Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1473 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (86 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (676 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (117 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 117 of 117 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACSMs Health & Fitness Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACTIVE : Journal of Physical Education, Sport, Health and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ágora para la Educación Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
American Journal of Sexuality Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Applied Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Apunts. Medicina de l'Esport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Exercise in Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arquivos de Ciências do Esporte     Open Access  
Athletic Training & Sports Health Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
BMC Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Childhood Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Éthique & Santé     Full-text available via subscription  
Fat Studies : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Body Weight and Society     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Fisioterapia em Movimento     Open Access  
Fitness & Performance Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food Science and Human Wellness     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Sports and Active Living     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gelanggang Pendidikan Jasmani Indonesia     Open Access  
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geron     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Health and Physical Education Pedagogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Health Education Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Health Marketing Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Home Healthcare Now     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Human Movement     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Human Movement Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
IISE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesia Performance Journal     Open Access  
İnönü Üniversitesi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 56)
International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
International Journal of Men's Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90)
International Journal of Obesity Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Spa and Wellness     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sport, Exercise & Training Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Isokinetics and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of American College Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Human Sport and Exercise     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Motor Learning and Development     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Physical Activity and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Physical Activity and Hormones     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Education and Human Movement     Open Access  
Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Sport and Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Sport Sciences and Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Kinesiology : International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Kinesiology     Open Access  
Kinesiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Krankenhaus-Hygiene - Infektionsverhütung     Full-text available via subscription  
Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Médecine & Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription  
Mental Health and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Movimiento Humano y Salud     Open Access  
Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Obesity Research & Clinical Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Obesity Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Obesity Science & Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Obesity Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pain Management in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
PALAESTRA : Adapted Sport, Physical Education, and Recreational Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Physical Activity and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Preventing Chronic Disease     Free   (Followers: 2)
Psychology of Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Quality in Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBONE - Revista Brasileira de Obesidade, Nutrição e Emagrecimento     Open Access  
RBPFEX - Revista Brasileira de Prescrição e Fisiologia do Exercício     Open Access  
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport     Hybrid Journal  
Retos : Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deportes y Recreación     Open Access  
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Atividade Física & Saúde     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Ciências do Esporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Educação Física e Esporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista da Educação Física : UEM     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología del Ejercicio y el Deporte     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte : International Journal of Medicine and Science of Physical Activity and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue phénEPS / PHEnex Journal     Open Access  
SIPATAHOENAN : South-East Asian Journal for Youth, Sports & Health Education     Open Access  
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Sport and Fitness Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Sport Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Sport Sciences for Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport- und Präventivmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Strength & Conditioning Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Timisoara Physical Education and Rehabilitation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise     Open Access  
Yoga Mimamsa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Здоровье человека, теория и методика физической культуры и спорта     Open Access  


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.366
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 73  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1064-8011 - ISSN (Online) 1533-4287
Published by LWW Wolters Kluwer Homepage  [299 journals]
  • Comparison of the Electromyographic Activity of the Trunk and Rectus
           Femoris Muscles During Traditional Crunch and Exercise Using the 5-Minute
           Shaper Device
    • Authors: Silva; Fabricio H.O.; Arantes, Franciel J.; Gregorio, Fabio C.; Santos, Fhillipe R.A.; Fidale, Thiago M.; Bérzin, Fausto; Bigaton, Delaine R.; Lizardo, Frederico B.
      Abstract: imageSilva, FHO, Arantes, FJ, Gregorio, FC, Santos, FRA, Fidale, TM, Bérzin, F, Bigaton, DR, and Lizardo, FB. Comparison of the electromyographic activity of the trunk and rectus femoris muscles during traditional crunch and exercise using the 5-minute Shaper device. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 1–10, 2020—Different training devices are available to trigger greater activation of the abdominal muscles compared with that achieved during traditional abdominal exercises. This study aimed to compare the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the upper and lower rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominis, erector spinae, and rectus femoris (RF) muscles during traditional crunch and exercise using the 5-minute Shaper device. A convenience sample of 15 healthy men (mean ± SD; age: 23.65 ± 4.49 years, body fat percentage: 14.26 ± 3.56%) was selected. All men regularly participated in physical activity. Electromyographic data were collected for 5 repetitions of each abdominal exercise (traditional crunch and exercise using the 5-minute Shaper device at beginner, intermediate, advanced, and extreme levels) in a randomized and counterbalanced manner. Data were collected using simple differential surface electrodes and analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance (p < 0.05). Electromyographic signals were quantified using a root-mean-square analysis and normalized using the maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Traditional crunch produced greater or similar EMG activity in the abdominal muscles and minimized RF activity compared to the 5-minute Shaper device, hence, traditional crunch is preferred for training, especially for individuals with weak abdominal musculature and lower back problems. Therefore, the use of the 5-minute Shaper device may be questioned when it is intended to intensify the activity of the abdominal muscles; however, this apparatus may be used if greater variations in training are desired, depending on individual preferences.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Effects of Personal Protective Equipment on the Performance of Federal
           Highway Policemen in Physical Fitness Tests
    • Authors: Marins; Eduardo F.; Cabistany, Leo; Bartel, Charles; Dawes, Jay; Del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo
      Abstract: imageMarins, EF, Cabistany, L, Bartel, C, Dawes, J, and Del Vecchio, FB. Effects of personal protective equipment on the performance of Federal Highway Policemen in physical fitness tests. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 11–19, 2020—Personal protective equipment (PPE), worn by police officers, provides protection and can modify physiological and performance responses during physical efforts. Physiological, perceptual, and physical responses were compared with PPE (WPPE) and without PPE (NPPE) among the Brazilian Federal Highway Policemen (FHP). Nineteen (n = 19) FHP completed 2 experimental trials: NPPE and WPPE (load = 8.3 kg). Tests of aerobic and anaerobic power, muscular strength and endurance, as well as change of direction speed (CODS) were performed under both conditions. Heart rate reductions were shown at the second ventilatory threshold (1.4%) and maximal exercise (1.5%) WPPE. In comparison with NPPE, physical performance in the WPPE condition showed decreases in the following: treadmill time at maximal exercise (21%, p < 0.001); time in the isometric trunk test (28.9%, p < 0.001); vertical jump height (11.6 and 10.5%, p < 0.001); standing long jump distance (7.3%, p < 0.001); bar hang time (14.8%, p < 0.05); and CODS (2.6%, p < 0.05). Results indicate that PPE use reduces physical performance of FHP in cardiorespiratory, strength, power, and CODS tests.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Kinematic Differences in Shoulder Roll and Hip Roll at Different Front
           Crawl Speeds in National Level Swimmers
    • Authors: Andersen; Jordan T.; Sinclair, Peter J.; McCabe, Carla B.; Sanders, Ross H.
      Abstract: imageAndersen, JT, Sinclair, PJ, McCabe, CB, and Sanders, RH. Kinematic differences in shoulder roll and hip roll at different front crawl speeds in National Level Swimmers. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 20–25, 2020—Dry-land strength training is a common component of swimming programs; however, its efficacy is contentious. A common criticism of dry-land strength training for swimming is a lack of specificity. An understanding of movement patterns in swimming can enable dry-land strength training programs to be developed to elicit adaptations that transfer to improvements in swimming performance. This study aimed to quantify the range and velocity of hip roll, shoulder roll, and torso twist (produced by differences in the relative angle between shoulder roll and hip roll) in front crawl at different swimming speeds. Longitudinal torso kinematics was compared between sprint and 400-m pace front crawl using 3D kinematics of 13 elite Scottish front crawl specialists. The range (sprint: 78.1°; 400 m: 61.3°) and velocity of torso twist (sprint: 166.3°·s−1; 400 m: 96.9°·s−1) were greater at sprint than 400-m pace. These differences were attributed to reductions in hip roll (sprint: 36.8°; 400 m: 49.9°) without corresponding reductions in shoulder roll (sprint: 97.7°; 400 m: 101.6°) when subjects swam faster. Shoulder roll velocity (sprint: 190.9°·s−1; 400 m: 139.2°·s−1) and hip roll velocity (sprint: 75.5°·s−1; 400 m: 69.1°·s−1) were greater at sprint than 400-m pace due to a higher stroke frequency at sprint pace (sprint: 0.95 strokes·s−1; 400 m: 0.70 strokes·s−1). These findings imply that torques acting to rotate the upper torso and the lower torso are greater at sprint than 400-m pace. Dry-land strength training specificity can be improved by designing exercises that challenge the torso muscles to reproduce the torques required to generate the longitudinal kinematics in front crawl.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Can a Standardized Visual Assessment of Squatting Technique and Core
           Stability Predict Injury'
    • Authors: O'Connor; Siobhán; McCaffrey, Noel; Whyte, Enda F.; Moran, Kieran A.
