Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1473 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (86 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (676 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (117 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 117 of 117 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACSMs Health & Fitness Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACTIVE : Journal of Physical Education, Sport, Health and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ágora para la Educación Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
American Journal of Sexuality Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Applied Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Apunts. Medicina de l'Esport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Exercise in Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arquivos de Ciências do Esporte     Open Access  
Athletic Training & Sports Health Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
BMC Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Childhood Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Éthique & Santé     Full-text available via subscription  
Fat Studies : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Body Weight and Society     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Fisioterapia em Movimento     Open Access  
Fitness & Performance Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food Science and Human Wellness     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Sports and Active Living     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gelanggang Pendidikan Jasmani Indonesia     Open Access  
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geron     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Health and Physical Education Pedagogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Health Education Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Health Marketing Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Home Healthcare Now     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Human Movement     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Human Movement Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
IISE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesia Performance Journal     Open Access  
İnönü Üniversitesi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 56)
International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
International Journal of Men's Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90)
International Journal of Obesity Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Spa and Wellness     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sport, Exercise & Training Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Isokinetics and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of American College Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Human Sport and Exercise     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Motor Learning and Development     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Physical Activity and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Physical Activity and Hormones     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Education and Human Movement     Open Access  
Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Sport and Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Sport Sciences and Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Kinesiology : International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Kinesiology     Open Access  
Kinesiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Krankenhaus-Hygiene - Infektionsverhütung     Full-text available via subscription  
Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Médecine & Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription  
Mental Health and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Movimiento Humano y Salud     Open Access  
Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Obesity Research & Clinical Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Obesity Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Obesity Science & Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Obesity Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pain Management in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
PALAESTRA : Adapted Sport, Physical Education, and Recreational Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Physical Activity and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Preventing Chronic Disease     Free   (Followers: 2)
Psychology of Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Quality in Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBONE - Revista Brasileira de Obesidade, Nutrição e Emagrecimento     Open Access  
RBPFEX - Revista Brasileira de Prescrição e Fisiologia do Exercício     Open Access  
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport     Hybrid Journal  
Retos : Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deportes y Recreación     Open Access  
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Atividade Física & Saúde     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Ciências do Esporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Educação Física e Esporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista da Educação Física : UEM     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología del Ejercicio y el Deporte     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte : International Journal of Medicine and Science of Physical Activity and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue phénEPS / PHEnex Journal     Open Access  
SIPATAHOENAN : South-East Asian Journal for Youth, Sports & Health Education     Open Access  
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Sport and Fitness Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Sport Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Sport Sciences for Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport- und Präventivmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Strength & Conditioning Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Timisoara Physical Education and Rehabilitation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise     Open Access  
Yoga Mimamsa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Здоровье человека, теория и методика физической культуры и спорта     Open Access  


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Sport and Health Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.722
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 20  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2095-2546
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3147 journals]
  • The mirror's curse: Weight perceptions mediate the link between physical
           activity and life satisfaction among 727,865 teens in 44 countries

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Silvia Meyer, Rebekka Weidmann, Alexander GrobPurposeThe purpose of the present study was to examine the link between physical activity and life satisfaction in a large international study of adolescents. We also aimed to test whether overweight and underweight perceptions act as mediators and whether age and sex acted as moderators.MethodsFor this purpose, we analyzed data from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children study, which comprises 727,865 observations from 44 nations at four measurement occasions. Results: Multilevel analyses revealed a positive link between physical activity and life satisfaction. In addition, underweight and overweight perceptions mediated the effect of physical activity on life satisfaction. We further found that age and sex acted as moderators. In older adolescents, stronger effects were found in the links between physical activity and life satisfaction, physical activity and overweight perception, and both weight perceptions and life satisfaction. In addition, in female adolescents, the link between overweight perception and life satisfaction was stronger. Conversely, the links between physical activity and both weight perceptions were stronger for boys.ConclusionThe results suggest that weight perception explains part of the relationship between physical activity and life satisfaction in adolescents and that these effects vary as a function of age and sex.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Muscular activity patterns in one-legged vs. two-legged pedaling

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2020Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Sangsoo Park, Graham E. CaldwellObjectiveOne-legged pedaling is of interest to elite cyclists and clinicians. However, muscular usage in one- vs. two-legged pedaling is not fully understood. Thus, the study aim was to examine changes in leg muscle activation patterns between two-legged and one-legged pedaling.MethodsFifteen healthy young recreational cyclists performed both one- and two-legged pedaling trials at about 30 W per leg. Surface electromyography (EMG) electrodes were placed on 10 major muscles of the left leg. Linear envelope EMG data were integrated (iEMG) to quantify muscle activities for each crank cycle quadrant to evaluate muscle activation changes.ResultsOverall, the prescribed constant power requirements led to reduced downstroke crank torque and extension-related muscle activities (vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and soleus) in one-legged pedaling. Flexion-related muscle activities (biceps femoris long head, semitendinosus, lateral gastrocnemius, medial gastrocnemius, tensor fasciae latae, and tibialis anterior) in the upstroke phase increased to compensate for the absence of contralateral leg crank torque. During the upstroke, simultaneous increases were seen in the hamstrings and uni-articular knee extensors, and in the ankle plantarflexors and dorsiflexors. At the top of the crank cycle, greater hip flexor activity stabilized the pelvis.ConclusionThe observed changes in muscle activities are due to a variety of changes in mechanical aspects of the pedaling motion when pedaling with only 1 leg, including altered crank torque patterns without the contralateral leg, reduced pelvis stability, and increased knee and ankle stiffness during the upstroke.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • The role of mitochondria in redox signaling of muscle homeostasis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Li Li Ji, Dongwook Yeo, Chounghun Kang, Tianou ZhangAbstractIn the past, contraction-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in oxidative stress to skeletal muscle. As research advances, clear evidence has revealed a more complete role of ROS under both physiological and pathological conditions. Central to the role of ROS is the redox signaling pathways that control exercise-induced major physiological and cellular responses and adaptations, such as mitochondrial biogenesis, mitophagy, mitochondrial morphological dynamics, antioxidant defense, and inflammation. The current review focuses on how muscle contraction and immobilization may activate or inhibit redox signaling and their impact on muscle mitochondrial homeostasis and physiological implications.
  • The influence of core affect on cyclo-ergometer endurance performance:
           Effects on performance outcomes and perceived exertion

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2020Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Selenia di Fronso, Antonio Aquino, RékaZsanett Bondár, Cristina Montesano, Claudio Robazza, Maurizio BertolloBackgroundCore affect is defined as the most general affective construct consciously accessible that is experienced constantly. It can be experienced as free-floating (mood) or related to prototypical emotional episodes. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of pleasant and unpleasant core affect on cyclo-ergometer endurance performance. Specifically, we considered the influence of pleasant and unpleasant core affect on performance outcomes (i.e., time to task completion) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE; Borg Scale, CR-10) collected during the task.MethodsThirty-one participants aged 20–28 years were recruited. Core affect was randomly elicited by 2 sets of pleasant and unpleasant pictures chosen from the international affective picture system. Pictures were displayed to participants during a cyclo-ergometer performance in 2 days in a counterbalanced order. RPE was collected every minute to detect volunteers’ exhaustion.ResultsThe study sample was split into 2 groups. Group 1 comprised participants who performed better with pleasant core affect, while Group 2 included participants who performed better with unpleasant core affect. Mixed between-within subjects ANOVA revealed a significant 2 (group) × 2 (condition) × 5 (isotime) interaction (p = 0.002, ηp² = 0.158). Post hoc comparisons showed that participants who obtained better performance with pleasant core affect (pleasant pictures; Group 1) reported lower RPE values at 75% of time to exhaustion in a pleasant core affect condition compared to an unpleasant core affect condition. On the other hand, participants who obtained better performance with unpleasant core affect (unpleasant pictures; Group 2) reported lower RPE values at 75% and 100% of time to exhaustion in an unpleasant core affect condition.ConclusionFindings suggest differential effects of pleasant and unpleasant core affect on performance. Moreover, core affect was found to influence perceived exertion and performance according to participants’ preferences for pleasant or unpleasant core affect.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Modeling the dose–response rate/associations between VO2max and

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 9, Issue 1Author(s): Alan M. Nevill, Michael J. Duncan, Gavin SandercockBackgroundThis study sought to explore the dose–response rate/association between aerobic fitness (VO2max) and self-reported physical activity (PA) and to assess whether this association varies by sex, age, and weight status.MethodsVO2max was assessed using the 20-m shuttle-run test. PA was assessed using the Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ) for Adolescents (aged>11 years, PAQ-A) or for Children (aged ≤11 years, PAQ-C). The associations between VO2max and PAQ were analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), adopting PAQ and PAQ2 as covariates but allowing the intercepts and slope parameters of PAQ and PAQ2 to vary with the categorical variables sex, age group, and weight status.ResultsANCOVA identified a curvilinear association between VO2max and PAQ, with positive linear PAQ terms that varied for both sex and weight status but with a negative PAQ2 term of −0.39 (95% confidence interval (CI): –0.57 to –0.21) that was common for all groups in regard to age, sex, and weight status. These curvilinear (inverted U) associations suggest that the benefits of increasing PA (same dose) on VO2max is greater when children report lower levels of PA compared to children who report higher levels of PA. These dose–response rates were also steeper for boys and were steeper for lean children compared to overweight/obese children.ConclusionHealth practitioners should be aware that encouraging greater PA (same dose) in inactive and underweight children will result in greater gains in VO2max (response) compared with their active and overweight/obese counterparts.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Exercise induces tissue hypoxia and HIF-1α redistribution in the
           small intestine

