency influences motor skill performance in adolescent boys. One hundred and eight secondary school boys completed anthropometric and physical testing on two non-consecutive days for the following variables: Maturity offset, isometric mid-thigh pull absolute (IMTPABS) and relative (IMTPREL) peak force, resistance training skills quotient, 10-, 20-, and 30-m sprint time, countermovement jump height, horizontal jump distance, anaerobic endurance performance, and seated medicine ball throw (SMBT). The IMTPREL displayed significant small to large correlations with all performance variables (r = 0.27–0.61), whereas maturity offset was significantly correlated with IMTPABS (r = 0.69), sprint (r = 0.29–0.33), jump (r = 0.23–0.34), and SMBT (r = 0.32). Absolute and relative strength were the strongest predictors of all performance variables and combined with maturity to explain 21%–76% of the variance. Low and average relative strength boys were nearly eight times (odds ratio: 7.80, confidence interval: 1.48–41.12, p < 0.05) and nearly four times (odds ratio: 3.86, confidence interval: 0.95–15.59, p < 0.05) more likely to be classified as lower competency compared to high relative strength boys. Relative strength has more influence on motor skill performance than maturity when compared with movement competency.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7070168
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 169: Skeletal Muscle Fiber Adaptations Following
           Resistance Training Using Repetition Maximums or Relative Intensity

    • Authors: Kevin M. Carroll, Caleb D. Bazyler, Jake R. Bernards, Christopher B. Taber, Charles A. Stuart, Brad H. DeWeese, Kimitake Sato, Michael H. Stone
      First page: 169
      Abstract: The purpose of the study was to compare the physiological responses of skeletal muscle to a resistance training (RT) program using repetition maximum (RM) or relative intensity (RISR). Fifteen well-trained males underwent RT 3 d·wk−1 for 10 weeks in either an RM group (n = 8) or RISR group (n = 7). The RM group achieved a relative maximum each day, while the RISR group trained based on percentages. The RM group exercised until muscular failure on each exercise, while the RISR group did not reach muscular failure throughout the intervention. Percutaneous needle biopsies of the vastus lateralis were obtained pre-post the training intervention, along with ultrasonography measures. Dependent variables were: Fiber type-specific cross-sectional area (CSA); anatomical CSA (ACSA); muscle thickness (MT); mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR); adenosine monophosphate protein kinase (AMPK); and myosin heavy chains (MHC) specific for type I (MHC1), type IIA (MHC2A), and type IIX (MHC2X). Mixed-design analysis of variance and effect size using Hedge’s g were used to assess within- and between-group alterations. RISR statistically increased type I CSA (p = 0.018, g = 0.56), type II CSA (p = 0.012, g = 0.81), ACSA (p = 0.002, g = 0.53), and MT (p < 0.001, g = 1.47). RISR also yielded a significant mTOR reduction (p = 0.031, g = −1.40). Conversely, RM statistically increased only MT (p = 0.003, g = 0.80). Between-group effect sizes supported RISR for type I CSA (g = 0.48), type II CSA (g = 0.50), ACSA (g = 1.03), MT (g = 0.72), MHC2X (g = 0.31), MHC2A (g = 0.87), and MHC1 (g = 0.59); with all other effects being of trivial magnitude (g < 0.20). Our results demonstrated greater adaptations in fiber size, whole-muscle size, and several key contractile proteins when using RISR compared to RM loading paradigms.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7070169
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 170: Exercise-Induced Mitohormesis for the
           Maintenance of Skeletal Muscle and Healthspan Extension

    • Authors: Robert V. Musci, Karyn L. Hamilton, Melissa A. Linden
      First page: 170
      Abstract: Oxidative damage is one mechanism linking aging with chronic diseases including the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and function called sarcopenia. Thus, mitigating oxidative damage is a potential avenue to prevent or delay the onset of chronic disease and/or extend healthspan. Mitochondrial hormesis (mitohormesis) occurs when acute exposure to stress stimulates adaptive mitochondrial responses that improve mitochondrial function and resistance to stress. For example, an acute oxidative stress via mitochondrial superoxide production stimulates the activation of endogenous antioxidant gene transcription regulated by the redox sensitive transcription factor Nrf2, resulting in an adaptive hormetic response. In addition, acute stresses such as aerobic exercise stimulate the expansion of skeletal muscle mitochondria (i.e., mitochondrial biogenesis), constituting a mitohormetic response that protects from sarcopenia through a variety of mechanisms. This review summarized the effects of age-related declines in mitochondrial and redox homeostasis on skeletal muscle protein homeostasis and highlights the mitohormetic mechanisms by which aerobic exercise mitigates these age-related declines and maintains function. We discussed the potential efficacy of targeting the Nrf2 signaling pathway, which partially mediates adaptation to aerobic exercise, to restore mitochondrial and skeletal muscle function. Finally, we highlight knowledge gaps related to improving redox signaling and make recommendations for future research.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7070170
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 171: Burnout and Perceived Performance Among Junior

    • Authors: Frode Moen, Maria Hrozanova, Tore C. Stiles, Frode Stenseng
      First page: 171
      Abstract: The current study investigated associations between cognitive components such as psychological resilience and perceived stress, and affective components such as positive and negative affect, and athlete burnout and perceived performance among 670 Norwegian junior athletes attending high schools specialized for sports. A hypothesized model of the relations between the constructs was analyzed by structural equation modeling (SEM). The results in the current study show that athlete resilience is a key in understanding athlete burnout and perceived performance, and that cognitive (perceived stress) and affective reactions (negative and positive affect) are important mediators in this process.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7070171
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 172: Towards a Sustainable Nutrition Paradigm in
           Physique Sport: A Narrative Review

    • Authors: Eric R. Helms, Katarina Prnjak, Jake Linardon
      First page: 172
      Abstract: Physique athletes strive for low body fat with high lean mass and have higher body image and eating disorder rates than the general population, and even other weightlifting populations. Whether athletes with a background or tendency to develop these issues are drawn to the sport, or whether it drives these higher incidences, is unknown. However, the biological drive of cyclical energy restriction may contribute to binge-eating behavior. Additionally, requisite monitoring, manipulation, comparison, and judgement of one’s physique may contribute to body image concerns. Contest preparation necessitates manipulating body composition through energy restriction and increased expenditure, requiring dietary restraint and nutrition, exercise, and physique assessment. Thus, competitors are at mental health risk due to (1) pre-existing or predispositions to develop body image or eating disorders; (2) biological effects of energy restriction on eating psychology; and (3) dietary restraint attitudes and resultant physique, exercise, and nutrition monitoring behavior. In our narrative review we cover each factor, concluding with tentative best-practice recommendations, including dietary flexibility, slower weight loss, structured monitoring, gradual returns to offseason energy intakes, internal eating cues, appropriate offseason body compositions, and support from nutrition and mental health professionals. A mental health focus is a needed paradigm shift in bodybuilding nutrition practice and research.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7070172
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 173: On-Ice Measures of External Load in Relation to
           Match Outcome in Elite Female Ice Hockey

    • Authors: Adam Douglas, Kathryn Johnston, Joseph Baker, Michael A. Rotondi, Veronica K. Jamnik, Alison K. Macpherson
      First page: 173
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the differences between select on-ice measures using inertial movement sensors based on match outcome, and to determine changes in player movements across three periods of play. Data were collected during one season of competition in elite female ice hockey players (N = 20). Two-factor mixed effects ANOVAs for each skating position were performed to investigate the differences in match outcome, as well as differences in external load measures during the course of a match. For match outcome, there was a small difference for forwards in explosive ratio (p = 0.02, ES = 0.26) and percentage high force strides (p = 0.04, ES = 0.50). When viewed across three periods of a match, moderate differences were found in skating load (p = 0.01, ES = 0.75), explosive efforts (p = 0.04, ES = 0.63), and explosive ratio (p = 0.002, ES = 0.87) for forwards, and in PlayerLoad (p = 0.01, ES = 0.70), explosive efforts (p = 0.04, ES = 0.63), and explosive ratio (p = 0.01, ES = 0.70) for defense. When examining the relevance to match outcome, external load measures associated with intensity appear to be an important factor among forwards. These results may be helpful for coaches and sport scientists when making decisions pertaining to training and competition strategies.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7070173
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 174: An Approach to the Fatigue in Young Soccer
           Players Resulting from Sided Games

    • Authors: Daniel Castillo, Javier Yanci, Silvia Sánchez-Díaz, Javier Raya-González
      First page: 174
      Abstract: It is crucial to understand the fatigue associated with sided games (SGs) of soccer in the training context, in order to establish the appropriate intervals between training sessions. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different SGs on internal load, measured by the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), and on sprint performance. Ten outfield players (age: 14.5 ± 0.5 years, height: 169 ± 6 cm, body mass: 59.7 ± 6.4 kg) belonging to U15 age category participated in this study. The participants played four SG formats with modifications in the pitch size and in the bout duration, but with the same total duration for the SGs (SG1, SG2, SG3, and SG4). All the players performed a 10 and a 30 m sprint test before and after the SGs. The internal load was measured by the sRPE. The results showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the sRPE registered by the soccer players for the different SGs, but worse sprint performances over the 10 m (p < 0.05; ES: 0.74–1.38, large) and 30 m (p < 0.05; ES: 0.70–2.10, moderate to large) distances after completion of the SGs, except the 10 m sprint after SG2 and SG3 (p > 0.05; ES: 0.43–0.55, moderate). In addition, no correlation (p > 0.05) was reported between the sprint performances for the 10 and 30 m distances and the sRPE registered during the SGs. These results could be useful for technical staff wishing to design the playing area and bout duration of their training tasks effectively.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7070174
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 175: Inter- and Intra-Individual Differences in EMG
           and MMG during Maximal, Bilateral, Dynamic Leg Extensions

