Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1543 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (725 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (130 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 130 of 130 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACSMs Health & Fitness Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACTIVE : Journal of Physical Education, Sport, Health and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ágora para la Educación Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education     Open Access  
American Journal of Sexuality Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Applied Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Apunts. Medicina de l'Esport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Arab Journal of Nutrition and Exercise     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Exercise in Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arquivos de Ciências do Esporte     Open Access  
Arquivos em Movimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arrancada     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Athletic Training & Sports Health Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
BMC Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Childhood Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
eJRIEPS : Ejournal de la recherche sur l'intervention en éducation physique et sport     Open Access  
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Éthique & Santé     Full-text available via subscription  
Fat Studies : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Body Weight and Society     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Fisioterapia em Movimento     Open Access  
Fitness & Performance Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food Science and Human Wellness     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Sports and Active Living     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Gelanggang Pendidikan Jasmani Indonesia     Open Access  
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geron     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Health and Physical Education Pedagogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Health Education Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Health Marketing Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Home Healthcare Now     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Human Movement     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Human Movement Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
IISE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesia Performance Journal     Open Access  
İnönü Üniversitesi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
International Journal of Men's Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
International Journal of Obesity Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Spa and Wellness     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sport, Exercise & Training Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Isokinetics and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of American College Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Athlete Development and Experience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Human Sport and Exercise     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Motor Learning and Development     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Physical Activity and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Physical Activity and Hormones     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Activity Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Physical Education and Human Movement     Open Access  
Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sport and Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Sport Sciences and Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Jurnal Pendidikan Kesehatan Rekreasi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Kerbala Magazine of Physical Edu. Seiences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Kinesiology : International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Kinesiology     Open Access  
Kinesiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Krankenhaus-Hygiene - Infektionsverhütung     Full-text available via subscription  
Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Médecine & Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription  
Mental Health and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
MHSalud : Movimiento Humano y Salud     Open Access  
Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Obesity Research & Clinical Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Obesity Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Obesity Science & Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Obesity Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pain Management in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
PALAESTRA : Adapted Sport, Physical Education, and Recreational Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Physical Activity and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Preventing Chronic Disease     Free   (Followers: 2)
Psychology of Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Quality in Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Race and Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBONE - Revista Brasileira de Obesidade, Nutrição e Emagrecimento     Open Access  
RBPFEX - Revista Brasileira de Prescrição e Fisiologia do Exercício     Open Access  
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport     Hybrid Journal  
Retos : Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deportes y Recreación     Open Access  
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Atividade Física & Saúde     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Ciências do Esporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Educação Física e Esporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista da Educação Física : UEM     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología del Ejercicio y el Deporte     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte : International Journal of Medicine and Science of Physical Activity and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue phénEPS / PHEnex Journal     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
SIPATAHOENAN : South-East Asian Journal for Youth, Sports & Health Education     Open Access  
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Sport and Fitness Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Sport Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Sport Sciences for Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport- und Präventivmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
SPORTIVE : Journal Of Physical Education, Sport and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Strength & Conditioning Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Timisoara Physical Education and Rehabilitation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise     Open Access  
Yoga Mimamsa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Здоровье человека, теория и методика физической культуры и спорта     Open Access  


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2075-4663
Published by MDPI Homepage  [231 journals]
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 115: Changes in Body Composition and Its
           Relationship to Performance in Elite Female Track and Field Athletes
           Transitioning to the Senior Division

    • Authors: Yuka Tsukahara, Suguru Torii, Fumihiro Yamasawa, Jun Iwamoto, Takanobu Otsuka, Hideyuki Goto, Torao Kusakabe, Hideo Matsumoto, Takao Akama
      First page: 115
      Abstract: Many elite female athletes struggle to maintain performance while transitioning from high school to university-level (senior) sports. This study explores factors of body composition that influenced performance in elite junior female track and field athletes transitioning to the senior division. Forty-two elite female track and field athletes, ranked among the top 100 in Japan, were enrolled in this study. Whole-body mode dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans were performed during the post-season of 2016 and 2017. Athletes’ performances were assessed using the International Association of Athletics Federation scoring system. Relationships between changes in performance and those in body composition were investigated. There were significant negative correlations between changes in performance and fat mass (FM), and percentage FM (FM%). This was seen in total body and lower extremities, and not in the trunk and upper extremities. In addition, there was a positive correlation between changes in performance and percentage lean mass (LM%). However, there were no correlations between changes in performance and LM and total mass. Elite female track and field athletes transitioning to senior division should decrease their FM and FM% and increase LM%, to sustain or improve performance. It is also more important to monitor changes in body composition than body mass.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-08-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8090115
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 116: Physiological and Race Pace Characteristics of
           Medium and Low-Level Athens Marathon Runners

    • Authors: Aristides Myrkos, Ilias Smilios, Eleni Maria Kokkinou, Evangelos Rousopoulos, Helen Douda
      First page: 116
      Abstract: This study examined physiological and race pace characteristics of medium- (finish time < 240 min) and low-level (finish time > 240 min) recreational runners who participated in a challenging marathon route with rolling hills, the Athens Authentic Marathon. Fifteen athletes (age: 42 ± 7 years) performed an incremental test, three to nine days before the 2018 Athens Marathon, to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), maximal aerobic velocity (MAV), energy cost of running (ECr) and lactate threshold velocity (vLTh), and were analyzed for their pacing during the race. Moderate- (n = 8) compared with low-level (n = 7) runners had higher (p < 0.05) VO2 max (55.6 ± 3.6 vs. 48.9 ± 4.8 mL·kg−1·min−1), MAV (16.5 ± 0.7 vs. 14.4 ± 1.2 km·h−1) and vLTh (11.6 ± 0.8 vs. 9.2 ± 0.7 km·h−1) and lower ECr at 10 km/h (1.137 ± 0.096 vs. 1.232 ± 0.068 kcal·kg−1·km−1). Medium-level runners ran the marathon at a higher percentage of vLTh (105.1 ± 4.7 vs. 93.8 ± 6.2%) and VO2 max (79.7 ± 7.7 vs. 68.8 ± 5.7%). Low-level runners ran at a lower percentage (p < 0.05) of their vLTh in the 21.1–30 km (total ascent/decent: 122 m/5 m) and the 30–42.195 km (total ascent/decent: 32 m/155 m) splits. Moderate-level runners are less affected in their pacing than low-level runners during a marathon route with rolling hills. This could be due to superior physiological characteristics such as VO2 max, ECr, vLTh and fractional utilization of VO2 max. A marathon race pace strategy should be selected individually according to each athlete’s level.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-08-21
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8090116
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 117: Reliability of the Polar Vantage M Sports Watch
           when Measuring Heart Rate at Different Treadmill Exercise Intensities

    • Authors: Mike Climstein, Jessica L. Alder, Alyce M. Brooker, Elissa J. Cartwright, Kevin Kemp-Smith, Vini Simas, James Furness
      First page: 117
      Abstract: Background: Usage of wrist-worn activity monitors has rapidly increased in recent years, and these devices are being used by both fitness enthusiasts and in clinical populations. We, therefore, assessed the test–retest reliability of the Polar Vantage M (PVM) watch when measuring heart rate (HR) during various treadmill exercise intensities. Methods: HR was measured every 30 s (simultaneous electrocardiography (ECG) and PVM). Test–retest reliability was determined using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Standard error of measurement (SEM) and smallest real difference (SRD) were used to determine measurement variability. Results: A total of 29 participants completed the trials. ICC values for PVM during stages 1, 2 and 5 demonstrated good to excellent test–retest reliability (0.78, 0.78 and 0.92; 95% CI (0.54–0.90, 0.54–0.9, 0.79–0.97)). For PVM during stages 0 (rest), 3 and 4, the ICC values indicated poor to good reliability (0.42, 0.68 and 0.58; 95% CI (−0.27–0.73, 0.32–0.85, 0.14–0.80)). Conclusion: This study identified that the test–retest reliability of the PVM was comparable at low and high exercise intensities; however, it revealed a poor to good test–retest reliability at moderate intensities. The PVM should not be used in a clinical setting where monitoring of an accurate HR is crucial to the patients’ safety.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-08-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8090117
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 118: Survey of Barbell Trajectory and Kinematics of
           the Snatch Lift from the 2015 World and 2017 Pan-American Weightlifting

    • Authors: Aaron J. Cunanan, W. Guy Hornsby, Mark A. South, Kristina P. Ushakova, Satoshi Mizuguchi, Kimitake Sato, Kyle C. Pierce, Michael H. Stone
      First page: 118
      Abstract: Analysis of elite performances is important to elucidate the characteristics of effective weightlifting technique contributing to the highest level of achievement. The general technique of the weightlifting movements is well established. However, it is also apparent that weightlifting technique can differ based on athlete characteristics. Thus, existing technical models may not accurately reflect current technique of top performers or be applied generically to athletes of different skill, size, sex, or ability. Therefore, the purpose of this descriptive study was to update the scientific knowledge of snatch technique of top international weightlifters. This study used video analysis to determine barbell trajectory and kinematics of 319 successful snatch attempts from two major international competitions. Relative frequencies of barbell trajectory types differed based on competition, sex, category, and ranking. No statistical differences were observed among the top-three performers for either sex for most kinematic variables, and there were no overall discernible patterns of effect size differences for individual or clusters of kinematic variables. The results of this study indicate that weightlifting success can be achieved with a variety of technique profiles.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-08-25
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8090118
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 119: Acute Static Stretching Results in
           Muscle-Specific Alterations amongst the Hamstring Muscles

    • Authors: Manon Riccetti, Jules Opplert, Joao L. Q. Durigan, Carole Cometti, Nicolas Babault
      First page: 119
      Abstract: This study aimed to explore the acute effects of static stretching on the musculotendinous properties of two hamstring muscles. Twelve male volunteers underwent two testing sessions. One session was dedicated to the evaluation of the semitendinosus muscle before (PRE) and after (POST) static stretching (five sets of 30-s stretching), and the other session similarly explored the long head of biceps femoris muscle. In addition to the displacement of the myotendinous junction (MTJ), passive torque and maximal voluntary isometric torque (MVIT) were evaluated. MVIT (−8.3 ± 10.2%, p = 0.0036, d = 0.497) and passive torque (−28.4 ± 16.9%, p = 0.0003, d = 1.017) were significantly decreased POST stretching. PRE stretching, MTJ displacement was significantly greater for semitendinosus muscle than biceps femoris muscle (27.0 ± 5.2 vs. 18.6 ± 3.6, p = 0.0011, d = 1.975). After the stretching procedure, greater MTJ displacement relative changes were observed for biceps femoris muscle as compared to semitendinosus muscle (22.4 ± 31.6 vs. −8.4 ± 17.9, p = 0.0167, d = 1.252). Because of the smaller MTJ displacement PRE stretching and greater alteration POST stretching in biceps femoris muscles, the present study demonstrated muscle-specific acute responses of hamstring muscles during stretching. Although stretching acutely impairs torque production, the passive torque reduction and alteration of MTJ displacement might impact hamstring injury prevention.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-08-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8090119
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 120: Associations between Motor Competence, Physical
           Self-Perception and Autonomous Motivation for Physical Activity in

    • Authors: Ole Kristian Ensrud-Skraastad, Monika Haga
      First page: 120
      Abstract: Research indicates that children and adolescents gradually participate less in physical activity with age. Several factors are associated with children’s physical activity levels, such as motor performance, self-perception of athletic competence and motivation to physical activity. To gain a better understanding of the factors of importance for behavior related to an active lifestyle, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between motor competence, physical self-perception and autonomous motivation and to examine to what extent this association may vary by sex. The sample consisted of 101 children, whose average age was 11.7 years (SD = 0.57), 53 boys and 48 girls. All subjects were measured on motor competence, physical self-perception and autonomous motivation for physical activity. The results indicate a low positive relationship between motor competence and physical self-perception for the entire sample and among girls. There is also a significant correlation between autonomous motivation and physical self-perception. No significant correlations were found between autonomous motivation and motor competence. The association between physical self-perception and autonomous motivation suggests that psychological factors play an important role in children’s participation in physical activity.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8090120
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 121: The Effect of Resistance Exercise Intensity on
           Acute Hyperglycemia in Young Adult Males

    • Authors: Evan E. Schick, Luis E. Segura, Shayán Emamjomeh, Joshua A. Cotter
      First page: 121
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of resistance exercise (RE) intensity on acute hyperglycemia, in young adult males. Thirteen males (age 23.43 ± 2.18 years, height 175.16 ± 10.44 cm, weight 77.02 ± 8.91 kg, body fat 20 ± 0.03%) participated in three randomized testing sessions, each separated by 96 h. The three testing conditions were: control (CON; induction of hyperglycemia with no-exercise), high (HI; induction of hyperglycemia followed by high-intensity RE: 5 × 4, 90% 1-repetition maximum (1-RM)), and moderate (MO; induction of hyperglycemia followed by low-intensity RE: 3 × 14, 65% 1-RM). In all three testing conditions, participants orally ingested a D100 (100 g/10 oz) glucose beverage at a dosage of 2 g glucose/kg body weight and capillary blood was obtained for plasma glucose and insulin analysis at 0 (fasting), 30, 60, 90 and 120 min, following glucose ingestion. At 30-min post-ingestion in the HI and MO conditions, participants began the respective RE protocols. Acute hyperglycemia was achieved throughout all three 2-h testing conditions; mean 2-h plasma glucose levels during CON (7.1 ± 1.3 mmol∙L−1), MO (7.5 ± 0.6 mmol∙L−1) and HI (8.2 ± 1.9 mmol∙L−1) were all significantly (p < 0.05) greater than mean fasting plasma glucose (5.6 ± 0.46 mmol∙L−1). Plasma glucose and insulin did not differ (p < 0.05) between treatment conditions at any times points over the 120 min, however, 2-h glucose area under the curve in the HI condition was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than CON and MO. In conclusion, this study indicates that hyperglycemia, induced prior to RE, may be exacerbated by high-intensity RE.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-09-03
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8090121
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 122: Correction: Kaiseler, M., et al. The Impact of
           an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Course on the Wellbeing of Recovering UK
           Military Personnel: An Exploratory Study. Sports 2019, 7(5), 112

    • Authors: Mariana Kaiseler, Chris Kay, Jim McKenna
      First page: 122
      Abstract: The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [...]
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-09-03
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8090122
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 123: The Application of Critical Power, the Work
           Capacity above Critical Power (W′), and its Reconstitution: A Narrative
           Review of Current Evidence and Implications for Cycling Training

    • Authors: Chorley, Lamb
      First page: 123
      Abstract: The two-parameter critical power (CP) model is a robust mathematical interpretation of the power–duration relationship, with CP being the rate associated with the maximal aerobic steady state, and W′ the fixed amount of tolerable work above CP available without any recovery. The aim of this narrative review is to describe the CP concept and the methodologies used to assess it, and to summarize the research applying it to intermittent cycle training techniques. CP and W′ are traditionally assessed using a number of constant work rate cycling tests spread over several days. Alternatively, both the 3-min all-out and ramp all-out protocols provide valid measurements of CP and W′ from a single test, thereby enhancing their suitability to athletes and likely reducing errors associated with the assumptions of the CP model. As CP represents the physiological landmark that is the boundary between heavy and severe intensity domains, it presents several advantages over the de facto arbitrarily defined functional threshold power as the basis for cycle training prescription at intensities up to CP. For intensities above CP, precise prescription is not possible based solely on aerobic measures; however, the addition of the W′ parameter does facilitate the prescription of individualized training intensities and durations within the severe intensity domain. Modelling of W′ reconstitution extends this application, although more research is needed to identify the individual parameters that govern W′ reconstitution rates and their kinetics.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-09-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8090123
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 124: Isokinetic Dynamometry as a Tool to Predict
           Shoulder Injury in an Overhead Athlete Population: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Andrea Bagordo, Kimberly Ciletti, Kevin Kemp-Smith, Vini Simas, Mike Climstein, James Furness
      First page: 124
      Abstract: Prospective and cross-sectional studies have used pre-season isokinetic dynamometry strength and endurance measurements of shoulder internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) to determine if they can be correlated to injury. However, to date, no review has provided a synthesis of all available literature on this topic. The aim of this systematic review was to identify isokinetic dynamometry studies that assess shoulder IR and ER strength and endurance in the overhead athletic population in relation to shoulder injury. Electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, and SportDiscus) were searched through September 2019 using pre-determined search terms. Both prospective and cross-sectional studies were included in this review. Studies were assessed for quality using either Appraisal Tool for Cross-sectional Studies (AXIS) or Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). Data on outcome measures of strength and endurance peak torque (PT) and ratios (ER:IR) were extracted and further analysed using a best evidence synthesis approach. A total of 13 articles met the inclusion criteria. Conflicting evidence was found when reviewing all studies without differentiating by study type. Prospective study designs revealed strong evidence that reduced IR endurance and reduced strength ratios are predictive of shoulder injury. Cross-sectional literature showed only conflicting and limited evidence for all outcome measures. At this stage, more research is needed in individual sporting populations using prospective cohort designs.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-09-08
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8090124
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 125: Tapering and Peaking Maximal Strength for
           Powerlifting Performance: A Review

    • Authors: S. Kyle Travis, Iñigo Mujika, Jeremy A. Gentles, Michael H. Stone, Caleb D. Bazyler
      First page: 125
      Abstract: Prior to major competitions, athletes often use a peaking protocol such as tapering or training cessation to improve performance. The majority of the current literature has focused on endurance-based sports such as swimming, cycling, and running to better understand how and when to taper or use training cessation to achieve the desired performance outcome. However, evidence regarding peaking protocols for strength and power athletes is lacking. Current limitations for peaking maximal strength is that many studies do not provide sufficient details for practitioners to use. Thus, when working with athletes such as powerlifters, weightlifters, throwers, and strongman competitors, practitioners must use trial and error to determine the best means for peaking rather than using an evidence-based protocol. More specifically, determining how to peak maximal strength using data derived from strength and power athletes has not been established. While powerlifting training (i.e., back squat, bench press, deadlift) is used by strength and power athletes up until the final days prior to a competition, understanding how to peak maximal strength relative to powerlifting performance is still unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to review the literature on tapering and training cessation practices relative to peaking powerlifting performance.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-09-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8090125
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 126: The Specificity of Motor Learning Tasks
           Determines the Kind of Skating Skill Development in Older School-Age

    • Authors: Dominik Novak, Adam Tomasek, Patrycja Lipinska, Petr Stastny
      First page: 126
      Abstract: The specificity of motor learning tasks for skating development in older school-age children has not been sufficiently explored. The main objective was to compare the effects of training programs using change-of-direction (COD) speed exercises and partial skating task (SeqT) training on speed and agility performance in U12 ice hockey players. Thirteen young ice hockey males (13 ± 0.35 years, 41.92 ± 9.76 kg, 152.23 ± 9.41 cm) underwent three straight speed (4 and 30 m with and without a puck) and agility testing sessions before and after six weeks of COD training and then after a six-week intervention involving partial skating task (SeqT) training. The statistics were performed using magnitude-based decision (MBD) analysis to calculate the probability of the performance change achieved by the interventions. The MBD analysis showed that COD training had a large effect (11.7 ± 2.4% time decrease) on skating start improvement (straight sprint 4 m) and a small effect (−2.2 ± 2.4%) on improvement in agility with a puck. Partial skating task (SeqT) training had a large effect (5.4 ± 2.5%) on the improvement of the 30-m sprint with a puck and moderate effect on agility without a puck (1.9 ± 0.9%) and likely improved the 30-m sprint without a puck (2.6 ± 1.3%). COD training on the ice improves short starts and agility with a puck, while partial skating tasks (SeqT) target longer 30-m sprints and agility without a puck. Therefore, both types of training should be applied in accordance with motor learning tasks specific to current training needs.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8090126
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 127: Effects of an Initial Muscle Strength Level on
           Sports Performance Changes in Collegiate Soccer Players