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 9, Issue 1Author(s): Die Wu, Wei Cao, Dao Xiang, Yi-Ping Hu, Beibei Luo, Peijie ChenBackgroundExercise induces blood flow redistribution among tissues, leading to splanchnic hypoperfusion. Intestinal epithelial cells are positioned between the anaerobic lumen and the highly metabolic lamina propria with an oxygen gradient. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is pivotal in the transcriptional response to the oxygen flux.MethodsIn this study, the pimonidazole hydrochloride staining was applied to observe the tissue hypoxia in different organs, which might be affected by the blood flow redistribution. The HIF-1α luciferase reporter ROSA26 oxygen-dependent degradation domain (ODD)-Luc/+ mouse model (ODD domain-Luc; female, n = 3–6/group) was used to detect the HIF-1α expression in the intestine. We used 3 swimming models: moderate exercise for 30 min, heavy-intensity exercise bearing 5% bodyweight for 1.5 h, and long-time exercise for 3 h.ResultsWe found that 1 session of swimming at different intensities could induce tissue hypoxia redistribution in the small intestine, colon, liver and kidney, but not in the spleen, heart, and skeletal muscle. Our data showed that exercise exacerbated the extent of physiological hypoxia in the small intestine. Next, using ODD-Luc mice, we found that moderate exercise increased the in vivo HIF-1α level in the small intestine. The post-exercise HIF-1α level was gradually decreased in a time-dependent manner. Interestingly, the redistribution of tissue hypoxia and the increase of HIF-1α expression were not related to the exercise intensity and duration.ConclusionThis study provided evidence that the small intestine is the primary target organ for exercise-induced tissue hypoxia and HIF-1α redistribution, suggesting that HIF-1α may be a potential target for the regulation of gastrointestinal functions after exercise.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Exercise immunology: Future directions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): David C. Nieman, Brandt D. PenceSeveral decades of research in the area of exercise immunology have shown that the immune system is highly responsive to acute and chronic exercise training. Moderate exercise bouts enhance immunosurveillance and when repeated over time mediate multiple health benefits. Most of the studies prior to 2010 relied on a few targeted outcomes related to immune function. During the past decade, technological advances have created opportunities for a multi-omics and systems biology approach to exercise immunology. This paper provides an overview of metabolomics, lipidomics, and proteomics as they pertain to exercise immunology, with a focus on immunometabolism. This review also summarizes how the composition and diversity of the gut microbiota can be influenced by exercise, with applications to human health and immunity. Exercise-induced improvements in immune function may play a critical role in countering immunosenescence and the development of chronic diseases, and emerging omics technologies will more clearly define underlying mechanisms. This review paper summarizes what is currently known regarding a multi-omics approach to exercise immunology and provides future directions for investigators.Graphical Image, graphical abstract
  • Effects of medium and long distance running on heart damage markers in
           amateur runners: A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Jacobo Á Rubio-Arias, Luis Andreu, Luis Manuel Martínez-Aranda, Alejandro Martínez-Rodríguez, Pedro Manonelles, Domingo J. Ramos-CampoBackgroundTo finish an endurance race, athletes perform a vigorous effort that induces the release of cardiac damage markers. Since there are several factors that can affect the total amount of these markers, the aim of this review was to analyze the effect of endurance running races on cardiac damage markers and to identify the factors that modify the level of segregation of these cardiac damage markers.MethodsA systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library databases was performed. This analysis included studies where the acute effects of running races on cardiac damage markers (troponin I and troponin T) were analyzed, assessing the levels of these markers before and after the race.ResultsThe effect of running races on troponin I (mean difference = 0.038 ng/mL) and troponin T (mean difference = 0.026 ng/mL) levels was significant. Age (R2 = 14.4%; p = 0.033) and body mass index (R2 = 14.5%; p = 0.045) of the athletes had a significant interaction with troponin I. In addition, gender, mean speed, time to finish the race, and type of race can affect the level of cardiac damage markers.ConclusionEndurance running races induce the release of cardiac damage markers that remain elevated for at least 24 h after the race. In addition, young male athletes with high body mass index who perform races combining long duration and moderate intensity (i.e., marathons) release the highest levels of cardiac damage markers. Physicians should take into consideration these results in the diagnosis and treatment of patients admitted to the hospital days after finishing an endurance running race.Graphical Image, graphical abstract
  • An evaluation of prevention initiatives by 53 national anti-doping
           organizations: Achievements and limitations

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Katharina Gatterer, Matthias Gumpenberger, Marie Overbye, Bernhard Streicher, Wolfgang Schobersberger, Cornelia BlankBackgroundOne main purpose of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is to harmonize anti-doping efforts, including the provision of anti-doping education. A multifaceted approach to doping prevention can play a key role in preventing intentional and unintentional doping. This paper aims to systematically record and evaluate doping prevention approaches in the form of information and education activities of national anti-doping organizations (NADOs) and assess the extent to which a multifaceted doping prevention approach has been realized.MethodsData on anti-doping information and education activities of 53 NADOs were collected via a survey and an online search of the NADOs’ websites. Prevention activities were classified into knowledge-focused, affective-focused, social skills, life skills, and ethics and values-based. The implementation of the prevention activities was assessed by 4 independent raters using a modified Visual Analogue Scale (VAS).ResultsIn total, 59% (n = 38) of the NADOs returned the survey and 70% (n = 45) had information available online. The data were combined for the VAS assessment. Overall, 58% (n = 37) of the NADOs reported offering activities including elements of all 5 approaches. Results of the raters’ assessments indicated that the knowledge-focused approach was best implemented; the implementation of the other 4 approaches was largely unsatisfactory. The most common barriers to implementing doping prevention programs reported by the NADOs were lack of resources (n = 26) and difficulties in collaborating with sports organizations (n = 8).ConclusionResults show a discrepancy between NADOs’ self-report data and the implementation assessment. Even though the NADOs indicated otherwise, most of their education-based approaches did not address aspects of the VAS (e.g., resisting peer pressure); and only few programs were ongoing. Possible explanations might be found in the reported barriers (e.g., financial). Concrete guidelines defining multi-faceted, values-based education, and best-practice examples should be developed to indicate how to include all 5 approaches in prevention.Graphic abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Land-walking vs. water-walking interventions in older adults:
           Effects on aerobic fitness

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Andrew Haynes, Louise H. Naylor, Howard H. Carter, Angela L. Spence, Elisa Robey, Kay L. Cox, Barbara A. Maslen, Nicola T. Lautenschlager, Nicola D. Ridgers, Daniel J. GreenIntroduction: Low cardiorespiratory fitness is an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, and interventions that increase fitness reduce risk. Water-walking decreases musculoskeletal impact and risk from falls in older individuals, but it is unclear whether water-walking improves aerobic fitness similarly to weight-dependent land-walking. This randomized controlled trial involved 3 intervention groups—a no-exercise control group (CG), a land-walking (LW) group and a water-walking (WW) group—to investigate the comparative impacts of LW and WW to CG on fitness.Methods: Both exercise groups attended individually tailored, center-based, intensity matched 3 × weekly sessions for 24 weeks, which progressed to 150 min of exercise per week. This was followed by a 24-week no-intervention period. Maximal graded exercise tests were performed on a treadmill at Week 0, 24, and 48.Results: VO2max increased from Week 0 to 24 in both exercise groups (LW, 0.57 ± 0.62 mL/kg/min, 0.03 ± 0.04 L/min; WW, 0.93 ± 0.75 mL/kg/min, 0.06 ± 0.06 L/min) compared to the CG (-1.75 ± 0.78 mL/kg/min, -0.16 ± 0.05 L/min) (group × time, p < 0.05). Time to exhaustion increased significantly following LW only (123.4 ± 25.5 s), which was significantly greater (p = 0.001) than the CG (24.3 ± 18.5 s). By Week 48, the training-induced adaptations in the exercise groups returned to near baseline levels.Conclusion: Our study supports current physical activity recommendations that 150min/week of moderate-intensity exercise produces improvements in fitness in previously sedentary older individuals. Also, LW and WW elicit similar improvements in fitness if conducted at the same relative intensities. Exercise-naïve older individuals can benefit from the lower impact forces and decreased risk from falls associated with WW without compromising improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Estimates of voluntary activation in individuals with anterior cruciate
           ligament reconstruction: Effects of type of stimulator, number of stimuli,
           and quantification technique

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Steven A. Garcia, Kazandra M. Rodriguez, Scott R. Brown, Riann M. Palmieri-Smith, Chandramouli KrishnanBackgroundAccurate quantification of voluntary activation is important for understanding the extent of quadriceps dysfunction in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Voluntary activation has been quantified using both percent activation derived from the interpolated twitch technique and central activation ratio (CAR) derived from the burst superimposition technique, as well as by using different types of electrical stimulators and pulse train conditions. However, it is unclear how these parameters affect voluntary activation estimates in individuals with ACLR. This study was performed to fill this important knowledge gap in the anterior cruciate ligament literature.MethodsQuadriceps strength and voluntary activation were examined in 18 ACLR participants (12 quadriceps/patellar tendon graft, 6 hamstring tendon graft; time since ACLR: 1.06 ± 0.82 year, mean ±  SD.) at 90° of knee flexion using 2 stimulators (Digitimer and Grass) and pulse train conditions (3-pulse and 10-pulse). Voluntary activation was quantified by calculating both CAR and percent activation.ResultsResults indicated that voluntary activation was significantly overestimated by CAR when compared with percent activation (p 0.05); however, the Digitimer evoked greater torque at rest than the Grass (p < 0.001).ConclusionThese results indicate that percent activation derived from the interpolated twitch technique provides superior estimates of voluntary activation than CAR derived from burst superimposition and is less affected by pulse train conditions or stimulators in individuals with ACLR.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Reflections on obesity, exercise, and musculoskeletal health