      Abstract: imageO’Connor, S, McCaffrey, N, Whyte, EF, and Moran, KA. Can a standardized visual assessment of squatting technique and core stability predict injury? J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 26–36, 2020—This study examined whether a standardized visual assessment of squatting technique and core stability can predict injury. Male adolescent and collegiate Gaelic players (n = 627) were assessed using the alternative core/trunk stability push-up test and a developed scoring system for the overhead squat and single-leg squat (SLS) that examined both overall impression and segmental criteria. A single summative score from the overall impression scores of all 3 tests was calculated. Sustained injuries were examined over a season. Results indicated that the single summative score did not predict those that sustained a lower-extremity injury, trunk injury, or whole-body injury, and receiver operating characteristic curves were also unable to generate an optimal cutoff point for prediction. When segmental criteria were included in multivariate analyses, the tests were able to predict whole-body injury (p < 0.0001) and lower-extremity injury (p < 0.0001). However, although specificity was high (80.6%, 76.5%), sensitivity of the models was low (40.2%, 44.2%). The most common score was “good” for the overhead squat (46.4%) and SLS (47.6%), and “good” and “excellent” for the alternative core stability push-up test (33.5%, 49.1%), with “poor” core stability increasing the odds of sustaining a lower-extremity injury (odds ratio = 1.52 [0.92–2.51]). The findings suggest that although segmental scoring could be incorporated by strength and conditioning coaches and clinicians, they should be used predominantly as a preliminary screening tool to highlight players requiring a more thorough assessment.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Short-Term Resistance Training Improves Cardiac Autonomic Modulation and
    • Authors: Oliveira-Dantas; Filipe F.; Brasileiro-Santos, Maria do Socorro; Thomas, Scott G.; Silva, Alexandre S.; Silva, Douglas C.; Browne, Rodrigo A.V.; Farias-Junior, Luiz F.; Costa, Eduardo C.; Santos, Amilton da Cruz
      Abstract: imageOliveira-Dantas, FF, Brasileiro-Santos, MdS, Thomas, SG, Silva, AS, Silva, DC, Browne, RAV, Farias-Junior, LF, Costa, EC, and Santos, AdC. Short-term resistance training improves cardiac autonomic modulation and blood pressure in hypertensive older women: a randomized controlled trial. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 37–45, 2020—This randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of short-term resistance training (RT) on cardiac autonomic modulation and peripheral hemodynamic parameters in hypertensive older women. Twenty-five hypertensive older women who were insufficiently active (64.7 ± 4.7 years) participated in this study. Subjects were randomly allocated to a 10-week RT program (2 d·wk−1 in the first 5 weeks; 3 d·wk−1 in the last 5 weeks) or a nonexercise control group. Linear reverse periodization was used for the RT program. Cardiac autonomic modulation, mean blood pressure (MBP), peripheral vascular resistance (PVR), and resting heart rate (RHR) were measured before and after 10 weeks. The RT group reduced cardiac sympathetic modulation (0V%; B = −6.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −12.9 to −0.2; p = 0.045; Cohen's d = 0.88) and showed a trend for increased parasympathetic modulation (2V%; B = 12.5; 95% CI: 0–25; p = 0.050; Cohen's d = 0.87) compared with the control group. The RT group reduced MBP (B = −8.5 mm Hg; 95% CI: −13.6 to −3.4; p = 0.001; Cohen's d = 1.27), PVR (B = −14.1 units; 95% CI: −19.9 to −8.4; p < 0.001; Cohen's d = 1.86), and RHR (B = −8.8 b·min−1; 95% CI: −14.3 to −3.3; p = 0.002; Cohen's d = 1.20) compared with the control group. In the RT group, the changes in 2V% patterns and low-frequency components showed a correlation with changes in MBP (r = −0.60; p = 0.032) and RHR (r = 0.75; p = 0.0003). In conclusion, 10 weeks of RT improved cardiac autonomic modulation and reduced MBP and PVR in hypertensive older women. These results reinforce the importance of RT for this population.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Comparison of Velocity-Based and Traditional Percentage-Based Loading
           Methods on Maximal Strength and Power Adaptations
    • Authors: Dorrell; Harry F.; Smith, Mark F.; Gee, Thomas I.
      Abstract: imageDorrell, HF, Smith, MF, and Gee, TI. Comparison of velocity-based and traditional percentage-based loading methods on maximal strength and power adaptations. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 46–53, 2020—This study explored the effects of velocity-based training (VBT) on maximal strength and jump height. Sixteen trained men (22.8 ± 4.5 years) completed a countermovement jump (CMJ) test and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) assessment on back squat, bench press, strict overhead press, and deadlift, before and after 6 weeks of resistance training. Participants were assigned to VBT or percentage-based training (PBT) groups. The VBT group's load was dictated through real-time velocity monitoring, as opposed to pretesting 1RM data (PBT). No significant differences were present between groups for pretesting data (p> 0.05). Training resulted in significant increases (p < 0.05) in maximal strength for back squat (VBT 9%, PBT 8%), bench press (VBT 8%, PBT 4%), strict overhead press (VBT 6%, PBT 6%), and deadlift (VBT 6%). Significant increases in CMJ were witnessed for the VBT group only (5%). A significant interaction effect was witnessed between training groups for bench press (p = 0.004) and CMJ (p = 0.018). Furthermore, for back squat (9%), bench press (6%), and strict overhead press (6%), a significant difference was present between the total volume lifted. The VBT intervention induced favorable adaptations in maximal strength and jump height in trained men when compared with a traditional PBT approach. Interestingly, the VBT group achieved these positive outcomes despite a significant reduction in total training volume compared with the PBT group. This has potentially positive implications for the management of fatigue during resistance training.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Unilateral and Bilateral Lower-Body Resistance Training Does not Transfer
           Equally to Sprint and Change of Direction Performance
    • Authors: Appleby; Brendyn B.; Cormack, Stuart J.; Newton, Robert U.