    • Authors: Ai Ishida, Kyle Rochau, Kyle P. Findlay, Brandon Devero, Marco Duca, Michael H. Stone
      First page: 127
      Abstract: The purposes of this study were to investigate effects of partial block periodized strength training on physical performance and to examine relationships between initial muscle strength measured with isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) and performance changes after 7 weeks of strength training. Seventeen collegiate male soccer players participated. Initial muscle strength was determined using IMTP while physical performance included 10 m and 20 m sprints and static vertical jump with a polyvinyl chloride pipe (SJ0), 20 kg barbell (SJ20), and barbell loaded to 40 kg bar (SJ40). Performance testing was performed at three points: before first week (baseline), fourth week (T1), and seventh week (T2). Statistically small to moderate changes were found from baseline to T2 in peak power (PP; p < 0.001, ES = 0.49), net impulse (NI; p < 0.001, ES = 0.49), peak velocity (PV; p < 0.001, ES = 0.62), allometrically scaled PP (PPa; p < 0.001, ES = 0.62) in SJ20 and jump height (JH) in SJ40 (p < 0.001, ES = 0.36). Moderate to large correlations were found between isometric peak force and the changes from baseline to T2 in SJ20 PP (p = 0.04, r = −0.49), SJ20 PF (p = 0.03, r = −0.52), PPa (p = 0.04, r = −0.50), and SJ20 allometrically scaled peak force (p = 0.04, r = −0.49). Properly structured strength training maximizes task-specific physical performance. Initial muscle strength negatively affects the magnitudes of adaptations to physical performance.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8090127
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 128: International Sport Forum of the Strength &
           Conditioning Society (SCS) and the European Sport Nutrition Society (ESNS)

    • Authors: Alcaraz, Csapo, Freitas, Marín-Cascales, Blazevich, Paoli
      First page: 128
      Abstract: On behalf of the Strength & Conditioning Society (SCS) and the European Sport Nutrition Society (ESNS), we are pleased to present the abstracts of the 2019 International Sport Forum on Strength & Conditioning & Nutrition, which took place in Madrid, Spain from November 15th–16th 2019. The meeting provided evidence-based education to advance the science and practice on the fields of sport nutrition, training, rehabilitation and performance. It also disseminated cutting-edge sport nutrition and strength and conditioning research, promoted the translation of basic science into the field and fostered the future of the field by providing young practitioners and researchers with the opportunity to present their findings through oral and poster communications, the abstracts of which can be found in this Special Issue of Sports. Renowned international and national speakers provided comprehensive updates, workshops and insights into novel scientific topics covering various areas of sport nutrition and strength and conditioning science. We were fortunate to have a wide range of speakers and presenters from all areas—strength training, conditioning to prevent injuries and improve performance, nutrition and supplementation for fitness and high-performance sports. A data-flash and poster session allowed for the presentation of the latest results of current research. Most importantly, the meeting provided ample opportunities to bring people together to discuss practical questions related to training and nutrition and plan scientific projects. With cutting-edge research and best practice in mind, this joint conference was an important means to pursue the missions of the SCS and ESNS. Rather than being a single event, the forum in Madrid was the starting point for a series of regular meetings on Strength & Conditioning & Nutrition to be held worldwide, so make sure to visit and and follow us on social media to receive updates and connect with our members. We proudly look back on an exciting, inspiring and informative meeting in Madrid!
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-09-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8090128
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 129: Using Velocity to Predict the Maximum Dynamic
           Strength in the Power Clean

    • Authors: G. Gregory Haff, Amador Garcia-Ramos, Lachlan P. James
      First page: 129
      Abstract: The primary aim of the present study was to examine the commonly performed training exercise for athlete preparation. Twenty-two recreationally trained males (age: 26.3 ± 4.1 y, height: 1.80 ± 0.07 m; body mass (BM): 87.01 ± 13.75 kg, 1-repetitoon maximum(1-RM)/BM: 0.90 ± 0.19 kg) participated in the present study. All subjects had their 1-RM power clean tested with standard procedures. On a separate testing day, subjects performed three repetitions at 30% and 45%, and two repetitions at 70% and 80% of their 1-RM power clean. During all trials during both sessions, peak velocity (PV) and mean velocity (MV) were measured with the use of a GymAware device. There were no significant differences between the actual and estimated 1-RM power clean (p = 0.37, ES = −0.11) when the load-PV profile was utilized. There was a large typical error (TE) present for the load-PV- and load-MV-estimated 1-RM values. Additionally, the raw TE exceeded the smallest worthwhile change for both load-PV and load-MV profile results. Based upon the results of this study, the load-velocity profile is not an acceptable tool for monitoring power clean strength.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-09-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8090129
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 130: “It’s Important, but It’s Not
           Everything”: Practitioners’ Use, Analysis and Perceptions of Fitness
           Testing in Academy Rugby League

    • Authors: Sam McCormack, Ben Jones, Sean Scantlebury, Dave Rotheram, Kevin Till
      First page: 130
      Abstract: A plethora of research exists examining the physical qualities of rugby league players. However, no research has investigated practitioners’ insights into the use, analysis and perceptions of such fitness testing data that is vital for applying research into practice. Therefore, this study aimed to examine practitioners’ (coaches and strength & conditioning [S&C] coaches) perceptions and challenges of using fitness testing and the development of physical qualities. Twenty-four rugby league practitioners were purposefully sampled and completed a semi-structured interview. Interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed identifying five themes (it’s important, but it’s not everything; monitoring; evaluation and decision making; motivation; and other external challenges). The theme of “it’s important, but it’s not everything” emerged as a fundamental issue with regard fitness testing and the use of such data and that physical data alone does not inform coaches decisions. There appears conflicts between coaches and S&C coaches’ perceptions and use of fitness data, identifying complexities of supporting players in multidisciplinary teams. Collectively, the findings highlight the multifaceted nature of academy rugby league and suggest that practitioners should utilise fitness testing to inform player evaluations, positively influence training and assist with decision making. Moreover, practitioners should understand the combination of factors that influence fitness testing and work collaboratively to enhance talent development strategies.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-09-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8090130
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 104: Effects of Supplementary Strength–Power
           Training on Neuromuscular Performance in Young Female Athletes

    • Authors: Konstantina Karagianni, Olyvia Donti, Christos Katsikas, Gregory C. Bogdanis
      First page: 104
      Abstract: This study examined the effects of a short-duration supplementary strength–power training program on neuromuscular performance and sport-specific skills in adolescent athletes. Twenty-three female “Gymnastics for All” athletes, aged 13 ± 2 years, were divided into a training group (TG, n = 12) and a control group (CG, n = 11). Both groups underwent a test battery before and after 10 weeks of intervention. TG completed, in addition to gymnastics training, a supplementary 7–9 min program that included two rounds of strength and power exercises for arms, torso, and legs, executed in a circuit fashion with 1 min rest between rounds, three times per week. Initially, six exercises were performed (15 s work–15 s rest), while the number of exercises was decreased to four and the duration of each exercise was increased to 30 s (30 s rest) after the fifth week. TG improved countermovement jump performance with one leg (11.5% ± 10.4%, p = 0.002) and two legs (8.2% ± 8.8%, p = 0.004), drop jump performance (14.4% ± 12.6%, p = 0.038), single-leg jumping agility (13.6% ± 5.2%, p = 0.001), and sport-specific performance (8.8% ± 7.4%, p = 0.004), but not 10 m sprint performance (2.4% ± 6.6%, p = 0.709). No change was observed in the CG (p = 0.41 to 0.97). The results of this study indicated that this supplementary strength–power program performed for 7–9 min improves neuromuscular and sport-specific performance after 10 weeks of training.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-07-24
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8080104
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 105: Daily School Physical Activity Is Associated
           with Higher Level of Physical Activity Independently of Other
           Socioecological Factors

    • Authors: Amanda Lahti, Björn Rosengren, Jan-Åke Nilsson, Magnus Dencker, Magnus Karlsson
      First page: 105
      Abstract: Only one fifth of children aged 11–17 years are physically active for 60 min (min)/day. As physical activity (PA) levels track from childhood to adulthood, it is important to establish healthy PA behavior early in life. This study aims to evaluate whether daily school PA is associated with objectively measured PA independently of other socioecological factors. This study includes 209 children (120 boys) aged 9.8 ± 0.6 (mean ± SD) years from four government-funded schools in Sweden. One school including 113 children (70 boys) had 40 min of daily school PA (intervention) and three schools including 96 children (50 boys) had 60 min of school PA/week (control). PA was measured during four serial days with accelerometers. General PA (GPA) was defined as mean counts per minute (cpm). Socioecological factors were collected by questionnaires, and anthropometric traits by measurements. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test whether sex, age, relative age, body height, fat mass, lean mass, screen time activity, parental educational level, parental attitude towards PA, parental PA, sibling(s)’ PA, living in a house or apartment, and whether the child was allocated to 40 min daily school PA or 60 min school PA/week, was independently associated with GPA. Daily GPA was found to be 686.9 ± 211.9 cpm. Independently of the other included factors, daily school PA was associated with +81.8 (15.7, 147.8) cpm compared with 60 min PA/week. This study infers that daily school PA is an appropriate strategy to promote PA in 10-year-old children, independently of different socioecological factors.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8080105
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 106: Effect of Training Phase on Physical and
           Physiological Parameters of Male Powerlifters

    • Authors: Daniel Hackett, Guy Wilson, Lachlan Mitchell, Marjan Haghighi, Jillian Clarke, Yorgi Mavros, Helen O’Connor, Amanda Hagstrom, Gary Slater, Justin Keogh, Chris McLellan
      First page: 106
      Abstract: Longitudinal research on training and dietary practices of natural powerlifters is limited. This study investigated the effect of phases of training on physical and physiological parameters in male natural powerlifters. Nine participants completed testing at two time points: (i) preparatory phase (~3 months prior to a major competition) and (ii) competition phase (1–2 weeks from a major competition). No significant changes between training phases were found for muscle strength and power. A trend for significance was found for decreased muscle endurance of the lower body (−24.4%, p = 0.08). A significant increase in leg lean mass was found at the competition phase (2.3%, p = 0.04), although no changes for other body composition measures were observed. No change was observed for any health marker except a trend for increased urinary creatinine clearance at the competition phase (12.5%, p = 0.08). A significant reduction in training volume for the lower body (−75.0%, p = 0.04) and a trend for a decrease in total energy intake (−17.0%, p = 0.06) was observed during the competition phase. Despite modifications in training and dietary practices, it appears that muscle performance, body composition, and health status remain relatively stable between training phases in male natural powerlifters.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8080106
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 107: A Longitudinal Prospective Study: The Effect of
           Annual Seasonal Transition and Coaching Influence on Aerobic Capacity and
           Body Composition in Division I Female Soccer Players

    • Authors: Troy M. Purdom, Kyle S. Levers, Chase S. McPherson, Jacob Giles, Lindsey Brown
      First page: 107
      Abstract: This study assessed how seasonal transitions and coaching influence affect aerobic capacity (AC) and body composition across the annual training cycle (ATC). Eleven division 1 female soccer players were tested after five predesignated time blocks (B1–B5): post-season 2016 (B1), nine-week transition (B2), spring season (B3), pre-season (B4), and post-season 2017 (B5). Height, weight, and body composition (fat-free mass (FFM)) were measured prior to a standardized 5 min treadmill running and dynamic movement warm up before a maximal AC test. Statistical analysis included a 4 × 5 repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) (dependent variable × time) with the Fishers Least Significant Difference (LSD) post-hoc test when relevant; data are presented as mean ± standard deviation, effect size (ES), and percent change (%). The statistical analysis revealed that the ATC had a significant main effect on AC and FFM (F3,4 2.81, p = 0.001; η2 = 0.22). There were significant increases in AC across the transition period (B1–B2) with reduced training volume (∆ + 12.9%, p = 0.001; ES = 0.50) while AC and FFM peaked after the spring season with directed concurrent training paired with adequate rest B1–B3 (∆ + 16.4%, p < 0.01; ES = 0.81). AC decreased across the pre-season with indirect training (B3–B4) (∆ − 7.0%, p = 0.02; ES = 0.50) and remained suppressed without change (p > 0.05) across the competitive season (B4–B5). Rest, concurrent training, and directed training positively affected AC, while indirect training and high training loads with little rest negatively affected AC.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8080107
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 108: Short-Term Compound Training on Physical
           Performance in Young Soccer Players

    • Authors: Athos Trecroci, Marco Duca, Damiano Formenti, Giampietro Alberti, F. Marcello Iaia, Stefano Longo
      First page: 108
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effects of a five-week compound training (with strength and plyometric exercises performed on separate days) on sprint, change of direction, and vertical jump in young soccer players. Eighteen novices in strength and plyometric training were assigned to either a compound training (CMPT) or a control condition (CNT). Both groups trained three times per week. One session was dedicated to soccer-specific drills. The other two weekly sessions were dedicated to circuit-based training routines employing on one-day strength exercises and on the other day plyometric exercises in the CMPT group. At the same time, the CNT group performed two weekly soccer-specific training sessions. All players were tested by 15-m sprint, change-of-direction and acceleration test (CODAT), squat jump, and countermovement jump with arms swing tests. CMPT group improved CODAT, squat jump and countermovement jump to a higher extent compared to CNT group (large vs small or trivial effects, p < 0.05), while both groups had similar 15-m sprint performance (p > 0.05). These results support the use of compound training to improve change of direction and vertical jump performances in young novice soccer players, which are unfamiliar with structured and advanced strength and plyometric training.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8080108
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 109: Heart Rate Variability and Direct Current
           Measurement Characteristics in Professional Mixed Martial Arts Athletes

    • Authors: Joseph O. C. Coyne, Aaron J. Coutts, Roman Fomin, Duncan N. French, Robert U. Newton, G. Gregory Haff
      First page: 109
      Abstract: This study’s purpose was to examine heart rate variability (HRV) and direct current potential (DC) measures’ sensitivity and correlations between changes in the acute recovery and stress scale (ARSS) and the previous day’s training load. Training load, HRV, DC and ARSS data were collected from fourteen professional mixed martial arts athletes (32.6 ± 5.3 years, 174.8 ± 8.8 cm, 79.2 ± 17.5 kg) the following morning after hard, easy and rest days. Sensitivity was expressed as a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, inter-day typical error (TE) or coefficient of variation (%CV) divided by intra-day TE or %CV). Correlations between HRV, DC and ARSS with training load were also examined. The SNRs for the various HRV and DC measures were acceptable to good (1.02–2.85). There was a 23.1% CV average increase between measures taken between different locations versus the same location. Training load changes were not correlated with HRV/DC but were correlated with ARSS stress variables. Practitioners should be aware of HRV/DC variability; however the daily training signal was greater than the test-retest error in this investigation. Upon awakening, HRV/DC measures appear superior for standardization and planning. HRV and DC measures were less sensitive to the previous day’s training load than ARSS measures.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8080109
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 110: Towards a de facto Nonlinear Periodization:
           Extending Nonlinearity from Programming to Periodizing

    • Authors: José Afonso, Filipe Manuel Clemente, João Ribeiro, Miguel Ferreira, Ricardo J. Fernandes
      First page: 110
      Abstract: Planning is paramount in sport. Among different philosophical approaches to planning, periodization is a highly popular concept that refers to structured training periods with ensuing programs encompassing moments of progressively-loaded training, followed by recovery; it is normally deemed paramount to optimize adaptations and performance. While planning provides generic guidelines, periodization refers to the sequencing/ordering of training periods to enforce a given plan, therefore referring to longer temporal scales, and programming refers to more micro-scale aspects. In fact, similar periodization schemes may implement distinct programming strategies. Literature on the topic has used the linear and nonlinear terms to describe the content of periodized programs. However, these concepts have not been clearly defined in the literature, which may lead to inaccurate and misleading interpretations. Moreover, nonlinear periodization is usually using nonlinear programming, but with pre-stipulated sequencing of the training periods. Finally, it can be argued that nonlinearity has been an integral part of periodization since its inception, at least theoretically. In this essay, the literature was critically reviewed to better understand the validity of the linearity and nonlinearity concepts as applied in currently proposed periodization models. In addition, a novel approach for a de facto nonlinear periodization is presented.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8080110
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 111: Anthropometric and Functional Profile of
           Selected vs. Non-Selected 13-to-17-Year-Old Soccer Players

    • Authors: Erik Nughes, Vincenzo Rago, Rodrigo Aquino, Georgios Ermidis, Morten B. Randers, Luca Paolo Ardigò
      First page: 111
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare anthropometric and functional profiles of 13-to-17-year-old soccer players according to their competitive level. Height, body mass, percentage of body fat, countermovement jump height, change of direction ability, 5- and 15-m sprint times, repeated sprint ability (RSA), intermittent recovery performance, and dribbling skills were collected in 115 young Italian soccer players. Players were divided into selected (i.e., competing at national level, n = 17 U15 and 47 U17) and non-selected (i.e., competing at regional level, n = 43 U15 and 8 U17) groups. U17 selected players were taller, quicker over 5 and 15 m, more agile, and had better RSA, prolonged intermittent recovery ability, and dribbling skills than their non-selected counterparts (d = 0.28–0.55, p < 0.05). In particular, selected players showed lower times on the first three and the last shuttle of the RSA test (d = 0.28–0.34, p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in U15 players (p > 0.05). Discriminant analysis revealed that dribbling skills, 15-m sprint time, and height best discriminate U17 players by competitive level (p < 0.001). Anthropometric characteristics and functional abilities can discriminate across competitive standards between male U17 but not U15 soccer players. In particular, these findings suggest the importance of dribbling skills, 15-m sprint, and height in U17 players.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8080111
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 112: The Relationship between CrossFit® Performance
           and Laboratory-Based Measurements of Fitness

    • Authors: Elisabeth K. Zeitz, Lena F. Cook, Joshua D. Dexheimer, Srdjan Lemez, Whitney D. Leyva, Immanuel Y. Terbio, Justin R. Tran, Edward Jo
      First page: 112
      Abstract: To date, research has examined the physiological determinants of performance in standardized CrossFit® (CF) workouts but not without the influence of CF familiarity. Therefore, the purpose of this present study was to examine the predictive value of aerobic fitness, body composition, and total body strength on performance of two standardized CF workouts in CF-naïve participants. Twenty-two recreationally trained individuals (males = 13, females = 9) underwent assessments of peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak), ventilatory thresholds, body composition, and one repetition maximum tests for the back squat, deadlift, and overhead press in which the sum equaled the CF Total. Participants also performed two CF workouts: a scaled version of the CF Open workout 19.1 and a modified version of the CF Benchmark workout Fran to determine scores based on total repetitions completed and time-to-completion, respectively. Simple Pearson’s r correlations were used to determine the relationships between CF performance variables (19.1 and modified Fran) and the independent variables. A forward stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed and significant variables that survived the regression analysis were used to create a predictive model of CF performance. Absolute VO2 peak was a significant predictor of 19.1 performance, explaining 39% of its variance (adjusted R2 = 0.39, p = 0.002). For modified Fran, CF Total was a significant predictor and explained 33% of the variance in performance (adjusted R2 = 0.33, p = 0.005). These results suggest, without any influence of CF familiarity or experience, that performance in these two CF workouts could be predicted by distinct laboratory-based measurements of fitness.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8080112
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 113: Post-Exercise Sweat Loss Estimation Accuracy of
           Athletes and Physically Active Adults: A Review