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Walter Herzog
  • Reasons why older adults play sport: A systematic review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Brad J. Stenner, Jonathan D. Buckley, Amber D. MosewichBackgroundDespite the known contribution of sport to health and wellbeing, sport participation declines in older age. However, for some people, sport continues to play an important role in older age and may contribute to improved health and wellbeing in older years. Whilst the health-related benefits of participating in sport are commonly reported, the reasons why some older adults continue to play sport are not well understood. This systematic review aimed to 1) identify studies from the literature that evaluated the reasons why older adults (aged 55 years and older) participate in sport and 2) synthesize and discuss the reasons for their participation reported in the literature.MethodsSearches of the electronic databases Embase, Medline, Psych Info, PubMed, and Sportdiscus were performed. Studies were included that evaluated reasons for sport participation in adults aged 55 years and older because this is the age at which sport participation has been reported to begin declining. The studies included in this review used qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods designs, were peer-reviewed and were published in the English language before the search date: 20 January 2019.ResultsA total of 1,732 studies were identified. After exclusions, 30 studies were included in the review (16 qualitative, 10 quantitative, and 4 mixed methods). The review presents several features and findings from the studies, including a description and systematization of the reasons for participating in sport and the main reasons that participants gave for participating in sport (maintaining health, feeling and being part of a community and taking advantage of opportunities to develop relationships). Other reasons included competing and attaining a feeling of achievement, taking advantage of opportunities for travel, and being part of a team. Sport was identified as contributing to the overall experience of successful ageing. There were few comparative differences for participating in sport, and there were only small differences between genders for the reasons given for participation. Generally, the quality of the studies was good; however, mixed methods studies lacked appropriate data analysis procedures.ConclusionOlder adults play sport for a range of health-related and social reasons which can contribute to the experience of successful ageing. Strategies to increase sport participation by older adults should focus on promoting these aspects.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • A clash of fundamental assumptions: Can/should we measure physical

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Ang Chen
  • Learners’ motivational response to the Science, PE, & Me! curriculum: A
           situational interest perspective

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Senlin Chen, Haichun Sun, Xihe Zhu, Ang Chen, Catherine D. Ennis (Posthumous)PurposeThe Science, PE, & Me! (SPEM) curriculum is a concept-based physical education curriculum that offers students coherent educational experiences for constructing health-related fitness knowledge through movement experiences. The purpose of this study was to evaluate students’ motivational response to the SPEM curriculum from the situational interest perspective.MethodsThe study used a cluster randomized controlled design in which 30 elementary schools in one of the largest metropolitan areas in the eastern United States were randomly assigned to an experimental or comparison condition. While all students in 3rd, 4th, and 5th grades in the targeted schools were eligible to participate in the study, a random sample of students from the experimental (n = 1,749; 15 schools) and comparison groups (n = 1,985; 15 schools) provided data. Students’ motivational response to the SPEM curriculum or comparison curriculum was measured using the previously validated Situational Interest Scale – Elementary. Data were analyzed using structural mean modeling (SMM).ResultsThe results demonstrated that the experimental group (as reference group) showed significantly higher enjoyment (z = –2.01), challenge (z = –6.54), exploration (z = –12.195), novelty (z = –8.80), and attention demand (z = –7.90) than the comparison group.ConclusionThe findings indicate that the SPEM curriculum created a more situationally interesting context for learning than the comparison physical education curriculum.Graphic Image, graphical abstract
  • Impacts of Exercise Intervention on Different Diseases in Rats

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Ruwen Wang, Haili Tian, Dandan Guo, Qianqian Tian, Ting Yao, Xingxing KongBackgroundExercise is considered as an important intervention for treatment and prevention of several diseases such as osteoarthritis, obesity, hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, and so on. This review summarizes decadal exercise intervention studies with different rat models across 6 major systems to provide a better understanding of mechanisms behind effects that exercise brought.MethodsPubMed was utilized as the data source. To collect research articles, we used the following terms to create the search: (exercise [Title] OR physical activity [Title] OR training [Title]) AND (rats [Title /] OR rat [Title /] OR rattus [Title /]). To best cover targeted studies, publication dates were limited to “within 11 years”. The exercise intervention methods used for different diseases were sorted according to the mode, frequency, and intensity of exercise.ResultsThe collected articles were categorized into studies related to 6 systems or disease types: the motor system (17 articles), metabolic system (110 articles), cardio-cerebral vascular system (171 articles), nervous system (71 articles), urinary system (2 articles), and cancer (21 articles). Our review found that, for different diseases, exercise intervention mostly had a positive effect. However, the most powerful effect was achieved by using a specific mode of exercise that addressed the characteristics of the disease.ConclusionAs a model animal, rats not only provide a convenient resource for studying human diseases but also provide the possibility for exploring the molecular mechanism of exercise intervention in diseases. This review also aims to provide exercise intervention frameworks and optimal exercise dose recommendations for further human exercise intervention research.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Enhanced inhibitory control during re-engagement processing in badminton
           athletes: An event-related potential study

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 8, Issue 6Author(s): Jiacheng Chen, Yanan Li, Guanghui Zhang, Xinhong Jin, Yingzhi Lu, Chenglin ZhouPurposeThe purpose of present study was to investigate the impact of sport experience on response inhibition and response re-engagement in expert badminton athletes during the stop-signal task and change-signal task.MethodsA total of 19 badminton athletes and 20 nonathletes performed both the stop-signal task and change-signal task. Reaction times (RTs) and event-related potentials were recorded and analyzed.ResultsBehavioral results indicated that badminton athletes responded faster than nonathletes to go stimuli and to change signals, with faster change RTs and change-signal RTs, which take into consideration the variable stimulus onset time mean. During successful change trials in the change-signal task, the amplitudes of the event-related potential components N2 and P3 were smaller for badminton athletes than for nonathletes. Moreover, change-signal RTs and N2 amplitudes as well as change RTs and P3 amplitudes were significantly correlated in badminton athletes. A significant correlation was also found between the amplitude of the event-related potential component N1 and response accuracy to change signals in badminton athletes.ConclusionModeration of brain cortical activity in badminton athletes was more associated with their ability to rapidly inhibit a planned movement and re-engage with a new movement compared with nonathletes. The superior inhibitory control and more efficient neural mechanisms in badminton athletes compared with nonathletes might be a result of badminton athletes’ professional training experience.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Effects of 12 weeks of barefoot running on foot strike patterns,
           inversion–eversion and foot rotation in long-distance runners

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 8, Issue 6Author(s): Pedro A. Latorre-Román, Felipe García-Pinillos, Víctor M. Soto-Hermoso, Marcos Muñoz-JiménezAbstractPurposeThe purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 12 weeks of barefoot running on foot strike patterns, inversion–eversion and foot rotation in long-distance runners.MethodsThirty-one endurance runners with no experience in barefoot running were randomized into a control group and an experimental group who received barefoot training. At pre-test and post-test, all subjects ran at low and high self-selected speeds on a treadmill. Data were collected by systematic observation of lateral and back recordings at 240 Hz.ResultsMcNemar's test indicated significant changes (p < 0.05) in the experimental group at both high and low speed running in foot strike patterns, reducing the percentage of high rearfoot strikers and increasing the number of midfoot strikers. A significant increase (p < 0.05) of external rotation of the foot and a decrease of inversion occurred at comfortable speed in the experimental group.ConclusionTwelve weeks of barefoot running, applied progressively, causes significant changes in foot strike pattern with a tendency toward midfoot or forefoot strikes, regardless of running speed and significant changes in foot rotation at low speed, while the inversion was reduced in left foot at low speed with a tendency toward centered strike.
  • Comparison of three types of warm-up upon sprint ability in experienced
           soccer players

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 8, Issue 6Author(s): Roland van den Tillaar, Eirik Lerberg, Erna von HeimburgAbstractPurposeThe study aimed to compare the effects of a long general warm-up, a long specific warm-up, and a short specific warm-up upon sprint ability in soccer players.MethodsTwelve male soccer players (age: 18.3 ± 0.8 years, mean ± SD; body mass: 76.4 ± 7.2 kg; body height: 1.79 ± 0.05 m) conducted 3 types of warm-ups with 1 week in between: a long general warm-up, a long specific warm-up, and a short specific warm-up followed by 3 sprints of 40 m each. The best, average, and total sprinting times together with heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion were measured.ResultsThe sprint times (best, average, and total time) were significantly better when performing a long specific or short specific warm-up compared with the long general warm-up (all p < 0.05). The received perception exertion was significantly lower during the specific short warm-up (4.92 ± 0.90) compared with the longer ones (6.00 ± 0.74 and 6.25 ± 0.87, respectively).ConclusionSpecificity is more important in a warm-up routine before sprint performance than the duration of the warm-up.
  • The effect of fatigue and duration knowledge of exercise on kicking
           performance in soccer players

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 8, Issue 6Author(s): Ricardo Manuel Pires Ferraz, Roland van den Tillaar, Ana Pereira, Mário C. MarquesAbstractPurposeThe purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of fatigue upon kicking maximal ball velocity and the target-hitting accuracy of soccer players; and also to examine the effect of the knowledge of the exercise duration upon these 2 parameters.MethodsTwenty-four semi-professional soccer players participated in this study and performed maximal instep kicks before and after the implementation of an exercise protocol, either with or without knowledge of the duration of this protocol.ResultsA mixed model of analysis of variance showed that kicking maximal ball velocity was significantly affected (F(5, 85) = 11.6, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.39) but only after just 1 circuit of the fatigue protocol and then remained similar. Accuracy did not change during the protocol (F(5, 75) = 0.23, p = 0.76, η2 = 0.03) and knowing the duration of exercitation did not affect accuracy and velocity development (F(1, 23) ≤ 1.04, p ≥ 0.32, η2 ≤ 0.06).ConclusionThese findings demonstrated the potential negative effects of fatigue on kicking ball velocity in soccer but not in the kicking accuracy and that the effect of fatigue may not be progressive over time. Knowing or not knowing the duration of exercitation did not affect the results.
  • Training session intensity affects plasma redox status in amateur rhythmic