      Abstract: imageAppleby, BB, Cormack, SJ, and Newton, RU. Unilateral and bilateral lower-body resistance training does not transfer equally to sprint and change of direction performance. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 54–64, 2020—Given maximal strength can be developed using bilateral or unilateral resistance training, the purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude of transfer of unilateral or bilateral resistance training to sprint and change of direction (COD) performance. Thirty-three trained participants (average training age = 5.4 ± 2.9 years and 1 repetition maximum [1RM] 90° squat = 177.6 ± 26.7 kg) completed either a bilateral group (BIL, n = 13), unilateral (UNI, n = 10), or comparison (COM, n = 10) 18-week randomized controlled training design. Training involved 2 lower-body, volume-load–matched resistance sessions per week (6–8 sets × 4–8 reps at 45–88% 1RM), differing only in the prescription of a bilateral (squat) or unilateral (step-up) resistance exercise. Strength was assessed through 1RM squat and step-up, in addition to 20-m sprint and a customized 50° COD test. The effect size statistic ± 90% confidence limit (ES ± CL) was calculated to examine the magnitude of difference within and between groups at each time point. BIL and UNI groups improved their trained and nontrained strength exercise with an unclear difference in adaptation of squat strength (ES = −0.34 + 0.55). Both groups improved 20-m sprint (ES: BIL = −0.38 ± 0.49 and UNI = −0.31 ± 0.31); however, the difference between the groups was unclear (ES = 0.07 ± 0.58). Although both groups had meaningful improvements in COD performance, bilateral resistance training had a greater transfer to COD performance than unilateral resistance training (between-groups ES = 0.59 ± 0.64). Both bilateral and unilateral training improved maximal lower-body strength and sprint acceleration. However, the BIL group demonstrated superior improvements in COD performance. This finding potentially highlights the importance of targeting the underlying physiological stimulus that drives adaptation and not exercise selection based on movement specificity of the target performance.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • The Effects of Superset Configuration on Kinetic, Kinematic, and Perceived
           Exertion in the Barbell Bench Press
    • Authors: Weakley; Jonathon J.S.; Till, Kevin; Read, Dale B.; Phibbs, Padraic J.; Roe, Gregory; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Jones, Ben L.
      Abstract: imageWeakley, JJS, Till, K, Read, DB, Phibbs, PJ, Roe, G, Darrall-Jones, J, and Jones, BL. The effects of superset configuration on kinetic, kinematic, and perceived exertion in the barbell bench press. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 65–72, 2020—Training that is efficient and effective is of great importance to an athlete. One method of improving efficiency is by incorporating supersets into resistance training routines. However, the structuring of supersets is still unexplored. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effects of agonist-antagonist (A-A), alternate peripheral (A-P), and similar biomechanical (SB) superset configurations on rate of perceived exertion (RPE), kinetic and kinematic changes during the bench press. Ten subjects performed resistance training protocols in a randomized-crossover design, with magnitude-based inferences assessing changes/differences within and between protocols. Changes in rate of perceived exertion were very likely and almost certainly greater in the A-P and SB protocols when compared with the A-A, whereas all superset protocols had very likely to almost certain reductions in mean velocity and power from baseline. Reductions in mean velocity and power were almost certainly greater in the SB protocol, with differences between the A-A and A-P protocols being unclear. Decreases in peak force were likely and almost certain in the A-A and SB protocols respectively, with changes in A-P being unclear. Differences between these protocols showed likely greater decreases in SB peak forces when compared to A-A, with all other superset comparisons being unclear. This study demonstrates the importance of exercise selection when incorporating supersets into a training routine. It is suggested that the practitioner uses A-A supersets when aiming to improve training efficiency and minimize reductions in kinetic and kinematic output of the agonist musculature while completing the barbell bench press.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Activity of Shoulder Stabilizers and Prime Movers During an Unstable
           Overhead Press
    • Authors: Williams; Martin R. Jr; Hendricks, Dustin S.; Dannen, Michael J.; Arnold, Andrea M.; Lawrence, Michael A.
      Abstract: imageWilliams, MR Jr, Hendricks, DS, Dannen, MJ, Arnold, AM, and Lawrence, MA. Activity of shoulder stabilizers and prime movers during an unstable overhead press. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 73–78, 2020—Overhead reaching is a common movement that relies heavily on muscles for dynamic stability. Stabilizer muscle activation increased during squatting and bench pressing with an unstable load, but the overhead press (OHP) has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study is to compare muscle activity of the shoulder stabilizers and prime movers and excursions of the center of pressure (CoP) during the OHP in 2 unstable and one stable conditions. Twelve men (aged 25.3 ± 2.7 years, mass: 91.5 ± 8.4 kg, height: 1.81 ± 0.06 m) pressed 50% of their 1 repetition maximum for 10 repetitions over 3 conditions: a straight stable barbell (SS), a straight unstable (SU) barbell with kettlebells suspend by elastic bands, and an unstable Earthquake (EU) bar with kettlebells suspended by elastic bands. Activity of the shoulder stabilizers and prime movers were measured via surface and indwelling electromyography. Center of pressure excursion of the right foot was also measured. A multivariate analysis was used to determine significant differences between conditions. Pressing with the EQ increased activation of the biceps brachii, erector spinae, latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major, rectus abdominus, rhomboids, and serratus anterior over the SS condition, whereas only the SU condition increased activation in the erector spinae and latissimus dorsi muscles. The EQ condition produced greater CoP excursion (35.3 ± 7.9% foot length) compared with the SU (28.0 ± 7.2% foot length) and SS (22.2 ± 6.3% foot length) conditions. Therefore, the EU condition may be an effective exercise to activate scapular stabilizers.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Examination of Self-Myofascial Release vs. Instrument-Assisted Soft-Tissue
           Mobilization Techniques on Vertical and Horizontal Power in Recreational
    • Authors: Stroiney; Debra A.; Mokris, Rebecca L.; Hanna, Gary R.; Ranney, John D.
      Abstract: imageStroiney, DA, Mokris, RL, Hanna, GR, and Ranney, JD. Examination of self-myofascial release vs. instrument-assisted soft-tissue mobilization techniques on vertical and horizontal power in recreational athletes. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 79–88, 2020—This study examined whether pre-exercise self-myofascial release (SMR) and instrument-assisted soft-tissue mobilization (IASTM) would improve performance on measures of vertical jump height and 40-yd sprint time. Differences in perceived pain levels were also examined. Forty-nine college students volunteered for the study and were randomly assigned to receive either IASTM via Tècnica Gavilàn PTB or SMR via The Stick before performance assessments. After the massage intervention, subjects rated their level of perceived pain using a visual analog scale. An independent t test was used to analyze differences in perceived pain levels between the 2 massage interventions. A 2 × 2 analyses of covariance analyzed differences between sex and the 2 massage interventions. There was no interaction (p> 0.05) between the massage intervention and sex for both the vertical jump and 40-yd sprint tests. There was a significant main effect for vertical jump and SMR (p = 0.04). Sex also had a significant main effect for both the vertical jump (p = 0.04) and the 40-yd sprint (p = 0.02). There were no significant differences between massage interventions for the 40-yd sprint times (p = 0.73). There were no significant differences in perceived pain (t(49) = −1.60, p> 0.05). The use of SMR before exercise may improve vertical jump height in recreational athletes. Pain should not be a factor when choosing massage interventions for athletes because IASTM was not perceived to be more painful than SMR. Self-myofascial release and IASTM did not enhance sprinting performance in this study.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Effects on Volume Load and Ratings of Perceived Exertion in Individuals'
           Advanced Weight Training After Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
    • Authors: Lattari; Eduardo; Rosa Filho, Blair José; Fonseca Junior, Sidnei Jorge; Murillo-Rodriguez, Eric; Rocha, Nuno; Machado, Sérgio; Maranhão Neto, Geraldo Albuquerque