    • Authors: John Paul V. Anders, Cory M. Smith, Joshua L. Keller, Ethan C. Hill, Terry J. Housh, Richard J. Schmidt, Glen O. Johnson
      First page: 175
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the composite, inter-individual, and intra-individual differences in the patterns of responses for electromyographic (EMG) and mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude (AMP) and mean power frequency (MPF) during fatiguing, maximal, bilateral, and isokinetic leg extension muscle actions. Thirteen recreationally active men (age = 21.7 ± 2.6 years; body mass = 79.8 ± 11.5 kg; height = 174.2 ± 12.7 cm) performed maximal, bilateral leg extensions at 180°·s−1 until the torque values dropped to 50% of peak torque for two consecutive repetitions. The EMG and MMG signals from the vastus lateralis (VL) muscles of both limbs were recorded. Four 2(Leg) × 19(time) repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted to examine mean differences for EMG AMP, EMG MPF, MMG AMP, and MMG MPF between limbs, and polynomial regression analyses were performed to identify the patterns of neuromuscular responses. The results indicated no significant differences between limbs for EMG AMP (p = 0.44), EMG MPF (p = 0.33), MMG AMP (p = 0.89), or MMG MPF (p = 0.52). Polynomial regression analyses demonstrated substantial inter-individual variability. Inferences made regarding the patterns of neuromuscular responses to fatiguing and bilateral muscle actions should be considered on a subject-by-subject basis.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7070175
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 176: Motor Competence in Adolescents: Exploring
           Association with Physical Fitness

    • Authors: Thórdís Gísladóttir, Monika Haga, Hermundur Sigmundsson
      First page: 176
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was twofold: First, to examine the correlation between adolescents’ performance on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children -2 (MABC-2) and the Test of Motor Competence (TMC), and second, to interpret the correlation between performance on physical fitness measures and motor competence. This study had a cross-sectional design, in which 101 adolescents age 15–16 years were recruited. The participants were assessed with the MABC-2 (eight tasks), the TMC (four tasks) and physical fitness measures (four tasks). Ninety-four participants completed all the test items (51% male). The correlation between the standard score of the MABC-2 and TMC total score was found to be moderate (r = −0.418). A weak correlation was found between MABC-2 and total score of physical fitness (r = 0.278), while the correlation between TMC and physical fitness was a little stronger (r = 0.361). However, when removing one measure from the TMC (the walking/running in slopes), the correlation was weak and not significant (r = 0.109). The results suggest that different test batteries can cause discrepancy in the results regarding correlation between motor competence and physical fitness in adolescents.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7070176
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 177: Calculating Set-Volume for the Limb Muscles
           with the Performance of Multi-Joint Exercises: Implications for Resistance
           Training Prescription

    • Authors: Brad J. Schoenfeld, Jozo Grgic, Cody Haun, Takahiro Itagaki, Eric R. Helms
      First page: 177
      Abstract: Resistance training volume, determined by the number of sets performed (set-volume) is considered one of the key variables in promoting muscle hypertrophy. To better guide resistance exercise prescription for weekly per-muscle training volume, the purpose of this paper is to provide evidence-based considerations for set-volume ratios between multi-joint (MJ) and single-joint (SJ) exercises so that practitioners can better manage prescription of training volume in program design. We analyzed this topic from three primary areas of focus: (1) biomechanical and physiological factors; (2) acute research; and (3) longitudinal research. From a biomechanical and physiological standpoint, when considering force production of different muscle groups, the moment arm of a given muscle, “motor abundance”, the link between biomechanics and exercise-induced fatigue, as well as the amount of time in voluntary muscle activation, a logical rationale can be made for SJ exercises producing greater hypertrophy of the limb muscles than MJ exercises (at least from specific exercises and under certain conditions). This would mean that sets for a MJ exercise should be counted fractionally for select muscles compared to an SJ exercise (i.e., less than a 1:1 ratio) when prescribing set-volumes for given muscles. When considering results from acute studies that measured muscle activation during the performance of SJ and MJ exercises, it seems that MJ exercises are not sufficient to maximize muscle activation of specific muscles. For example, during performance of the leg press and squat, muscle activation of the hamstrings is markedly lower than that of the quadriceps. These results suggest that a 1:1 ratio cannot be assumed. Current longitudinal research comparing the effects of training with MJ vs. SJ or MJ + SJ exercises is limited to the elbow flexors and the evidence is somewhat conflicting. Until more research is conducted to derive stronger conclusions on the topic, we propose the best advice would be to view set-volume prescription on a 1:1 basis, and then use logical rationale and personal expertise to make determinations on program design. Future research should focus on investigating longitudinal hypertrophic changes between MJ and SJ in a variety of populations, particularly resistance-trained individuals, while using site-specific measures of muscle growth to more systematically and precisely compute effective individualized set-volumes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7070177
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 178: The Importance of Fundamental Motor Skills in
           Identifying Differences in Performance Levels of U10 Soccer Players

    • Authors: Ivan Jukic, Katarina Prnjak, Anja Zoellner, James J. Tufano, Damir Sekulic, Sanja Salaj
      First page: 178
      Abstract: This study examined the differences in fundamental motor skills (FMSs) and specific conditioning capacities (SCCs) between a coach’s classification of first team (FT) and second team (ST) U10 soccer players and examined the most important qualities based on how the coach differentiates them. The FT (n = 12; Mage = 9.72 ± 0.41) and ST (n = 11; Mage = 9.57 ± 0.41) soccer players were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, standing long jump, sit and reach, diverse sprints, and the 20 m multistage fitness test (MSFT). The coach’s subjective evaluation of players was obtained using a questionnaire. No significant differences existed between the FT and ST in any variables (p > 0.05). However, large and moderate effect sizes were present in favour of the FT group in locomotor skills (d = 0.82 (0.08, 1.51)), gross motor quotient (d = 0.73 (0.00, 1.41)), height (d = 0.61 (−0.12, 1.29)), MSFT (d = 0.58 (−0.14, 1.25)), and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) (d = 0.55 (−0.17, 1.22)). Furthermore, the coach perceived the FT group as having greater technical and tactical qualities relative to ST players. This suggests that it might be more relevant for players of this age to develop good FMS connected to technical skills, before focusing on SCC. Therefore, it might be beneficial for soccer coaches to emphasize the development of FMSs due to their potential to identify talented young soccer players and because they underpin the technical soccer skills that are required for future soccer success.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7070178
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 179: An Assessment of Training Characteristics
           Associated with Atrial Fibrillation in Masters Runners

    • Authors: Martin E. Matsumura, Justin R. Abbatemarco
      First page: 179
      Abstract: A growing body of literature supports an association between long-term endurance exercise and the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). Given the benefits of lifelong exercise, a better understanding of this association is critical to allow healthcare providers to counsel aging exercisers on the proper “dose” of exercise to maximize health benefits but minimize AF risk. The current study examines the relationship between specific aspects of training volume and intensity and the occurrence of AF among older runners in order to better understand what aspects of endurance exercise may contribute to the development of AF. The study was an Internet-based survey of endurance training and health characteristics of runners 35 years of age and older. A total 2819 runners participated and 69 (2.4%) reported a current or prior diagnosis of AF. Among “traditional” risk factors, runners reporting AF were older, more likely to be male, and had higher rates of hypertension and diabetes. Among training characteristics, only accumulated years of training was associated with AF. In contrast, average weekly mileage, training pace, and days of training per week were not associated with AF. In a multivariable analysis that included chronologic age, sex, diabetes, and hypertension, accumulated years of training remained significantly associated with the report of AF. These findings suggest that the relationship between chronic endurance exercise and AF is dependent on the accumulated training duration but does not appear to be influenced by specific training characteristics such as frequency or intensity of endurance exercise. Further confirmation of these relationships may help healthcare providers counsel exercisers on optimal training habits and identify endurance athletes who are at risk for the development of AF.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-07-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7070179
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 241: The Prevalence of Legal Performance-Enhancing
           Substance Use and Potential Cognitive and or Physical Doping in German
           Recreational Triathletes, Assessed via the Randomised Response Technique

    • Authors: Sebastian Seifarth, Pavel Dietz, Alexander C. Disch, Martin Engelhardt, Stefan Zwingenberger
      First page: 241
      Abstract: This study investigated the use of performance-enhancing substances in recreational triathletes who were competing in German races at distances ranging from super-sprint to long-distance, as per the International Triathlon Union. The use of legal drugs and over-the-counter supplements over the previous year, painkillers over the previous 3 months, and the potential three-month prevalence of physical doping and or cognitive doping in this group were assessed via an anonymous questionnaire. The Randomised Response Technique (RRT) was implemented for sensitive questions regarding “prescription drugs […] for the purpose of performance enhancement […] only available at a pharmacy or on the black market”. The survey did not directly state the word “doping,” but included examples of substances that could later be classed as physical and or cognitive doping. The subjects were not required to detail what they were taking. Overall, 1953 completed questionnaires were received from 3134 registered starters at six regional events—themselves involving 17 separate races—in 2017. Of the respondents, 31.8% and 11.3% admitted to the use of dietary supplements, and of painkillers during the previous three months, respectively. Potential physical doping and cognitive doping over the preceding year were reported by 7.0% (Confidence Interval CI: 4.2–9.8) and 9.4% (CI: 6.6–12.3) of triathletes. Gender, age, experience in endurance sports, and number of weekly triathlon training hours were linked to potential physical or cognitive doping. Given the potentially relevant side effects of painkiller use and physical and or cognitive doping, we recommend that educational and preventative measures for them be implemented within amateur triathlons.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-11-26
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7120241
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 12 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 242: Short-Term Seasonal Development of
           Anthropometry, Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Sport-Specific
           Performance in Young Olympic Weightlifters