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 8, Issue 6Author(s): Marianna Bellafiore, Antonino Bianco, Giuseppe Battaglia, Maria Silvia Naccari, Giovanni Caramazza, Johnny Padulo, Karim Chamari, Antonio Paoli, Antonio PalmaAbstractPurposeThe aim of this study was to examine systemic responses of oxidant/antioxidant status following 2 training sessions of different intensity in amateur rhythmic gymnasts.MethodsBefore the experimental training, 10 female gymnasts performed a gradually increased exercise test to assess maximal heart rate, maximal oxygen consumption, and anaerobic threshold. They executed 2 intermittent training sessions separated by 48 h of recovery (48 h-post R): the first was performed at low-moderate intensity (LMI) and the second at high intensity (HI). Blood samples were collected immediately pre- and post-training and 48 h-post R. Hydroperoxide level (OxL) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were photometrically measured.ResultsOxL was significantly higher in post-training and 48 h-post R following HI than the same conditions after an LMI session (HI vs. LMI post-training: 381.10 ± 46.17 (mean ± SD) vs. 344.18 ± 27.94 Units Carratelli (U.CARR); 48 h-post R: 412.21 ± 26.61 vs. 373.80 ± 36.08 U.CARR). There was no change in TAC between the 2 training sessions investigated. In LMI training, OxL significantly decreased in post-training and increased to reach the baseline at 48 h-post R, whereas TAC increased only at 48 h-post R. In HI training, OxL significantly increased to reach a high oxidative stress 48 h-post R, whereas TAC was lower in post-training than pre-training.ConclusionThe pattern of OxL and TAC levels implies different regulation mechanisms by HI and LMI training sessions. High oxidative stress induced by an HI protocol might be associated with both insufficient TAC and recovery time at 48 h necessary to restore redox balance.
  • Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of an ankle instability
           questionnaire for use in Chinese-speaking population

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 8, Issue 6Author(s): Yumeng Li, Li Guan, Jupil Ko, Shuqi Zhang, Cathleen N. Brown, Kathy J. SimpsonAbstractBackgroundThe Identification of Functional Ankle Instability (IdFAI) is a valid and reliable tool to identify chronic ankle instability; however, it was developed in English, thus limiting its usage only to those who can read and write in English. The objectives of our study were to (1) cross-culturally adapt a Chinese (Mandarin) version of the IdFAI and (2) determine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version IdFAI.MethodsThe cross-cultural adaptation procedures used by the investigators and translators followed previously published guidelines and included 6 stages: (1) initial translation, (2) synthesis of the translations, (3) back translation, (4) developing the pre-final version for field testing, (5) testing the pre-final version, and (6) finalizing the Chinese version of IdFAI (IdFAI-C). Five psychometric properties of the IdFAI-C were assessed from results of 2 participant groups: bilingual (n = 20) and Chinese (n = 625).ResultsA high degree of agreement was found between the English version of IdFAI and IdFAI-C (intra-class correlation2,1 = 0.995). An excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.89), test–retest reliability (intra-class correlation2,1 = 0.970), and construct validity (r(625) = 0.67) was also found for the IdFAI-C. In addition, the results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis indicated that ankle instability was the only construct measured from the IdFAI.ConclusionThe IdFAI-C is a highly reliable and valid self-report questionnaire that can be used to assess ankle instability. Therefore, we suggest that it can be used to effectively and accurately assess chronic ankle instability in clinical settings for Chinese-speaking individuals.
  • Age-related changes in proprioception of the ankle complex across the

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 8, Issue 6Author(s): Nan Yang, Gordon Waddington, Roger Adams, Jia HanBackgroundAnkle complex proprioceptive ability, needed in active human movement, may change from childhood to elderly adulthood; however, its development across all life stages has remained unexamined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the across-the-lifespan trend for proprioceptive ability of the ankle complex during active ankle inversion movement.MethodsThe right ankles of 118 healthy right-handed participants in 6 groups were assessed: children (6–8 years old), adolescents (13–15 years old), young adults (18–25 years old), middle-aged adults (35–50 years old), old adults (60–74 years old), and very old adults (75–90 years old). While the participants were standing, their ankle complex proprioception was measured using the Active Movement Extent Discrimination Apparatus.ResultsThere was no significant interaction between the effects of age group and gender on ankle proprioceptive acuity (F (5, 106) = 0.593, p = 0.705, η2p = 0.027). Simple main effects analysis showed that there was a significant main effect for age group (F (5, 106) = 22.521, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.515) but no significant main effect for gender (F (1,106) =  2.283, p = 0.134, η2p = 0.021) between the female (0.723 ± 0.092, mean ± SD) and the male (0.712 ± 0.083) participants. The age-group factor was associated with a significant linear downward trend in scores (F (1, 106) = 10.584, p = 0.002, η2p = 0.091) and a strong quadratic trend component (F (1,106) = 100.701, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.480), producing an asymmetric inverted-U function.ConclusionThe test method of the Active Movement Extent Discrimination Apparatus is sensitive to age differences in ankle complex proprioception. For proprioception of the ankle complex, young adults had significantly better scores than children, adolescents, old adults, and very old adults. The middle-aged group had levels of ankle proprioceptive acuity similar to those of the young adults. The scores for males and females were not significantly different. Examination of the range of the scores in each age group highlights the possible level that ankle complex movement proprioceptive rehabilitation can reach, especially for those 75–90 years of age.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Gender differences in nonlinear motor performance following concussion

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 8, Issue 6Author(s): Breanna E. Studenka, Adam RaikesAbstractPurposeTo quantify differences in nonlinear aspects of performance on a seated visual-motor tracking task between clinically asymptomatic males and females with and without a self-reported mild traumatic brain injury history.MethodsSeventy-three individuals with a self-reported concussion history (age: 21.40 ± 2.25 years, mean ± SD) and 75 without completed the visual-motor tracking task (age: 21.50 ± 2.00 years). Participants pressed an index finger against a force sensor, tracing a line across a computer screen (visual-motor tracking). The produced signal's root-mean-square error (RMSE), sample entropy (SampEn, a measure of regularity), and average power (AvP) between 0 and 12 Hz were calculated.ResultsMales with a history of 0 or 1 concussion had greater RMSE (worse performance) than females with 0 (p 
  • Differences in transportation and leisure physical activity by
           neighborhood design controlling for residential choice

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 8, Issue 6Author(s): Gavin R. McCormack, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Koichiro Oka, Christine M. Friedenreich, Anita Blackstaffe, Francisco Uribe Alaniz, Brenlea FarkasBackgroundCross-sectional studies provide useful insight about the associations between the built environment and physical activity (PA), particularly when reasons for neighborhood choice are considered. Our study analyzed the relationship between levels of weekly transportation and leisure PA among 3 neighborhood designs, statistically adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and reasons for neighborhood choice.MethodsA stratified random sample of adults (age ≥20 years) living in Calgary (Canada) neighborhoods with different neighborhood designs (grid, warped-grid, and curvilinear) and socioeconomic status completed a self-administered questionnaire capturing PA, sociodemographic characteristics, and reasons for neighborhood choice (response rate = 10.1%; n = 1023). Generalized linear models estimated associations between neighborhood design and transportation and leisure PA outcomes (participation (any vs. none) and volume (metabolic equivalent: h/week)), adjusting for neighborhood socioeconomic status, sociodemographic characteristics (gender, age, ethnicity, education, household income, marital status, children, vehicle access, dog ownership, and injury), and reasons for neighborhood choice (e.g., proximity and quality of recreational and utilitarian destinations, proximity to work, highway access, aesthetics, and sense of community).ResultsOverall, 854 participants had resided in their neighborhood for at least 12 months and provided complete data. Compared with those living in curvilinear neighborhoods, grid neighborhood participants had greater odds (p < 0.05) of participating in any transportation walking (odds ratio (OR) = 2.17), transportation and leisure cycling (OR = 2.39 and OR = 1.70), active transportation (OR = 2.16), and high-intensity leisure PA (≥6 metabolic equivalent; OR = 1.74), respectively. There were no neighborhood differences in the volume of any transportation or leisure PA undertaken. Adjustment for neighborhood selection had minimal impact on the statistical or practical importance of model estimates.ConclusionNeighborhood design is associated with PA patterns in adults, independent of reasons for neighborhood choice and sociodemographic factors.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Emotions and performance in rugby

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 8, Issue 6Author(s): Mickaël Campo, Stéphane Champely, Andrew M. Lane, Elisabeth Rosnet, Claude Ferrand, Benoît LouvetAbstractPurposeThis study investigated emotion–performance relationships in rugby union. We identified which emotions rugby players experienced and the extent to which these emotions were associated with performance, considering how emotions unfold over the course of a game, and whether the game was played at home or away.MethodsData were gathered from 22 professional male rugby union players using auto-confrontation interviews to help identify situations within games when players experienced intense emotions. We assessed the intensity of emotions experienced before each discrete performance and therefore could assess the emotion–performance relationship within a competition.ResultsPlayers identified experiencing intense emotions at 189 time-points. Experts in rugby union rated the quality of each performance at these 189 time-points on a visual analog scale. A Linear Mixed Effects model to investigate emotion–performance relationships found additive effects of game location, game time, and emotions on individual performance.ConclusionResults showed 7 different pre-performance emotions, with high anxiety and anger associating with poor performance. Future research should continue to investigate emotion–performance relationships during performance using video-assisted recall and use a measure of performance that has face validity for players and coaches alike.
  • Impact of age on host responses to diet-induced obesity: Development of
           joint damage and metabolic set points