    • Authors: Eric O’Neal, Tara Boy, Brett Davis, Kelly Pritchett, Robert Pritchett, Svetlana Nepocatych, Katherine Black
      First page: 113
      Abstract: The main purposes of this review were to provide a qualitative description of nine investigations in which sweat losses were estimated by participants following exercise and to perform a quantitative analysis of the collective data. Unique estimations (n = 297) were made by 127 men and 116 women after a variety of exercise modalities in moderate to hot environmental conditions. Actual sweat loss exceeded estimated sweat loss (p < 0.001) for women (1.072 ± 0.473 vs. 0.481 ± 0.372 L), men (1.778 ± 0.907 vs. 0.908 ± 0.666 L) and when all data were combined (1.428 ± 0.806 vs. 0.697 ± 0.581 L), respectively. However, estimation accuracy did not differ between women (55.2 ± 51.5%) and men (62.4 ± 54.5%). Underestimation of 50% or more of sweat losses were exhibited in 168 (54%) of estimation scenarios with heavier sweaters displaying a higher prevalence and trend of greater underestimations in general. Most modern guidelines for fluid intake during and between training bouts are based on approximate sweat loss estimation knowledge. These guidelines will likely have minimal efficacy if greater awareness of how to determine sweat losses and accurate recognition of sweat losses is not increased by coaches and athletes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8080113
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 114: No Effects of New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract
           on Physiological and Performance Responses in Trained Male Cyclists
           Undertaking Repeated Testing across a Week Period

    • Authors: Stefano Montanari, Mehmet A. Şahin, Ben J. Lee, Sam D. Blacker, Mark E.T. Willems
      First page: 114
      Abstract: Anthocyanin supplements are receiving attention due to purported benefits to physiological, metabolic, and exercise responses in trained individuals. However, the efficacy of anthocyanin intake over multiple testing days is not known. We compared a placebo and two doses of anthocyanin-rich New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract (300 and 600 mg·day−1) on plasma lactate, substrate oxidation, and 16.1 km time trial (TT) performance on three occasions over 7-days in a fed state (day 1 (D1), D4, and D7). Thirteen male cyclists participated in a randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled double-blind design. There was no difference in plasma lactate and substrate oxidation between conditions and between days. A time difference was observed between D1 (1701 ± 163 s) and D4 (1682 ± 162 s) for 600 mg (p = 0.05), with an increment in average speed (D1 = 34.3 ± 3.4 vs. D4 = 34.8 ± 3.4 km·h−1, p = 0.04). However, there was no difference between the other days and between conditions. Overall, one week of intake of NZBC extract did not affect physiological and metabolic responses. Intake of 600 mg of NZBC extract showed inconsistent benefits in improving 16.1 km time trial performance over a week period in trained fed cyclists.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-08-13
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8080114
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 91: Effects of Plyometric and Repeated Sprint
           Training on Physical Performance

    • Authors: Ivan Krakan, Luka Milanovic, Ivan Belcic
      First page: 91
      Abstract: The purpose of study was to resolve the effect of plyometric training and repeated sprint training on physical performance. The study was conducted on 41 subjects in two experimental groups (plyometric/repeated sprints training). Before and after the training program, subjects were subjected to diagnostic procedures that included standard test protocols. Results proved a statistically significant difference only after the plyometric training program compared to the repeated sprint group in countermovement jump (8.65% vs. 2.21%). In variable repeated jumps, an increased value was recorded (2.9% vs. 4.29%), like in sprint variables after the training program where certain trends of progress happened after the repeated sprint ability training and the specificity of the program (5 m = 0.89%, 10 m = 1.07% and 25 m = 1.35%), while plyometric training recorded unchanged values at 5 and 10 m, and a 0.27% improvement at 25 m. Stagnation of the 20-yard test was recorded in both groups. There was no difference between training programs in any variables of functional capacities, with similar measures recorded in repeated sprint ability. After six weeks of both training types, positive changes can be expected in explosive strength of lower extremities, increases in acceleration area, and maximum speed.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8070091
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 92: Physiological Predictors of Performance on the
           CrossFit “Murph” Challenge

    • Authors: Carreker, Grosicki
      First page: 92
      Abstract: We examined physiological predictors of performance on the CrossFit Murph challenge (1-mile run, 100 pullups, 200 pushups, 300 air squats, 1-mile run). Male CrossFit athletes (n = 11, 27 ± 3 years) performed a battery of physical assessments including: (1) body composition, (2) upper and lower body strength, (3) upper body endurance, (4) anaerobic power, and (5) maximal oxygen consumption. No less than 72 h later, participants completed the Murph challenge, heart rate was monitored throughout, and blood lactate was obtained pre-post. Correlations between physiological parameters and total Murph time, and Murph subcomponents, were assessed using Pearson’s correlations. Murph completion time was 43.43 ± 4.63 min, and maximum and average heart rate values were 185.63 ± 7.64 bpm and 168.81 ± 6.41 bpm, respectively, and post-Murph blood lactate was 10.01 ± 3.04 mmol/L. Body fat percentage was the only physiological parameter significantly related to total Murph time (r = 0.718; p = 0.013). Total lift time (25.49 ± 3.65 min) was more strongly related (r = 0.88) to Murph time than total run time (17.60 ± 1.97 min; r = 0.65). Greater relative anaerobic power (r = −0.634) and less anaerobic fatigue (r = 0.649) were related to total run time (p < 0.05). Individuals wanting to enhance overall Murph performance are advised to focus on minimizing body fat percentage and improving lift performance. Meanwhile, performance on the run subcomponent may be optimized through improvements in anaerobic power.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8070092
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 93: Validation of Inertial Sensor to Measure Barbell
           Kinematics across a Spectrum of Loading Conditions

    • Authors: Abbott, Wagle, Sato, Painter, Light, Stone
      First page: 93
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of agreement in measuring back squat kinematics between an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a 3D motion capture system (3DMOCAP). Kinematic variables included concentric peak velocity (CPV), concentric mean velocity (CMV), eccentric peak velocity (EPV), eccentric mean velocity (EMV), mean propulsive velocity (MPV), and POP-100: a proprietary variable. Sixteen resistance-trained males performed an incrementally loaded one repetition maximum (1RM) squat protocol. A series of Pearson correlations, 2 × 4 RM ANOVA, Cohen’s d effect size differences, coefficient of variation (CV), and standard error of the estimate (SEE) were calculated. A large relationship existed for all variables between devices (r = 0.78–0.95). Between-device agreement for CPV worsened beyond 60% 1RM. The remaining variables were in agreement between devices with trivial effect size differences and similar CV magnitudes. These results support the use of the IMU, regardless of relative intensity, when measuring EMV, EPV, MPV, and POP-100. However, practitioners should carefully select kinematic variables of interest when using the present IMU device for velocity-based training (VBT), as certain measurements (e.g., CMV, CPV) do not possess practically acceptable reliability or accuracy. Finally, the IMU device exhibited considerable practical data collection concerns, as one participant was completely excluded and 13% of the remaining attempts displayed obvious internal error.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8070093
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 94: The Reliability and Validity of Current
           Technologies for Measuring Barbell Velocity in the Free-Weight Back Squat
           and Power Clean

    • Authors: Steve W. Thompson, David Rogerson, Harry F. Dorrell, Alan Ruddock, Andrew Barnes
      First page: 94
      Abstract: This study investigated the inter-day and intra-device reliability, and criterion validity of six devices for measuring barbell velocity in the free-weight back squat and power clean. In total, 10 competitive weightlifters completed an initial one repetition maximum (1RM) assessment followed by three load-velocity profiles (40–100% 1RM) in both exercises on four separate occasions. Mean and peak velocity was measured simultaneously on each device and compared to 3D motion capture for all repetitions. Reliability was assessed via coefficient of variation (CV) and typical error (TE). Least products regression (LPR) (R2) and limits of agreement (LOA) assessed the validity of the devices. The Gymaware was the most reliable for both exercises (CV < 10%; TE < 0.11 m·s−1, except 100% 1RM (mean velocity) and 90‒100% 1RM (peak velocity)), with MyLift and PUSH following a similar trend. Poorer reliability was observed for Beast Sensor and Bar Sensei (CV = 5.1%‒119.9%; TE = 0.08‒0.48 m·s−1). The Gymaware was the most valid device, with small systematic bias and no proportional or fixed bias evident across both exercises (R2 > 0.42–0.99 LOA = −0.03–0.03 m·s−1). Comparable validity data was observed for MyLift in the back squat. Both PUSH devices produced some fixed and proportional bias, with Beast Sensor and Bar Sensei being the least valid devices across both exercises (R2 > 0.00–0.96, LOA = −0.36‒0.46 m·s−1). Linear position transducers and smartphone applications could be used to obtain velocity-based data, with inertial measurement units demonstrating poorer reliability and validity.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8070094
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 95: Verifying Physiological and Biomechanical
           Parameters during Continuous Swimming at Speed Corresponding to Lactate

    • Authors: Gavriil G. Arsoniadis, Ioannis S. Nikitakis, Petros G. Botonis, Ioannis Malliaros, Argyris G. Toubekis
      First page: 95
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to verify the physiological responses and biomechanical parameters measured during 30 min of continuous swimming (T30) at intensity corresponding to lactate threshold previously calculated by an intermittent progressively increasing speed test (7 × 200 m). Fourteen competitive swimmers (18.0 (2.5) years, 67.5 (8.8) kg, 174.5 (7.7) cm) performed a 7 × 200 m front crawl test. Blood lactate concentration (BL) and oxygen uptake (VO2) were determined after each 200 m repetition, while heart rate (HR), arm-stroke rate (SR), and arm-stroke length (SL) were measured during each 200 m repetition. Using the speed vs. lactate concentration curve, the speed at lactate threshold (sLT) and parameters corresponding to sLT were calculated (BL-sLT, VO2-sLT, HR-sLT, SR-sLT, and SL-sLT). In the following day, a T30 corresponding to sLT was performed and BL-T30, VΟ2-T30, HR-T30, SR-T30, and SL-T30 were measured after the 10th and 30th minute, and average values were used for comparison. VO2-sLT was no different compared to VO2-T30 (p > 0.05). BL-T30, HR-T30, and SR-T30 were higher, while SL-T30 was lower compared to BL-sLT, HR-sLT, SR-sLT, and SL-sLT (p < 0.05). Continuous swimming at speed corresponding to lactate threshold may not show the same physiological and biomechanical responses as those calculated by a progressively increasing speed test of 7 × 200 m.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8070095
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 96: Sociodemographic Determinants of Physical
           Activity and Sport Participation among Women in the United States

    • Authors: Jennifer R. Pharr, Nancy L. Lough, Angela M. Terencio
      First page: 96
      Abstract: Regular physical activity and sport participation have been shown to improve women’s health; however, research has found that better health is associated with sport participation. Little is known about the sociodemographic determinants of physical activity among women, especially among the different subcategories of physical activity (sport, conditioning exercise, recreation, and household tasks). Because of the added health benefits associated with sport participation, the purpose of this study was to examine the sociodemographic determinants among subcategories of physically active women in the United States by analyzing Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data. We used data from the 2017 national BRFSS survey to conduct this secondary data analysis. Participants were asked an extensive set of questions about their physical activity. Seventy-six different activities were identified and categorized as either sport, recreation, conditioning exercise, or household tasks. Weighted descriptive statistics were performed to describe the sociodemographic determinants of the four physical activity subcategories, including age, income, education, employment, and race/ethnicity. There were significant differences in all sociodemographic variables among the four subcategories of physical activity. Women who participated in sport were more likely to be in the younger age groups; however, physical activity declined among all subcategories beyond the age of 64. Women who participated in sports were more diverse, likely to be employed, and college graduates compared to the other subcategories. Women who participated in recreational or household tasks were more likely to meet the criteria to be categorized as highly active; however, they exercised at a lower intensity. The sociodemographic characteristics of physical activity and sport participation can be used to create promotional strategies to increase physical activity and improve fitness and health among women who tend towards participation, and also to change programs to accommodate women from other sociodemographic groups.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-07-02
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8070096
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 97: Evolution of Physical Fitness in Formative
           Female Basketball Players: A Case Study

    • Authors: David Mancha-Triguero, Nicolás Martín-Encinas, Sergio J. Ibáñez
      First page: 97
      Abstract: Over the last few years, team sports increased the amount of physical demand and its importance. Therefore, work related to physical fitness and its assessment is essential to achieving success. However, there are few studies on this subject at the formative stage. The purpose of this study was then to analyze the physical fitness of an under-18 (U18) women’s team divided by game positions. In addition, physical fitness at different times of the season was characterized to identify differences and determine its evolution. To assess physical fitness, tests of aerobic and anaerobic capacities, lower body strength, centripetal force, agility and speed were carried out as designed in the SBAFIT battery. Each player was equipped with an inertial microtechnology device for the collection of data. This research is classified as empirical, with quasi-experimental methodology. The results showed significant differences in variables of the test of aerobic and anaerobic capacities, speed, agility (generic and specific), and centripetal force (right) based on game position and the moment of the season. The results also showed the importance of the specific physical aspect in relation to an optimal improvement in physical fitness, since training sessions and competition do not allow all players to improve equally or efficiently.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8070097
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 98: A Thirty-Five-Minute Nap Improves Performance
           and Attention in the 5-m Shuttle Run Test during and Outside Ramadan

    • Authors: Hsen Hsouna, Omar Boukhris, Khaled Trabelsi, Raouf Abdessalem, Achraf Ammar, Jordan M. Glenn, Nick Bott, Nizar Souissi, Paola Lanteri, Sergio Garbarino, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Hamdi Chtourou
      First page: 98
      Abstract: Ramadan observance is characterized by several changes in behaviors, such as food and sleep, which could affect physical and cognitive performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a 35-min nap (N35) opportunity on physical performance during the 5-m shuttle run test (5mSRT); attention; feelings; mood states; and perceptual measures of stress, fatigue, and muscle soreness during Ramadan observance. Fourteen physically active men (22 ± 3 years, 177 ± 4 cm, 76 ± 5 kg) were tested after a no-nap condition (N0), N35 15 days before Ramadan (BR), the last 10 days of Ramadan (DR), and 20 days after Ramadan (AR). Measures included the digit cancellation test (attention estimation), the profile of mood state (POMS), and the Hooper questionnaires. After a 5-min standard warm-up, participants performed the 5mSRT (6 × 30 s with 35 s in between; best distance (BD), total distance (TD), and fatigue index (FI) were recorded), along with the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) after each test repetition. After the 5mSRT test, participants responded to the feeling scale (FS). The results showed that TD and FI during the 5mSRT were not affected by Ramadan observance. However, BD was significantly lower than DR compared to AR after N0 (∆ = −4.3 ± 1.3%; p < 0.01) and N35 (∆ = −2.6 ± 1.0%; p < 0.05). After N0, attention decreased significantly at DR in comparison with BR (p < 0.05) and AR (p < 0.001). BD and TD improved after N35 compared to N0 at BR (∆ = +4.4 ± 2.1%, p < 0.05 for BD and ∆ = +4.8 ± 1.6%, p < 0.01 for TD), DR (∆ = +7.1 ± 2.2%, p < 0.05 for BD and ∆ = +5.1 ± 1.6%, p < 0.01 for TD), and AR (∆ = +5.5 ± 1.5%, p < 0.01 for BD and ∆ = +5.2 ± 1.2%, p < 0.001 for TD). A significant increase in attention was observed after N35 in comparison with N0 at DR (p < 0.01) and AR (p < 0.01). However, no changes were found for the perception of mood states, stress, sleep, muscle soreness, and the FI during the 5mSRT. Also, N35 was better than N0 for RPE at DR (p < 0.05), feelings at AR (p < 0.05), and fatigue estimation at AR (p < 0.01). A 35-min nap opportunity may have beneficial effects on physical and cognitive performances before, during, and after Ramadan.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8070098
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 99: Effect of ACTN3 Genotype on Sports Performance,
           Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage, and Injury Epidemiology

    • Authors: Gabriel Baltazar-Martins, Jorge Gutiérrez-Hellín, Millán Aguilar-Navarro, Carlos Ruiz-Moreno, Victor Moreno-Pérez, Álvaro López-Samanes, Raúl Domínguez, Juan Del Coso
      First page: 99
      Abstract: Genetic factors play a significant role in athletic performance and its related phenotypes such as power, strength and aerobic capacity. In this regard, the lack of a muscle protein due to a genetic polymorphism has been found to affect sport performance in a wide variety of ways. α-actinin-3 is a protein located within the skeletal muscle with a key role in the production of sarcomeric force. A common stop-codon polymorphism (rs1815739; R577X) in the gene that codes for α-actinin-3 (ACTN3) produces individuals with the XX genotype that lack expression of a functional α-actinin-3. In contrast, individuals with the R-allele (i.e., RX vs. RR genotypes) in this polymorphism can express α-actinin-3. Interestingly, around ~18% of the world population have the XX genotype and much has been debated about why a polymorphism that produces a lack of a muscle protein has endured natural selection. Several investigations have found that α-actinin-3 deficiency due to XX homozygosity in the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism can negatively affect sports performance through several structural, metabolic, or signaling changes. In addition, new evidence suggests that α-actinin-3 deficiency may also impact sports performance through indirect factors such a higher risk for injury or lower resistance to muscle-damaging exercise. The purpose of this discussion is to provide a clear explanation of the effect of α-actinin-3 deficiency due to the ACTN3 XX genotype on sport. Key focus has been provided about the effect of α-actinin-3 deficiency on morphologic changes in skeletal muscle, on the low frequency of XX athletes in some athletic disciplines, and on injury epidemiology.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8070099
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 100: Global Challenges of Being a Strength Athlete
           during a Pandemic: Impacts and Sports-Specific Training Considerations and

    • Authors: Christopher Latella, G. Gregory Haff
      First page: 100
      Abstract: The ongoing global pandemic brought about by Coronavirus II (SARS-Cov-2 or COVID-19) has caused an ongoing cessation of sporting competitions and training facility closures. This is a fundamental challenge for amateur and elite sporting professionals. Although recommendations have been provided for team-sport athletes to maintain general and sport-specific conditioning, these methods are often not optimal for strength athletes (i.e., powerlifting (PL) and weightlifting (WL)) due to the unique and narrow set of performance requirements posed by these sports. The purpose of this review is to provide evidence-based information and recommendations and highlight potential strategies and approaches that may be used by strength (PL and WL) athletes during the current global crisis. Collectively, we provide evidence from resistance training literature regarding the loss of muscle strength, power and mass, minimum training frequencies required to attenuate such losses and training re-adaptation. Additionally, we suggest that time off training and competition caused by ongoing restrictions may be used for other purposes, such as overcoming injury and improving movement quality and/or mobility, goal setting, psychological development and emphasizing strength sports for health. These suggestions are intended to be useful for coaches, strength athletes and organizations where existing training strategies and recommendations are not suitable or no longer feasible.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8070100
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 101: The Effects of Loaded Plyometric Exercise
           during Warm-Up on Subsequent Sprint Performance in Collegiate Track
           Athletes: A Randomized Trial