    • Authors: Helmi Chaabene, Olaf Prieske, Melanie Lesinski, Ingo Sandau, Urs Granacher
      First page: 242
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to monitor short-term seasonal development of young Olympic weightlifters’ anthropometry, body composition, physical fitness, and sport-specific performance. Fifteen male weightlifters aged 13.2 ± 1.3 years participated in this study. Tests for the assessment of anthropometry (e.g., body-height, body-mass), body-composition (e.g., lean-body-mass, relative fat-mass), muscle strength (grip-strength), jump performance (drop-jump (DJ) height, countermovement-jump (CMJ) height, DJ contact time, DJ reactive-strength-index (RSI)), dynamic balance (Y-balance-test), and sport-specific performance (i.e., snatch and clean-and-jerk) were conducted at different time-points (i.e., T1 (baseline), T2 (9 weeks), T3 (20 weeks)). Strength tests (i.e., grip strength, clean-and-jerk and snatch) and training volume were normalized to body mass. Results showed small-to-large increases in body-height, body-mass, lean-body-mass, and lower-limbs lean-mass from T1-to-T2 and T2-to-T3 (∆0.7–6.7%; 0.1 ≤ d ≤ 1.2). For fat-mass, a significant small-sized decrease was found from T1-to-T2 (∆13.1%; d = 0.4) and a significant increase from T2-to-T3 (∆9.1%; d = 0.3). A significant main effect of time was observed for DJ contact time (d = 1.3) with a trend toward a significant decrease from T1-to-T2 (∆–15.3%; d = 0.66; p = 0.06). For RSI, significant small increases from T1-to-T2 (∆9.9%, d = 0.5) were noted. Additionally, a significant main effect of time was found for snatch (d = 2.7) and clean-and-jerk (d = 3.1) with significant small-to-moderate increases for both tests from T1-to-T2 and T2-to-T3 (∆4.6–11.3%, d = 0.33 to 0.64). The other tests did not change significantly over time (0.1 ≤ d ≤ 0.8). Results showed significantly higher training volume for sport-specific training during the second period compared with the first period (d = 2.2). Five months of Olympic weightlifting contributed to significant changes in anthropometry, body-composition, and sport-specific performance. However, hardly any significant gains were observed for measures of physical fitness. Coaches are advised to design training programs that target a variety of fitness components to lay an appropriate foundation for later performance as an elite athlete.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7120242
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 12 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 243: How Does Biological Maturation and Training
           Experience Impact the Physical and Technical Performance of
           11–14-Year-Old Male Basketball Players'

    • Authors: Eduardo Guimarães, Ana Ramos, Manuel A. Janeira, Adam D.G. Baxter-Jones, José Maia
      First page: 243
      Abstract: This study (1) investigated the effects of age, maturity status, anthropometrics, and years of training on 11–14-year-old male basketball players’ physical performance and technical skills development, and (2) estimated the contribution of maturity status and training years on players’ physical and technical performances. The sample consisted of 150 participants, average age 13.3 ± 0.7 years, grouped by early, average, and late maturation. Biological maturation, anthropometry, and training data were collected using standard procedures. Measures of physical performance assessed included: aerobic fitness, abdominal muscular strength and endurance, static strength, lower body explosive power, upper body explosive power, speed, and agility and body control. Basketball-specific technical skills were also recorded. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to compare group differences. Results indicated that early maturers were taller, heavier, and had greater strength, power, speed, and agility (p < 0.05). When controlling for age, height, and body mass, early maturers remained stronger, quicker, and more agile (p < 0.05). They were also more skillful in the speed shot shooting test (p < 0.05). Apart from tests of aerobic fitness, abdominal muscular strength and endurance, and lower body explosive power, maturity status was the primary contributor to the variance in the physical performance tests. Years of training was the primary contributor to the variance in the technical skills tests. Whilst physical performance was dependent on maturity status, technical skills were influenced by years of training. Since both biological maturation and years of training play an important role in basketball performance, we recommend that coaches consider the effects of these two confounders when recruiting and selecting youth basketballers.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-12-03
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7120243
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 12 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 244: The Coach–Athlete Relationship in Strength
           and Conditioning: High Performance Athletes’ Perceptions

    • Authors: Steven J. Foulds, Samantha M. Hoffmann, Kris Hinck, Fraser Carson
      First page: 244
      Abstract: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate high performance athlete perceptions of strength and conditioning coaches, specifically, (1) their character traits, (2) the effective behaviours that display these traits, and (3) how these relationships were fostered. Using the 3+1 C’s model of coach–athlete relationships as a framework (Jowett, 2007), 12 semi-structured interviews were conducted with high performance athletes (six female; six male) representing a variety of sports (i.e., freestyle wrestling, triathlon, field hockey, cycling, rowing, rugby union, netball, table tennis, and ice hockey). Participants ranged in age from 18 to 53 years (M = 29, SD = 9). Interviews took between 19–47 min and were transcribed verbatim. The transcripts equated to a total of 188 pages of data that were analyzed, coded, and further grouped into higher-order themes and general dimensions. The findings revealed 14 higher-order themes categorized under the 3+1 C’s general dimensions of closeness, commitment, complementarity, and co-orientation.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-12-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7120244
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 12 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 245: Symptomatic Achilles Tendons are Thicker than
           Asymptomatic Tendons on Ultrasound Examination in Recreational
           Long-Distance Runners

    • Authors: Bo Tillander, Håkan Gauffin, Johan Lyth, Anders Knutsson, Toomas Timpka
      First page: 245
      Abstract: There is a need for clinical indicators that can be used to guide the treatment of Achilles tendon complaints in recreational runners. Diagnostic ultrasound has recently been introduced for clinical decision support in tendon pain management. The aim of this study was to determine whether tendon thickness and morphological changes in the Achilles tendon detected in ultrasound examinations are associated with local symptoms in middle-age recreational long-distance runners. Forty-two Achilles tendons (21 middle-aged runners) were investigated by ultrasound examination measuring tendon thickness and a morphology score indicating tendinosis. The Generalized Estimating Equations method was applied in multiple models of factors associated with reporting a symptomatic tendon. Eleven symptomatic and 31 asymptomatic Achilles tendons were recorded. In the multiple model that used tendon thickness measured 30 mm proximal to the distal insertion, an association was found between thickness and reporting a symptomatic tendon (p < 0.001; OR 12.9; 95% CI 3.1 to 53.2). A qualitative morphology score was not found to be significantly associated with reporting a symptomatic tendon (p = 0.10). We conclude that symptomatic Achilles tendons were thicker than asymptomatic tendons on ultrasound examination among recreational long-distance runners and that the importance of parallel morphological findings need to be further investigated in prospective studies.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-12-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7120245
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 12 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 246: Acute Effect of Quadriceps Myofascial Tissue
           Rolling Using A Mechanical Self-Myofascial Release Roller-Massager on
           Performance and Recovery in Young Elite Speed Skaters

    • Authors: Shaher A. I. Shalfawi, Eystein Enoksen, Håvard Myklebust
      First page: 246
      Abstract: Objectives: The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of myofascial tissue rolling on endurance performance and recovery using a novel designed mechanical self-induced multi-bar roller-massager. Methods: a randomized crossover, repeated measure design was used. Eight national levelled, junior and neo-senior, speed skaters underwent a 10 min myofascial quadriceps rolling pre- and fifteen minutes post- a stepwise incremental cycling-test to exhaustion followed by a Wingate performance-test. The myofascial quadriceps rolling was used in one out of two laboratory testing-days. Time to exhaustion, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), blood lactate concentration during 30 min of recovery, and peak- and mean- power during the consecutive Wingate test were recorded. Results: Myofascial quadriceps rolling using roller-massager resulted in higher blood lactate concentration at exhaustion and a larger blood lactate clearance after 10 min to post exhaustion test (both p < 0.05), a tendency for a positive effect on Wingate peak-power (p = 0.084; d = 0.71), whereas no marked differences were observed on VO2peak, time to exhaustion and Wingate mean-power. Conclusion: Despite indications for potential benefits of the quadriceps myofascial tissue release using the mechanical self-induced multi-bar roller-massager on blood lactate concentration and Wingate peak-power, the myofascial tissue release gave no marked performance improvements nor indications of negative effects. Future studies could examine the long-term effects of myofascial tissue release on performance and recovery. Furthermore, integrating a measure of the participants’ subjective experience pre- and post the myofascial tissue release would be of great interest.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-12-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7120246
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 12 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 247: Attitudes and Beliefs towards Sport
           Specialization, College Scholarships, and Financial Investment among High
           School Baseball Parents

    • Authors: Eric G. Post, Michael D. Rosenthal, Mitchell J. Rauh
      First page: 247
      Abstract: Adolescent athletes are increasingly encouraged to specialize in a single sport year-round in an effort to receive a college scholarship. For collegiate baseball, only 11.7 scholarships are available for a 35-player team. The beliefs of the parents of baseball athletes towards sport specialization are unknown, along with whether they have an accurate understanding of college baseball scholarship availability. The parents of high school baseball athletes were recruited to complete an anonymous questionnaire that consisted of (1) parent and child demographics, (2) child baseball participation information, and (3) parent attitudes and beliefs regarding sport specialization and college baseball scholarships. One hundred and fifty-five parents participated in the questionnaire (female: 52.9%, age: 49.4 ± 5.5 years old). The parents spent a median of 3000 USD [Interquartile Range (IQR): 1500–6000] on their child’s baseball participation. Most parents believed that specialization increased their child’s chances of getting better at baseball (N = 121, 79.6%). The parents underestimated the number of college baseball scholarships available per team (median [IQR]: 5 [0–5]), but 55 parents (35.9%) believed it was likely that their child would receive a college baseball scholarship. Despite having a realistic understanding of the limited college scholarships available, the parents were optimistic that their child would receive a baseball scholarship.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-12-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7120247
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 12 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 248: Reliability and Structural Validity of the