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Kelsey H. Collins, Graham Z. MacDonald, David A. Hart, Ruth A. Seerattan, Jaqueline L. Rios, Raylene A. Reimer, Walter HerzogBackgroundOsteoarthritis is one of the leading causes of pain and disability worldwide, and a large percentage of patients with osteoarthritis are individuals who are also obese. In recent years, a series of animal models have demonstrated that obesity-inducing diets can result in synovial joint damage (both with and without the superimposition of trauma), which may be related to changes in percentage of body fat and a series of low-level systemic inflammatory mediators. Of note, there is a disparity between whether the dietary challenges commence at weaning, representing a weanling onset, or at skeletal maturity, representing an adult onset of obesity. We wished to evaluate the effect of the dietary exposure time and the age at which animals are exposed to a high-fat and high-sucrose (HFS) diet to determine whether these factors may result in disparate outcomes, as there is evidence suggesting that these factors result in differential metabolic disturbances. Based on dietary exposure time, we hypothesized that rats fed an HFS diet for 14 weeks from weaning (HFS Weanling) would demonstrate an increase in knee joint damage scores, whereas rats exposed to the HFS diet for 4 weeks, starting at 12 weeks of age (HFS Adult) and rats exposed to a standard chow diet (Chow) would not display an increase in knee joint damage scores.MethodsMale Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either an HFS diet for 14 weeks from weaning (HFS Weanling) or an HFS diet for 4 weeks, starting at 12 weeks of age (HFS Adult). At sacrifice, joints were scored using the Modified Mankin Criteria, and serum was analyzed for a defined subset of inflammatory markers (Interleukin-6, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and tumor necrosis factor-α).ResultsWhen the HFS Weanling and HFS Adult groups were compared, both groups had a similar percent of body fat, although the HFS Weanling group had a significantly greater body mass than the HFS Adult group. The HFS Weanling and HFS Adult animals had a significant increase in body mass and percentage of body fat when compared to the Chow group. Although knee joint damage scores were low in all 3 groups, we found, contrary to our hypothesis, that the HFS Adult group had statistically significant greater knee joint damage scores than the Chow and HFS Weanling groups. Furthermore, we observed that the HFS Weanling group did not have significant differences in knee joint damage scores relative to the Chow group.ConclusionThese findings indicate that the HFS Weanling animals were better able to cope with the dietary challenge of an HFS diet than the HFS Adult group. Interestingly, when assessing various serum proinflammatory markers, no significant differences were detected between the HFS Adult and HFS Weanling groups. Although details regarding the mechanisms underlying an increase in knee joint damage scores in the HFS Adult group remain to be elucidated, these findings indicate that dietary exposure time maybe less important than the age at which an HFS diet is introduced. Moreover, increases in serum proinflammatory mediators do not appear to be directly linked to knee joint damage scores in the HFS Weanling group animals but may be partially responsible for the observed knee joint damage in the adults over the very short time of exposure to the HFS diet.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Motivational processes in physical education and objectively measured
           physical activity among adolescents

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Hanna Kalajas-Tilga, Andre Koka, Vello Hein, Henri Tilga, Lennart RaudseppPurposeGrounded in self-determination theory (SDT), the present study tested how students’ perceptions of autonomy support from physical education teachers predicts objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of adolescents. According to SDT, it was expected that psychological needs and autonomous and controlled forms of motivation would mediate these relationships.MethodsStudents (n = 397) aged from 11 to 15 years in 17 different schools filled in questionnaires regarding SDT variables. In addition, objective MVPA was measured using an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X, ActiGraph, Pensacola, FL, USA) for 7 days. Structural equation modelling was used to examine the hypothesized relationships among the study variables.ResultsThe theory-based model showed a good fit with the data: χ2 = 642.464, df = 257; comparative fit index = 0.932; non-normed fit index = 0.921; root mean square error of approximation = 0.062; root mean square error of approximation 90% confidence interval: 0.054–0.067. As hypothesized, there was a significant and positive direct relationship between autonomy support and need satisfaction (β = 0.81, p = 0.001). In turn, need satisfaction positively predicted intrinsic motivation (β = 0.86, p = 0.001). Intrinsic motivation was positively related to MVPA (β = 0.29, p = 0.009). A significant indirect effect (β = 0.20, p = 0.004) supported the mediating role of psychological need satisfaction and intrinsic motivation in the relationship between perceived autonomy support and objectively measured MVPA.ConclusionThe findings of the current study support the applicability of the SDT-based model in explaining the antecedents of objectively measured MVPA of adolescents. To enhance adolescents’ daily MVPA, special focus should be put on increasing their intrinsic motivation toward physical education.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Effect of high-intensity interval training in adolescents with asthma: The
           eXercise for Asthma with Commando Joe's® (X4ACJ) trial

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Charles O.N. Winn, Kelly A. Mackintosh, William T.B. Eddolls, Gareth Stratton, Andrew M. Wilson, Melitta A. McNarry, Gwyneth A. DaviesBackgroundHigher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reduced asthma severity and increased quality of life in those with asthma. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 6-month high-intensity interval training (HIIT) intervention in adolescents with and without asthma.MethodsA total of 616 adolescents (334 boys; 13.0 ± 1.1 years, 1.57 ± 0.10 m, 52.6 ± 12.9 kg, mean ± SD), including 155 with asthma (78 boys), were recruited as part of a randomized, controlled trial from 5 schools (4 control, 1 intervention). The 221 intervention participants (116 boys; 47 asthma) completed 6 months of school-based HIIT (30 min, 3 times per week, 10–30 s bouts at>90% age-predicted maximum heart rate with equal rest). At baseline, mid-intervention, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up, measurements for 20-m shuttle run, body mass index (BMI), lung function, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, Paediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire, and Asthma Control Questionnaire were collected. Additionally, 69 adolescents (21 boys; 36 asthma) also completed an incremental ramp test. For analysis, each group's data (intervention and control) were divided into those with and without asthma.ResultsParticipants with asthma did not differ from their peers in any parameter of aerobic fitness, at any time-point, but were characterized by a greater BMI. The intervention elicited a significant improvement in maximal aerobic fitness but no change in sub-maximal parameters of aerobic fitness, lung function, or quality of life irrespective of asthma status. Those in the intervention group maintained their BMI, whereas BMI significantly increased in the control group throughout the 6-month period.ConclusionHIIT represents an effective tool for improving aerobic fitness and maintaining BMI in adolescents, irrespective of asthma status. HIIT was well-tolerated by those with asthma, who evidenced a similar aerobic fitness to their healthy peers and responded equally well to a HIIT program.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Implementing physically active learning: Future directions for research,
           policy, and practice

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Andy Daly-Smith, Thomas Quarmby, Victoria S.J. Archbold, Ash C. Routen, Jade L. Morris, Catherine Gammon, John B. Bartholomew, Geir Kåre Resaland, Bryn Llewellyn, Richard Allman, Henry DorlingObjectiveIdentify co-produced multi-stakeholder perspectives important for successful widespread physically active learning (PAL) adoption and implementation.MethodA total of 35 stakeholders (policy makers, n = 9; commercial education sector, n = 8; teachers, n = 3; researchers, n = 15) attended a design thinking PAL workshop. Participants formed 5 multi-disciplinary groups with at least 1 representative from each stakeholder group. Each group, facilitated by a researcher, undertook 2 tasks: (1) using Post-it Notes, the following question was answered: within the school day, what are the opportunities for learning combined with movement? and (2) structured as a washing-line task, the following question was answered: how can we establish PAL as the norm? All discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed. Inductive analyses were conducted by 4 authors. After the analyses were complete, the main themes and subthemes were assigned to 4 predetermined categories: (1) PAL design and implementation, (2) priorities for practice, (3) priorities for policy, and (4) priorities for research.ResultsThe following were the main themes for PAL implementation: opportunities for PAL within the school day, delivery environments, learning approaches, and the intensity of PAL. The main themes for the priorities for practice included teacher confidence and competence, resources to support delivery, and community of practice. The main themes for the policy for priorities included self-governance, the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services, and Skill, policy investment in initial teacher training, and curriculum reform. The main themes for the research priorities included establishing a strong evidence base, school-based PAL implementation, and a whole-systems approach.ConclusionThe present study is the first to identify PAL implementation factors using a combined multi-stakeholder perspective. To achieve wider PAL adoption and implementation, future interventions should be evidence based and address implementation factors at the classroom level (e.g., approaches and delivery environments), school level (e.g., communities of practice), and policy level (e.g., initial teacher training).Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Correlation network analysis shows divergent effects of a long-term,
           high-fat diet and exercise on early stage osteoarthritis phenotypes in

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Timothy M. Griffin, Albert Batushansky, Joanna Hudson, Erika Barboza Prado LopesBackgroundObesity increases knee osteoarthritis (OA) risk through metabolic, inflammatory, and biomechanical factors, but how these systemic and local mediators interact to drive OA pathology is not well understood. We tested the effect of voluntary running exercise after chronic diet-induced obesity on knee OA-related cartilage and bone pathology in mice. We then used a correlation-based network analysis to identify systemic and local factors associated with early-stage knee OA phenotypes among the different diet and exercise groups.MethodsMale C57BL/6J mice were fed a defined control (10% kcal fat) or high fat (HF) (60% kcal fat) diet from 6 to 37 weeks of age. At 25 weeks, one-half of the mice from each diet group were housed in cages with running wheels for the remainder of the study. Histology, micro computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging were used to evaluate changes in joint tissue structure and OA pathology. These local variables were then compared to systemic metabolic (body mass, body fat, glucose tolerance), inflammatory (serum adipokines and inflammatory mediators), and functional (mechanical tactile sensitivity and grip strength) outcomes using a correlation-based network analysis. Diet and exercise effects were evaluated by two-way analysis of variance.ResultsAn HF diet increased the infrapatellar fat pad size and posterior joint osteophytes, and wheel running primarily altered the subchondral cortical and trabecular bone. Neither HF diet nor exercise altered average knee cartilage OA scores compared to control groups. However, the coefficient of variation was ≥25% for many outcomes, and some mice in both diet groups developed moderate OA (≥33% maximum score). This supported using correlation-based network analyses to identify systemic and local factors associated with early-stage knee OA phenotypes. In wheel-running cohorts, an HF diet reduced the network size compared to the control diet group despite similar running distances, suggesting that diet-induced obesity dampens the effects of exercise on systemic and local OA-related factors. Each of the 4 diet and activity groups showed mostly unique networks of local and systemic factors correlated with early-stage knee OA.ConclusionDespite minimal group-level effects of chronic diet-induced obesity and voluntary wheel running on knee OA pathology under the current test durations, diet and exercise substantially altered the relationships among systemic and local variables associated with early-stage knee OA. These results suggest that distinct pre-OA phenotypes may exist prior to the development of disease.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Profiling elite male 100 m sprint performance: The role of maximum
           velocity and relative acceleration