      Abstract: imageLattari, E, Rosa Filho, BJ, Fonseca Junior, SJ, Murillo-Rodriguez, E, Rocha, N, Machado, S, and Maranhão Neto, GA. Effects on volume load and ratings of perceived exertion in individuals' advanced weight training after transcranial direct current stimulation. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 89–96, 2020—The aim of this study was investigate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on volume load and ratings of perceived exertion. Fifteen young healthy individuals, aged between 20 and 30 years in advanced strength training were recruited. Test and retest of the 10 maximum repetitions (10RM) were performed to determine the reliability of load used. Subjects performed 3 experimental conditions in a randomized, double-blinded crossover design: anodic stimulation (a-tDCS), cathodic stimulation (c-tDCS), and sham (2 mA for 20 minutes targeting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex left). Immediately after the experimental conditions, subjects completed 1 set of maximum repetitions with 10RM load (volume load) and answered to OMNI-RES (poststimulation) (level of significance p ≤ 0.05). The volume load showed main effect for condition (F(2, 28) = 164.801; p < 0.001). In poststimulation, a-tDCS was greater than c-tDCS (p ≤ 0.001) and sham (p ≤ 0.001). For ratings of perceived exertion (OMNI-RES), the results showed main effect for condition (F(2, 28) = 9.768; p ≤ 0.05). In poststimulation, c-tDCS was greater than a-tDCS (p ≤ 0.05) and sham (p ≤ 0.05). We conclude that the use of a-tDCS may promote increase in volume load for the LP45 exercise. Moreover, higher volume loads are necessary to maximize muscle strength and anabolism.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Can Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Improve Muscle Power in
           Individuals With Advanced Weight-Training Experience'
    • Authors: Lattari; Eduardo; Campos, Carlos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; Legey, Sandro; Neto, Geraldo Maranhão; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Oliveira, Aldair José; Carpenter, Carlos Sandro; Machado, Sérgio
      Abstract: imageLattari, E, Campos, C, Lamego, MK, Legey, S, Neto, GM, Rocha, NB, Oliveira, AJ, Carpenter, CS, and Machado, S. Can transcranial direct current stimulation improve muscle power in individuals with advanced weight-training experience? J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 97–103, 2020—The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on countermovement jump (CMJ) performance in men with advanced strength-training experience. Ten healthy male subjects with advanced strength training and squatting exercise experience were included. Participants took part in an initial visit to the laboratory to complete anthropometric measurements and CMJ kinematic test-retest reliability. Participants then completed 3 experimental conditions, 48–72 hours apart, in a randomized, double-blinded crossover design: anodal, cathodal, and sham-tDCS (2 mA for 20 minutes targeting the motor cortex bilaterally). Participants completed 3 CMJ tests before and after each experimental condition, with 1-minute recovery interval between each test. The best CMJ in each moment was selected for analysis. Two-way (condition by moment) repeated measures analysis of variance was performed for CMJ height, flight time (FT), and muscular peak power (PP). Effect sizes and interindividual variability of tDCS responses were also analyzed. There was a significant condition by moment interaction for all outcome measures, with a large prepost increase in CMJ height, FT, and PP in the anodal condition. All the participants displayed CMJ performance improvements after the anodal condition. There were no significant differences in both cathodal and sham conditions. Anodal tDCS may be a valuable tool to enhance muscle power–related tasks performance, which is extremely relevant for sports that require vertical jumping ability. Anodal tDCS may also be used to support strength training, enhancing its effects on performance-oriented outcome measures.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Fat Oxidation Rate as a Function of Plasma Lipid and Hormone Response in
           Endurance Athletes
    • Authors: Soria; Marisol; Ansón, Miguel; Lou-Bonafonte, José Manuel; Andrés-Otero, María Jesús; Puente, Juan José; Escanero, Jesús
      Abstract: imageSoria, M, Ansón, M, Lou-Bonafonte, JM, Andrés-Otero, MJ, Puente, JJ, and Escanero, J. Fat oxidation rate as a function of plasma lipid and hormone response in endurance athletes. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 104–113, 2020—Plasma lipid changes during incremental exercise are not well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among fat oxidation rate, plasma lipids, and hormone concentrations in well-trained athletes. Twenty-six trained triathletes completed a graded cycle ergometer test to exhaustion increasing by 0.5 W·kg−1 every 10 minutes. Fat oxidation rates were determined using indirect calorimetry. For each individual, maximal fat oxidation (MFO), the intensity at which MFO occurred (Fatmax), and the intensity at which fat oxidation became negligible (Fatmin) were determined. Blood samples for lipids and hormones analysis were collected at the end of each stage of the graded exercise test. All variables studied except insulin showed an increase at the end of incremental protocol with respect to basal levels. Free fatty acid reached significant increase at 60%VO2max and maximal levels at 70%VO2max. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides (TG) decreased and showed lowest levels at 60%VO2max and reaching significant increases after 80%VO2max. High-density lipoprotein reached significant increase at 60%VO2max. Adrenaline and noradrenaline increased until the end of the incremental exercise, and significant differences were from 50%VO2max. These results suggest that exercise intensities are related to plasma lipids levels. In the zone when lipids oxidation is maximal, plasma LDL and TG variation differs from other lipids. These results may have application for the more adequate exercise intensity prescription to maximize the beneficial effects of exercise.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Acute Effect of a Single Session of Pilates on Blood Pressure and Cardiac
           Autonomic Control in Middle-Aged Adults With Hypertension
    • Authors: Rocha; Jeferson; Cunha, Felipe A.; Cordeiro, Ricardo; Monteiro, Walace; Pescatello, Linda S.; Farinatti, Paulo
      Abstract: imageRocha, J, Cunha, FA, Cordeiro, R, Monteiro, W, Pescatello, LS, and Farinatti, P. Acute effect of a single session of Pilates on blood pressure and cardiac autonomic control in middle-aged adults with hypertension. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 114–123, 2020—We investigated the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV) responses to a single session of Pilates among adults with hypertension. Thirteen participants (7 women), aged 44–66 years, underwent Pilates and nonexercise control sessions separated by 48–72 hours in a randomized counterbalanced order. Blood pressure and HRV indices were simultaneously assessed 10 minutes before and 60 minutes after all sessions in the supine position: root mean square of successive differences (rMSSD), percentage of successive normal sinus RR intervals>50 ms (pNN50), SD of all normal sinus RR intervals over 24 hours (SDNN), and low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) bands. After an acute session of Pilates, the mean values for area under the curve for systolic BP (p = 0.004, corresponding to −7.4 ± 8.2 mm Hg) and mean arterial pressure (p = 0.023, corresponding to −5.3 ± 5.4 mm Hg) were significantly lower compared to the control session. No significant difference was detected for diastolic BP (−4.2 ± 4.7 mm Hg, p = 0.106). Concomitant to BP reduction, significant lowering of parasympathetic HRV indices occurred: RR intervals (−64.1 ± 69.9 ms·min−1, p = 0.043), rMSSD (−8.3 ± 15.4 ms·min−1, p = 0.013), pNN50 (−3.6 ± 13%·min−1, p = 0.028), and total power (−3,089.4 ± 5,938 m2·min−1, p = 0.037). No difference was found for sympathetic markers: SDNN (−17.7 ± 34.6 ms·min−1, p = 0.100), LF (−5.2 ± 21,6 n.u.·min−1, p = 0.417), and LF:HF ratio (−0.3 ± 5.2 ratio·min−1, p = 0.422). In conclusion, a single session of Pilates reduced BP by ∼5–8 mm Hg in adults with hypertension during the first 60 minutes of post-exercise recovery. Acute BP reduction was concomitant to lowered cardiac parasympathetic activity. Our findings are promising for the use of Pilates as an alternative exercise modality to lower BP.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Validation of the Cosmed K4b2 Portable Metabolic System During Running
    • Authors: Ross; Ramzy; ALDuhishy, Anas; González-Haro, Carlos
      Abstract: imageRoss, R, ALDuhishy, A, and González-Haro, C. Validation of the cosmed K4b2 portable metabolic system during running outdoors. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 124–133, 2020—The aim of this study was to determine the agreement of the K4b2 metabolic system in comparison with the Douglas bags (DB) method for determining gas-exchange variables during both indoor treadmill and outdoor running. Nineteen endurance-trained males undertook 3 maximal incremental running tests, separated by at least 2 days: K4b2 indoor test (K1), K4b2 outdoor test (K2), and DB indoor test. Gas-exchange parameters (VO2, VCO2, VE, VI, Respiratory Exchange Ratio, FEO2, and FECO2) and heart rate were measured during K1, K2, and DB tests. For most of the variables (VO2, %VO2, %VCO2, VE, and VI), the agreement was better for K2 when compared with DB than for K1 when compared with DB. For VCO2, FEO2, and FECO2, the agreement was better between K1 when compared with DB than for K2 when compared with DB. Respiratory Exchange Ratio showed a similar agreement between both conditions (K1 vs. DB and K2 vs. DB). K4b2 seems valid for measuring gas-exchange variables during submaximal and maximal running velocities in an outdoor environment. Although K2 mean systematic error (bias) was low, the aleatory error was moderate. These considerations should be taken into account when using K4b2 to measure gas-exchange parameters both during indoor and outdoor activities.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Assessment of a Novel Algorithm to Determine Change-of-Direction Angles
           While Running Using Inertial Sensors