    • Authors: Ivan Serbetar, Jan Morten Loftesnes, Asgeir Mamen
      First page: 248
      Abstract: Monitoring and assessment of the development of motor skills is an important goal for practitioners in many disciplines as well as researchers interested in motor development. A well-established tool for such purpose is the Movement Assessment Battery for Children Second Edition (MABC-2) which covers three age ranges and contains eight motor items in each range related to the manual dexterity, aiming and catching, and balance. The main aim of the study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the MABC-2 age band one in a sample of Croatian preschool children. Structural validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Measures of relative and absolute reliability were established by computing the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), standard error of the measurement (SEM), and smallest detectable change (SDC). About 17% of the children of the total sample fall into the categories of motor impairment and risk for impairment, respectively, while 83% were found to be in the category of normally developing children. Intraclass correlation coefficient for the total standard score was 0.79 while individual items, all except one, ranged from 0.70 to 0.83. Drawing trail, but also throwing beanbag and one-leg balance items presented large SEM and SDC values. CFA initially yielded a model with questionable fit to the data. After re-specification, excellent model fit was attained confirming the proposed three-factor model. Satorra–Bentler χ2(26) reached 38.56 (p = 0.054), root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) was 0.028, non-normed fit index (NNFI) was 0.98, adjusted goodness of fit (AGFI) was 0.97, and standardized root mean residual (SRMR) was 0.030. All the variables loaded significantly, and only two significant standardized residuals have been found. Correlations between the factors were weak, supporting discriminant validity of the test. We found MABC-2 to be an appropriate instrument to assess the development of motor competences of preschool children.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-12-11
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7120248
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 12 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 249: Exploring Cognitive Dissonance on a Ski
           Mountaineering Traverse: A Personal Narrative of an Expedition to ISHINCA
           (5530 m) in PERU

    • Authors: Melissa Hart
      First page: 249
      Abstract: Through a personal narrative account, this paper explores the nature of the author’s cognitive dissonance experienced during a traverse of a high-altitude ski mountaineering objective (Nevado Ishinca 5530 m) in Peru’s Cordillera Blanca. The author experienced psychological discomfort in the ascent and a role of self in determining a continued commitment with the ski mountaineering challenge. Distraction, trivialization, act rationalization and finally attitude change were all used in attempt to reduce negative levels of cognitive dissonance. The lack of consonant cognitions to support abandoning the climb, the notion of free choice, the role of self-concept and self-esteem values motivated continued commitment until the negative levels of arousal subsided. Through a challenging mountaineering experience, I developed a greater self-awareness of the role of commitment to an objective which could be applied to other life events and experiences.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-12-11
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7120249
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 12 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 250: Erratum: Bujnovsky, D., et al. Physical Fitness
           Characteristics of High-level Youth Football Players: Influence of Playing
           Position. Sports 2019, 7, 46

    • Authors: David Bujnovsky, Tomas Maly, Kevin R. Ford, Dai Sugimoto, Egon Kunzmann, Mikulas Hank, Frantisek Zahalka
      First page: 250
      Abstract: The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper [...]
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-12-11
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7120250
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 12 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 251: A Warning against the Negligent Use of
           Cannabidiol in Professional and Amateur Athletes

    • Authors: Dirk W. Lachenmeier, Patrick Diel
      First page: 251
      Abstract: Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid, widely marketed to athletes for claimed effects such as decreased anxiety, fear memory extinction, anti-inflammatory properties, relief of pain and for post-exercise recovery. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has excluded CBD from its list of prohibited substances. Nevertheless, caution is currently advised for athletes intending to use the compound—except CBD, all other cannabinoids are still on the prohibited list. CBD products, specifically non-medicinal, so-called full-spectrum cannabis extracts, may contain significant levels of these substances, but also contaminations of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (>2.5 mg/day in >30% of products on the German market) potentially leading to positive doping tests. Labelled claims about CBD content and absence of THC are often false and misleading. Contaminations with the psychoactive THC can result in adverse effects on cognition and, in general, the safety profile of CBD with respect to its toxicity is a controversial topic of discussion. For these reasons, we would currently advise against the use of over-the-counter CBD products, especially those from dubious internet sources without quality control.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-12-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7120251
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 12 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 227: What Is Injury in Ice Hockey: An Integrative
           Literature Review on Injury Rates, Injury Definition, and Athlete Exposure
           in Men’s Elite Ice Hockey

    • Authors: Donskov, Humphreys, Dickey
      First page: 227
      Abstract: Injuries in men’s elite ice hockey have been studied over the past 40 years, however, there is a lack of consensus on definitions of both injury and athlete exposure. These inconsistencies compromise the reliability and comparability of the research. While many individual studies report injury rates in ice hockey, we are not aware of any literature reviews that have evaluated the definitions of injury and athlete exposure in men’s elite ice hockey. The purpose of this integrative review was to investigate the literature on hockey musculoskeletal injury to determine injury rates and synthesize information about the definitions of injury and athlete exposure. Injury rates varied from 13.8/1000 game athlete exposures to 121/1000 athlete exposures as measured by player-game hours. The majority of variability between studies is explained by differences in the definitions of both injury and athlete exposure. We were unable to find a consensus injury definition in elite ice hockey. In addition, we were unable to observe a consistent athlete exposure metric. We recommend that a consistent injury definition be adopted to evaluate injury risk in elite ice hockey. We recommend that injuries should be defined by a strict list that includes facial lacerations, dental injuries, and fractures. We also recommend that athlete exposure should be quantified using player-game hours.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-10-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7110227
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 11 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 228: Increased Parasympathetic Activity by Foot
           Reflexology Massage after Repeated Sprint Test in Collegiate Football
           Players: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    • Authors: Chen, Lu, Clemente, Bezerra, Kuo
      First page: 228
      Abstract: Foot reflexology massage (FRM) has positive effects on cardiovascular and haemodynamic functions. However, information regarding the physiological changes after FRM post exercise-stress is limited. This study investigated the acute effects of FRM on heart rate variability (HRV) after the repeated sprint ability (RSA) test and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (YY). Twenty-six collegiate male football players were randomly assigned to the FRM group (n = 14) or to the control group (n = 12). Electrocardiographic (ECG) signals were recorded for 15 min in supine position before and after the intervention/control period in the RSA test and the YY test. In comparison to the control group, the FRM group demonstrated higher values of root mean squared successive difference in the RR interval (RMSSD; p = 0.046, ES = 0.76) and in the proportion of differences of adjacent RR intervals >50 ms (pNN50; p = 0.031, ES = 0.87); and higher percent changes in mean RR interval (%MeanRR; p = 0.040, ES = 0.99), standard deviation of RR intervals (%SDNN; p = 0.008, ES = 1.10), normalised high-frequency power (%nHFP; p = 0.008, ES = 0.77), total power (%TP; p = 0.009, ES = 0.84) and standard deviation 1 and 2 (%SD1; p = 0.008, ES = 1.08, %SD2; p = 0.020, ES = 1.04) after the RSA test. The magnitude effect of post-exercise HRV was small after the FRM RSA protocol (ES = 0.32–0.57). Conversely, the results demonstrated a moderate and large magnitude effect of HRV in the RSA and YY protocols of the control group (ES: RSA = 1.07–2.00; YY = 0.81–1.61) and in the YY protocol of the FRM group (ES = 0.99–1.59). The FRM intervention resulted in beneficial effects on the cardiac parasympathetic reactivity and the sympatho-vagal balance after RSA performance.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-11-03
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7110228
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 11 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 229: An Evaluation of Heart Rate Variability in
           Female Youth Soccer Players Following Soccer Heading: A Pilot Study

    • Authors: Alexandra B. Harriss, Kolten Abbott, Kurt Kimpinski, Jeffrey D. Holmes, Andrew M. Johnson, David M. Walton, James P. Dickey
      First page: 229
      Abstract: Most head impacts in soccer occur from purposeful heading; however, the link between heading and neurological impairment is unknown. Previous work suggests concussion may result in an uncoupling between the autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular system. Accordingly, heart rate variability (HRV) may be a sensitive measure to provide meaningful information regarding repetitive heading in soccer. The purpose of this pilot study assesses the feasibility of measuring HRV to evaluate autonomic function following soccer heading. Sixteen youth female participants underwent heart rate monitoring during a heading and footing condition. Participants completed a five minute resting supine trial at the start and end of each testing session. Standard 450 g soccer balls were projected at 6 m/s towards participants. Participants performed five headers, for the header condition, and five footers for the footer condition. The HRV for resting supine trials, pre- and post-header and footer conditions were assessed for both time and frequency domains. HRV effect sizes were small when comparing conditions, except absolute low frequency (d = 0.61) and standard deviation of the normal-normal (NN) intervals (d = 0.63). Participant retention and adherence were high, without adverse events. Findings suggest HRV is a feasible measure for evaluating the effects of heading on autonomic function.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-11-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7110229
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 11 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 230: Reliability and Criterion Validity of the
           Assess2Perform Bar Sensei