    • Authors: Kalin A. Tomlinson, Ken Hansen, Daniel Helzer, Zakkoyya H. Lewis, Whitney D. Leyva, Meghan McCauley, William Pritchard, Emma Silvestri, Monica Quila, Michael Yi, Edward Jo
      First page: 101
      Abstract: Prior evidence demonstrates the efficacy by which plyometric activities during warm-up conditions augment the subsequent performance in power-centric exercise. We investigated the acute effects of loaded jump squats incorporated into a standard sprinters’ warm-up protocol on subsequent sprint performance in collegiate track athletes. Sprint times of 22 male and female collegiate track athletes were measured in 10-m intervals during a 30-m sprint trial following a standard sprinters’ warm-up routine with or without plyometric exercise. Subjects were tested on two separate occasions, once with loaded jump squats as the experimental treatment (two sets of eight jumps, load = 13% bodyweight) (PLYO) and once with time-equated rest as the control treatment (CON). Treatments were implemented following a standard sprinters’ warm-up routine familiar to the subjects. A dependent T-test was used for comparison of sprint interval times between conditions with a significant effect indicated by a p-value < 0.05. Sprint time did not differ between CON vs. PLYO at the 10 m (PLYO = 1.90 ± 0.12 s vs. CON = 1.90 ± 0.11 s, p = 0.66), 20 m (PLYO = 3.16 ± 0.21 s vs. CON = 3.15 ± 0.19 s, p = 0.53), and 30 m (PLYO = 4.32 ± 0.32 s vs. CON = 4.31 ± 0.28 s, p = 0.61) intervals. There was no interaction between treatment and sex, sex-specific ranking (above vs. below sex-specific mean), or sprint event (short vs. short–long vs. long) for 10 m, 20 m, or 30-m interval sprint times. At least within the limits of the current investigation, no evidence was provided to suggest that jump squats loaded at 13% bodyweight are an effective means to acutely potentiate sprint performance in collegiate track athletes. However, a further examination of responders indicates that the present loaded jump squat protocol may preferentially potentiate sprint performance in faster male athletes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8070101
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 102: Predictors of CrossFit Open Performance

    • Authors: Gerald T. Mangine, Joy E. Tankersley, Jacob M. McDougle, Nathanael Velazquez, Michael D. Roberts, Tiffany A. Esmat, Trisha A. VanDusseldorp, Yuri Feito
      First page: 102
      Abstract: The 2018 CrossFit Open (CFO) was the initial stage of an annual competition that consisted of five weekly workouts. Current evidence suggests that a variety of fitness parameters are important for progressing beyond this stage, but little is known about which are the most important. To examine relationships between CFO performance, experience, and physiological fitness, sixteen experienced (>2 years) athletes (30.7 ± 6.9 years, 171 ± 12 cm, 78.0 ± 16.2 kg) volunteered to provide information about their training and competitive history, and then complete a battery of physiological assessments prior to competing in the 2018 CFO. Athletes’ resting energy expenditure, hormone concentrations, body composition, muscle morphology, cardiorespiratory fitness, and isometric strength were assessed on two separate occasions. Spearman correlations demonstrated significant (p < 0.05) relationships between most variables and performance on each workout. Stepwise regression revealed competition experience (R2 = 0.31–0.63), body composition (R2 = 0.55–0.80), vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (R2 = 0.29–0.89), respiratory compensation threshold (R2 = 0.54–0.75), and rate of force development (R2 = 0.30–0.76) to be the most common predictors. Of these, body composition was the most important. These fitness parameters are known targets with established training recommendations. Though preliminary, athletes may use these data to effectively train for CFO competition.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8070102
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 103: Validity of the Stryd Power Meter in Measuring
           Running Parameters at Submaximal Speeds

    • Authors: Frank Imbach, Robin Candau, Romain Chailan, Stephane Perrey
      First page: 103
      Abstract: This study assessed the Stryd running power meter validity at sub-maximal speeds (8 to 19 km/h). Six recreational runners performed an incremental indoor running test. Power output (PO), ground contact time (GCT) and leg spring stiffness (LSS) were compared to reference measures recorded by portable metabolic analyser, force platforms and motion capture system. A Bayesian framework was conducted for systems validity and comparisons. We observed strong and positive linear relationships between Stryd PO and oxygen consumption ( R 2 = 0 . 82 , B F 10 > 100 ), and between Stryd PO and external mechanical power ( R 2 = 0 . 88 , B F 10 > 100 ). Stryd power meter underestimated PO ( B F 10 > 100 ) whereas GCT and LSS values did not show any significant differences with the reference measures ( B F 10 = 0 . 008 , B F 10 = 0 . 007 , respectively). We conclude that the Stryd power meter provides valid measures of GCT and LSS but underestimates the absolute values of PO.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8070103
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 75: Does the Order of Submaximal Lactate Threshold
           and Maximal Oxygen Uptake Testing Influence Test Outcomes'

    • Authors: Per-Øyvind Torvik, Roland van den van den Tillaar, Gaute Iversen
      First page: 75
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate if the order of submaximal lactate threshold and maximal oxygen uptake testing would influence test outcomes. Twelve well-trained male cross-country skiers (mean age 19.6 years) performed two test sessions within a week in a within-subjects repeated measures with cross-over design study. A maximal oxygen uptake test (VO2max) followed by a lactate threshold (LT) test and vice versa, were performed. The test data included VO2, blood lactate (La-b), heart rate (HR), performance speed, Borg scale (RPE) at all stages and lactate accumulation throughout the whole test protocol including the breaks. No significant effect of testing order was found for: VO2max (74.23 vs. 73.91 mL∙min−1∙kg−1), maximal HR (190.7 vs. 189.9 bpm) and speed at LT during uphill running. Three out of four common definitions of LT resulted in the same La-b at the last two steps, 11 and 12 km/h respectively, in the two protocols. It is worth noting that VO2, HR and La-b were higher in the first two stages of the LT test when VO2max was tested first in the protocol. Well-trained cross-country skiers conclusively attained a similar VO2max and LT in both protocols, and the two tests did not seem to influence each other in terms of the degree of exhaustion that occurs in a single VO2max or an incremental LT test. However, when using a curvilinear function to define the LT, it is important to know that the VO2max test can influence levels of VO2, HR and La-b at the first two stages of the LT test.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060075
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 76: Can Countermovement Jump Neuromuscular
           Performance Qualities Differentiate Maximal Horizontal Deceleration
           Ability in Team Sport Athletes'

    • Authors: Harper, Cohen, Carling, Kiely
      First page: 76
      Abstract: This investigation aimed to determine the countermovement jump (CMJ) neuromuscular performance (NMP) qualities that differentiate between athletes with high or low horizontal deceleration ability. Twenty-seven male university team sport athletes performed a CMJ on vertical axis force plates and a maximal horizontal deceleration following a 20 m maximal horizontal sprint acceleration. The instantaneous velocity throughout the maximal horizontal deceleration test was measured using a radar device. The deceleration ability was evaluated using the average deceleration (HDEC, m·s−2) and change in momentum—referred to as the horizontal braking impulse (HBI, N·s·kg−1). Participants were dichotomised into high and low HDEC and HBI according to a median-split analysis, and CMJ variables calculated for the overall eccentric, eccentric-deceleration and concentric phases. When horizontal deceleration ability was defined by HDEC, the CMJ concentric (effect size (ES) = 0.95) and eccentric (ES = 0.72) peak forces were the variables with the largest difference between groups. However, when defined using HBI, the largest difference was the concentric (ES = 1.15) and eccentric (ES = −1.00) peak velocities. Only the concentric mean power was significantly different between the high and low groups for both HDEC (ES = 0.85) and HBI (ES = 0.96). These findings show that specific eccentric and concentric NMP qualities may underpin the horizontal deceleration abilities characterised by HDEC and HBI. Specific NMP training interventions may be beneficial to target improvements in either of these measures of horizontal deceleration abilities.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060076
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 77: Intensity Thresholds and Maximal Lactate Steady
           State in Small Muscle Group Exercise

    • Authors: Florian Spendier, Alexander Müller, Markus Korinek, Peter Hofmann
      First page: 77
      Abstract: The aim of our study is to determine the first (LTP1) and the second (LTP2) lactate turn points during an incremental bicep curl test and to verify these turn points by ventilatory turn points (VT1 and VT2) and constant-load exercise tests. Twelve subjects performed a one-arm incremental bicep curl exercise (IET) after a one repetition maximum (1RM) test to calculate the step rate for the incremental exercise (1RM/45). Workload was increased every min at a rate of 30 reps/min until maximum. To verify LTPs, VT1 and VT2 were determined from spirometric data, and 30 min constant-load tests (CL) were performed at 5% Pmax below and above turn points. Peak load in IET was 5.3 ± 0.9 kg (Lamax: 2.20 ± 0.40 mmol·L−1; HRmax: 135 ± 15 b·min−1; VO2max: 1.15 ± 0.30 L·min−1). LTP1 was detected at 1.9 ± 0.6 kg (La: 0.86 ± 0.36 mmol·L−1; HR 90 ± 13 b·min−1; VO2: 0.50 ± 0.05 L·min−1) and LTP2 at 3.8 ± 0.7 kg (La: 1.38 ± 0.37 mmol·L−1; 106 ± 10 b·min−1; VO2: 0.62 ± 0.11 L·min−1). Constant-load tests showed a lactate steady-state in all tests except above LTP2, with early termination after 16.5 ± 9.1 min. LTP1 and LTP2 could be determined in IET, which were not significantly different from VT1/VT2. Constant-load exercise validated the three-phase concept, and a steady-state was found at resting values below VT1 and in all other tests except above LTP2. It is suggested that the three-phase model is also applicable to small muscle group exercise.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060077
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 78: Increased Liveliness of Trunk Muscle Responses
           in Elite Kayakers and Canoeists

    • Authors: Andrej Kocjan, Nejc Šarabon
      First page: 78
      Abstract: Trunk stability functions play an important role in sport and everyday movements. The aim of this study was to analyze trunk strength, trunk muscles onset of activity, and rate of electromyographic rise (RER) in the case of self-inflicted and unexpected trunk loading. Thirty-two healthy young adults (16 elite kayakers/canoeists and 16 non-athletes) were measured with a multi-purpose diagnostic machine. Trunk strength was assessed in standing position. Trunk muscles onset of activity and RER were assessed through unexpected loading over the hands and rapid shoulder flexion, respectively. In comparison with non-athletes, kayakers/canoeists did not significantly differ in trunk strength and showed lower trunk extension/flexion strength ratio (p = 0.008). In general, trunk muscles onset of activity did not significantly differ between the groups. On the contrary, kayakers/canoeists showed higher RER mean values in all the observed muscles (p < 0.041), except in multifidus muscle during self-inflicted movements. Similarly, higher RER variability was observed in the majority of the observed muscles among kayakers/canoeists. Higher RER among kayakers/canoeists could represent a protective mechanism that ensures spine stability and prevents low back pain.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060078
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 79: The Effects of Accentuated Eccentric Loading on
           Mechanical Variables and Agonist Electromyography during the Bench Press

    • Authors: Alexis H. Castro, Dylan Zangakis, Gavin L. Moir
      First page: 79
      Abstract: We compared the effects of accentuated eccentric loading (AEL) on mechanical variables and agonist muscle activation using low (30% 1-repetition maximum (1RM)) and high (80% 1RM) upward-phase loading with AEL (100% 1RM during downward phase) to traditional loading schemes (T) in the bench press. Twelve resistance-trained men (26 ± 6 years; 1RM: 134 ± 33 kg) performed sets of two repetitions with three-minute intervals using loading schemes of 30AEL, 30T, 80AEL, and 80T. AEL was applied using weight releasers while force plates and a 3D motion-analysis system were used to measure mechanical variables. Electromyographic activity of the pectoralis major and triceps brachii muscles was also recorded. The greater downward-phase loads experienced during the AEL conditions allowed greater overall mean vertical forces (mean difference ( x ¯ Diff): 118 N, p < 0.001), greater work ( x ¯ Diff: 43 J, p < 0.001), and greater pectoralis major muscle activation ( x ¯ Diff: 27 µV, p = 0.002) compared to the corresponding traditional loading schemes. However, there was little evidence of potentiation of the mechanical variables or muscle activity during the subsequent upward phases caused by the AEL schemes. It is possible that the use of weight releasers may disrupt lifting technique particularly during low AEL schemes thereby diminishing any benefits.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060079
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 80: Cardiovascular Consequences of Skeletal Muscle
           Impairments in Breast Cancer

    • Authors: Zieff, Wagoner, Paterson, Lassalle, Lee
      First page: 80
      Abstract: Breast cancer survivors suffer from disproportionate cardiovascular disease risk compared to age-matched controls. Beyond direct cardiotoxic effects due to treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation, breast-cancer-related reductions in skeletal muscle mass, quality and oxidative capacity may further contribute to cardiovascular disease risk in this population by limiting the ability to engage in aerobic exercise—a known promoter of cardiovascular health. Indeed, 20%–30% decreases in peak oxygen consumption are commonly observed in breast cancer survivors, which are indicative of exercise intolerance. Thus, breast-cancer-related skeletal muscle damage may reduce exercise-based opportunities for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Resistance training is a potential strategy to improve skeletal muscle health in this population, which in turn may enhance the capacity to engage in aerobic exercise and reduce cardiovascular disease risk.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060080
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 81: Body Composition and Physical Fitness Profiles
           of Elite Female Japanese Wrestlers Aged <12 Years until >20 Years

    • Authors: Arakawa, Yamashita, Arimitsu, Kawano, Wada, Shimizu
      First page: 81
      Abstract: Studies evaluating the physical fitness levels of elite wrestlers during junior high school are limited. This study aimed to examine the body composition and physical fitness profiles of elite Japanese female wrestlers aged &lt;12 years until &gt;20 years. There were 114 elite female wrestlers enrolled. Measurements were conducted in the following age categories: &lt;12 years (U-12), &lt;15 years (U-15), &lt;17 years (U-17: cadet), &lt;20 years (U-20: junior), and &gt;20 years (senior). Body composition variables consisted of body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, fat free mass, and fat free mass index (FFMI). Fitness measurements included grip strength, back strength, sit-up, rope-climbing, and endurance running tests. The wrestlers in this study demonstrated comparable or greater FFMI values (e.g., FFMI: 17.9 &plusmn; 0.4 kg/m2 for light and 19.8 &plusmn; 0.9 kg/m2 for heavy weight categories in U-20), when compared with young female wrestlers in previous studies, whereas stature, body mass, and BMI of the wrestlers in our study were unremarkable. Regarding the fitness assessment, a remarkable increase in back strength was observed after late puberty. An outstanding enhancement of muscle strength after late puberty, which is unlikely to occur in ordinary women, would be an important requirement to become the world&rsquo;s top female wrestler.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060081
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 82: Bilateral Deficit and Bilateral Performance:
           Relationship with Sprinting and Change of Direction in Elite Youth Soccer

    • Authors: Ascenzi, Ruscello, Filetti, Bonanno, Di Salvo, Nuñez, Mendez-Villanueva, Suarez-Arrones
      First page: 82
      Abstract: The purpose of the study was to examine the differences in bilateral deficit (BLD) at different loadings during the half-squat jump (SJ) and horizontal countermovement jump (HCMJ) to determine if there is a relationship with linear sprint or change of direction (COD). The second goal was to check if fast players were more powerful in SJ and HCMJ than slow players in bilateral performance (BP). Twenty-seven male youth soccer players participated in the study. Players were divided in two groups, faster and slower, according to their sprint performance (10 and 40 m). BLD average power with body weight (BW) and 25%BW were significantly higher than 50%BW (p &lt; 0.01). BLD during HCMJ was significantly higher than BLD during SJ with BW, 25%BW and 50%BW (p &lt; 0.01). There were no statistical relationships between BLD and sprint or COD performance (p &gt; 0.05). Fast players showed significantly higher SJ power with all the different loads and HCMJ than slow players (p &lt; 0.01), and fast players lost more time executing COD-90&deg; than slow players (p &lt; 0.01). There were no statistical differences between fast and slow players in BLD. BLD seems to be dependent on motor task, contraction type and load and could not be a proper measure to estimate sprint and COD performance. Faster players are confirmed to be more powerful players than slow players, and decrements in COD could be a key benchmark to identify deficit between linear and COD performance.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060082
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 83: Daily School Physical Activity Improves Academic

    • Authors: Jesper Fritz, Marcus E. Cöster, Björn E. Rosengren, Caroline Karlsson, Magnus K. Karlsson
      First page: 83
      Abstract: Physical activity (PA) may improve brain development, cognition, concentration and academic performance. In this prospective controlled intervention study, we increased the level of PA in 338 children aged 6&ndash;8 years at study start, from the Swedish standard of 60 min per week to 200 min per week (40 min daily). The intervention continued in all nine compulsory school years until the students graduated between 2007&ndash;2012. All other 689,881 Swedish children who graduated the same years were included as a control group. We registered at graduation eligibility rate for upper secondary school and the final grade score (from 0 to 320 grade points). We also registered the same end points in the 295 students in the index school and in all other 471,926 Swedish students who graduated in 2003&ndash;2006, that is, those who graduated before the intervention study started. Before the intervention, academic performance was similar among children in the index school as for all other Swedish boys and girls. With the intervention, the eligibility rate increased for boys in the index school by 7.3 percentage points and the mean grade scores by 13.3 points. This should be compared with a decrease of 0.8 percentage points in eligibility rate and an increase by 2.7 points in grade score in other Swedish boys. No changes were seen for intervention girls, neither in eligibility rates or grade scores. By introducing daily school-based PA in compulsory school, more boys would probably reach the eligibility rate for higher education.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060083
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 84: The Athletics Injury Prevention Programme Can
           Help to Reduce the Occurrence at Short Term of Participation Restriction
           Injury Complaints in Athletics: A Prospective Cohort Study

    • Authors: Pascal Edouard, Emmanuelle Cugy, Romain Dolin, Nicolas Morel, Jean-Michel Serra, Frédéric Depiesse, Pedro Branco, Kathrin Steffen
      First page: 84
      Abstract: We aimed to determine whether an Athletics Injury Prevention Programme (AIPP), targeting the most common athletics injuries, can reduce the occurrence of injury complaints that lead to restrictions in athletics participation (participation restriction injury complaints) in the short (12 weeks) and long (40 weeks) terms. For our 40-week prospective cohort study (level of evidence 2), we invited inter-regional and national-level athletes to regularly perform the AIPP, which included 8 exercises addressing core stability, hamstring, leg and pelvic muscles strengthening and stretching, and balance exercises. A Cox regression was used to analyse the influence of AIPP on the occurrence of participation restriction injury complaint, adjusted to sex, age, height, body mass, discipline, and history of injury complaints during the preceding season, individual response rate, mean weekly training time, mean weekly number of competition, presented by hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). At 12 weeks (n = 62 athletes), the AIPP was significantly associated with a lower risk of participation restriction injury complaint HR = 0.36 (95%CI: 0.15 to 0.86), p = 0.02 and HR = 0.29 (95%CI: 0.12 to 0.73), p = 0.009, with cumulative weeks and cumulative training time as time scale, respectively, while at 40 weeks (n = 53 athletes) there was no significant association. An 8-exercise injury prevention programme can effectively help to reduce occurrence of injury complaints that would restrict an athlete&rsquo;s participation in athletics in the short term.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060084
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 85: Physical and Fitness Characteristics of Elite
           Professional Rugby Union Players