    • Authors: Balloch; Aaron S.; Meghji, Mahir; Newton, Robert U.; Hart, Nicolas H.; Weber, Jason A.; Ahmad, Iftekhar; Habibi, Daryoush
      Abstract: imageBalloch, AS, Meghji, M, Newton, RU, Hart, NH, Weber, JA, Ahmad, I, and Habibi, D. Assessment of a novel algorithm to determine change-of-direction angles while running using inertial sensors. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 134–144, 2020—The ability to detect and quantify change-of-direction (COD) movement may offer a unique approach to load-monitoring practice. Validity and reliability of a novel algorithm to calculate COD angles for predetermined COD movements ranging from 45 to 180° in left and right directions was assessed. Five recreationally active men (age: 29.0 ± 0.5 years; height: 181.0 ± 5.6 cm; and body mass: 79.4 ± 5.3 kg) ran 5 consecutive predetermined COD trials each, at 4 different angles (45, 90, 135, and 180°), in each direction. Participants were fitted with a commercially available microtechnology unit where inertial sensor data were extracted and processed using a novel algorithm designed to calculate precise COD angles for direct comparison with a high-speed video (remotely piloted, position-locked aircraft) criterion measure. Validity was assessed using Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement and mean bias. Reliability was assessed using typical error (expressed as a coefficient of variation [CV]). Concurrent validity was present for most angles. Left: (45° = 43.8 ± 2.0°; 90° = 88.1 ± 2.0°; 135° = 136.3 ± 2.1°; and 180° = 181.8 ± 2.5°) and Right: (45° = 46.3 ± 1.6°; 90° = 91.9 ± 2.2°; 135° = 133.4 ± 2.0°; 180° = 179.2 ± 5.9°). All angles displayed excellent reliability (CV < 5%) while greater mean bias (3.6 ± 5.1°, p < 0.001), weaker limits of agreement, and reduced precision were evident for 180° trials when compared with all other angles. High-level accuracy and reliability when detecting COD angles further advocates the use of inertial sensors to quantify sports-specific movement patterns.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Physiological and Performance Effects of Caffeine Gum Consumed During a
           Simulated Half-Time by Professional Academy Rugby Union Players
    • Authors: Russell; Mark; Reynolds, Nicholas A.; Crewther, Blair T.; Cook, Christian J.; Kilduff, Liam P.
      Abstract: imageRussell, M, Reynolds, NA, Crewther, BT, Cook, CJ, and Kilduff, L. Physiological and performance effects of caffeine gum consumed during a simulated half-time by professional academy rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 145–151, 2020—Despite the prevalence of caffeine (CAF) as an ergogenic aid, few studies have examined the use of caffeinated gums, especially during half-time in team sports. The physiological (blood lactate and salivary hormone concentrations) and performance (repeated sprints and cognitive function) effects of consuming CAF gum during a simulated half-time were examined. Professional academy rugby union players (n = 14) completed this double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced study. After pre-exercise measurements, players chewed a placebo (PLC) gum for 5 minutes before a standardized warm-up and completing repeated sprint testing (RSSA1). Thereafter, during a 15-minute simulated half-time period, players chewed either CAF (400 mg; 4.1 ± 0.5 mg·kg−1) or PLC gum for 5 minutes before completing a second repeated sprint test (RSSA2). Blood lactate, salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations, and indices of cognitive function (i.e., reaction time and Stroop test) were measured at baseline, pre-RSSA1, post-RSSA1, pre-RSSA2, and post-RSSA2. Sprint performance was not affected by CAF (p = 0.995) despite slower sprint times after the first sprint of both RSSA tests (all p < 0.002). After half-time, salivary testosterone increased by 70% (+97 ± 58 pg·ml−1) in CAF vs. PLC (p < 0.001), whereas salivary cortisol remained unchanged (p = 0.307). Cognitive performance was unaffected by time and trial (all p> 0.05). Although performance effects were absent, chewing CAF gum increased the salivary testosterone concentrations of professional rugby union players over a simulated half-time. Practitioners may, therefore, choose to recommend CAF gum between successive exercise bouts because of the increases in salivary testosterone observed; a variable associated with increased motivation and high-intensity exercise performance.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Effect of a Carbohydrate-Electrolyte Solution on Fluid Balance and
    • Authors: Chryssanthopoulos; Costas; Tsolakis, Charis; Bottoms, Lindsay; Toubekis, Argyris; Zacharogiannis, Elias; Pafili, Zoi; Maridaki, Maria
      Abstract: imageChryssanthopoulos, C, Tsolakis, C, Bottoms, L, Toubekis, A, Zacharogiannis, E, Pafili, Z, and Maridaki, M. Effect of a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution on fluid balance and performance at a thermoneutral environment in international-level fencers. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 152–161, 2020—The purpose of the study was to examine a possible effect of a carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO-E) solution on fluid balance and performance in fencing at a thermoneutral environment. Sixteen fencers performed two 120-minute training sessions separated by 7–14 days under similar environmental conditions (temperature: 20.3° C and humidity: 45–47%). Each session consisted of 60-minute conditioning exercises followed by 10 bouts of 3 minutes against the same opponent with 3-minute interval between each bout. Participants ingested at regular intervals either a 6% CHO-E solution or an artificially sweetened water (PL) in a counterbalanced order. No difference was observed between conditions in the heart rate responses, perceived exertion, changes in plasma volume, urine specific gravity, number of bouts won or lost, or points for and against. Considerable variability was observed in body mass changes that revealed significant differences at the time level (i.e., pre- vs. post-exercise) (F1,15 = 9.31, p = 0.008, η2 = 0.38), whereas no difference was found between conditions (i.e., CHO-E vs. PL) (F1,15 = 0.43, p = 0.52, η2 = 0.03) and conditions × time interaction (F1,15 = 3.57, p = 0.078, η2 = 0.19). Fluid loss was not significantly different between conditions (p = 0.08, d = 0.47). The blood glucose level was higher (p < 0.01) after exercise in CHO-E, whereas the blood lactate level was similar between conditions. In conclusion, the CHO-E solution was as effective as the artificially sweetened water in terms of fluid balance and fencing performance at a thermoneutral environment. Because of large individual variability, fencers should monitor their fluid intake and body fluid loss in training and competition.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Prioritizing Physical Determinants of International Elite Pole Vaulting
    • Authors: Gross; Micah; Büchler Greeley, Nicole; Hübner, Klaus
      Abstract: imageGross, M, Büchler Greeley, N, and Hübner, K. Prioritizing physical determinants of international elite pole vaulting performance. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 162–171, 2020—The pole vault is a complex track and field discipline requiring speed, strength, and efficient technique. Strength is a fundamental physical requirement, which facilitates general sprinting ability; this in turn represents the exploitable potential during the approach, where kinetic energy for the subsequent vault is generated. This study investigated the relationships between pole vault height, approach speed, sprint-speed potential, and indicators of both explosive and reactive strength in 20 international female pole vaulters. Furthermore, changes in step characteristics between flying sprints and approach runs were analyzed. Data were collected during and after an international pole vault competition. The correlations between approach speed and vault height, between sprint speed and approach speed, and between explosive strength indicators and sprint speed were large or very large. However, the correlation between reactive strength and sprint speed was small. Differences in speed during the vault approach compared with the flying sprint are mainly due to reduced step length rather than lower step frequency. With the help of a flow chart and regression equations, sound decisions can be made regarding the prioritization of various training components of pole vaulters. With this tool, coaches and athletes can easily evaluate whether or not a facilitator ability is sufficient for improving a more specific performance measure on the way to the central criterion: pole vault height. Furthermore, the results of this study suggest that maintaining step length should be emphasized during approach drills to best exploit sprint-speed potential during the pole vault approach.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Match Activities in Basketball Games: Comparison Between Different
           Competitive Levels
    • Authors: Ferioli; Davide; Schelling, Xavi; Bosio, Andrea; La Torre, Antonio; Rucco, Diego; Rampinini, Ermanno