    • Authors: George K. Beckham, Danielle K. Layne, Steven B. Kim, Eric A. Martin, Benjamin G. Perez, Kent J. Adams
      First page: 230
      Abstract: The Assess2Perform Bar Sensei is a device used to measure barbell velocity for velocity-based training that has not yet been validated. The purpose of this study was to determine criterion validity and reliability of the Assess2Perform Bar Sensei in barbell back squats by comparing it against the GymAware PowerTool, a previously validated instrument. Sixteen injury-free, resistance-trained subjects (eleven males and five females) were recruited. Subjects were tested for their back squat one repetition maximum (1RM). Then, on two separate days, subjects performed two sets of three repetitions at loads of 45%, 60% and 75% 1RM. The GymAware PowerTool and Bar Sensei were attached to the barbell in similar locations for concurrent collection of mean concentric velocity (MCV) and peak concentric velocity (PCV). The Bar Sensei and PowerTool showed generally fair to poor agreement for MCV and PCV when subjects lifted 45% of 1RM (intraclass correlation;ICC 0.4–0.59), and they showed poor agreement when subjects lifted 60% and 75% of 1RM (ICC 0.3–0.4). Inter-repetition/within-set reliability for the Bar Sensei ranged between ICC = 0.273–0.451 for MCV and PCV compared to the far more reliable PowerTool (ICC = 0.651–0.793). Currently, the Bar Sensei is not a reliable or valid tool for measuring barbell velocity in back squats.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7110230
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 11 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 231: A Pilot Study to Examine the Impact of
           Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Anaerobic Exercise Performance in
           Collegiate Rugby Athletes

    • Authors: Charles R. Smith, Patrick S. Harty, Richard A. Stecker, Chad M. Kerksick
      First page: 231
      Abstract: Beta-alanine (BA) is a precursor to carnosine which functions as a buffer assisting in the maintenance of intracellular pH during high-intensity efforts. Rugby is a sport characterized by multiple intermittent periods of maximal or near maximal efforts with short periods of rest/active recovery. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the impact of six weeks of beta-alanine supplementation on anaerobic performance measures in collegiate rugby players. Twenty-one male, collegiate rugby players were recruited, while fifteen completed post-testing (Mean ± SD; Age: 21.0 ± 1.8 years, Height: 179 ± 6.3 cm, Body Mass: 91.8 ± 13.3 kg, % Body Fat: 21.3 ± 4.4). Supplementation was randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled manner between 6.4 g/d of beta-alanine and 6.4 g/d of maltodextrin placebo. Body composition, upper and lower-body maximal strength and muscular endurance, intermittent sprint performance, and post-exercise lactate, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion were assessed before and after supplementation. Data were analyzed using a 2 × 2 (group × time) mixed factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures on time. No significant interaction effects were noted for body mass, fat mass, fat-free mass, and percent bodyfat (p > 0.05). No performance effects resulting from beta-alanine supplementation were detected. Results from this initial pilot investigation suggest that BA exerts little to no impact on body composition parameters, muscular strength, muscular endurance, or intermittent sprinting performance. With the limited research exploring the impact of BA in this sporting context, these initial findings offer little support for BA use, but more research is needed to fully understand the potential impact of BA on various aspects of resistance exercise performance.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7110231
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 11 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 232: Relationship between Cyclic and Non-Cyclic
           Force-Velocity Characteristics in BMX Cyclists

    • Authors: Micah Gross, Thomy Gross
      First page: 232
      Abstract: Especially for bicycle motocross (BMX) cyclists, transfer of muscular force-velocity (Fv) characteristics between common strength training exercises and cycling is important. This study investigated the relationship between Fv characteristics in a common training exercise (squat jumps) and a sport-specific task (cycling) in high-level BMX racers by exploring the degree to which Fv and torque–cadence (Tc) characteristics correspond. Twelve BMX racers performed an Fv (multiple loaded squat jump) and two Tc tests (ramp starts and flat-ground sprints). Results revealed very large correlations between F 0 and T o r 0   s t a r t (r = 0.77) and between P m a x   j u m p and P m a x   s t a r t (r = 0.85). On the other hand, the relationships between v 0 and C a d 0   s t a r t (r = –0.25) and between S F v and S T c   s t a r t (r = –0.14) were small and negative. Similar results were observed for sprints. Based on dichotomous classifications (greater or less than group median), several discrepancies occurred, particularly for the profile slopes and high-speed variables. Thus, we recommend performing both jump-based and cycling-specific F v testing. Of additional note, T c characteristics on flat ground were similar to, but slightly different from those on the start ramp. Therefore, where possible, Tc tests should be carried out on a ramp.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-11-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7110232
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 11 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 233: Duty Factor Is a Viable Measure to Classify
           Spontaneous Running Forms

    • Authors: Aurélien Patoz, Cyrille Gindre, Adrien Thouvenot, Laurent Mourot, Kim Hébert-Losier, Thibault Lussiana
      First page: 233
      Abstract: Runners were classified using two different methods based on their spontaneous running form: (1) subjectively using the V®score from the Volodalen® scale, leading to terrestrial and aerial groups; and (2) objectively using the duty factor (DF), leading to high (DFhigh) and low (DFlow) DF groups. This study aimed to compare these two classification schemes. Eighty-nine runners were divided in two groups using the V®score (VOL groups) and were also ranked according to their DF. They ran on a treadmill at 12 km·h−1 with simultaneous recording of running kinematics, using a three-dimensional motion capture system. DF was computed from data as the ratio of ground contact time to stride time. The agreement (95% confidence interval) between VOL and DF groups was 79.8% (69.9%, 87.6%), with relatively high sensitivity (81.6% (68.0%, 91.2%)) and specificity (77.5% (61.6%, 89.2%)). Our results suggest that the DF and V®score reflect similar constructs and lead to similar subgroupings of spontaneous running form (aerial runners if DF < 27.6% and terrestrial runners if DF > 28.8% at 12 km·h−1). These results suggest that DF could be a useful objective measure to monitor real-time changes in spontaneous running form using wearable technology. As a forward-looking statement, spontaneous changes in running form during racing or training could assist in identifying fatigue or changes in environmental conditions, allowing for a better understanding of runners.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-11-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7110233
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 11 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 234: A Comparison of Two Commercial Swim Bench
           Ergometers in Determining Maximal Aerobic Power and Correlation to a
           Paddle Test in a Recreational Surfing Cohort

    • Authors: James Furness, Linley Bertacchini, Lisa Hicklen, Dane Monaghan, Elisa Canetti, Mike Climstein
      First page: 234
      Abstract: The recent addition of surfing to the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games has fueled a surge in commercial and research interest in understanding the physiological demands of the sport. However, studies specific to maximal aerobic testing of surfers are scarce. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to compare two commercially available swim bench (SWB) ergometers in the determination of maximal aerobic capacity in recreational surfers. A secondary aim was to correlate (independent of one another) the two ergometer findings of VO2peak to the time taken to complete a water-based 400-m paddle test. This cross-sectional study consisted of 17 recreational surfers aged between 18–58 years. Participants were randomized to either the SwimFast ergometer or VASA ergometer and tested for maximal aerobic capacity, followed by a 400-m paddle test. There were no significant differences between the two SWB ergometers in the determination of relative VO2peak (mean difference 0.33 mL/kg/min; 95% CI −1.24–1.90; p = 0.66). Correlations between VO2peak obtained from maximal paddling effort on the SwimFast and the VASA and the 400-m paddle test (total time (s)) showed a negative significant correlation r = −0.819, p = 0.024; r = −0.818, p = 0.024, respectively. Results suggest that either ergometer (SwimFast or VASA) can be used to determine peak aerobic capacity within a recreational surfing cohort. The significant correlation of the two SWB ergometers and the 400-m paddle test suggest that the 400-m paddle test may be a suitable field-based method of determining aerobic capability. Collectively, these preliminary findings provide initial evidence for similarities in VO2peak on two commercial ergometers and their correlations with a field-based test. However, further research is needed with a larger sample size and inclusive of competitive surfers to provide robust findings which can be generalized to the surfing population.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-11-11
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7110234
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 11 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 235: Maximal Heart Rate for Swimmers

    • Authors: Bjørn Harald Olstad, Veronica Bjørlykke, Daniela Schäfer Olstad
      First page: 235
      Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to identify whether a different protocol to achieve maximal heart rate should be used in sprinters when compared to middle-distance swimmers. As incorporating running training into swim training is gaining increased popularity, a secondary aim was to determine the difference in maximal heart rate between front crawl swimming and running among elite swimmers. Twelve elite swimmers (4 female and 8 male, 7 sprinters and 5 middle-distance, age 18.8 years and body mass index 22.9 kg/m2) swam three different maximal heart rate protocols using a 50 m, 100 m and 200 m step-test protocol followed by a maximal heart rate test in running. There were no differences in maximal heart rate between sprinters and middle-distance swimmers in each of the swimming protocols or between land and water (all p ≥ 0.05). There were no significant differences in maximal heart rate beats-per-minute (bpm) between the 200 m (mean ± SD; 192.0 ± 6.9 bpm), 100 m (190.8 ± 8.3 bpm) or 50 m protocol (191.9 ± 8.4 bpm). Maximal heart rate was 6.7 ± 5.3 bpm lower for swimming compared to running (199.9 ± 8.9 bpm for running; p = 0.015). We conclude that all reported step-test protocols were suitable for achieving maximal heart rate during front crawl swimming and suggest that no separate protocol is needed for swimmers specialized on sprint or middle-distance. Further, we suggest conducting sport-specific maximal heart rate tests for different sports that are targeted to improve the aerobic capacity among the elite swimmers of today.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-11-12
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7110235
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 11 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 236: Mental Health Symptoms Related to Body Shape
           Idealization in Female Fitness Physique Athletes