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Robin Healy, Ian C. Kenny, Andrew J. HarrisonAbstractPurposeThis study aimed to determine the accuracy of a 4 split time modelling method to generate velocity-time and velocity-distance variables in elite male 100 m sprinters and subsequently to assess the roles of key sprint parameters with respect to 100 m sprint performance. Additionally, this paper aimed to assess the differences between faster and slower sprinters in key sprint variables that have not been assessed in previous work.MethodsVelocity-time and velocity-distance curves were generated using a mono-exponential function from 4 split times for 82 male sprinters during major athletics competitions. Key race variables—maximum velocity, the acceleration time constant (τ) and percentage of velocity lost (vLoss)—were derived for each athlete. Athletes were divided into tertiles, based on 100 m time, with the first and third tertile considered to be the faster and slower groups, respectively, to facilitate further analysis.ResultsModelled split times and velocities displayed excellent accuracy and close agreement with raw measures (range of mean bias was -0.2% to 0.2% and range of ICCs was 0.935 to 0.999) except for 10 m time (mean bias was 1.6% ± 1.3% and the ICC was 0.600). The 100 m sprint performance time and all 20 m split times had a significant near-perfect negative correlation with maximum velocity (r ≥ -0.90) except for the 0-20 m split time where a significant large negative correlation was found (r = -0.57). The faster group had a significantly higher maximum velocity and τ (p < 0.001) with no significant difference found for vLoss (p = 0.085).ConclusionCoaches and researchers are encouraged to utilise the 4 split time method proposed in the current study to assess several key race variables that describe a sprinter's performance capacities, which can be subsequently used to further inform training.
  • Exercise-mediated regulation of autophagy in the cardiovascular system

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Lijun Wang, Jiaqi Wang, Dragos Cretoiu, Guoping Li, Junjie XiaoCardiovascular disease is the leading cause of human death worldwide. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved degradation pathway, which is a highly conserved cellular degradation process in which lysosomes decompose their own organelles and recycle the resulting macromolecules. Autophagy is critical in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis and function, and excessive or insufficient autophagy or autophagic flux can lead to cardiovascular disease. Enormous evidences indicate that exercise training plays a beneficial role in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The regulation of autophagy during exercise is a bidirectional process. For cardiovascular disease caused by either insufficient or excessive autophagy, exercise training restores normal autophagy function and delays the progression of cardiovascular disease. In-depth exploration and discussion of exercise-mediated regulation of autophagy in the cardiovascular system can broaden our view about the prevention of various autophagy-related diseases through exercise training. In this article, we will review autophagy and its related signaling pathways, as well as autophagy-dependent beneficial effects of exercise in cardiovascular system.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Physical activity levels in American and Japanese men from the ERA-JUMP
           Study and associations with metabolic syndrome

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Naoko Sagawa, Bonny Rockette-Wagner, Koichiro Azuma, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Takashi Hisamatsu, Tomoko Takamiya, Aiman El-Saed, Katsuyuki Miura, Andrea Kriska, Akira SekikawaBackgroundMetabolic syndrome (MetS) is a global health problem. Physical activity (PA) is a known modifiable risk factor for MetS and individual MetS components. However, the role of PA could differ between sub-populations due to differences in the variability of PA and other MetS risk factors. To examine these differences, multi-country studies with standardized outcome measurement methods across cohorts are needed.MethodsCross-sectional PA levels (total and domain-specific) in healthy middle-aged (44-56 years) men in the ERA-JUMP Study (n = 730; American: n = 417; Japanese: n = 313; from population-representative samples in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, US, and Kusatsu, Shiga, Japan) were compared. The relationships between PA levels and MetS (overall and specific components) in/across the American and Japanese sub-cohorts (adjusting for age, smoking, and alcohol consumption) were also assessed using the same instruments (pedometer and validated questionnaire) to measure PA in both cohorts.ResultsA total of 510 individuals provided complete data on PA (American: n = 265; Japanese: n = 245). The American cohort had significantly lower mean ± SD steps/day (7878 ± 3399) vs. the Japanese cohort (9,055 ± 3,797) (p < 0.001) but had significantly higher self-reported moderate-vigorous leisure physical activity (Americans: 15.9 (7.4-30.3) MET-h/week vs. Japanese: 4.0 (0-11.3) MET-h/week, p < 0.001). In both sub-cohorts, each 1000 steps/day increase was associated with lower odds of having MetS (Americans: OR = 0.90, 95%CI: 0.83-0.98; Japanese: OR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.79-0.95) and the individual MetS component of high waist circumference (Americans: OR = 0.86, 95%CI: 0.79-0.94; Japanese: OR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.80-0.95). In the American cohort only, higher self-reported leisure PA (Met-h/week) was associated with lower odds of MetS and high waist circumference (OR = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.97-0.99 for MetS and waist circumference, respectively).ConclusionHigher total step counts/day had an important protective effect on MetS prevalence in both the Japanese and American cohorts, despite differences in PA levels and other MetS risk factors. The effect of steps/day (across all intensity levels) was much greater than domain-specific moderate-vigorous PA captured by questionnaire, suggesting the need for measurement tools that can best capture total movement when examining the effects of PA on MetS development.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Acknowledgment to reviewers – November 2018 to September 2019

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s):
  • If you are physically fit, you will live a longer and healthier life: an
           interview with Dr. Steven N. Blair

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Weimo Zhu
  • The pulse of recent research on school-based physical activity and

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Senlin Chen, Richard R. Rosenkranz
  • Improving BRICS's public health and wellness through physical activity

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Barbara E. Ainsworth, Fuzhong Li, J. Larry Durstine
  • Walking pace and the risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Minghui Quan, Pengcheng Xun, Ru Wang, Ka He, Peijie ChenABSTRACTPurposeThe extent to which walking pace is associated with a reduced risk for stroke remains unclear. This study examined the association between walking pace and stroke risk from prospective cohort studies.MethodsDatabases of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, and China National Knowledge Internet were searched from the inception dates to January 31, 2019, for prospective cohort studies focusing on walking pace and risk of stroke in adults. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the quality of the studies. The dependent measure was stroke incidence. Using random-effects models, a meta-analysis was performed to estimate the overall relative risk (RR) of stroke incidence and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the fastest walking-pace individuals versus individuals with the slowest walking-pace. A dose-response relationship was also examined.ResultsAfter screening 1,294 titles/abstracts and 14 full-text studies identified in the search, 7 studies (from 8 cohorts) were included in the meta-analysis. The 7 studies included a total of 135,645 participants (95.2% women; mean age 63.6 years) and 2229 stroke events (median follow-up time = 8.0 years). Compared to individuals in the slowest walking-pace category (median = 1.6 km/h), individuals in the fastest walking-pace category (median = 5.6 km/h) had a 44% lower risk of stroke (pooled RR = 0.56, 95%CI: 0.48–0.65). There was also a linear dose-response relationship (RR = 0.87; 95%CI: 0.83–0.91), with the risk of stroke decreased by 13% for every 1 km/h increment in baseline walking pace. We observed similar results across walking-pace assessment, type of stroke ascertainment, stroke subtypes, sex, sample size, and duration of follow-up.ConclusionsFindings from this meta-analysis indicate that walking pace is inversely associated with the risk of stroke.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • The impact of health expenditures on public health in BRICS nations

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Mihajlo Jakovljevic, Yuriy Timofeyev, Natalia V. Ekkert, Julia V. Fedorova, Galina Skvirskaya, Sergey Bolevich, Vladimir A. Reshetnikov
  • Updated overview on interplay between physical exercise, neurotrophins,
           and cognitive function in humans

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Giuseppe Lippi, Camilla Mattiuzzi, Fabian Sanchis-GomarThe many important benefits of physical exercise also encompass maintenance or improvement of cognitive functions. Among the various mechanisms underlying the association between physical exercise and brain health, recent evidence attests that neurotrophin receptor signaling may have an important role, since the activation of this pathway leads to growth and differentiation of new neurons and synapses, supports axonal and dendritic growth, fosters synaptic plasticity, and preserves survival of existing neurons. In this review of published evidence, we highlight that a positive relationship exists between physical exercise and circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and that the post-exercise variation of this molecule is associated with improvement of neurocognitive functioning. Less clear evidence has instead been published for other neurotrophins, such as nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-4. Overall, promotion of adequate volumes and intensities of physical exercise (i.e., ∼3 months of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, with 2–3 sessions per week lasting not less than 30 min) may hence be regarded as an inexpensive and safe strategy for boosting brain-derived neurotrophic factor release, thus preserving or restoring cognitive functions.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Increased Q-Factor increases frontal-plane knee joint loading in
           stationary cycling

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Tanner Thorsen, Kelley Strohacker, Joshua T. Weinhandl, Songning ZhangObjectiveQ-Factor (QF), or the inter-pedal width, in cycling is similar to step-width in gait. While increased step-width has been shown to reduce peak knee abduction moment (KAbM), no studies have examined the biomechanical effects of increased QF in cycling at different workrates in healthy participants.MethodsA total of 16 healthy participants (8 male, 8 female, age: 22.4 ± 2.6 years, BMI: 22.78 ± 1.43 kg/m2) participated. A motion capture system and customized instrumented pedals were used to collect three-dimensional kinematic (240 Hz) and pedal reaction force (PRF, 1200 Hz) data in 12 testing conditions: 4 QF conditions—Q1 (15.0 cm), Q2 (19.2 cm), Q3 (23.4 cm), and Q4 (27.6 cm)—under 3 workrate conditions—80 Watts (W), 120 W, and 160 W. A 3 × 4 (QF × workrate) repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to analyze differences between conditions (p < 0.05).ResultsIncreased QF increased peak KAbM by 47%, 56%, and 56% from Q1 to Q4 at each respective workrate. Mediolateral PRF increased from Q1 to Q4 at each respective workrate. Frontal-plane knee angle and range of motion (ROM) decreased with increased QF. No changes were observed for peak vertical PRF, knee extension moment, sagittal plane peak knee joint angles, or ROM.ConclusionIncreased QF increased peak KAbM, suggesting increased medial compartment loading of the knee. QF modulation may influence frontal-plane joint loading when using stationary cycling for exercise or rehabilitation purposes.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Corrigendum to “Spinal and supraspinal control of motor function during
           maximal eccentric muscle contraction: Effects of resistance training” [J
           Sport Health Sci 7 (2018) 282–293]