      Abstract: imageFerioli, D, Schelling, X, Bosio, A, La Torre, A, Rucco, D, and Rampinini, E. Match activities in basketball games: comparison between different competitive levels. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 172–182, 2020—This study examined the (a) differences in the activity demands of official basketball games between different competitive levels (from elite to amateur levels) among a large cohort of adult male players and (b) match-to-match variations of basketball physical demands. Video-based time-motion analysis (TMA) was performed to assess the players' physical activity among 136 players. Match-to-match variations were determined analyzing 2 consecutive matches of the same level on 35 players. The frequency of occurrence (n per minutes) and the duration in percentage of playing time were calculated for high-intensity activity (HIA), moderate-intensity activity (MIA), low-intensity activity (LIA), and recovery (REC). Division I performed an almost certain greater number of HIA, MIA, and total actions per minutes of playing time compared with Division II that performed similarly to Division III. Division VI performed a likely-to-very likely lower number of LIA, MIA, and total actions per minute compared with Division III. Division I spent almost certain greater playing time competing in HIA and MIA compared with lower divisions. Time spent at REC was very likely greater in Division VI compared with all other Divisions. The frequency of occurrence was less reliable than percentage duration of game activities. Matches of different competitive levels are characterized by different physical activities. The ability to sustain greater intermittent workloads and HIA, and the ability to quickly recover from high-intensity phases during competitions should be considered as key components of basketball. The match-to-match variations values observed in this study might be useful to correctly interpret individual TMA data.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Evaluation of Strength and Conditioning Measures With Game Success in
           Division I Collegiate Volleyball: A Retrospective Study
    • Authors: Bunn; Jennifer A.; Ryan, Greg A.; Button, Gabriel R.; Zhang, Sidhong
      Abstract: imageBunn, JA, Ryan, GA, Button, GR, and, and Zhang, S. Evaluation of strength and conditioning measures with game success in Division I collegiate volleyball: A retrospective study. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 183–191, 2020—The purpose of this study was to retrospectively assess relationships between strength and conditioning (SC) measures and game performance in Division I volleyball. Five years of SC and game data were collected from 1 women's Division I collegiate team, n = 76. Strength and conditioning measures included T-drill, 18.3 m sprint, back squat, hang clean, vertical jump, and broad jump. All game and SC stats were normalized to Z-scores. Analyses included assessing SC differences by position and multiple stepwise regression to assess relationships between game and SC stats. There was a significant difference by position for broad jump (p = 0.002), 18.3 m sprint (p = 0.036), vertical (p ≤ 0.001), and total strength (p = 0.019). Overall, game performance and SC measures were significantly correlated (r = 0.439, p ≤ 0.001). Multiple regression analyses indicated significant relationships (p ≤ 0.05) between SC measures and game success by position as follows: defensive specialist stats with squat and total strength; setters game stats with hang cleans, T-drill, and broad jump; pin hitter game stats with vertical, squat, and total strength; middle blockers game stats with broad jump. These data indicate that SC measures correlate well with game performance and are specific by position. These data could help SC coaches create a more precise training approach to focus on improving specific measures by position, which could then translate to improved game performance. These data could also help coaches with talent identification to determine playing time and rotations to maximize player ability and achieve success.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Impact of Physical Performance and Anthropometric Characteristics on Serve
           Velocity in Elite Junior Tennis Players
    • Authors: Fett; Janina; Ulbricht, Alexander; Ferrauti, Alexander
      Abstract: imageFett, J, Ulbricht, A, and Ferrauti, A. Impact of physical performance and anthropometric characteristics on serve velocity in elite junior tennis players. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 192–202, 2020—This study aimed to investigate the impact of physical performance components and anthropometric characteristics on serve velocity (SV) in elite junior tennis players depending on the sex and age group. A sample of the best 1,019 (male = 625, female = 394) junior squad tennis players of the German Tennis Federation participated in the study involving complex anthropometric measurements (body height, body mass, sitting height, and arm span) and physical tests (e.g., SV, medicine ball throws [MBTs], hand grip strength, push-ups, back extension, countermovement jumps [CMJs], horizontal jumps, 20-m sprint, and tennis-specific endurance). Of all the anthropometric and physical characteristics analyzed, the MBTs (r = 0.49–0.60♂; r = 0.20–0.60♀), hand grip strength (r = 0.43–0.59♂; r = 0.27–0.37♀), arm span (r = 0.37–0.56♂; r = 0.24–0.36♀), body height (r = 0.31–0.52♂; r = 0.26–0.38♀), and body mass (r = 0.44–0.57♂; r = 0.35–0.39♀) were particularly closely correlated with SV. The results of the multiple regression analysis indicated that the combination of selected predictors (e.g., MBTs, grip strength, arm span, and body mass) explained 41–66% of the variance in SV of boys and 19–45%, respectively, for girls. The results reinforce that service speed is dependent on physical abilities and anthropometric characteristics but also strongly on additional factors (i.e., technical components). In particular, the upper-body power/strength is important to the junior players' service, especially in athletes with a greater body height and arm span (i.e., biomechanical advantages), whereas purely lower-body power (e.g., CMJ) is less important. To this effect, talent identification and intervention programs focusing on the specific requirements are recommended.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Multiple Repeated-Sprint Ability Test With Four Changes of Direction for
           Badminton Players (Part 2): Predicting Skill Level With Anthropometry,
           Strength, Shuttlecock, and Displacement Velocity
    • Authors: Phomsoupha; Michael; Laffaye, Guillaume
      Abstract: imagePhomsoupha, M and Laffaye, G. Multiple repeated-sprint ability test with four changes of direction for badminton players (part 2): predicting skill level with anthropometry, strength, shuttlecock, and displacement velocity. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 203–211, 2020—The goal of this study was: (a) to assess general and specific lower and upper limb force, shuttlecock velocity, displacement ability, and the anthropometric characteristics of badminton players at 5 skill levels, and (b) to predict individual players' number of points. We divided 83 participants into groups of novice (n = 15), intermediate (n = 16), skilled (n = 23), highly skilled (n = 14), and elite (n = 15) players. The number of points scored for each player performing tournaments (excluding novices) during the entire season was used as a continuous and dependent variable after logarithmic transformation for correlational study. Anthropometric measurements of height, mass, percentage of fat, and muscle were recorded, along with shuttlecock maximal velocity during smashes. Upper limb power and lower limb force were recorded during jumps and handgrip strength. We also assessed players' ability to move quickly around the court through an on-court multiple repetition-sprint ability in badminton (MRSAB) test with 4 changes of direction. All variables were combined in a multiple regression model. The main findings were that the major contributor to skill level is shuttlecock velocity (r = 0.86), the time taken to move during the MRSAB test (r = 0.85) and the squat jump height (r = 0.53). Anthropometric factors contribute only a little to the individual score point (2%). Finally, the multiple regression model reveals that log(number of points) = 4.91 + 0.042 × shuttle velocity − 0.029 × MRSABTime − 0.001 × squat jump height, with r2 = 0.86 and a relative respective contribution of each variable of 86, 13, and 1%.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Physical Characteristics of Youth Elite Golfers and Their Relationship
           With Driver Clubhead Speed
    • Authors: Coughlan; Daniel; Taylor, Matthew J.D.; Jackson, Joanna; Ward, Nicholas; Beardsley, Chris
      Abstract: imageCoughlan, D, Taylor, M, Jackson, J, Ward, N, and Beardsley, C. Physical characteristics of youth elite golfers and their relationship with driver clubhead speed. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 212–217, 2020—Increased clubhead speed (CHS) has a strong relationship with golf performance and is related to athletic qualities in adult golfers. Research investigating the youth golfer is limited. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between strength and power on CHS in youth golfers. A correlational design was used to assess relationships between CHS and anthropometric, strength, and power measurements. Thirty-six male and 33 female golfers aged 13–17 took part in this study. Male golfers showed significant relationships between CHS and handicap (HCP) (r = −0.50), seated medicine ball throw to the left (SMBTL) (r = 0.67), and right (SMBTR) (r = 0.61), rotational medicine ball throw to the left (RMBTL) (r = 0.71), and right RMBTR (r = 0.62). Female golfers showed significant relationships between CHS and HCP (r = −0.52), mass (r = 0.72), countermovement jump power (r = 0.60), RMBTL (r = 0.57), RMBTR (r = 0.56). Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis identified 77% of the variance in CHS could be explained through SMBTL and RMBTL in males. In females, 84% of the variance in CHS could be explained through mass, RMBTR, and height. This study demonstrated relationships between CHS and body mass and upper-, lower-, and full-body concentric dominant power exercises. This study could aid in the development of training interventions for youth golfers.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Pacing Profiles and Competitive Performance of Elite Female 400-m
           Freestyle Swimmers
    • Authors: Lipinska; Patrycja; Hopkins, Will G.