    • Authors: Therese Fostervold Mathisen, Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen
      First page: 236
      Abstract: Physical activity relates to optimal health, still the prevalence of mental health issues is high among athletes. Being young, female, and competing in aesthetic sports is a high-risk combination for mental health symptoms. Fitness physique athletes (FA) match this profile but are understudied. We aimed to study the intensity of mental health symptoms (i.e., body image, eating behaviour, relation to and routines for exercise, and perfectionism) in FA and in female references (FR), and to evaluate how preparing for fitness sport competitions affects these mental health symptoms. Before competition, FA had higher levels of drive for leanness (DFL) and eating restraint compared to FR. At the time of competition, eating restraint increased in FA only, concurrent with a reduction in symptoms of disordered eating. The levels of DFL, drive for muscularity, eating restraint, and exercising for figure toning were higher in FA compared to FR. At one-month post-competition, the differences between groups from competition time remained. Generally, perfectionism correlated with eating restrictions in FA and with disordered eating in FR. Overall, FA coped with the dieting, but self-control deteriorated post-competition with higher levels of disordered eating and an increased body shape concern. High DFL generally associated with more disordered eating behaviour, specifically in FR.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-11-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7110236
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 11 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 237: Effects of Two Competitive Soccer Matches on
           Landing Biomechanics in Female Division I Soccer Players

    • Authors: Benjamin J. Snyder, Randolph E. Hutchison, Christopher J. Mills, Stephen J. Parsons
      First page: 237
      Abstract: Fatigue has been proposed to increase the risk of knee injury. This study tracked countermovement jump, knee isometric strength, and kinetics and kinematics in 8 female soccer players (experimental group) during an anticipated sidestep maneuver before and after two matches played over a 43-h period. Time points were: Before and after match 1 (T0 and T1), 12 h after the first match (T2), and immediately after the second match (T3). A control group participated only in practice sessions. Isometric knee extension strength decreased by 14.8% at T2 (p = 0.003), but knee flexion was not affected until T3, declining by 12.6% (p = 0.018). During the sidestep maneuver, knee joint degrees of flexion at initial contact was increased by 17.1% at T3, but maximum knee and hip angle at initial contact were unchanged. Peak resultant ground reaction force (GRF) increased by 12.6% (p = 0.047) at T3 (3.03 xBW) from 2.69 xBW at T0, while posterior GRF was significantly higher than T0 at all three subsequent time points (T1 = 0.82 ± 0.23 xBW, T2 = 0.87 ± 0.22 xBW, T3 = 0.89 ± 0.22 xBW). Anterior tibial shear force increased significantly (p = 0.020) at T3 (1.24 ± 0.12 xBW) compared to T1 (1.15 ± 0.13 xBW), an 8.8% increase. Lateral tibial shear force was significantly higher at both T1 (0.95 ± 0.20 xBW) and T3 (1.15 ± 0.38 xBW) compared to T0 (0.67 ± 0.25 xBW). These findings suggest that participation in a soccer match has significant effects on both physical performance parameters and kinetics/kinematics during a sidestep cut, but these can be more pronounced after a second match with short rest.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-11-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7110237
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 11 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 238: SwimBIT: A Novel Approach to Stroke Analysis
           During Swim Training Based on Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS)

    • Authors: Félix, Silva, Olstad, Cabri, Correia
      First page: 238
      Abstract: In a world where technology is assuming a pervasive role, sports sciences are also increasingly exploiting the possibilities opened by advanced sensors and intelligent algorithms. This paper focuses on the development of a convenient, practical, and low-cost system, SwimBIT, which is intended to help swimmers and coaches in performance evaluation, improvement, and injury reduction. Real-world data were collected from 13 triathletes (age 20.8 ± 3.5 years, height 173.7 ± 5.3 cm, and weight 63.5 ± 6.3 kg) with different skill levels in performing the four competitive styles of swimming in order to develop a representative database and allow assessment of the system’s performance in swimming conditions. The hardware collects a set of signals from swimmers based on an attitude and heading reference system (AHRS), and a machine learning workflow for data analysis is used to extract a selection of indicators that allows analysis of a swimmer's performance. Based on the AHRS data, three novel indicators are proposed: trunk elevation, body balance, and body rotation. Experimental evaluation has shown promising results, with a 100% accuracy in swim lap segmentation, a precision of 100% in the recognition of backstroke, and a precision of 89.60% in the three remaining swimming techniques (butterfly, breaststroke, and front crawl). The performance indicators proposed here provide valuable information for both swimmers and coaches in their quest for enhancing performance and preventing injuries.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-11-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7110238
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 11 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 239: Vitamin D Status Differs by Sex, Sport-Season,
           and Skin Pigmentation among Elite Collegiate Basketball Players

    • Authors: Jennifer B. Fields, Daniel C. Payne, Sina Gallo, Deanna R. Busteed, Margaret T. Jones
      First page: 239
      Abstract: Vitamin D plays a key role in bone health, musculoskeletal function, and sport performance. Collegiate athletes competing in indoor sports may be at greater risk of vitamin D deficiency due to limited outdoor time. Therefore, the purpose was to assess 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations among collegiate men and women basketball (MBB, WBB) athletes. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I men (MBB, n = 11) and women (WBB, n = 9) were tested during the off-season (T1; July) and pre-season (T2; October). Measurements included serum 25(OH)D; skin pigmentation, bone mineral density, and daily sun exposure (self-reported). Paired t-tests determined changes in 25(OH)D by sport-season and sex. Pearson correlations examined relationships between outcome variables. MBB athletes (mean ± SD; 19.6 ± 1.3 years) showed a reduction in 25(OH)D (T1: 64.53 nmol·L−1 ± 11.96) (T2: 56.11 nmol·L−1 ± 7.90) (p = 0.001). WBB (20.1 ± 1.1 years) had no change in 25(OH)D (T1: 99.07 nmol·L−1 ± 49.94. T2: 97.56 nmol·L−1 ± 36.47, p = 0.848). A positive association between 25(OH)D and skin pigmentation was observed (r = 0.47, p = 0.038). 25(OH)D was inversely correlated with lean body mass (LBM), body mass (BM), and bone mineral density (BMD), while a positive association was seen between 25(OH)D and skin pigmentation. In summary, 25(OH)D insufficiency was prevalent amongst male collegiate basketball athletes, with 25(OH)D levels being lower in the pre-season (October) than the off-season (July). Furthermore, darker skin pigmentation significantly correlated with 25(OH)D, indicating that individuals with darker skin tones may be at a greater risk of insufficiency/deficiency. More research is needed to examine the relationships between 25(OH)D and bone health in athletes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-11-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7110239
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 11 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 240: Exploring Children’s Physical Activity
           Behaviours According to Location: A Mixed-Methods Case Study

    • Authors: Irfan Khawaja, Lorayne Woodfield, Peter Collins, Adam Benkwitz, Alan Nevill
      First page: 240
      Abstract: The school environment is ideally placed to facilitate physical activity (PA) with numerous windows of opportunity from break and lunch times, to lesson times and extracurricular clubs. However, little is known about how children interact with the school environment to engage in PA and the other locations they visit daily, including time spent outside of the school environment i.e., evening and weekend locations. Moreover, there has been little research incorporating a mixed-methods approach that captures children’s voices alongside objectively tracking children’s PA patterns. The aim of this study was to explore children’s PA behaviours according to different locations. Sixty children (29 boys, 31 girls)—35 key stage 2 (aged 9–11) and 25 key stage 3 (aged 11–13)—wore an integrated global positioning systems (GPS) and heart rate (HR) monitor over four consecutive days. A subsample of children (n = 32) were invited to take part in one of six focus groups to further explore PA behaviours and identify barriers and facilitators to PA. Children also completed a PA diary. The KS2 children spent significantly more time outdoors than KS3 children (p = 0.009). Boys engaged in more light PA (LPA) when on foot and in school, compared with girls (p = 0.003). KS3 children engaged in significantly more moderate PA (MPA) at school than KS2 children (p = 0.006). Focus groups revealed fun, enjoyment, friends, and family to be associated with PA, and technology, costs, and weather to be barriers to PA. This mixed methodological study highlights differences in the PA patterns and perceptions of children according to age and gender. Future studies should utilize a multi-method approach to gain a greater insight into children’s PA patterns and inform future health policies that differentiate among a range of demographic groups of children.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-11-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7110240
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 11 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 214: Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Ratio in Female
           Athletes with a Previous Hamstring Injury, Anterior Cruciate Ligament
           Reconstruction, and Controls

    • Authors: Eleftherios Kellis, Nikiforos Galanis, Nikolaos Kofotolis
      First page: 214
      Abstract: Muscle strength imbalances around the knee are often observed in athletes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery and hamstring muscle injury. This study examined three hamstrings-to-quadriceps (H:Q) strength ratio types (conventional, functional, and mixed) in thirteen female athletes with a history of hamstring injury, fourteen basketball players following ACL reconstruction and 34 controls. The conventional (concentric H:Q) peak torque ratio was evaluated at 120°·s−1 and 240°·s−1. The functional (eccentric hamstring to concentric quadriceps) torque ratio was evaluated at 120°·s−1. Finally, the mixed (eccentric hamstrings at 30°·s−1 to concentric quadriceps at 240°·s−1) torque ratio was calculated. Both ACL and the hamstring-injured groups showed a lower quadriceps and hamstrings strength compared with controls (p < 0.05). However, non-significant group differences in the H:Q ratio were found (p > 0.05). Isokinetic assessment of muscle strength may be useful for setting appropriate targets of training programs for athletes with a history of ACL surgery or hamstring strain. However, isokinetic evaluation of the H:Q ratio is not injury—specific and it does not vary between different methods of calculating the H:Q ratio.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7100214
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 10 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 215: A Comparison of Machine versus Free-Weight
           Squats for the Enhancement of Lower-Body Power, Speed, and
           Change-of-Direction Ability during an Initial Training Phase of
           Recreationally-Active Women