    • Authors: Logan Posthumus, Campbell Macgregor, Paul Winwood, Katrina Darry, Matthew Driller, Nicholas Gill
      First page: 85
      Abstract: This study explored the physical and fitness characteristics of elite professional rugby union players and examined the relationships between these characteristics within forwards and backs. Thirty-nine elite professional rugby union players from the New Zealand Super Rugby Championship participated in this study. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry alongside anthropometrics. Fitness characteristics included various strength, power, speed, and aerobic fitness measures. Forwards were significantly (p = &lt; 0.01) taller and heavier than backs, and possessed greater lean mass, fat mass, fat percentage, bone mass, and skinfolds. Forwards demonstrated greater strength and absolute power measures than backs (p = 0.02), but were slower and possessed less aerobic fitness (p = &lt; 0.01). Skinfolds demonstrated very large correlations with relative power (r = &minus;0.84) and speed (r = 0.75) measures within forwards, while backs demonstrated large correlations between skinfolds and aerobic fitness (r = &minus;0.54). Fat mass and fat percentage demonstrated very large correlations with speed (r = 0.71) and aerobic fitness (r = &minus;0.70) measures within forwards. Skinfolds, fat mass, and fat percentage relate strongly to key fitness characteristics required for elite professional rugby union performance. Individual and positional monitoring is important due to the clear differences between positions.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060085
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 86: Transversus Abdominis Thickness at Rest and
           Exercise in Individuals with Poststroke Hemiparesis

    • Authors: Kelli, Kellis, Galanis, Dafkou, Sahinis, Ellinoudis
      First page: 86
      Abstract: The activity of the transverse abdominal (TrA) muscle affects the stabilization of the trunk. It is known that after a stroke, people experience problems in performing daily activities. The purpose of this study was to examine whether there are differences in the transversus abdominal thickness between the two sides of the body in individuals with hemiparesis and controls. Eight patients with hemiparesis and nine controls matched for age and body mass index were examined by musculoskeletal ultrasound in four conditions: a) At rest, b) abdominal hollowing maneuver from the supine position, c) bridge, and d) abdominal hollowing maneuver from the bridge position. In each of the above conditions, the symmetry index was calculated as the absolute value of the difference in thickness between the two sides. Analysis of variance showed a lower TrA thickness at rest and exercise in patients compared to the control group (p &lt; 0.05). Further, patients showed a lower contraction thickness ratio during exercise compared to controls (p &lt; 0.05). The absolute symmetry of the TrA thickness was 12.59 &plusmn; 6.43% to 19.31 &plusmn; 10.43% in patients and it was significantly greater than the control group (3.01 &plusmn; 2.47% to 4.47 &plusmn; 2.87%). According to the above results, it seems that transverse abdominal activation exercises are particularly useful for improving the stability of patients with hemiparesis, as long as they are located and adapted to the deficit of each patient.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060086
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 87: Match Demands of Women’s Collegiate Soccer

    • Authors: Jagim, Murphy, Schaefer, Askow, Luedke, Erickson, Jones
      First page: 87
      Abstract: Research describing the match and specific positional demands during match play in women&rsquo;s collegiate soccer is limited. The purpose of the study was to quantify the match demands of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III soccer and assess position differences in movement kinematics, heart rate (HR), and energy expenditure. Twenty-five Division III women soccer players (height: 1.61 &plusmn; 0.3 m; body mass: 66.7 &plusmn; 7.5 kg; fat-free mass: 50.3 &plusmn; 6.5 kg; body fat%: 25.6 &plusmn; 5.1%) were equipped with a wearable global positioning system to assess the demands of 22 matches throughout a season. Players were categorized by position (goal keepers (GK), center defenders (CB), flank players (FP), forwards (F), and center midfielders (CM)). Players covered 9807 &plusmn; 2588 m and 1019 &plusmn; 552 m at high speeds (&gt;249.6 m&middot;m&minus;1), with an overall average speed of 62.85 &plusmn; 14.7 m&middot;m&minus;1. This resulted in a mean HR of 74.2 &plusmn; 6% HR max and energy expenditure of 1259 &plusmn; 309 kcal. Significant and meaningful differences in movement kinematics were observed across position groups. CM covered the most distance resulting in the highest training load. FP covered the most distance at high speeds and mean HR values were highest in CM, CB, and FP positions.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060087
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 88: The Effects of Physical Education on Motor
           Competence in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and

    • Authors: Håvard Lorås
      First page: 88
      Abstract: Appropriate levels of motor competence are an integrated part of individuals&rsquo; health-related fitness, and physical education is proposed as an important context for developing a broad range of motor skills. The aim of the current study was to apply meta-analyses to assess the effectiveness of curriculum-based physical education on the development of the overall motor competence of children and adolescents. Studies were located by searching seven databases and included according to predefined criteria. Random effects models using the standardized effect size (Hedges&rsquo; g) were used to aggregate results, including an examination of heterogeneity and inconsistency. The meta-analysis included 20 studies, and a total of 38 effect sizes were calculated. A statistically significant improvement in motor competence following curriculum-based physical education compared to active control groups was observed in children and adolescents (g = &minus;0.69, 95% CI &minus;0.91 to &minus;0.46, n = 23). Participants&rsquo; ages, total time for physical education intervention, and type of motor competence assessment did not appear to be statistically significant moderators of effect size. Physical education with various curricula can, therefore, increase overall motor competence in children and adolescents.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060088
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 89: Postural Stability in Athletes: The Role of Age,
           Sex, Performance Level, and Athlete Shoe Features

    • Authors: Albina Andreeva, Andrey Melnikov, Dmitry Skvortsov, Kadriya Akhmerova, Alexander Vavaev, Andrey Golov, Viktorya Draugelite, Roman Nikolaev, Serafima Chechelnickaia, Daria Zhuk, Alexandra Bayerbakh, Vladislav Nikulin, Erika Zemková
      First page: 89
      Abstract: The effects of different factors&mdash;such as age, sex, performance level, and athletic shoe features&mdash;on postural balance in athletes remain unclear. The main objective of our study is to identify the features of postural stability in athletes of different age, sex, performance level, and using different types of athletic shoes. This study assessed postural stability in athletes (n = 936, 6&ndash;47 years) in a normal bipedal stance with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC). Postural stability was evaluated based on the center of pressure (COP), sway area (AS), and velocity (VCP) while standing on a stabiloplatform. Children (6&ndash;12 years) and teen athletes (13&ndash;17 years) showed reduced AS-EO (p &lt; 0.01) and VCP-EO (p &lt; 0.01) compared to control (n = 225, 7&ndash;30 years). In male and female athletes aged 18+, only VCP-EC was lower versus control. In females (13&ndash;17 and 18+), VCP-EO and EC were lower than in males (p &lt; 0.05). Only in the Shooting group, the athletes&rsquo; performance levels had an effect on VCP-EO (p = 0.020). Long use of rigid athletic shoes with stiff ankle support was associated with reduced posture stability. Postural stability in athletes was mostly influenced by the athlete&lsquo;s age, and, to a lesser extent, by their sex, performance level, and athlete shoe features.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060089
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 90: Repeated Menthol Mouth Swilling Affects Neither
           Strength nor Power Performance

    • Authors: Russ Best, Dani Temm, Holly Hucker, Kerin McDonald
      First page: 90
      Abstract: This study aimed to assess the effects of repeated menthol mouth swilling upon strength and power performance. Nineteen (10 male) participants completed familiarisation and experimental trials of repeated menthol mouth swilling (0.1% concentration) or control (no swill) in a randomised crossover design. Participants performed an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP; peak and mean force; N), vertical jump (peak; cm) and six second sprint (peak and mean power; W) under each condition. Participants completed three efforts per exercise task interspersed with three-minute recoveries. Mean best values were analysed via a two-way mixed repeated measures ANOVA, and differences reported as effect sizes &plusmn; 95% confidence intervals, with accompanying descriptors and p values. Differences in peak IMTP values were unclear between familiarisation and experimental trials, and between menthol and control conditions. Mean IMTP force differed between familiarisation and control (0.51; &minus;0.15 to 1.14; p = 0.001) and familiarisation and menthol conditions (0.50; &minus;0.15 to 1.14; p = 0.002) by a small degree, but were unclear between control and menthol conditions. Unclear differences were also noted on vertical jump performance compared to familiarisation and between experimental conditions, with repeated six second peak and average power performance also showing unclear effects across all comparisons. We conclude that repeated menthol mouth swilling does not improve strength or power performance.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060090
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 57: The Effects of Postprandial Resistance Exercise
           on Blood Glucose and Lipids in Prediabetic, Beta-Thalassemia Major

    • Authors: Kalliopi Georgakouli, Alexandra Stamperna, Chariklia K. Deli, Niki Syrou, Dimitrios Draganidis, Ioannis G. Fatouros, Athanasios Z. Jamurtas
      First page: 57
      Abstract: Insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus are common consequences of iron overload in the pancreas of beta-thalassemia major (BTM) patients. Moreover, postprandial blood glucose elevations are linked to major vascular complications. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a bout of acute resistance exercise following breakfast consumption of glucose and fat on the metabolism in prediabetic, BTM patients. Six patients underwent two trials (exercise and control) following breakfast consumption (consisting of approximately 50% carbohydrates, 15% proteins, 35% fat), in a counterbalanced order, separated by at least three days. In an exercise trial, patients performed chest and leg presses (3 sets of 10 repetitions maximum/exercise), while in the control trial they rested. Blood samples were obtained in both trials at: pre-meal, 45 min post-meal (pre-exercise/control), post-exercise/control, 1 h post-exercise/control, 2 h post-exercise/control and 24 h post-exercise/control. Blood was analysed for glucose and lipids (total cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides). Blood glucose levels increased significantly 45 min following breakfast consumption. Blood glucose and lipids did not differ between trials at the same time points. It seems that a single bout of resistance training is not sufficient to improve blood glucose and fat levels for the subsequent 24-h post-exercise period in prediabetic, BTM patients.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050057
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 58: Military-Type Workload and Footwear Alter Lower
           Extremity Muscle Activity During Unilateral Static Balance: Implications
           for Tactical Athletic Footwear Design

    • Authors: Christopher Hill, Hunter DeBusk, Adam Knight, Harish Chander
      First page: 58
      Abstract: Maintaining upright standing balance is critical for military personal. The impact of military footwear and occupation-related fatigue on muscle activity during balance performance has been previously documented. However, the current literature has not provided a muscle activation profile of the lower extremity during challenging conditions such as unilateral balance trials. Twenty-two recreationally active male participants (age: 22.2 &plusmn; 2.7 years; height: 177 &plusmn; 6.8 cm; mass: 79.8 &plusmn; 9.7 kg) donned two styles of military footwear (minimalist and standard) and performed a military style workload. Unilateral static balance was accessed before (PRE) and after (POST) the workload as surface electromyography was recorded on the right lower extremity. This study found that the minimalist footwear increased muscle activation prior to the workload compared to the standard footwear (co-contraction index mean difference: 0.149), whereas the standard footwear increased muscle activity after the workload (co-contraction index mean difference: 0.097). These findings suggest that footwear design characteristics affect lower extremity muscle activity differently depending on the workload condition. These findings intend to aid in the design of military footwear to maximize balance performance in a military population.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050058
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 59: Effects of the Barbell Load on the Acceleration
           Phase during the Snatch in Elite Olympic Weightlifting

    • Authors: Ingo Sandau, Urs Granacher
      First page: 59
      Abstract: The load-depended loss of vertical barbell velocity at the end of the acceleration phase limits the maximum weight that can be lifted. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze how increased barbell loads affect the vertical barbell velocity in the sub-phases of the acceleration phase during the snatch. It was hypothesized that the load-dependent velocity loss at the end of the acceleration phase is primarily associated with a velocity loss during the 1st pull. For this purpose, 14 male elite weightlifters lifted seven load-stages from 70&ndash;100% of their personal best in the snatch. The load&ndash;velocity relationship was calculated using linear regression analysis to determine the velocity loss at 1st pull, transition, and 2nd pull. A group mean data contrast analysis revealed the highest load-dependent velocity loss for the 1st pull (t = 1.85, p = 0.044, g = 0.49 [&minus;0.05, 1.04]) which confirmed our study hypothesis. In contrast to the group mean data, the individual athlete showed a unique response to increased loads during the acceleration sub-phases of the snatch. With the proposed method, individualized training recommendations on exercise selection and loading schemes can be derived to specifically improve the sub-phases of the snatch acceleration phase. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of single-subject assessment when working with elite athletes in Olympic weightlifting.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050059
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 60: Anaerobic Power Assessment in Athletes: Are
           Cycling and Vertical Jump Tests Interchangeable'

    • Authors: Micah Gross, Fabian Lüthy
      First page: 60
      Abstract: Regularly assessing anaerobic power is important for athletes from sports with an explosive strength component. Understanding the differences and overlap between different assessment methods might help coaches or smaller-scale testing facilities maximize financial and temporal resources. Therefore, this study investigated the degree to which cycling sprint and vertical jump tests are interchangeable for determining peak mechanical leg power output in strength-trained athletes. Professional skiers (n = 19) performed unloaded squat jumps (SJ) and other jump forms on a force plate and a six-second cycling sprint (6sCS) test on an ergometer on six occasions over two years. Along with cross-sectional correlations between cycling and jumping power, correlations between longitudinal percent changes and agreement between magnitude-based inferences about individual changes were assessed. Among the tested jump forms, SJ reflected 6sCS best. However, despite extremely large cross-sectional correlation coefficients (0.92) between 6sCS and SJ, and moderate (Pearson&rsquo;s r = 0.32 for 6sCS with SJ over one-year time spans) to large (r = 0.68 over shorter time spans) correlation coefficients on percent changes, magnitude-based inferences agreed in only around 50% of cases. Thus, for making qualitative assessments about the development of anaerobic power over time in athletes, cycling sprint and squat jump tests are not interchangeable. Rather, we recommend employing the test form that best reflects athletes&rsquo; strength and conditioning training.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050060
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 61: Listening to Preferred Music Improved Running
           Performance without Changing the Pacing Pattern during a 6 Minute Run Test
           with Young Male Adults

    • Authors: Nidhal Jebabli, Urs Granacher, Mohamed Amin Selmi, Badriya Al-Haddabi, David G. Behm, Anis Chaouachi, Radhouane Haj Sassi
      First page: 61
      Abstract: Several studies have investigated the effects of music on both submaximal and maximal exercise performance at a constant work-rate. However, there is a lack of research that has examined the effects of music on the pacing strategy during self-paced exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of preferred music on performance and pacing during a 6 min run test (6-MSPRT) in young male adults. Twenty healthy male participants volunteered for this study. They performed two randomly assigned trials (with or without music) of a 6-MSPRT three days apart. Mean running speed, the adopted pacing strategy, total distance covered (TDC), peak and mean heart rate (HRpeak, HRmean), blood lactate (3 min after the test), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. Listening to preferred music during the 6-MSPRT resulted in significant TDC improvement (&Delta;10%; p = 0.016; effect size (ES) = 0.80). A significantly faster mean running speed was observed when listening to music compared with no music. The improvement of TDC in the present study is explained by a significant overall increase in speed (main effect for conditions) during the music trial. Music failed to modify pacing patterns as suggested by the similar reversed &ldquo;J-shaped&rdquo; profile during the two conditions. Blood-lactate concentrations were significantly reduced by 9% (p = 0.006, ES = 1.09) after the 6-MSPRT with music compared to those in the control condition. No statistically significant differences were found between the test conditions for HRpeak, HRmean, and RPE. Therefore, listening to preferred music can have positive effects on exercise performance during the 6-MSPRT, such as greater TDC, faster running speeds, and reduced blood lactate levels but has no effect on the pacing strategy.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050061
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 62: Dietary Intake of Gaelic Football Players during
           Game Preparation and Recovery

    • Authors: Ciarán Ó Catháin, James Fleming, Michele Renard, David Kelly
      First page: 62
      Abstract: It is well established that dietary intake can influence performance and modulate recovery in field-based invasion team sports such as soccer and rugby. However, very limited research currently exists examining dietary intake of Gaelic football players. This research aimed to examine the dietary intake of Gaelic football players 2 days prior to competition, on game day, and for 2 days post-competition. A five-day paper-based food diary was completed by 45 players (25 elite and 20 sub-elite). Preliminary inspection of diaries eliminated 11 participants, and analysis of Goldberg cut-offs identified 1 player as an under-reporter, leaving 33 players in the final analysis. Playing level had no effect on energy, carbohydrate, or fat intake. Average intake of energy was 2938 &plusmn; 618;1, carbohydrate was 3.7 &plusmn; 1.42 g.kgbm&minus;;1, and fat was 1.34 &plusmn; 0.61 g.kgbm&minus;;1. However, elite players consumed 24.1% more protein than sub-elite players (2.2 &plusmn; 0.67 vs. 1.8 &plusmn; 0.62 g.kgbm&minus;;1). Regardless of playing level, players consumed inadequate amounts of carbohydrate to support optimal performance and recovery and consumed protein and fat in line with general sport nutrition guidelines. Given the unique demands placed on Gaelic football players, it may be necessary to develop nutrition guidelines specific to Gaelic football. Additionally, the design and implementation of Gaelic football-specific education-based interventions may be necessary to address the highlighted nutritional inadequacies.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050062
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 63: The Relationship between Isometric Force-Time
           Characteristics and Dynamic Performance: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Danny Lum, G. Gregory Haff, Tiago M. Barbosa
      First page: 63
      Abstract: The purpose of this article was to review the data on the relationship between multi-joint isometric strength test (IsoTest) force-time characteristics (peak force, rate of force development and impulse) and dynamic performance that is available in the current literature. Four electronic databases were searched using search terms related to IsoTest. Studies were considered eligible if they were original research studies that investigated the relationships between multi-joint IsoTest and performance of dynamic movements; published in peer-reviewed journals; had participants who were athletes or active individuals who participate in recreational sports or resistance training, with no restriction on sex; and had full text available. A total of 47 studies were selected. These studies showed significant small to large correlations between isometric bench press (IBP) force-time variables and upper body dynamic performances (r2 = 0.221 to 0.608, p &lt; 0.05) and significant small to very large correlation between isometric squat (ISqT) (r2 = 0.085 to 0.746, p &lt; 0.05) and isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) (r2 = 0.120 to 0.941, p &lt; 0.05) force-time variables with lower body dynamic performances. IsoTest force-time characteristics were shown to have small to very large correlations with dynamic performances of the upper and lower limbs as well as performance of sporting movements (r2 = 0.118 to 0.700, p &lt; 0.05). These data suggest that IsoTest force-time characteristics provide insights into the force production capability of athletes which give insight into dynamic performance capabilities.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050063
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 64: Time Course of Recovery for Performance
           Attributes and Circulating Markers of Muscle Damage Following a Rugby
           Union Match in Amateur Athletes