      Abstract: imageLipinska, P, and Hopkins, WG. Pacing profiles and competitive performance of elite female 400-m freestyle swimmers. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 218–224, 2020—Pacing can impact competitive endurance performance. The objective of this study was to determine relationships between pacing parameters and competitive performance of elite female 400-m freestyle swimmers. Publicly available websites provided 50-m split and final times for 381 swims of 20 elite female swimmers in over 150 national and international competitions between 2004 and 2016. Most pacing profiles displayed negative quadratic curvature, with the fifth of the 8 laps being the median slowest. The mean times for the first and last laps were faster than predicted by the quadratic by 5.6 and 1.9%, respectively, and lap-to-lap variability was 0.65%. Scatter plots of each swimmer's final time often showed no obvious relationships with their pacing parameters, suggesting that swimmers compensated for changes in one parameter with changes in another. However, some plots showed a U shape or linear trend that allowed tentative identification of optimum values of the pacing parameters. In these plots, it was apparent that about half the swimmers might make small to moderate improvements (up to ∼1%) by changing the slope or curvature of their pacing profile or by changing time in the first or last laps. This approach for characterizing pacing profiles to identify possible improvements might be appropriate to assess pacing in other sports with multiple laps, frequent competitions, and relatively constant environmental conditions.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Methods of Monitoring Training Load and Their Association With Changes
           Across Fitness Measures in Hurling Players
    • Authors: Malone; Shane; Hughes, Brian; Collins, Kieran; Akubat, Ibrahim
      Abstract: imageMalone, S, Hughes, B, Collins, K, and Akubat, I. Methods of monitoring training load and their association with changes across fitness measures in hurling players. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 225–234, 2020—The aim of the current investigation was to assess the dose-response relationship for various methods of monitoring training load (TL) and changes in aerobic and anaerobic fitness in hurling players. Training and match load measures were collected from 30 hurling players (speed at different blood lactate [vLT, vOBLA], maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max], speed at VO2max [vVO2max], peak treadmill velocity [PTV] running economy [RE] Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (Yo-YoIR1, Yo-YoIR2), speed at 5, 10 , 20 m, and repeated sprint ability [6 × 35 m]) before and after during a 12-week in-season period. Mean weekly training and match loads as determined by s-RPE, bTRIMP, luTRIMP, eTRIMP, iTRIMP, and gTRIMP were correlated with each other, percentage change in VO2max, vVO2max, RE, PTV, the speed at blood lactate concentrations of 2 mmol·L−1 (vLT) and 4 mmol·L−1 (vOBLA), and YoYoIR1, Yo-YoIR2 performance. iTRIMP showed a trivial association with s-RPE and a small to moderate association with other heart rate–based methods. Small to large changes (effect size: 0.38–1.12) were observed in aerobic and anaerobic fitness measures were observed across the 12-week period. Trivial to very large associations (r = 0.11–0.78) were observed between TL variables and changes in fitness depending on the variable analyzed. iTRIMP was shown to have large to very large associations with changes in vOBLA {r = 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71–0.88)}, VO2max (r = 0.77 [95% CI: 0.68–0.82]), RE (r = 0.77 [95% CI: 0.67–0.82]), Yo-YoIR1 (r = 0.69 [95% CI: 0.51–0.72]), and RSAb (r = 0.66 [95% CI: 0.60–0.72]) with moderate associations reported between iTRIMP and other variables. All other measures of TL showed trivial to moderate associations (r = 0.11–0.66). The current investigation shows that fully individualized training load (iTRIMP) measures may potentially offer a better understanding of dose-response relationships when compared with subjective and nonindividualized measures of TL to changes in aerobic and anaerobic fitness in team sports athletes; as such, it may be suggested that practitioners should use individualized measures of TL assessment within their day-to-day practices.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Effects of Far-Infrared Emitting Ceramic Materials on Recovery During
           2-Week Preseason of Elite Futsal Players
    • Authors: Nunes; Renan F.H.; Cidral-Filho, Francisco J.; Flores, Lucinar J.F.; Nakamura, Fabio Y.; Rodriguez, Harrison F.M.; Bobinski, Franciane; De Sousa, Amanda; Petronilho, Fabricia; Danielski, Lucineia G.; Martins, Maryane M.; Martins, Daniel F.; Guglielmo, Luiz G.A.