    • Authors: Neil A. Schwarz, Sean P. Harper, Andy Waldhelm, Sarah K. McKinley-Barnard, Shelley L. Holden, John E. Kovaleski
      First page: 215
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine differences between a free-weight squat (FWS) and machine squat (MS) during an initial resistance training phase for augmentation of performance tests in recreationally active women. Twenty-seven women (22.7 ± 3.5 years) were block-randomized to three groups: FWS, MS, or control (CON) and completed pre- and post-testing sessions consisting of the squat one-repetition maximum (1-RM), vertical jump, pro-agility test, zig-zag change-of-direction (COD) test, and 30-meter sprint. Participants trained two sessions per week for six weeks by performing jumping, sprinting, and COD drills followed by FWS, MS, or no squats (CON). Peak jump power increased for CON (p = 0.03) and MS (p < 0.01) groups. Change in peak jump power was greater for the MS group compared with the FWS group (p = 0.05). Average jump power increased for the MS group (p < 0.01). Change in average jump power was greater for the MS group compared with the CON group (p = 0.04). Vertical jump height, pro-agility, 30-meter sprint, and zig-zag COD tests improved over time (p < 0.01), with no difference between groups (p > 0.05). Machine squat training maximized jumping power compared with FWS training and CON. Both resistance training groups and the CON group improved equally in the pro-agility, 30-meter sprint, and zig-zag COD tests. Machine squat training may provide performance-enhancing benefits of equal or superior value to those obtained with free-weight squat training in recreationally active women during an initial training mesocycle. These findings also stress the importance of task-specific training in this population of untrained women, as the control group improved in terms of performance to the same degree as both resistance training groups.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7100215
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 10 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 216: Is Physical Performance a Differentiating
           Element between More or Less Successful Football Teams'

    • Authors: Asian Clemente, Requena, Jukic, Nayler, Hernández, Carling
      First page: 216
      Abstract: This study investigated the time-motion characteristics of football teams in the Spanish first division, in relation to their final competitive level as defined by league position (Champions League, Europa League, Upper mid-table, lower mid-table and relegation). Match observations (n = 9641) were collected using a multiple-camera computerized tracking system during the 2013–2014 competitive season. The following match parameters were analyzed: total distance, relative distance (m·min−1), distance < 14 km·h−1, >14 km·h−1, between 14–21 km·h−1, >21 km·h−1, and >24 km·h−1. Total distance and distance at different velocities (>14, 21, and 24 km·h−1) in and out of ball possession were also analyzed. A repeated analysis of variance and a comparison of effect sizes were carried out to compare the performance of the teams. The analysis of the data showed differences in physical performance characteristics between competitive levels. The volume of distance covered in the variables analyzed did not relate to success in soccer. Both successful and unsuccessful teams presented the same running requirements at higher velocities. These findings provide valuable information about the physical demands of the running requirements according to their final position in the league table.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7100216
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 10 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 217: The Validity of Functional Threshold Power and
           Maximal Oxygen Uptake for Cycling Performance in Moderately Trained

    • Authors: Arne Sørensen, Tore Kristian Aune, Vegar Rangul, Terje Dalen
      First page: 217
      Abstract: Cycling is a popular sport, and evaluation of the validity of tests to predict performance in competitions is important for athletes and coaches. Similarity between performance in sprints in mass-start bike races and in the laboratory is found, but, to our knowledge, no studies have investigated the relationship between laboratory measurements of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and functional threshold power (FTP) with performance in official mass-start competitions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of a 20 min FTP test and VO2max as predictors for performance in an official mountain bike competition. Eleven moderately trained male cyclists at a local level participated in this study (age: 43 ± 5.1 years; height: 183.4 ± 5.4 m; weight: 84.4 ± 8.7 kg; body mass index: 25.1 ± 2.1). All subjects performed a 20 min FTP test in the laboratory to measure the mean power. In addition, the subjects completed an incremental test to exhaustion to determine VO2max. These two laboratory tests were analyzed together with the results from a 47 km mass-start mountain bike race, with a total elevation of 851 m. A significant relationship was found between the mean relative power (W/kg) for the 20 min FTP test and performance time in the race (r = −0.74, P < 0.01). No significant correlation was found between VO2max and cycling performance for these subjects (r = −0.37). These findings indicate that a 20 min FTP test is a more valid test for prediction of performance in mass-start bike races than a VO2max test for moderately trained cyclists.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7100217
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 10 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 218: Isometric Posterior Chain Peak Force Recovery
           Response Following Match-Play in Elite Youth Soccer Players: Associations
           with Relative Posterior Chain Strength

    • Authors: Constantine, Taberner, Richter, Willett, Cohen
      First page: 218
      Abstract: : The purpose of this study was to determine changes in two tests of lower limb isometric posterior chain force (IPC-F) following 90 min of match-play in elite youth soccer players and the interaction between relative strength and recovery profile. 14 players (age: 16 ± 2 years) performed 3 × 3 second IPC-F tests unilaterally at 30° and 90° of knee and hip flexion pre- and post-match, +24 h, +48 h, and +72 h post-match. Peak force was recorded for both limbs, combined and expressed relative to bodyweight (N/kg). A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in force output between joint angles, time intervals and subjects. As there was no interaction between angle and time (p = 0.260), we report the change between timepoints as mean Δ in 90° + 30° IPC-F. Relative to pre-match IPC-F, there were significant decreases post (Δ = −18%; p > 0.001) and at +24 h (Δ = −8%; p = 0.040), no significant difference at +48 h (Δ = 0%; p = 0.992) and a significant increase at +72 h (Δ = +12%; p = 0.005). There was a large inter-individual variability in recovery profile at both angles and substantial differences between post-match deficits at 90° (−10.8%) compared to 30° (−20.7%). Higher pre-match IPC-F was correlated with the magnitude of IPC-F deficits at both angles and all time points (r = 0.56 to 0.70, p = < 0.01) except for post-match 90°. Regular IPC-F monitoring to determine the magnitude of match-induced fatigue and track recovery may help inform decision-making regarding modifications to individual players training load, particularly as there is a large inter-individual variability in response to competition. Further research is warranted to better understand and address the finding that stronger players showed larger force deficits and slower recovery following match-play.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7100218
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 10 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 219: Effects of Plyometric Training on Sprint
           Running Performance in Boys Aged 9–12 Years

    • Authors: Nobuaki Tottori, Satoshi Fujita
      First page: 219
      Abstract: Skilled sprinting is fundamental in many sports, especially to improve athletic performance in youth. This study therefore aimed to investigate the effect of plyometric training on sprint performance in boys aged 9–12 years. Twenty boys were divided into a plyometric training group (n = 9) and a control training group (n = 11). In both groups, participants performed respective training programs once per week for 8 weeks with measurements at baseline and post-intervention. Sprint performance was assessed by 50-m sprint time, sprint velocity, step frequency and step length at 10-m intervals. Jumping performance was assessed using horizontal, vertical and rebound jumps. The plyometric training group showed an improved sprint velocity at 20–30 m, 30–40 m and 40–50 m, and step length at 0–10 m, 20–30 m and 30–40 m (p < 0.05). Furthermore, only the plyometric group showed an increased standing long jump distance and rebound jump performance (p < 0.05). The control group did not show any significant changes in any variable. Our findings suggest that plyometric training in pre-adolescent boys improves sprint velocity and step length at the maximum velocity phase concomitant with increased horizontal and rebound jump performance.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-10-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7100219
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 10 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 220: Acute Metabolic Changes with Lower
           Leg-Positioned Wearable Resistances during Submaximal Running in
           Endurance-Trained Runners

    • Authors: Field, Gill, Uthoff, Plews
      First page: 220
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the acute metabolic effects of different magnitudes of wearable resistance (WR) attached to the lower leg during submaximal running. Fifteen endurance-trained runners (37.8 ± 6.4 years; 1.77 ± 0.7 m; 72.5 ± 9.8 kg; 58.9 ± 7.4 L/min VO2max; 45.7 ± 5.8 min 10 K run time) completed seven submaximal running trials with WR loads of 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3% body mass (BM). Based on regression data, for every 1% BM increase of additional load, oxygen consumption (VO2) increased by 2.56% and heart rate increased by 1.16%. Inferential based analysis identified that ≤1% BM were enough to elicit responses in VO2, with a possible small increase (effect size (ES), 90% confidence interval (CI): 0.22, 0.17 to 0.39), while 3% BM loads produced a most likely very large increase (ES, 90% CI: 0.51, 0.42 to 0.60). A training load score was extrapolated using heart rate data to determine the amount of internal stress. An additional 1% BM resulted in an extra 0.39 (0.29 to 0.47) increase in internal stress over five minutes. Lower leg WR elicited substantial increases in lactate production from the lightest loading (0.5% BM), with a likely moderate increase (ES, 90% CI: 0.49, 0.30 to 0.95). Lower-leg positioned WR provides a running-specific overload with loads ≥ 1% BM resulting in substantial changes in metabolic responses.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-10-11
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7100220
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 10 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 221: Effects of Different Combinations of Concentric
           and Eccentric Resistance Training Programs on Traditional and Alternative
           Hamstrings-to-Quadriceps Ratios