    • Authors: Bruno Victor Corrêa da Silva, Mário Antônio de Moura Simim, Rodrigo Barboza da Silva, Edmar Lacerda Mendes, Bernardo Neme Ide, Moacir Marocolo, Jeffrey S. Martin, Gustavo R. Mota
      First page: 64
      Abstract: Background: We sought to determine the time course of changes in neuromuscular performance and muscle damage following a single rugby union match. Methods: Fourteen male amateur rugby players (28.9 &plusmn; 3.5 yrs; 1.7 &plusmn; 5.1 m; 86.1 &plusmn; 11.1 kg) participated. Plasma activity of creatine kinase ([CK]) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), L-run test (change of direction) and 30-m sprint (T30; speed) with 10-m lap time (T10; acceleration) were assessed on six occasions: one week before the match (PRE) and immediately, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-match. Results: Relative to PRE, LDH was elevated immediately post-match (+33.6% &plusmn; 13.6%; p &lt; 0.001) and [CK] was elevated immediately (+64.1% &plusmn; 38.8%, p = 0.001) and 24 h post-match (+352% &plusmn; 317%; p = 0.024). L-run test time increased 16.0 &plusmn; 8.7% relative to PRE at 24 h post (p &lt; 0.001) and remained elevated through 96 h post-match (p &lt; 0.05). T10 and T30 times increased relative to PRE immediately post-match (+12.0% &plusmn; 10.4%, p = 0.008; and +6.1% &plusmn; 4.9%; p = 0.006, respectively), though T30 times were similar to baseline by 48 h post-match whereas T10 times remained elevated through 72 h post-match. Conclusions: A single, competitive rugby union match induces significant muscle damage and performance decrements with distinct time courses of recovery in amateur athletes. Notably, change of direction attributes (i.e., L-run) appear to have the longest time course to full recovery.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050064
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 65: Mechanisms of Hamstring Strain Injury:
           Interactions between Fatigue, Muscle Activation and Function

    • Authors: Shaun Huygaerts, Francesc Cos, Daniel D. Cohen, Julio Calleja-González, Marc Guitart, Anthony J. Blazevich, Pedro E. Alcaraz
      First page: 65
      Abstract: Isolated injury to the long head of biceps femoris is the most common type of acute hamstring strain injury (HSI). However, the precise hamstring injury mechanism (i.e., sprint-type) is still not well understood, and research is inconclusive as to which phase in the running cycle HSI risk is the greatest. Since detailed information relating to hamstring muscle function during sprint running cannot be obtained in vivo in humans, the findings of studies investigating HSI mechanisms are based on modeling that requires assumptions to be made based on extrapolations from anatomical and biomechanical investigations. As it is extremely difficult to account for all aspects of muscle-tendon tissues that influence function during high-intensity running actions, much of this complexity is not included in these models. Furthermore, the majority of analyses do not consider the influence of prior activity or muscular fatigue on kinematics, kinetics and muscle activation during sprinting. Yet, it has been shown that fatigue can lead to alterations in neuromuscular coordination patterns that could potentially increase injury risk. The present critical review will evaluate the current evidence on hamstring injury mechanism(s) during high-intensity running and discuss the interactions between fatigue and hamstring muscle activation and function.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050065
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 66: Physical and Physiological Responses of U-14,
           U-16, and U-18 Soccer Players on Different Small-Sided Games

    • Authors: Jorge López-Fernández, Javier Sánchez-Sánchez, Jorge García-Unanue, Enrique Hernando, Leonor Gallardo
      First page: 66
      Abstract: As most existing studies in youth academies are focused on top players, the objective of this research is to analyze the physical and physiological demands of various small-sided games (SSGs) on different age categories within a sub-elite soccer academy. We evaluated 63 young players from a Spanish sub-elite academy (under 14 = 21; under 16 = 21; under 18 = 21). Players performed four different small-side games focused on possession game (3-a-side; 4-a-side; 5-a-side; 6-a-side). The global indicators of performance and high-intensity actions were recorded through global positioning systems, whereas the heart rate responses were measured using heart rate monitors. Results: Under 16 ran a greater distance at high-intensity velocity than under 14 in the small side games 3v3 and 6v6. Furthermore, under 16 also ran a greater distance at high-intensity velocity than under 18 in the small side game 3v3 (p &lt; 0.01). Under 14 showed greater acceleration at the highest intensity (&gt; 2.75 m/s2) than the other age groups, under 16 and U18 (p &lt; 0.01; ES (effect size) &gt; 1). According to the physiological load, SSG 3v3 presented lower outcomes in Zone 6 (&gt; 95% HRmax) than the small side game 4v4 and the small side game 5v5, in both under 14 and under 16. The workload of SSGs varies depending on the number of players, but also depending on the players&rsquo; ages. Therefore, when designing the SSGs it is important to consider both the players&rsquo; ages and the workload that want to be achieved.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050066
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 67: Lean Body Mass, Muscle Architecture, and
           Performance in Well-Trained Female Weightlifters

    • Authors: Nikolaos Zaras, Angeliki-Nikoletta Stasinaki, Polyxeni Spiliopoulou, Marios Hadjicharalambous, Gerasimos Terzis
      First page: 67
      Abstract: Lean mass and quadriceps muscle architecture have been associated with performance in male well-trained weightlifters, but no data exist for female weightlifters. The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between lean mass, quadriceps cross sectional area (CSA), and muscle architecture with weightlifting performance in female weightlifters. Eight well-trained female weightlifters (age 23.5 &plusmn; 6.3 years, maximum total lifting performance = 147.4 &plusmn; 34.1 kg) participated in the study. Five of the athletes were members of the national team and three were among the nation&rsquo;s top-five performers of the respective body-weight category. Measurements included maximum lifting performance in snatch and clean and jerk, body composition (dual x-ray absorptiometry), vastus lateralis (VL) muscle architecture, vastus intermedius (VI) muscle thickness and quadriceps muscles&rsquo; CSA and countermovement jump (CMJ). Very large to nearly perfect correlations were found between snatch and clean and jerk for trunk lean body mass (r = 0.959 and 0.929), for total CSA (r = 0.732 and 0.608), and CMJ power (r = 0.933 and 0.896). These results suggest that lean body mass, quadriceps&rsquo; CSA and CMJ should be monitored regularly in female weightlifters to detect potential modifications in lifting performance.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050067
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 68: Heart Rate Responses during Sport-Specific
           High-Intensity Circuit Exercise in Child Female Gymnasts

    • Authors: Andreas Salagas, Olyvia Donti, Christos Katsikas, Gregory C. Bogdanis
      First page: 68
      Abstract: This study examined heart rate (HR) responses during a sport-specific high-intensity circuit training session to indirectly assess cardiorespiratory stress in child athletes. Seventeen, female gymnasts, aged 9&ndash;11 years performed two 5-min 15 s sets of circuit exercise, interspersed by a 3 min rest interval. Each set included five rounds of five gymnastic exercises (7 s work, 7 s rest) executed with maximal effort. During the first circuit training set, peak heart rate (HR) was 192 &plusmn; 7 bpm and average HR was 83 &plusmn; 4% of maximum HR (HRmax), which was determined in a separate session. In the second set, peak HR and average HR were increased to 196 &plusmn; 8 bpm (p &lt; 0.001, d = 0.55) and to 89 &plusmn; 4% HRmax (p &lt; 0.001, d = 2.19), respectively, compared with the first set. HR was above 80% HRmax for 4.1 &plusmn; 1.2 min during set 1 and this was increased to 5.1 &plusmn; 0.4 min in set 2 (p &lt; 0.001, d = 1.15). Likewise, HR was above 90% of HRmax for 2.0 &plusmn; 1.2 min in set 1 and was increased to 3.4 &plusmn; 1.7 min in set 2 (p &lt; 0.001, d = 0.98). In summary, two 5-min 15 s sets of high-intensity circuit training using sport-specific exercises, increased HR to levels above 80% and 90% HRmax for extended time periods, and thus may be considered as an appropriate stimulus, in terms of intensity, for improving aerobic fitness in child female gymnasts.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050068
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 69: Monitoring Workloads of a Professional Female
           Futsal Team over a Season: A Case Study

    • Authors: Carlos Lago-Fuentes, Alejandro Jiménez-Loaisa, Alexis Padrón-Cabo, Marián Fernández-Villarino, Marcos Mecías-Calvo, Bruno Travassos, Ezequiel Rey
      First page: 69
      Abstract: The aims of this study were to describe the external and internal workloads in a professional female futsal team during a whole season and to compare workloads during different periods of the season. Ten professional female futsal players (age 22.8 ± 4.3 years; 5.1 ± 2.4 years of experience; weight 61.9 ± 7.1 kg; height 1.66 ± 0.06 m) participated voluntarily in this study during the whole season. The internal workload was measured by the session-Rate of perceived exertion (session-RPE) method, while the external workload was indirectly measured by considering the training and match volume and the type of contents of each session over 43 weeks. Mean sRPE throughout the season was 319.9 ± 127.1 arbitrary units (AU). Higher internal loads (total weekly training load and strain) were reported during the pre-season compared with the in-season mesocycles (p &lt; 0.05); meanwhile, the fifth to eighth mesocycles of the in-season showed an oscillatory pattern. Finally, Monday was the most-demanding session during the in-season period over the Thursday (p &lt; 0.05; effect size: 1.33) followed by match day, meanwhile no statistical differences were reported during different sessions of the pre-season microcycle (p &gt; 0.05). This study suggests that microcycles of pre-season present a stable load pattern, meanwhile workloads during the in-season period report a tapering strategy in a professional female futsal team.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050069
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 70: Discrepancies Exist between Exercise
           Prescription and Dose in Elite Women’s Basketball Pre-Season

    • Authors: Craig Staunton, Daniel Wundersitz, Brett Gordon, Michael Kingsley
      First page: 70
      Abstract: This study assessed the influence of exercise prescription on the objectively measured exercise dose in basketball. Intensity (RPE) and volume (sRPE) were prescribed by a professional coach on a drill-by-drill basis during pre-season training for nine elite basketball players. Training drills were classified by prescribed intensity (easy-moderate, moderate-hard, hard&ndash;very hard, and very hard-maximal) and type (warm-up, skill-development, offensive- and defensive-technical/tactical, or match-simulation). Exercise intensity was objectively quantified using accelerometry-derived average net force (AvFNet) and time spent in accelerometry-derived relative intensity zones. The volume of exercise (exercise dose) was objectively quantified using accumulated impulse (AvFNet &times; duration). Relationships between prescribed volume and exercise dose were explored by correlations between sRPE and drill-by-drill accumulation of sRPE (dRPE) with impulse. Very hard-maximal drill intensity was greater than hard-very hard (p = 0.011), but not moderate-hard (p = 0.945). Very hard-maximal drills included the most time performing Supra-maximal intensity (&gt;100% V ˙ O2R) efforts (p &lt; 0.001), suggesting that intensity prescription was based upon the amount of high-intensity exercise. Correlations between impulse with sRPE and dRPE were moderate (r = 0.401, p = 0.197) and very-large (r = 0.807, p = 0.002), respectively, demonstrating that the coach misinterpreted the accumulative effect of drill volume over an entire training session. Overall, a mismatch existed between exercise prescription and exercise dose. Objective monitoring might assist coaches to improve precision of exercise prescription.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050070
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 71: The Effects of Lateral Bounds on Post-Activation
           Potentiation of Change-of-Direction Speed Measured by the 505 Test in
           College-Aged Men and Women

    • Authors: Ashley J. Orjalo, Robert G. Lockie, Katherine Balfany, Samuel J. Callaghan
      First page: 71
      Abstract: Forty recreationally-trained individuals completed four testing sessions to determine whether lateral bounds (LB) or weighted lateral bounds enhanced change-of-direction (COD) speed measured by the 505 COD speed test. Session 1 included vertical jump and lateral bound (LB) testing to measure power. Sessions 2&ndash;4 involved three randomized conditioning activities (CA): 3 &times; 5 LB; 3 &times; 5 weighted LB (10% body mass provided by a weighted vest); and a control condition (4-min rest). The 505 COD speed test was performed 5- and 2.5-min pre-CA, and ~15 s, 4, 8, 12, and 16 min post-CA. A 3 &times; 6 repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) calculated performance changes across time points post-CA. A 3 &times; 2 repeated measures ANOVA analyzed best potentiated performance. Smallest worthwhile change (SWC) measured within-subject 505 COD speed test performance. Partial correlations controlling for sex calculated relationships between the vertical jump, LB, and percent potentiation. There were no differences (p = 0.919) in 505 time relative to baseline for any CA, nor was the SWC exceeded. The best potentiated 505 time was faster (p &lt; 0.001) than baseline for all CA, with no between-CA differences. There were no significant (p = 0.056&ndash;0.993) correlations between power and potentiation. LB and weighted LB did not potentiate the 505 COD speed test, although performance was not hindered.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050071
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 72: Reliability of a Repeated High-Intensity Effort
           Test for Elite Rugby Union Players

    • Authors: Adrien Vachon, Nicolas Berryman, Iñigo Mujika, Jean-Baptiste Paquet, Tony Monnet, Laurent Bosquet
      First page: 72
      Abstract: This study aimed to adapt a repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) test to the rugby union physical demands and assess both sprint time and tackle indices reliability. Following a familiarization session, sixteen elite rugby union players completed two RHIE tests consisting of 12 &times; 20 m sprint + tackle. Total sprint time and total g-force during tackling, average sprint time and average g-force as well as percentage decrementsprint time and percentage decrementtackle were considered for the analysis. Sprint time indices showed high to very high absolute and relative reliability (intraclass coefficient correlation (ICC) = 0.95, Standard Error Measurement (SEM) = 1.30%; ICC = 0.95, SEM = 1.44%; ICC = 0.73, SEM = 23.0%, for total sprint time, average sprint time and percentage decrementsprint time, respectively). Tackle indices showed moderate to high reliability (ICC = 0.54, SEM = 16.5%; ICC = 0.61, SEM = 15.6%; ICC = 0.71, SEM = 12.3%, for total g-force, average g-force and percentage decrementtackle, respectively). The RHIE test provides reliable measures of sprint time and tackle indices. Tackle indices should be used as a validation criterion of the test, whereas total time should be considered as the test final result.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050072
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 73: The Reliability of Neuromuscular and Perceptual
           Measures Used to Profile Recovery, and the Time-Course of such Responses
           following Academy Rugby League Match-Play

    • Authors: Aben, Hills, Higgins, Cooke, Davis, Jones, Russell
      First page: 73
      Abstract: In professional academy rugby league (RL) players, this two-part study examined; A) the within- and between-day reliability of isometric mid-thigh pulls (IMTP), countermovement jumps (CMJ), and a wellness questionnaire (n = 11), and B) profiled the responses with acceptable reliability (no between-trial differences and between-day coefficient of variation (CV) &le;10% and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) &ge;0.8) for 120 h (baseline: -3, +24, +48, +72, +96, +120 h) following RL match-play (n = 10). In part A, force at 200, and 250 ms, and peak force (PF) demonstrated acceptable within- (CV%: 3.67-8.41%, ICC: 0.89-0.93) and between-day (CV%: 4.34&ndash;8.62%, ICC: 0.87&ndash;0.92) reliability for IMTP. Most CMJ variables demonstrated acceptable within-day reliability (CV%: 3.03&ndash;7.34%, ICC: 0.82&ndash;0.98), but only six (i.e., flight-time, PF, peak power (PP), relative PP, velocity at take-off (VTO), jump-height (JH)) showed acceptable between-day reliability (CV%: 2.56-6.79%, ICC: 0.83&ndash;0.91). Only total wellness demonstrated acceptable between-day reliability (CV%: 7.05%, ICC: 0.90) from the questionnaire. In part B, reductions of 4.75% and 9.23% (vs. baseline; 2.54 m∙s-1; 0.33 m) occurred at +24 h for CMJ VTO, and JH, respectively. Acceptable reliability was observed in some, but not all, variables and the magnitude and time-course of post-match responses were test and variable specific. Practitioners should therefore be mindful of the influence that the choice of recovery monitoring tool may have upon the practical interpretation of the data.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050073
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 74: Individual Sprint Force-Velocity Profile
           Adaptations to In-Season Assisted and Resisted Velocity-Based Training in
           Professional Rugby

    • Authors: Johan Lahti, Pedro Jiménez-Reyes, Matt R. Cross, Pierre Samozino, Patrick Chassaing, Benjamin Simond-Cote, Juha P. Ahtiainen, Jean-Benoit Morin
      First page: 74
      Abstract: We tested the hypothesis that the degree of adaptation to highly focused sprint training at opposite ends of the sprint Force-Velocity (FV) spectrum would be associated with initial sprint FV profile in rugby athletes. Training-induced changes in sprint FV profiles were computed before and after an eight-week in-season resisted or assisted sprint training protocol, including a three-week taper. Professional male rugby players (age: 18.9 &plusmn; 1.0 years; body height: 1.9 &plusmn; 0.0 m; body mass: 88.3 &plusmn; 10.0 kg) were divided into two groups based on their initial sprint FV profiles: 1) Heavy sled training (RESISTED, N = 9, velocity loss 70&ndash;80%), and 2) assisted acceleration training (ASSISTED, N = 12, velocity increase 5&ndash;10%). A total of 16 athletes were able to finish all required measurements and sessions. According to the hypothesis, a significant correlation was found between initial sprint FV profile and relative change in sprint FV profile (RESISTED: r = &minus;0.95, p &lt; 0.01, ASSISTED: r = &minus;0.79, p &lt; 0.01). This study showed that initial FV properties influence the degree of mechanical response when training at different ends of the FV spectrum. Practitioners should consider utilizing the sprint FV profile to improve the individual effectiveness of resisted and assisted sprint training programs in high-level rugby athletes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050074
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 40: Daily School Physical Activity from Before to
           After Puberty Improves Bone Mass and a Musculoskeletal Composite Risk
           Score for Fracture

    • Authors: Cronholm, Lindgren, Rosengren, Dencker, Karlsson, Karlsson
      First page: 40
      Abstract: This 7.5-year prospective controlled exercise intervention study assessed if daily school physical activity (PA), from before to after puberty, improved musculoskeletal traits. There were 63 boys and 34 girls in the intervention group (40 min PA/day), and 26 boys and 17 girls in the control group (60 min PA/week). We measured musculoskeletal traits at the start and end of the study. The overall musculoskeletal effect of PA was also estimated by a composite score (mean Z-score of the lumbar spine bone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA), total body lean mass (TBLM), calcaneal ultrasound (speed of sound (SOS)), and muscle strength (knee flexion peak torque)). We used analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) for group comparisons. Compared to the gender-matched control group, intervention boys reached higher gains in BMC, BA, muscle strength, as well as in the composite score, and intervention girls higher gains in BMC, BA, SOS, as well as in the composite score (all p &lt; 0.05, respectively). Our small sample study indicates that a daily school-based PA intervention program from Tanner stage 1 to 5 in both sexes is associated with greater bone mineral accrual, greater gain in bone size, and a greater gain in a musculoskeletal composite score for fractures.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040040
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 41: Are Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Stress
           Greater in Isometric or in Dynamic Resistance Exercise'