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Per Aagaard
  • Blood flow restriction in human skeletal muscle during rest periods after
           high-load resistance training down-regulates miR 206 and induces Pax7

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Ferenc Torma, Zoltan Gombos, Marcell Fridvalszki, Gergely Langmar, Zsofia Tarcza, Bela Merkely, Hisashi Naito, Noriko Ichinoseki-Sekine, Masaki Takeda, Zsolt Murlasits, Peter Osvath, Zsolt RadakPurposeBlood flow restriction (BFR) with low-intensity resistance training has been shown to result in hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. In this study we tested the hypothesis that BFR during the rest periods between acute, high-intensity resistance exercise sessions (70% of 1 repetition maximum, 7 sets with 10 repetitions) enhances the effects of the resistance training.MethodsA total of 7 healthy young men performed squats, and between sets BFR was carried out on 1 leg while the other leg served as a control. Because BFR was applied during rest periods, even severe occlusion pressure (∼230 mmHg), which almost completely blocked blood flow, was well tolerated by the subjects. Five muscle specific microRNAs were measured from the biopsy samples, which were taken 2 h after the acute training.ResultsDoppler data showed that the pattern of blood flow recovery changed significantly between the 1st and last BFR. MicroRNA-206 levels significantly decreased in the BFR leg compared to the control. The mRNA levels of RAC-β Serine/threonine-protein kinase v22, nuclear respiratory factor 1, vascular endothelial growth factor, lupus Ku autoantigen protein p70 genes (p < 0.05), and paired box 7 (p < 0.01) increased in the BFR leg. The protein levels of paired box 7, nuclear respiratory factor 1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1αdid not differ between the BFR leg and the control leg.ConclusionData revealed that BFR, during the rest periods of high-load resistance training, could lead to mRNA elevation of those proteins that regulate angiogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis, and muscle hypertrophy and repair. However, BFR also can cause DNA damage, judging from the increase in mRNA levels of lupus Ku autoantigen protein p70.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Mediation role of cardiorespiratory fitness on the association between
           fatness and cardiometabolic risk in European adolescents: The HELENA study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Carlos Cristi-Montero, Javier Courel-Ibáñez, Francisco B Ortega, Jose Castro-Piñero, Alba Santaliestra Pasias, Angela Polito, Jérémy Vanhelst, Ascensión Marcos, Luis M Moreno, Jonatan R Ruiz, HELENA study groupPurposeTo analyze the mediation role of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on the association between fatness and cardiometabolic risk (CMRs) in European adolescents.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted in adolescents (n = 525; boys 46%; 14.1 ± 1.1 years old) from 10 European cities involved in the HELENA study. CRF was measured by means of the shuttle run test, while fatness measures included body mass index (BMI), waist to height ratio (WHtR), and fat mass index (FMI) estimated from skinfold thicknesses. A clustered CMRs was computed by summing the standardized values of HOMA, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, and leptin.ResultsLinear regression models indicated that CRF acted as an important and partial mediator in the association between fatness and CMRs in 12- to 17-year-old adolescents (for BMI: coefficients of the indirect role β = 0.058 (95%CI: 0.023–0.101); Sobel test z = 3.11 (10.0% mediation); for WHtR: β = 4.279 (95%CI: 2.242–7.059); z =3.86 (11.5% mediation); and for FMI: β = 0.060 (95%CI: 0.020–0.106); z = 2.85 (9.4% mediation); all p < 0.001).ConclusionIn adolescents, the association between fatness and CMRs could be partially decreased with improvements to fitness levels; therefore, CRF contribution both in the clinical field and public health could be important to consider and promote in adolescents independently of their fatness levels.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Physical activity and the prevention of chronic illness in the BRICS
           nations: Issues relating to gender equality

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Gregore I. Mielke, Wendy J. Brown
  • BRICS nations and the opportunities for community physical activity

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Carol Ewing Garber
  • The relationship between pain and associated characteristics of chronic
           ankle instability: A retrospective study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Saeed Al Adal, Martin Mackey, Fereshteh Pourkazemi, Claire E HillerBackgroundUp to 74% of people with a history of ankle sprain develop chronic ankle instability (CAI). One commonly reported residual impairment is ankle pain; however, it has not been included in models or inclusion criteria for CAI. We investigated the prevalence of pain in people with CAI and the association between presence of pain and other CAI characteristics.MethodsRetrospective data from 1147 participants with CAI (age 26.6 ± 10.7 years, 59% female) were collated from previous studies that used the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT) as an assessment tool. Pain was assessed from item 1 of the CAIT, which asks participants about ankle pain. Responses were divided in to 3 categories: pain during daily activities, pain during moderate/vigorous physical activities and no pain. The presence of pain was analysed with descriptive statistics, the correlation between pain category and CAI characteristics was analyzed by χ2 tests and factors associated with each pain category was analyzed by logistic regression.ResultsAmong the participants, 60.1% (n = 689) reported ankle pain. Of all participants, 12.4% (n = 142) reported pain during daily activities, 47.7% (n = 547) reported pain during moderate/vigorous physical activities and 39.9% (n = 458) reported no pain. There was a strong association between ankle instability and ankle pain (χ2 = 122.2, p < 0.001, OR = 5.46, (95% confidence interval (CI), 3.84-7.53). Perceived ankle instability, age and unilateral ankle sprains were independently associated with pain (ankle instability: χ2 = 43.29, p < 0.001; age: χ2 = 30.37, p < 0.001; unilateral ankle sprains: χ2 = 6.25, p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the presence of pain between genders.ConclusionPrevalence of pain in people with CAI was high and was related to perceived ankle instability. Number of sprains, age, gender and unilateral or bilateral sprain did not modify this result except for the first pain category (pain during daily activities). There is large gap in current knowledge about the impact of pain in people with CAI, and this topic needs further investigation.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • BRICS to BRICSCESS—A perspective for practical action in the promotion
           of healthy lifestyles to improve public health in five countries

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Ming Kai Chin, Elizabeth Anderson, J. Hans de Ridder, Ricardo R. Uvinha, J.Larry Durstine
  • Commentary on “The BRICS Council of Exercise and Sport Science
           (BRICSCESS) — A new era has dawned” that has been published on JSHS

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Barbara E Ainsworth
  • Transition to forefoot strike reduces load rates more effectively than
           altered cadence

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Erin E. Futrell, K. Douglas Gross, Darcy Reisman, David R. Mullineaux, Irene S. DavisBackgroundExcessive vertical impacts at landing are associated with common running injuries. Two primary gait-retraining interventions aimed at reducing impact forces are transition to forefoot strike and increasing cadence. The objective of this study was to compare the short- and long-term effects of 2 gait-retraining interventions aimed at reducing landing impacts.MethodsA total of 39 healthy recreational runners using a rearfoot strike and cadence ≤170 steps/min were randomized into cadence (CAD) or forefoot strike (FFS) groups. All participants performed 4 weeks of strengthening followed by 8 sessions of gait-retraining using auditory feedback. Vertical average load rates (VALR) and vertical instantaneous load rates (VILR) were calculated from the vertical ground reaction force curve. Both cadence and foot strike angle were measured using 3D motion analysis and an instrumented treadmill at baseline and at 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months post-retraining.ResultsANOVA revealed that the FFS group had significant reductions in VALR (49.7%) and VILR (41.7%), and changes were maintained long term. Foot strike angle in the FFS group changed from 14.2 degrees dorsiflexion at baseline to 3.4 degrees plantarflexion, with changes maintained long term. The CAD group exhibited significant reduction only in VALR (16%) and only at 6 months. Both groups had significant and similar increases in cadence at all follow-ups (CAD, +7.2% to 173 steps/min; and FFS, +6.1% to 172 steps/min).ConclusionForefoot strike gait-retraining resulted in significantly greater reductions in VALR and similar increases in cadence compared to cadence gait-retraining in the short and long term. Cadence gait-retraining resulted in small reductions in VALR at only the 6-month follow-up.Graphical Vertical average (VALR) and vertical instantaneous (VILR) load rates reduced and persisted over time with forefoot strike (FFS) gait retraining. Increased cadence (CAD) gait retraining had small load rate reductions.Image, graphical abstract
  • Impacts of exercise intervention on different diseases and organ functions
           in mice

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 July 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Shanshan Guo, Yiru Huang, Yan Zhang, He Huang, Shangyu Hong, Tiemin LiuBackground: In recent years, much evidence has emerged to indicate that exercise can benefit people when performed properly. This review summarizes the exercise interventions used in studies involving mice as they related to special diseases or physiological status. To further understand the effects of exercise interventions in treating or preventing diseases, it is important to establish a template for exercise interventions that can be used in future exercise-related studies.Methods: PubMed was used as the data resource for articles. To identify studies related to the effectiveness of exercise interventions for treating various diseases and organ functions in mice, we used the following search language: (exercise [Title] OR training [Title] OR physical activity [Title]) AND (mice [title /abstract] OR mouse [title/abstract] OR mus [title/abstract]). To limit the range of search results, we included 2 filters: one that limited publication dates to “in 10 years” and one that sorted the results as “best match”. Then we grouped the commonly used exercise methods according to their similarities and differences. We then evaluated the effectiveness of the exercise interventions for their impact on diseases and organ function in 8 different systems.Results: A total of 331 articles were included in the analysis procedure. The articles were then segmented into 8 systems for which the exercise interventions were used in targeting and treating disorders: motor system (60 studies), metabolic system (45 studies), cardio-cerebral vascular system (58 studies), nervous system (74 studies), immune system (32 studies), respiratory system (7 studies), digestive system (1 study), and the system related to the development of cancer (54 studies). The methods of exercise interventions mainly involved the use of treadmills, voluntary wheel-running, forced wheel-running, swimming, and resistance training. It was found that regardless of the specific exercise method used, most of them demonstrated positive effects on various systemic diseases and organ functions. Most diseases were remitted with exercise regardless of the exercise method used, although some diseases showed the best remission effects when a specific method was used.Conclusion: Our review strongly suggests that exercise intervention is a cornerstone in the diseases prevention and treatment in mice. Because exercise interventions in humans typically focus on chronic diseases, national fitness, and body weight loss, and typically have low intervention compliance rates, it is important to use mice models to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the health benefits from exercise interventions in humans.Graghical Image, graphical abstract
  • Longitudinal associations of physical activity and pubertal development
           with academic achievement in adolescents