    • Authors: Cassio V. Ruas, Ronei S. Pinto, Guy G. Haff, Camila D. Lima, Lee E. Brown
      First page: 221
      Abstract: Resistance training is often recommended for combined increases in traditional and alternative hamstrings-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratios in order to reduce knee strength imbalance and associated hamstrings and knee ligament injury risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different concentric and eccentric resistance training programs on traditional and alternative H:Q ratios. Forty male volunteers were assigned to one of 4 groups: concentric quadriceps and concentric hamstrings (CON/CON, n = 10), eccentric quadriceps and eccentric hamstrings (ECC/ECC, n = 10), concentric quadriceps and eccentric hamstrings (CON/ECC, n = 10), or no training (control (CNTRL), n = 10). Traditional conventional (CR) and functional (FR), alternative rate of torque development (RTD), muscle size (MS), and muscle activation (MA) H:Q ratios were measured before and after six weeks of unilateral nondominant knee extension–flexion resistance training performed on an isokinetic dynamometer. The ECC/ECC training significantly increased FR (pre = 0.75 ± 0.11; post = 0.85 ± 0.15), whereas the lack of training (CNTRL) decreased the RTD H:Q ratio (pre = 1.10 ± 0.67; post = 0.73 ± 0.33). There were no differences between groups for the other traditional and alternative ratios following resistance training protocols. These findings suggest eccentric exercise for quadriceps and hamstrings as the most beneficial training program for inducing increases in the traditional FR. However, different resistance training strategies may be needed to also elicit increases in the alternative RTD, MS, and MA H:Q ratios for fully restoring muscle balance and reducing potential hamstrings and knee ligament injury risk.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-10-12
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7100221
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 10 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 222: Development of Physical Fitness among the Top
           10 Boys and Girls in Sport Schools: A 10-Year Cohort Analysis

    • Authors: Andreas Roth, Steffen CE Schmidt, Sina Hartmann, Ilka Seidel, Swantje Scharenberg, Klaus Bös
      First page: 222
      Abstract: In this study, we aimed to measure the development of physical fitness (PF) of 10 different cohorts in grade 4 and 8 different cohorts in grade 7 at 18 sport schools of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. A total of 11,451 subjects (3979 female, 7472 male) aged 8–12 from the past 10 years were assessed using the German Motor Test (DMT) in grade 4. We tested 2614 subjects (1032 girls, 1582 boys) aged 11–15 from the past eight years using the DMT in grade 7. PF talents were defined as the top 10 boys and top 10 girls of each cohort. Linear regression was calculated to assess the development of PF. The PF of all subjects remained stable in grade 4 and declined in grade 7. The PF of the top 10 boys and top 10 girls increased in both grades. The improvements were stronger in grade 7 (female: rates of change (β) = 0.80; male: β = 0.76) than in grade 4 (female: β = 0.36; male: β = 0.32). Sit-ups and push-ups showed the highest change rates. The increase in PF of the top 10 boys and girls can be interpreted as a success for sport schools. Due to the increasing number of test participants, the likelihood of finding top talent increased. However, the increase in PF in the top talents was only partly explained by an increase in the number of tested individuals.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-10-12
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7100222
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 10 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 223: Effect of Thirst-Driven Fluid Intake on 1 H
           Cycling Time-Trial Performance in Trained Endurance Athletes

    • Authors: Maxime Perreault-Briere, Jeff Beliveau, David Jeker, Thomas A. Deshayes, Ana Duran, Eric D. B. Goulet
      First page: 223
      Abstract: A meta-analysis demonstrated that programmed fluid intake (PFI) aimed at fully replacing sweat losses during a 1 h high-intensity cycling exercise impairs performance compared with no fluid intake (NFI). It was reported that thirst-driven fluid intake (TDFI) may optimize cycling performance, compared with when fluid is consumed more than thirst dictates. However, how TDFI, compared with PFI and NFI, impacts performance during a 1 h cycling time-trial performance remains unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of NFI, TDFI and PFI on 1 h cycling time-trial performance. Using a randomized, crossover and counterbalanced protocol, 9 (7 males and 2 females) trained endurance athletes (30 ± 9 years; Peak V · O2∶ 59 ± 8 mL·kg−1·min−1) completed three 1 h cycling time-trials (30 °C, 50% RH) with either NFI, TDFI or PFI designed to maintain body mass (BM) at ~0.5% of pre-exercise BM. Body mass loss reached 2.9 ± 0.4, 2.2 ± 0.3 and 0.6 ± 0.2% with NFI, TDFI and PFI, respectively. Heart rate, rectal and mean skin temperatures and ratings of perceived exertion and of abdominal discomfort diverged marginally among trials. Mean distance completed (NFI: 35.6 ± 1.9 km; TDFI: 35.8 ± 2.0; PFI: 35.7 ± 2.0) and, hence, average power output maintained during the time-trials did not significantly differ among trials, and the impact of both PFI and TDFI vs. NFI was deemed trivial or unclear. These findings indicate that neither PFI nor TDFI are likely to offer any advantage over NFI during a 1 h cycling time-trial.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-10-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7100223
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 10 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 224: Muscle Activation in Traditional and
           Experimental Barbell Bench Press Exercise: A Potential New Tool for
           Fitness Maintenance

    • Authors: Andrea Melani, Giuliana Gobbi, Daniela Galli, Cecilia Carubbi, Elena Masselli, Luca Maria Neri, Gaspare Giovinco, Antonio Cicchella, Laura Galuppo, Valentina Presta, Mauro Vaccarezza, Marco Vitale, Prisco Mirandola
      First page: 224
      Abstract: Background: The bench press exercise (BP) is commonly practiced in both recreational and professional training. The weight is lowered from a position where the elbows are at a 90° angle at the start and <90° at the end of eccentric phase, and then returned to the elbows extended position. In order to focus the exercise more on the triceps brachii (TB) rather than the pectoralis major (PM), the inter-handle distance (IHD) is decreased diminishing the involvement of the PM in favor of the TB. Purpose: To improve performance of the exercise by reducing force dissociation and transmitting 100% of the external load to the muscle tissue we propose a prototype of the barbell with a bar on which two sleeves are capable of sliding. The dynamic modifications of the IHD keep the elbow flexion angle constant at 90°. Results: Analysis of the inter-handle distance (IHD) signals of the upper body muscles showed a marked increase in muscle activity using the experimental barbell for the PM (19.5%) and for the biceps brachii (173%). Conclusions: The experimental barbell increased the muscle activity typical of the bench press exercise, obtaining the same training induction with a lower load and consequently preventing articular stress.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7100224
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 10 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 225: Heart Rate Variability, Neuromuscular and
           Perceptual Recovery Following Resistance Training

    • Authors: Andrew A. Flatt, Liam Globensky, Evan Bass, Brooke L. Sapp, Bryan L. Riemann
      First page: 225
      Abstract: We quantified associations between changes in heart rate variability (HRV), neuromuscular and perceptual recovery following intense resistance training (RT). Adult males (n = 10) with >1 year RT experience performed six sets to failure with 90% of 10 repetition maximum in the squat, bench press, and pull-down. Changes (∆) from pre- to immediately (IP), 24 and 48 h post-RT were calculated for neuromuscular performance markers (counter-movement jump peak power and mean concentric bench press and squat velocity with load corresponding to 1.0 m∙s−1) and perceived recovery and soreness scales. Post-waking natural logarithm of the root-mean square of successive differences (LnRMSSD) in supine and standing positions were recorded pre-RT (5 day baseline), IP and two mornings post-RT. All parameters worsened at IP (p < 0.05). LnRMSSD measures were not different from baseline by 24 h. Neuromuscular markers were not different from pre-RT by 48 h. Perceptual measures remained suppressed at 48 h. No significant associations among ∆ variables were observed (p = 0.052–0.978). These data show varying timeframes of recovery for HRV, neuromuscular and perceptual markers at the group and individual level. Thus, post-RT recovery testing should be specific and the status of one metric should not be used to infer that of another.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7100225
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 10 (2019)
  • Sports, Vol. 7, Pages 226: Post-Exercise Recovery Following 30-Day
           Supplementation of Trans-Resveratrol and Polyphenol-Enriched Extracts

    • Authors: Edward Jo, Rachel Bartosh, Alexandra T. Auslander, Dean Directo, Adam Osmond, Michael WH Wong
      First page: 226
      Abstract: Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 30-day consumption of trans-resveratrol and polyphenol-enriched extracts on indices of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and performance following eccentric-loaded resistance exercise (ECRE). Methods: Following 30 days of resveratrol-polyphenol (RES) (n = 10) or placebo control (CTL) (n = 12) supplementation, subjects performed a bout of ECRE to induce EIMD. EIMD biomarkers, perceived soreness, pain threshold and tolerance, range of motion, and performance were measured before and 24 and 48 h after ECRE. Results: CTL subjects demonstrated increased soreness at 24 (p = 0.02) and 48 h (p = 0.03) post-ECRE, while RES subjects reported increased soreness at 24 h post-ECRE (p = 0.0003). CTL subjects exhibited decreased pain threshold in the vastus lateralis at 24 h post-ECRE (p = 0.03). CTL subjects also displayed decreased pain tolerance in the vastus intermedius at 24 h post-ECRE (p = 0.03) and the vastus lateralis at 24 (p = 0.003) and 48 h (p = 0.003). RES participants showed no change in pain threshold or tolerance from baseline. CTL subjects showed a decrease in mean (p = 0.04) and peak power (p = 0.04) at 24 h post-ECRE, while RES participants demonstrated no changes from baseline. No between-group differences were observed for the changes in serum creatine kinase. Serum C-reactive protein increased similarly in both groups at 24 h post-ECRE (p < 0.002), remaining elevated in CTL subjects while RES participants demonstrated a decline from 24 to 48 h (p = 0.04). Serum interleukin 6 increased at 24 h post-ECRE in both groups (p < 0.003) followed by a decrease from 24 to 48 h, returning to baseline levels only for RES subjects. Conclusion: Trans-resveratrol and polyphenol-enriched extract supplementation may support the attenuation of soreness and inflammation and improve performance recovery following ECRE without modulation of indirect biomarkers of EIMD.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2019-10-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sports7100226
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 10 (2019)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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