    • Authors: Anastasios Kounoupis, Stavros Papadopoulos, Nikiforos Galanis, Konstantina Dipla, Andreas Zafeiridis
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Medical and sports medicine associations are reluctant to endorse isometric exercise to the same extent as dynamic resistance exercise (RE). The major concern is the fear of greater increases in blood pressure (BP) that might be associated with isometric exercise. This review comprehensively presents all human studies that directly compared the magnitude of hemodynamic responses between isometric and dynamic RE. We also discuss possible mechanisms controlling BP-response and cardiovascular adjustments during both types of RE. The most prominent finding was that isometric and dynamic RE using small-muscle mass evoke equal increases in BP; however, the circulatory adjustments contributing to this response are different in dynamic and isometric RE. In contrast, studies using large-muscle mass report inconsistent results for the magnitude of BP-response between the two types of RE. Thus, when the same muscles and workloads are used, the increase in BP during isometric and dynamic RE is more comparable to what is commonly believed. However, it should be noted that only a few studies equalized the workload in two types of RE, most used small sample sizes, and all studies employed healthy participants. More studies are needed to compare the cardiovascular risks associated with isometric and dynamic RE, especially in individuals with chronic disease.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040041
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 42: Effect of Two Strength Training Models on Muscle
           Power and Strength in Elite Women’s Football Players

    • Authors: Martin Pacholek, Erika Zemková
      First page: 42
      Abstract: This study evaluates changes in power and strength after implementing two different models of 9-week strength training in elite women&rsquo;s football players. A group of 13 players (age 20.2 &plusmn; 3.3 years, body mass 57.2 &plusmn; 3.7 kg, height 163.6 &plusmn; 5.3 cm, VO2max 45.2 &plusmn; ml/min) underwent either a complex (the intermittent load type) or combined (the maximal strength and dynamic method) model of training. The training load was tailored to each athlete. Results showed that the complex model of training improved power (10 W/kg, p = 0.006) and height of vertical jump (5.3 cm, p = 0.001), weight of 1 Repeat Maximum (1RM) which was (5.8 kg, p = 0.015), power and speed in the acceleration phase of barbell half squats (BHS) at weights from 20 to 60 kg, and the number of repetitions in BHS (10.3%, p = 0.012). The combined model of training improved the time of shuttle run (0.44 s, p = 0.000), weight of 1RM in BHS (9.6kg, p = 0.000) and BP (4 kg, p = 0.000), power in the acceleration phase of BHS at weights from 50 to 60 kg, the number of repetitions in BP (14.3%, p = 0.000), BHS (9.4%, p = 0.002), barbell bench pulls (11.9%, p = 0.002) and sit-ups (7.7%, p = 0.001). These findings indicate that the complex model of training improves explosive abilities, whereas the combined model is effective for developing strength at weights close to players&rsquo; 1RM and for repeatedly overcoming resistance. Therefore, coaches should choose the training model based on the needs of individual players.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040042
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 43: Different Lower-Limb Setup Positions Do Not
           Consistently Change Backstroke Start Time to 10 m

    • Authors: Gordon E. Barkwell, James P. Dickey
      First page: 43
      Abstract: Backstroke starts involve the athlete starting from a flexed position with their feet against the pool wall and then extending their ankles, knees, hips and back to push off; however, swimmers can start in different positions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance impact of different knee extension angles in the setup position for a backstroke start. Ten backstroke swimmers completed maximum-effort starts in each of two setup positions: one with the knees maximally flexed, and one with the knees less flexed. The start handles and touchpad were instrumented with multi-axial force sensors. Activity of major hip and knee extensors was measured using surface electromyography. Body position in the sagittal plane was recorded using high-speed cameras. There was no overall difference in time to 10 m between the two conditions (p = 0.36, dz = 0.12), but some participants showed differences as large as 0.12 s in time to 10 m between start conditions. We observed that starts performed from a setup position with less knee flexion had an average 0.07 m greater head entry distance (p = 0.07, dz = 0.53), while starts from a setup position with maximal knee flexion had an average 0.2 m/s greater takeoff velocity (p = 0.02, dz = 0.78). Both head entry distance and takeoff velocity are related to start performance, suggesting each position may optimize different aspects of the backstroke start. Coaches should assess athletes individually to determine which position is optimal.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040043
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 44: Ultramarathon Plasma Metabolomics:
           Phosphatidylcholine Levels Associated with Running Performance

    • Authors: Tracy B. Høeg, Kenneth Chmiel, Alexandra E. Warrick, Sandra L. Taylor, Robert H. Weiss
      First page: 44
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify plasma metabolites associated with superior endurance running performance. In 2016, participants at the Western States Endurance Run (WSER), a 100-mile (161-km) foot race, underwent non-targeted metabolomic testing of their post-race plasma. Metabolites associated with faster finish times were identified. Based on these results, runners at the 2017 WSER underwent targeted metabolomics testing, including lipidomics and choline levels. The 2017 participants&rsquo; plasma metabolites were correlated with finish times and compared with non-athletic controls. In 2016, 427 known molecules were detected using non-targeted metabolomics. Four compounds, all phosphatidylcholines (PCs) were associated with finish time (False Discovery Rate (FDR) &lt; 0.05). All were higher in faster finishers. In 2017, using targeted PC analysis, multiple PCs, measured pre- and post-race, were higher in faster finishers (FDR &lt; 0.05). The majority of PCs was noted to be higher in runners (both pre- and post-race) than in controls (FDR &lt; 0.05). Runners had higher choline levels pre-race compared to controls (p &lt; 0.0001), but choline level did not differ significantly from controls post-race (p = 0.129). Choline levels decreased between the start and the finish of the race (p &lt; 0.0001). Faster finishers had lower choline levels than slower finishers at the race finish (p = 0.028).
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040044
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 45: A Cluster Set Protocol in the Half Squat
           Exercise Reduces Mechanical Fatigue and Lactate Concentrations in
           Comparison with A Traditional Set Configuration

    • Authors: Varela-Olalla, Romero-Caballero, Del Campo-Vecino, Balsalobre-Fernández
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Splitting sets into clusters has been shown to maintain performance during resistance training. This study compared the acute fatigue produced by a traditional (TSC) versus a cluster (CSC) set configuration in the smith machine half squat exercise. Fifteen males performed a single bout of TSC and CSC separated by 72&ndash;96 h. In the TSC, participants performed as many repetitions as possible until reaching a 20% drop in barbell velocity (MPV), while in the CSC, they performed the same number of repetitions with 15 seconds inter-repetition rest. Effects of both protocols in MPV, countermovement jump height (CMJ), and blood lactate (BLa) were measured. Significant differences between protocols were found for MPV of the last repetition (0.4 vs 0.5 m/s TSC and CSC) and BLa (6.8 mmol/L vs 3.2 mmol/L TSC and CSC). Significant drop of velocity from the first to the last repetition of the set (19.9%), decrease in CMJ height (35.4 vs 32.6 cm), and increase in BLa (2.1 vs 6.8 mmol/L) pre&ndash;post-exercise was observed just for the TSC protocol. The results of the present study showed that CSC reduces the lactate response and mechanical fatigue produced by a single set on the half squat exercise in comparison with TSC.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040045
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 46: “Paralympic Brain”. Compensation and
           Reorganization of a Damaged Human Brain with Intensive Physical Training

    • Authors: Kimitaka Nakazawa, Hiroki Obata, Daichi Nozaki, Shintaro Uehara, Pablo Celnik
      First page: 46
      Abstract: The main aim of the study was to evaluate how the brain of a Paralympic athlete with severe disability due to cerebral palsy has reorganized after continuous training geared to enhance performance. Both corticospinal excitability of upper-limb muscles and electromyographic activity during swimming were investigated for a Paralympic gold medalist in swimming competitions. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the affected and intact hand motor cortical area revealed that the affected side finger muscle cortical representation area shifted towards the temporal side, and cortico-spinal excitability of the target muscle was prominently facilitated, i.e., the maximum motor evoked potential in the affected side, 6.11 &plusmn; 0.19 mV was greater than that in the intact side, 4.52 &plusmn; 0.39 mV (mean &plusmn; standard error). Electromyographic activities during swimming demonstrated well-coordinated patterns as compared with rather spastic activities observed in the affected side during walking on land. These results suggest that the ability of the brain to reorganize through intensive training in Paralympic athletes can teach interesting lessons to the field neurorehabilitation.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040046
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 47: Relationship of Performance Measures and Muscle
           Activity between a 180° Change of Direction Task and Different
           Countermovement Jumps

    • Authors: Hallvard Nygaard Falch, Håvard Guldteig Rædergård, Roland Van den Tillaar
      First page: 47
      Abstract: The ability to rapidly perform change of direction (COD) is crucial for performance in Soccer. COD speed is thought to share similarities with countermovement jumps in kinematics and muscle activation. Thus, the objective of the current study was to investigate the relationship between muscle activities in performance measures of a modified 505-agility test and different countermovement jumps. Twenty-one experienced soccer players performed a COD test including the 505-agility test and uni- and bi-lateral horizontal and vertical countermovement jumps. The main findings were that the vertical bilateral and horizontal unilateral countermovement jump were able to predict total time to complete the COD, but not 505-agility time. Muscle activity in the COD and countermovement jumps was only distinguished by a higher peak muscle activity for the adductor longus, semitendinosus and biceps femoris in the COD to stabilize the hip and decelerate knee joint movements when turning compared with the jumps. Conclusively, the relationship between performance in countermovement jumps and total time to complete the COD test was due to longer sprint distances, which makes the distinction between performances bigger. Peak muscle activity of most muscles is similar between the jumps and the COD step, indicating similar muscular demands between these activities.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040047
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 48: Effects of a Traditional versus an Alternative
           Strengthening Exercise Program on Shoulder Pain, Function and Physical
           Performance in Individuals with Subacromial Shoulder Pain: A Randomized
           Controlled Trial

    • Authors: Simon Schedler, Dennis Brueckner, Marco Hagen, Thomas Muehlbauer
      First page: 48
      Abstract: A manual shoulder-training device may represent an alternative training device to improve symptoms and function in patients with subacromial shoulder pain by strengthening the external rotators. Thus, we examined the effects of a traditional versus an alternative strengthening exercise program on shoulder pain/function and physical performance in individuals with subacromial shoulder pain. Fifty-six adults with subacromial shoulder pain were randomly assigned to a passive control group (CON; n = 20), a traditional training group (TRA; n = 19), or an alternative training group (ALT; n = 17). Both training groups conducted a progressive home-based strengthening exercise program for the external rotators for eight weeks using elastic bands only (TRA group) or in combination with the shoulder-training device (Schulterhilfe&reg;) (ALT group). Pre- and post-training assessment included measures of shoulder pain/function (i.e., shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI)) and physical performance (i.e., shoulder flexibility, maximal isometric strength, and strength endurance). We found significant test &times; group interactions in most of the investigated variables. Post hoc analyses showed significant training-related improvements for proxies of shoulder pain/function, shoulder flexibility, maximal isometric strength, and strength endurance in favor of the ALT and TRA group in comparison to the CON group. Further, larger and more frequent effects were found for the ALT compared to the TRA group. Measures of shoulder pain/function and physical performance can be significantly improved by both training regimens in individuals with subacromial shoulder pain. However, strength training using elastic bands with the manual shoulder device (ALT group) as compared to elastic bands (TRA group) only was more effective and may thus be a recommendable alternative in order to mitigate subacromial shoulder pain.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040048
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 49: The Federated Practice of Soccer Influences
           Hamstring Flexibility in Healthy Adolescents: Role of Age and Weight

    • Authors: Jesús Gustavo Ponce-González, José V. Gutiérrez-Manzanedo, Guillermo De Castro-Maqueda, Victor Jose Fernández-Torres, Jorge R. Fernández-Santos
      First page: 49
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare the hamstring flexibility between federated soccer and non-federated adolescents, and also to evaluate the effect of age and weight status on hamstring flexibility. The participants were 234 students (11&ndash;18 years old) divided into: (i) G1: non-federated (n = 127), and (ii) G2: federated in soccer (n = 107). The deep flexion of the trunk (DF) test and the sit and reach test (SRT) were performed. G2 showed higher values for the DF and SRT compared to G1 (p &lt; 0.05). Both flexibility tests correlated positively (r = 0.4, p &lt; 0.001). Body mass index (BMI) was negatively correlated with the DF test (r = &minus;0.3, p &lt; 0.001), but not with the SRT. Divided by BMI, the underweight and normal weight groups had higher scores in the DF test compared with the overweight and obese groups (p &lt; 0.001). BMI was negatively correlated with hamstring flexibility. Federated soccer students present higher scores of hamstring flexibility.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040049
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 50: Health and Wellbeing in an Outdoor and Adventure
           Sports Context

    • Authors: John Allan, Ashley Hardwell, Chris Kay, Suzanne Peacock, Melissa Hart, Michelle Dillon, Eric Brymer
      First page: 50
      Abstract: Outdoor and adventure sports (OAS) have been linked to positive health and wellbeing outcomes. This Special Edition brings together cutting-edge research and thought on the implications of this link. An analysis of the papers in this Special Edition reveals important insights into (i) the diverse and powerful outcomes derived from adventure experiences, (ii) how adventure experiences facilitate these outcomes, (iii) how best to design outdoor and adventure experiences. The evidence in this edition indicates a need for a more systematic approach to the inclusion of OAS as important to good health and wellbeing. OAS should be included as part of education, health, policy and planning.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040050
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 51: Reliability of Change of Direction and Agility
           Assessments in Youth Soccer Players

    • Authors: James H. Dugdale, Dajo Sanders, Angus M. Hunter
      First page: 51
      Abstract: Considering the vast physical and neural developments experienced throughout adolescence, the reliability of physical performance may vary in youth populations. This study aimed to examine the reliability of change of direction (COD) and agility tests in youth soccer players. Altogether, 86 youth soccer players, aged 13.6 &plusmn; 2.0 years, volunteered to participate. Data were collected from a modified 505 COD test (m505COD) and the Y-sprint drill in both pre-planned (Y-SprintPRE) and reactive (Y-SprintREACT) conditions during 2 sessions, 7 days apart. Anthropometric data including body mass, standing stature, and sitting height were also collected. COD and agility tests demonstrated good reliability (ICC = 0.81&ndash;0.91; CV = 1.2&ndash;2.0; d = 0.00&ndash;0.31; p &lt; 0.01) for our entire sample. However, we observed a small negative relationship between age and intersession differences for the Y-SprintPRE (r = &minus;0.28; p = 0.04), and moderate negative relationships between both age (r = &minus;0.41; p &lt; 0.01), and maturity offset (r = &minus;0.39; p &lt; 0.01) for the Y-SprintREACT. Although the COD and agility tests adopted within this study possess good intersession reliability, we observed greater intersession differences for younger and less mature individuals. We suggest that while COD and agility tests may provide meaningful objective data for monitoring the development of youth soccer players, these tests should be used with caution when evaluating younger, more immature athletes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040051
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 52: Effects of One Versus Two Doses of a
           Multi-Ingredient Pre-Workout Supplement on Metabolic Factors and Perceived
           Exertion during Moderate-Intensity Running in Females

    • Authors: Jamie R. Erickson, Clayton L. Camic, Andrew R. Jagim, Paige M. Pellersels, Glenn A. Wright, Shaine E. Henert, Carl Foster
      First page: 52
      Abstract: The primary purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of one versus two doses of a multi-ingredient pre-workout supplement on energy expenditure during moderate-intensity treadmill running. In addition, our second aim was to investigate the responses of associated metabolic factors (i.e., substrate utilization, measures of gas exchange), perceived exertion, and resting cardiovascular variables with one and two doses of the pre-workout supplement. Twelve females (mean &plusmn; SD: age = 25.3 &plusmn; 9.4 years; body mass = 61.2 &plusmn; 6.8 kg) completed three bouts of 30 min of treadmill running at 90% of their ventilatory threshold on separate days after consuming one dose of the pre-workout supplement (1-dose), two doses (2-dose), and a placebo. There were no differences among conditions for energy expenditure, fat or carbohydrate oxidation, respiratory exchange ratio, oxygen consumption, or heart rate across exercise time. The two-dose group, however, had lower (p = 0.036) ratings of perceived exertion (11.8 &plusmn; 1.7) than the one-dose (12.6 &plusmn; 1.7) and the placebo (12.3 &plusmn; 1.2) at the 20-min time point of exercise as well as greater resting systolic blood pressure (110 &plusmn; 10 mmHg) compared to the one-dose (106 &plusmn; 10 mmHg) and the placebo (104 &plusmn; 10 mmHg) conditions. Both the one-dose and two-dose conditions had greater increases in diastolic blood pressure compared to the placebo. Thus, our findings indicated that the present pre-workout supplement had no performance-enhancing benefits related to energy metabolism but did attenuate feelings of exertion.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040052
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 53: Presenting Health Status in Children Using a
           Radar Plot

    • Authors: Asgeir Mamen, Lars Erik Braaum, Per Morten Fredriksen
      First page: 53
      Abstract: Background: To try out the feasibility of presenting the health status of children 6 to 12 years old by using radar plots. Methods: With data from the Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP) we have described the health status for 1340 children aged 6 to 12 years. We collected or calculated: stature, body mass, waist circumference, waist to height ratio, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and total cholesterol concentration, blood pressure, accelerometer assessed physical activity, endurance interval running performance, and quality of life. Pertinent variables were presented through a radar plot for both individual cases and groups. Results: The boys showed better endurance and recorded more moderate to vigorous physical activity than the girls. The activity level dropped from age 6 to age 12 for both sexes. The girls showed a lower systolic blood pressure compared with boys. Self-rated quality of life was high among boys and girls. Conclusions: This cohort showed good health and the radar plot made it easy to visualise health status for groups and individuals.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040053
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 54: Acute Caffeine Supplementation Does Not Improve
           Performance in Trained CrossFit® Athletes

    • Authors: Jesse A. Stein, Melitza Ramirez, Katie M. Heinrich
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Caffeine&rsquo;s ergogenic effects persist during various exercise modalities; however, information establishing its efficacy during CrossFit&reg; protocols is limited. This study aimed to determine the effects of caffeine supplementation on CrossFit&reg; performance. Twenty CrossFit&reg;-trained men (age = 26.7 &plusmn; 6.2 years, experience = 3.7 &plusmn; 2.9 years) were randomized in a double-blind, crossover design. Participants completed two sessions separated by a seven-day washout period, 60 min after consuming 5 mg/kg body mass of caffeine or a placebo. In each session, participants completed as many rounds as possible in 20 min of five pull-ups, 10 push-ups, and 15 air squats. CrossFit&reg; performance was the total number of repetitions completed in 20 min. Paired-samples t-tests were used to compare CrossFit&reg; performance between caffeine and placebo conditions and to test for a potential learning effect between the first and second sessions. CrossFit&reg; performance was not significantly different during the caffeine condition compared to the placebo (468.6 &plusmn; 114.7 vs. 466.7 &plusmn; 94.3 repetitions, p = 0.861). A significant learning effect was identified between the first and second sessions (452.4 &plusmn; 101 vs. 483.8 &plusmn; 106.5 repetitions, p = 0.001), with no significant effect of treatment order (p = 0.438). Caffeine&rsquo;s ergogenic effect were not present during the CrossFit&reg; workout &ldquo;Cindy&rdquo;; however, future research should include familiarization sessions and examine other CrossFit&reg; workouts in novice and women participants.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040054
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 55: Backward Running: Acute Effects on Sprint
           Performance in Preadolescent Boys