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 July 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Eero A. Haapala, Henna L. Haapala, Heidi Syväoja, Tuija H. Tammelin, Taija Finni, Noona KiuruAbstractObjectiveTo investigate the longitudinal associations of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and pubertal development with academic achievement in adolescents.MethodsA total of 635 adolescents (283 boys, 352 girls) aged 11–13 years participated in the study. MVPA was assessed by the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study questionnaire, and pubertal development was assessed by the pubertal development scale (PDS) at beginning of 6th grade (baseline) and end of 7th grade (follow-up). Grade point average (GPA) at the end of Grades 5 and 7 was computed from data acquired from the school registers. The data were analysed using linear regression and analyses of covariance.ResultsIn boys, MVPA was positively associated with GPA at baseline after adjustment for age (β = 0.144, 95%CI: 0.028−0.260, p = 0.028). In girls, PDS was positively associated with GPA at baseline (β = 0.104, 95%CI: -0.004−0.211, p = 0.058) and follow-up (β = 0.104, 95%CI: -0.002−0.211, p = 0.055) after adjustment for age, and these associations strengthened after further adjustment for MVPA (p < 0.05). Adolescents who were inactive at baseline or at baseline and follow-up had lower GPA during follow-up than their continuously highly active peers (mean difference = -0.301, 95%CI: -0.543 to -0.058, p = 0.009) and all other adolescents (mean difference = -0.247, 95%CI: -0.475 to -0.019, p = 0.029). These differences were greater in girls than in boys.ConclusionLower levels of MVPA were associated with lower GPA in boys at baseline. Girls who were continuously inactive had lower GPA over the follow-up period than those who were continuously active. Finally, earlier pubertal development was associated with better academic achievement in girls.
  • Effects of blood flow restriction without additional exercise on strength
           reductions and muscular atrophy following immobilization: A systematic

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Mikhail Santos Cerqueira, José Diego Sales Do Nascimento, Daniel Germano Maciel, Jean Artur Mendonça Barboza, Wouber Hérickson De Brito VieiraPurposeTo investigate whether blood flow restriction (BFR) without concomitant exercise mitigated strength reduction and atrophy of thigh muscles in subjects under immobilization for lower limbs.MethodsThe following databases were searched: PUBMED, CINAHL, PEDro, WEB OF SCIENCE, CENTRAL, and SCOPUS.ResultsThe search identified 3 eligible studies, and the total sample in the identified studies consisted of 38 participants. Isokinetic and isometric torque of the knee flexors and extensors was examined in 2 studies. Cross-sectional area of thigh muscles was evaluated in 1 study, and thigh girth was measured in 2 studies. The BFR protocol was 5 sets of 5 min of occlusion and 3 min of free flow, twice daily for approximately 2 weeks. As a whole, the included studies indicate that BFR without exercise is able to minimize strength reduction and muscular atrophy following immobilization. It is crucial to emphasize, however, that the included studies showed high risk of bias, especially regarding allocation concealment, blinding of outcome assessment, intention-to-treat analyses and group similarity at baseline.ConclusionAlthough potentially useful, the high risk of bias presented by original studies limits the indication of BFR without concomitant exercise as an effective countermeasure against strength reduction and atrophy mediated by immobilization.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • A mixed studies systematic review and meta-analysis of school–based
           interventions to promote physical activity and/or reduce sedentary time in

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 June 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Michelle Jones, Emmanuel Defever, Ayland Letsinger, James Steele, Kelly A MackintoshPurposeThe aim of this mixed-studies systematic review was to ascertain the effectiveness of school-based interventions at increasing physical activity (PA) and/or reducing sedentary time (ST) in children aged 5 to 11 years, as well as to explore effectiveness in relation to categories of the theory of expanded, extended and enhanced opportunity (TEO).MethodsAdhering to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, 5 databases were searched using pre-defined search terms. Following title and abstract screening of 1115 records, the removal of duplicates (n = 584) and articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria agreed to a priori (n = 419) resulted in 112 records that were full-text screened. Two independent reviewers subsequently used the mixed-methods appraisal tool to assess the methodological quality of 57 full-text studies that met the inclusion criteria after full-text screening. The interventions were summarised using the TIDierR checklist and TEO. The strength of evidence was determined using a five-level rating system utilising a published decision tree.ResultsOverall evidence ratings for interventions implemented within school settings were no evidence on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and inconclusive evidence on sedentary time. In relation to the TEO, expansion of PA appeared to be the most promising intervention type for MVPA, with moderate evidence of effect, whereas extension and enhancement of PA opportunity demonstrated no evidence of effect. A critical issue of possible compensatory behavior was identified by analysis of intervention effect in relation to PA measurement duration; when studies measured changes in PA during the actual intervention there was moderate evidence of effect, whereas those that measured changes in PA during the school day presented inconclusive evidence of effect and those that measured changes in PA over a whole day yielded no evidence of effect. Two meta-analysis of those studies using a whole-day accelerometer measure for MVPA or ST showed a significant but moderate effect for MVPA (effect size (ES) = 0.51; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.02–0.99) and a large but non-significant effect for ST 1.15 (95%CI: –1.03 to 3.33); both meta-analysis demonstrated low precision, considerable inconsistency, and high heterogeneity.ConclusionThe findings have important implications for future intervention research in terms of intervention design, implementation, and evaluation.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Physical activity and prevention of chronic disease in Chinese youth: A
           public health approach

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 June 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Fuzhong Li, Lijuan Mao, Peijie Chen
  • Adolescents’ perspectives on a school-based physical activity
           intervention: A mixed method study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Stephanie T. Jong, Caroline H.D. Croxson, Cornelia Guell, Emma R. Lawlor, Campbell Foubister, Helen E. Brown, Emma K. Wells, Paul Wilkinson, Anna Vignoles, Esther M.F. van Sluijs, Kirsten CorderObjectiveTo examine adolescent experiences and perspectives of the GoActive intervention (ISRCTN31583496) using mixed methods process evaluation to determine satisfaction with intervention components and interpret adolescents’ experiences of the intervention process in order to provide insights for future intervention design.MethodsParticipants (n = 1542; 13.2 ± 0.4 years, mean ± SD) provided questionnaire data at baseline (shyness, activity level) and post-intervention (intervention acceptability, satisfaction with components). Between-group differences (boys vs. girls and shy/inactive vs. others) were tested with linear regression models, accounting for school clustering. Data from 16 individual interviews (shy/inactive) and 11 focus groups with 48 participants (mean = 4; range 2–7) were thematically coded. Qualitative and quantitative data were merged in an integrative mixed methods convergence matrix, which denoted convergence and dissonance across datasets.ResultsEffect sizes for quantitative results were small and may not represent substantial between-group differences. Boys (vs. girls) preferred class-based sessions (β = 0.2, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.1–0.3); qualitative data suggested that this was because boys preferred competition, which was supported quantitatively (β = 0.2, 95%CI: 0.1–0.3). Shy/inactive students did not enjoy the competition (β = –0.3, 95%CI: –0.5 to –0.1). Boys enjoyed trying new activities more (β = 0.1, 95%CI: 0.1–0.2); qualitative data indicated a desire to try new activities across all subgroups but identified barriers to choosing unfamiliar activities with self-imposed choice restriction leading to boredom. Qualitative data highlighted critique of mentorship; adolescents liked the idea, but older mentors did not meet expectations.ConclusionWe interpreted adolescent perspectives of intervention components and implementation to provide insights into future complex interventions aimed at increasing young people's physical activity in school-based settings. The intervention component mentorship was liked in principle, but implementation issues undesirably impacted satisfaction; competition was disliked by girls and shy/inactive students. The results highlight the importance of considering gender differences in preference of competition, and extensive mentorship training.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Which intensities, types, and patterns of movement behaviors are most

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 June 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Laura K. Callender, Michael M. Borghese, Ian JanssenPurposeThe purpose of this study was to determine which intensities, patterns, and types of 24-h movement behaviors are most strongly associated with cardiometabolic risk factors among children.MethodsA total of 369 children aged 10–13 years were studied. Participants wore an Actical accelerometer and a Garmin Forerunner 220 GPS logger and completed an activity and sleep log for 7 days. Data from these instruments were combined to estimate average minutes/day spent in 14 intensities, 11 types, and 14 patterns of movement. Body mass index, resting heart rate, and systolic blood pressure values were combined to create a cardiometabolic risk factor score. Partial least squares regression analysis was used to examine associations between the 39 movement behavior characteristics and the cardiometabolic risk factor score. The variable importance in projection (VIP) values were used to determine and rank important movement behavior characteristics. There was evidence of interaction by biological maturity, and the analyses were conducted separately in the 50% least mature and 50% most mature participants.ResultsFor the least biologically mature participants, 15 of the 39 movement behavior characteristics had important VIP value scores; 8 of these reflected movement intensities (particularly moderate and vigorous intensities), 6 reflected movement patterns, and 1 reflected a movement type. For the most mature participants, 13 of the 39 movement behavior characteristics had important VIP value scores, with 5 reflecting intensities (particularly moderate and vigorous intensities), 5 reflecting patterns, and 3 reflecting types of movement.ConclusionIn conclusion, greater than a dozen movement behavior characteristics were associated with cardiometabolic risk factors within both the most and least mature participants. Movement intensities within the moderate and vigorous intensity ranges were the most consistent correlates of these risk factors.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • What do teachers see' Perceptions of school-time physical activity
           programs on student behavior

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 June 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Jennifer M. Sacheck, Catherine M. Wright
  • Variability: Human nature and its impact on measurement and statistical

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 June 2019Source: Journal of Sport and Health ScienceAuthor(s): Heng Li, Zezhao Chen, Weimo Zhu
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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