    • Authors: Dimitrios Petrakis, Eleni Bassa, Anastasia Papavasileiou, Anthi Xenofondos, Dimitrios A. Patikas
      First page: 55
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the acute effect of backward running (BwR) during warm-up on a 20-m sprint of boys&rsquo; performance, compared to forward running (FwR). Fourteen recreationally active preadolescent boys (aged 12.5 &plusmn; 0.5 years) were examined in 3 protocols: warm-up (control condition), warm-up with 3 &times; 10 m additional BwR sprints and warm-up with 3 &times; 10 m additional FwR sprints. Participants were evaluated 4 minutes after each protocol on a 20-m sprint and intermediate distances, as well as the rate of perceived exertion (RPE). Sprint speed across 10-20 m was significantly higher for the BwR warm-up compared to the regular warm-up (p &lt; 0.05) and a significantly higher RPE after the BwR and FwR protocols compared to the control condition was recorded (p &lt; 0.05). No significant difference was detected across the distances 0&ndash;5, 5&ndash;10, 0&ndash;10 and 0&ndash;20 m. Although adding 3 &times; 10-m sprints of BwR or FwR after the warm-up did not enhance performance in a 20 m sprint of preadolescent boys, the positive effect of BwR across 10&ndash;20 m distance suggests that BwR could be an alternative means for enhancing performance for certain phases of a sprint for this age. However, preadolescent boys&rsquo; response to different sprint conditioning exercise stimuli and the optimization of rest time to maximize performance remain to be determined.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040055
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 56: Strategies and Solutions for Team Sports
           Athletes in Isolation due to COVID-19

    • Authors: Igor Jukic, Julio Calleja-González, Francesc Cos, Francesco Cuzzolin, Jesús Olmo, Nicolas Terrados, Nenad Njaradi, Roberto Sassi, Bernardo Requena, Luka Milanovic, Ivan Krakan, Kostas Chatzichristos, Pedro E. Alcaraz
      First page: 56
      Abstract: In December of 2019, there was an outbreak of a severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by the Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) in China. The virus rapidly spread into the whole World causing an unprecedented pandemic and forcing governments to impose a global quarantine, entering an extreme unknown situation. The organizational consequences of quarantine/isolation are: absence of organized training and competition, lack of communication among athletes and coaches, inability to move freely, lack of adequate sunlight exposure, inappropriate training conditions. Based on the current scientific, we strongly recommend encouraging the athlete to reset their mindset to understand quarantine as an opportunity for development, organizing appropriate guidance, educating and encourage athletes to apply appropriate preventive behavior and hygiene measures to promote immunity and ensuring good living isolation conditions. The athlete&rsquo;s living space should be equipped with cardio and resistance training equipment (portable bicycle or rowing ergometer). Some forms of body mass resistance circuit-based training could promote aerobic adaptation. Sports skills training should be organized based on the athlete&rsquo;s needs. Personalized conditioning training should be carried out with emphasis on neuromuscular performance. Athletes should also be educated about nutrition (Vitamin D and proteins) and hydration. Strategies should be developed to control body composition. Mental fatigue should be anticipated and mental controlled. Adequate methods of recovery should be provided. Daily monitoring should be established. This is an ideal situation in which to rethink personal life, understanding the situation, that can be promoted in these difficult times that affect practically the whole world.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040056
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 131: Role of a Ketogenic Diet on Body Composition,
           Physical Health, Psychosocial Well-Being and Sports Performance in
           Athletes: A Scoping Review

    • Authors: Amy-Lee Bowler, Remco Polman
      First page: 131
      Abstract: Background: Recently, a focus has been placed on investigating the potential benefits of adherence to a ketogenic diet in enhancing body composition, physical health, psychological well-being, and performance of athletes from various sporting disciplines. As the available research is yet to be collated and analyzed in a single review, this scoping review aims to analyze and draw conclusions from the available literature that exists on the efficacy of a ketogenic diet among athletic populations. Methods: Several primary research databases and any relevant citation lists were searched to locate appropriate studies for inclusion in this scoping review. Studies that investigated the effects of adherence to a ketogenic diet (KD), defined by a carbohydrate intake of less than 5% of total energy intake, on body composition, physical health, psychological well-being, and performance among an athletic population were included in the review. From 814 articles screened, 12 were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria and were included in the final scoping review. Results: Adherence to a KD has beneficial effects on body weight and fat mass. Varying effects were identified on physical health with the diet, eliciting positive effects on fat oxidation but potentially deleterious effects on stool microbiota and iron metabolism. Conflicting results were reported regarding the effects of a KD on sporting performance. Benefits were reported regarding athlete well-being following commencement of a KD, but only after week two. Conclusions: The results of this scoping review demonstrate that there are both beneficial and detrimental effects associated with adherence to a KD among athletic populations. It is understood that further research is required to make any concrete recommendations regarding a KD to athletes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8100131
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 132: Effects of a Multi-Ingredient Preworkout
           Supplement Versus Caffeine on Energy Expenditure and Feelings of Fatigue
           during Low-Intensity Treadmill Exercise in College-Aged Males

    • Authors: Daniel J. Lutsch, Clayton L. Camic, Andrew R. Jagim, Riley R. Stefan, Brandon J. Cox, Rachel N. Tauber, Shaine E. Henert
      First page: 132
      Abstract: The primary purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of a multi-ingredient (i.e., caffeine, green tea extract, Yohimbe extract, capsicum annum, coleus extract, L-carnitine, beta-alanine, tyrosine) preworkout supplement versus a dose of caffeine (6 mg&middot;kg&minus;1) on energy expenditure during low-intensity exercise. The effects of these treatments on substrate utilization, gas exchange, and psychological factors were also investigated. Twelve males (mean &plusmn; SD: age = 22.8 &plusmn; 2.4 years) completed three bouts of 60 min of treadmill exercise on separate days after consuming a preworkout supplement, 6 mg&middot;kg&minus;1 of caffeine, or placebo in a randomized fashion. The preworkout and caffeine supplements resulted in significantly greater energy expenditure (p &lt; 0.001, p = 0.006, respectively), V˙O2 (p &lt; 0.001, p = 0.007, respectively), V˙CO2 (p = 0.006, p = 0.049, respectively), and V˙E (p &lt; 0.001, p = 0.007, respectively) compared to placebo (collapsed across condition). There were no differences among conditions, however, for rates of fat or carbohydrate oxidation or respiratory exchange ratio. In addition, the preworkout supplement increased feelings of alertness (p = 0.015) and focus (p = 0.005) 30-min postingestion and decreased feelings of fatigue (p = 0.014) during exercise compared to placebo. Thus, the preworkout supplement increased energy expenditure and measures of gas exchange to the same extent as 6 mg&middot;kg&minus;1 of caffeine with concomitant increased feelings of alertness and focus and decreased feelings of fatigue.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8100132
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 133: Impact of Mild Hypohydration on 100 m Front
           Crawl Performance and Starting Block Peak Force Production in Competitive
           University-Level Swimmers

    • Authors: Mohamed El Fethi Abed, Thomas A. Deshayes, Pascale Claveau, David Jeker, François Thénault, Eric D.B. Goulet
      First page: 133
      Abstract: Unstructured, ad libitum drinking may predispose some athletes to start exercise already slightly hypohydrated (decreased body water). The impact of pre-exercise mild hypohydration on subsequent swimming performance is still unknown. Hence, the goal of this study was to examine its effect on peak force production on the starting block and 100 m front crawl swimming performance in competitive university-level swimmers. At least one hour after having been passively exposed to heat where a body mass loss of 1.5% was induced or euhydration (normal body water) maintained, nine participants (age: 22 &plusmn; 2 years) underwent an assessment of their peak force production on the starting block and 100 m front crawl performance. One hour following hypohydration, rectal temperature had returned to baseline in each condition. Urine osmolality and specific gravity were higher (p &lt; 0.05) with hypohydration than euhydration (995 &plusmn; 65 vs. 428 &plusmn; 345 mOsmol/kg; 1.027 &plusmn; 0.003 vs. 1.016 &plusmn; 0.007 g/mL) prior to exercise testing, as was perceived thirst. Swimming performance (p = 0.86) and peak force production (p = 0.72) on the starting block did not differ between the hypohydration and euhydrated condition (63.00 &plusmn; 4.26 vs. 63.09 &plusmn; 4.52 s; 1322 &plusmn; 236 vs. 1315 &plusmn; 230 N). The current results indicate that mild hypohydration, which may occur with ad libitum drinking, does not impede peak force production on the starting block and 100 m front crawl performance in university-level competitive swimmers. Planned drinking is not required prior to such an event.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-10-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8100133
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 134: Inspiratory and Lower-Limb Strength Importance
           in Mountain Ultramarathon Running. Sex Differences and Relationship with

    • Authors: Ignacio Martinez-Navarro, Antonio Montoya-Vieco, Eladio Collado, Bárbara Hernando, Carlos Hernando
      First page: 134
      Abstract: The study was aimed at comparing lower-limb strength and respiratory parameters between male and female athletes and their interaction with performance in a 107 km mountain ultramarathon. Forty seven runners (29 males and 18 females; mean &plusmn; SD age: 41 &plusmn; 5 years) were enrolled. Lower-limb strength assessment comprised a squat jump test, an ankle rebound test, and an isometric strength test. Respiratory assessment included pulmonary function testing and the measurement of maximal inspiratory pressure. Male athletes performed largely better in the squat jump (26 &plusmn; 4 vs. 21 &plusmn; 3 cm; p &lt; 0.001; d = 1.48), while no sex differences were found in the other two lower-limb tests. Concerning the respiratory parameters, male athletes showed largely greater values in pulmonary expiratory variables: forced vital capacity (5.19 &plusmn; 0.68 vs. 3.65 &plusmn; 0.52 L; p &lt; 0.001; d = 2.53), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (4.24 &plusmn; 0.54 vs. 2.97 &plusmn; 0.39 L; p &lt; 0.001; d = 2.69), peak expiratory flow (9.9 &plusmn; 1.56 vs. 5.89 &plusmn; 1.39 L/min; p &lt; 0.001; d = 2.77) and maximum voluntary ventilation in 12 s (171 &plusmn; 39 vs. 108 &plusmn; 23 L/min; p &lt; 0.001; d = 1.93); while no sex differences were identified in maximal inspiratory pressure. Race time was associated with ankle rebound test performance (r = &minus;0.390; p = 0.027), isometric strength test performance (r = &minus;0.349; p = 0.049) and maximal inspiratory pressure (r = &minus;0.544; p &lt; 0.001). Consequently, it seems that athletes competing in mountain ultramarathons may benefit from improving lower-limb isometric strength, ankle reactive strength and inspiratory muscle strength. Nevertheless, further interventional studies are required to confirm these exploratory results. In addition, the fact that the magnitude of the sex difference for isometric strength was minor, as compared with the other strength tests, could represent one of the factors explaining why the performance gap between males and females is reduced in ultramarathons.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-10-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8100134
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 135: Effect of New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract on
           Isometric Contraction-Induced Fatigue and Recovery: Potential Muscle-Fiber
           Specific Effects

    • Authors: Mark E. T. Willems, Megan Bradley, Sam D. Blacker, Ian C. Perkins
      First page: 135
      Abstract: New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract has shown performance-enhancing effects during cycling, running and sport climbing. We examined effects of NZBC extract on (1) voluntary and twitch force of the quadriceps femoris muscles during repeated isometric contraction-induced fatigue, (2) twitch force during recovery and (3) muscle fiber-specific effects. Familiarized recreationally active males (n = 12, age: 24 &plusmn; 5 yrs; height: 180 &plusmn; 5 cm; body mass: 89 &plusmn; 11 kg) performed sixteen, 5-s voluntary maximal isometric contractions (iMVC) separated by 3-s rest. Twitch force was recorded before, during the 3-s rests and 5-min recovery. Supplementation consisted of 7-days intake of NZBC extract (600 mg∙day&minus;1 containing 210 mg anthocyanin) in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover design with a 14-days washout. NZBC extract allowed for greater force in the first quartile of the iMVCs. Twitch force at baseline was 12% higher with NZBC extract (p = 0.05). However, there was no effect of NZBC for twitch force during the 16-iMVCs and recovery. Based on the maximum post-activation potentiation during the placebo 16-iMVCs, four subjects were classified of having a predominant type I or II muscle fiber typology. In type II, NZBC extract provided a trend for increased MVC force (~14%) in the first quartile and for type I in the fourth quartile (~10%). In type I, NZBC extract seemed to have higher twitch forces during the fatiguing exercise protocol and recovery, indicating increased fatigue resistance. New Zealand blackcurrant extract affects force during repeated maximal isometric contractions. Future work on mechanisms by NZBC extract for muscle fiber-specific fatigue-induced force responses is warranted.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8100135
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 136: Associations between Multimodal Fitness
           Assessments and Rowing Ergometer Performance in Collegiate Female Athletes

    • Authors: Clifton J. Holmes, Bjoern Hornikel, Katherine Sullivan, Michael V. Fedewa
      First page: 136
      Abstract: The purpose was to examine the association of critical power from a three-minute all-out row (CP3-min) and peak power from a one-stroke maximum test (1-Stroke) with laboratory-based fitness assessments (peak oxygen consumption [V.O2peak] and Wingate anaerobic test [WAnT]) and 6000 m (6K) and 2000 m (2K) rowing ergometer performance. Thirty-one female collegiate rowers (20.2 &plusmn; 1.1 years, 70.9 &plusmn; 6.9 kg, and 172.2 &plusmn; 4.8 cm) participated in fitness and rowing performance testing. Pearson&rsquo;s correlations, linear regression, and Cohen&rsquo;s q were used to determine statistical relationships. Absolute V.O2peak values displayed significant correlations with 6Ktotal (&minus;0.68), 6Ksplit (&minus;0.68), 2Ktotal (&minus;0.64), and 2Ksplit (&minus;0.43). Relative V.O2peak displayed significant correlations with 6Ktotal (&minus;0.36), and 6Ksplit (&minus;0.37). CP3-min demonstrated significant correlations with 6Ktotal (&minus;0.62), 6Ksplit (&minus;0.62), 2Ktotal (&minus;0.61), and 2Ksplit (&minus;0.99). For 2Ksplit, a significant difference was observed between relative V.O2peak and CP3-min correlations with a &ldquo;large&rdquo; effect size (q = 2.367). Furthermore, 1-Stroke showed significant associations with 6Ktotal (&minus;0.63), 6Ksplit (&minus;0.63), 2Ktotal (&minus;0.62), and 2Ksplit (&minus;0.44), while WAnT produced non-significant correlations. Absolute V.O2peak CP3-min accounted for significant proportions of variance observed with performance measures (p &lt; 0.05). Practitioners should consider incorporating CP3-min and 1-Stroke as additional tests for gauging rowing performance.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8100136
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 137: Acute Effects of Supervised Making Weight on
           Health Markers, Hormones and Body Composition in Muay Thai Fighters

    • Authors: Cannataro, Cione, Gallelli, Marzullo, Bonilla
      First page: 137
      Abstract: Making weight is a practice often used in combat sports. This consists of a rapid weight loss (RWL) and a subsequent rapid weight gain (RWG) in the days preceding competition. However, this practice is often carried out based on anecdotal information provided by ex-athletes or non-professionals, which has led to several adverse events. This study aimed to assess the acute effects of a supervised nutritional period of RWL/RWG on health markers, hormone concentrations, and body composition. We performed a single-arm repeated-measures (baseline, after RWL and after RWG) clinical trial with twenty-one (8F:16M) Italian Muay Thai fighters. Body mass was significantly lower after the RWL (&minus;4.1%) while there was a significantly higher glucose availability after RWL and RWG. Blood urea nitrogen, lipid profile, and creatinine were within the normal range after RWL/RWG. Testosterone decrease significantly after RWL and RWG in the men group. Male fighters had a significant reduction in thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration after the RWL and RWG intervention, but no change was found in women at pre-competition. Bioelectrical parameters were almost fully restored after RWG. An evidence-based and individualized nutrition methodology reduces the adverse events after an RWL and RWG practice, although the impact on the hormonal profile is inevitable.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8100137
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 138: The Effects of Strength and Conditioning in
           Physical Education on Athletic Motor Skill Competencies and Psychological
           Attributes of Secondary School Children: A Pilot Study

    • Authors: Ben J. Pullen, Jon L. Oliver, Rhodri S. Lloyd, Camilla J. Knight
      First page: 138
      Abstract: Leading global physical activity guidelines advocate that young children need to engage in activities that strengthen musculoskeletal tissues and improve movement skill competency. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of delivering strength and conditioning as part of the physical education curriculum on athletic motor skill competencies (AMSC), physical performance, and psychosocial factors. Forty-six school children aged 11&ndash;14 were included in the study, and sub-divided firstly by sex and then into intervention and control groups. Intervention groups received nine lessons of strength and conditioning based activities over a six-week period, while the control groups continued with traditional physical education curricula. The resistance training skills battery (RTSB) and tuck jump assessment (TJA) assessed AMSC. Standing long jump distance assessed lower limb strength, and online surveys examined motivation, physical self-efficacy and self-esteem. Male and female intervention groups significantly improved RTSB (p &gt; 0.05) whereas no changes were observed in the control groups. No changes were observed in the intervention groups TJA and only trivial and small non-significant changes in standing long jump performance. Significant increases in motivation of the male intervention group occurred. Strength and conditioning integrated in physical education can improve AMSC in short-term interventions.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8100138
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 139: Impact of COVID-19 Lockdown on Physical
           Activity in a Sample of Greek Adults

    • Authors: Dimitrios I. Bourdas, Emmanouil D. Zacharakis
      First page: 139
      Abstract: It is well known that physical inactivity increases the risk of global death; however, the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown strategy on physical activity (PA) remains unclear. This study compared PA&mdash;i.e., daily occupation, transportation to and from daily occupation, leisure time activities, and regular sporting activities&mdash;prior (PRE) and during (POST) the on-going COVID-19 outbreak in the Greece lockdown environment. A Greek version of the web-based Active-Q questionnaire was used to access PA. The questionnaire was filled out twice (once each for the PRE and POST conditions) by 8495 participants (age = 37.2 &plusmn; 0.2 years (95% confidence interval (CI), 36.9&ndash;37.5); males = 38.3% (95%CI, 36.7&ndash;40.0); females = 61.7% (95%CI, 60.4&ndash;63.0). The relative frequency of overall sporting activities, which, prior to lockdown, occurred at least once per month, and overall participation in competitive sports was significantly reduced (8.6% (95%CI, 7.9&ndash;9.3) and 84.7% (95%CI, 82.9&ndash;86.6) respectively). With the exception of overall leisure time activities, which were significantly increased in the POST condition, daily occupational, transportation, and sporting activities significant reduced (p &lt; 0.05). Overall PA was reduced in all genders, age, body mass index (BMI) and PA level subgroups in the POST condition, and an interaction between the males and High PA subgroups was observed. The change in overall PA (from PRE to POST conditions) was &minus;16.3% (95%CI, &minus;17.3 to &minus;15.4), while in daily occupational, transportation, and sporting activities, it was &minus;52.9% (95%CI, &minus;54.8&ndash;51.0), &minus;41.1% (95%CI, &minus;42.8&ndash;39.5) and &minus;23.9% (95%CI, &minus;25.1&ndash;22.8), respectively. Thus, the lockdown period is highly associated with a negative change in overall PA. During lockdown, inactivity increased dramatically, with males and the high PA population affected significantly more. The decline in PA is a great concern due to possible long-term consequences on public health and healthcare system.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8100139
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2020)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

Your IP address:
Home (Search)
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-