      Abstract: imageNunes, RFH, Cidral-Filho, FJ, Flores, LJF, Nakamura, FY, Rodriguez, HFM, Bobinski, F, De Sousa, A, Petronilho, F, Danielski, LG, Martins, MM, Martins, DF, and Guglielmo, LGA. Effects of far-infrared emitting ceramic materials on recovery during 2-week preseason of elite futsal players. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 235–248, 2020—We investigated the effects of far-infrared emitting ceramic materials (cFIR) during overnight sleep on neuromuscular, biochemical and perceptual markers in futsal players. Twenty athletes performed a 2-week preseason training program and during sleep wore bioceramic (BIO; n = 10) or placebo pants (PL; n = 10). Performance (countermovement jump [CMJ]; squat jump [SJ]; sprints 5, 10, and 15-m) and biochemical markers (tumor necrosis factor alpha-TNF-α, interleukin 10-IL-10, thiobarbituric acid–reactive species [TBARS], carbonyl, superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT]) were obtained at baseline and after the 1st and 2nd week of training. Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and training strain were monitored throughout. Changes in ΔCMJ and ΔSJ were possibly (60/36/4 [week-1]) and likely (76/22/2 [week-2]) higher in BIO. Both groups were faster in 5-m sprint in week 2 compared with baseline (p = 0.015), furthermore, BIO was likely faster in 10-m sprint (3/25/72 [week 1]). Significant group × time interaction in %ΔTNF-α were observed (p = 0.024 [week-1]; p = 0.021 [week-2]) with values possibly (53/44/3 [week 1]) and likely (80/19/1 [week 2]) higher in BIO. The %ΔIL-10 decreased across weeks compared with baseline (p = 0.019 [week-1]; p = 0.026 [week-2]), showing values likely higher in BIO (81/16/3 [week-1]; 80/17/3 [week-2]). Significant weekly increases in %ΔTBARS (p = 0.001 [week-1]; p = 0.011 [week-2]) and %ΔCarbonyl (p = 0.002 [week-1]; p < 0.001 [week-2]) were observed compared with baseline, showing likely (91/5/4 [week-1]) and possibly (68/30/2 [week-2]) higher changes in BIO. Significant weekly decreases in %ΔSOD were observed compared with baseline (p = 0.046 [week 1]; p = 0.011 [week-2]), and between week 2 and week 1 (p = 0.021), in addition to significant decreases in %ΔCAT compared with baseline (p = 0.070 [week 1]; p = 0.012 [week 2]). Training strain (p = 0.021; very -likely [0/2/98]; week 1) and DOMS was lower in BIO (likely; 7 sessions) with differences over time (p = 0.001). The results suggest that the daily use of cFIR clothing could facilitate recovery, especially on perceptual markers during the early phases of an intensive training period.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Continuous Moderate-Intensity but Not High-Intensity Interval Training
           Improves Immune Function Biomarkers in Healthy Young Men
    • Authors: Khammassi; Marwa; Ouerghi, Nejmeddine; Said, Mohamed; Feki, Moncef; Khammassi, Yosra; Pereira, Bruno; Thivel, David; Bouassida, Anissa
      Abstract: imageKhammassi, M, Ouerghi, N, Said, M, Feki, M, Khammassi, Y, Pereira, B, Thivel, D, and Bouassida, A. Continuous moderate-intensity but not high-intensity interval training improves immune function biomarkers in healthy young men. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 249–256, 2020—Effects of endurance running methods on hematological profile are still poorly known. This study aimed to compare the effects of 2 training regimes; high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MCT) performed at the same external load on hematological biomarkers in active young men. Sixteen men aged 18–20 years were randomly assigned to HIIT or MCT group. Aerobic capacity and hematological biomarkers were assessed before and after 9 weeks of interventions. At baseline, aerobic and hematological parameters were similar for the 2 groups. After intervention, no significant change was observed in maximal aerobic velocity and estimated VO2max in both groups. Leukocyte (p < 0.01), lymphocyte (p < 0.05), neutrophil (p < 0.05), and monocyte (p < 0.01) count showed significant improvements in response to the MCT compared with the HIIT intervention. The MCT intervention favored an increase in the number of immune cells, whereas the opposite occurred as a result of the HIIT intervention. These findings suggest that MCT interventions might be superior to HIIT regimes in improving immune function in active young men.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Minimal Detectable Change Thresholds and Responsiveness of Zephyr
           Bioharness and Fitbit Charge Devices
    • Authors: Nazari; Goris; MacDermid, Joy C.
      Abstract: imageNazari, G and MacDermid, JC. Minimal detectable change thresholds and responsiveness of zephyr bioharness and Fitbit Charge devices. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 257–263, 2020—The aim of the current study was to define the minimal detectable change (MDC) thresholds for Zephyr Bioharness (ZB) and Fitbit Charge Heart Rate (FC-HR) variables and to establish the internal responsiveness of ZB and FC-HR devices in terms of their HR, respiratory rate variables, and number of steps taken variables, in a healthy sample of men and women at resting, submaximal activity and throughout recovery phases. A total of sixty participants (30 women, 48 ± 15) and (30 men, 48 ± 15) were recruited using stratified convenience and snowball sampling approaches from our university student, staff, and faculty population. At rest, MDC90 values of ±4.89 and ±5.15 were noted for ZB and FC-HR devices, respectively. Throughout the recovery, thresholds of ±8.14 for ZB and 8.74 for FC-HR were reported. During the submaximal phases, scores of ±8.18 and ±9.35 were established for ZB and FC-HR, respectively. From a resting to a submaximal state, the standardized response means (SRMs) for ZB and FC-HR variables exhibited large responsiveness of SRMZB-HR = 4.42; SRMFC-HR = 4.04. In addition, the ZB respiratory rate variable showed the largest effect size of SRMZB-RR = 2.55. Similarly, the large effect size of SRMFC-ST = 1.76 was reported for the FC-HR steps taken variable. From a submaximal to a recovery state, the SRMs for ZB and FC-HR variables demonstrated effect sizes of SRMZB-HR = −3.10; SRMFC-HR = −3.12. Furthermore, the ZB respiratory rate variable displayed similar internal responsiveness measures of SRMZB-RR = −2.45. To conclude, Similar MDC HR thresholds can be expected using the ZB and FC-HR devices and that the two devices demonstrated large internal responsiveness in our healthy male and female cohort when transitioning from resting to submaximal states and vice-versa. Our findings suggest that the ZB and FC-HR devices can be used in monitoring performance improvements or deterioration over time and would allow qualified personnel in assessing the effectiveness of exercise programs in healthy individuals.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Reliability of Zephyr BioHarness Respiratory Rate at Rest, During the
           Modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test and Recovery
    • Authors: Nazari; Goris; MacDermid, Joy C.
      Abstract: imageNazari, G and MacDermid, JC. Reliability of Zephyr BioHarness respiratory rate at rest, during the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test and recovery. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 264–269, 2020—Technological innovations have led to the development of wearable physiological monitoring devices, such as the Zephyr BioHarness (ZB). It is necessary to establish the measurement properties of a device and to determine its reliability parameters, before its utilization. The purpose of current study was to determine the test-retest reliability of ZB respiratory rate variable at rest, during the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test (mCAFT) (a submaximal test) and throughout recovery. Stratified convenience and snowballing were used to recruit 60 participants (30 females). Respiratory rate reliability was assessed at rest, with total of 20 measurements, during the mCAFT with total of 24 measures and throughout the recovery with total of 20 measures between the first and second sessions. At rest, test-retest respiratory rate intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and SEM for ZB ranged from 0.76 to 0.84 (0.62–0.83). During the mCAFT, the ZB ICCs and (SEM) ranged from 0.76 to 0.89 (1.53–4.00). Throughout the recovery, the ICCs and SEM ranged from 0.79 to 0.90 (0.90–1.28). To conclude, ZB respiratory rate variable demonstrated excellent reliability measures in a large sample of healthy male and female individuals across different age groups at rest, during a submaximal activity and throughout recovery. Our study findings add to the existing pool of literature regarding the reliability parameters of ZB wearable device and propose that stable and consistent measures of respiratory rate can be obtained using ZB device among healthy male and female participants at rest, during submaximal activity (mCAFT) and throughout recovery.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Effects of Physical Exercise on the Expression of MicroRNAs: A Systematic
    • Authors: Silva; Franciele Cascaes da; Iop, Rodrigo da Rosa; Andrade, Alexandro; Costa, Vitor Pereira; Gutierres Filho, Paulo José Barbosa; Silva, Rudney da
      Abstract: imageSilva, FCd, Iop, RdR, Andrade, A, Costa, VP, Gutierres Filho, PJB, and Silva, Rd. Effects of physical exercise on the expression of microRNAs: A systematic review 34(1): 270–280, 2020—Studies have detected changes in the expression of miRNAs after physical exercise, which brings new insight into the molecular control of adaptation to exercise. Therefore, the objective of the current systematic review of experimental and quasiexperimental studies published in the past 10 years was to assess evidence related to acute effects, chronic effects, and both acute and chronic effects of physical exercise on miRNA expression in humans, as well as its functions, evaluated in serum, plasma, whole blood, saliva, or muscle biopsy. For this purpose, the following electronic databases were selected: MEDLINE by Pubmed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and also a manual search in references of the selected articles to April 2017. Experimental and quasiexperimental studies were included. Results indicate that, of the 345 studies retrieved, 40 studies met the inclusion criteria and two articles were included as a result of the manual search. The 42 studies were analyzed, and it can be observed acute and chronic effects of physical exercises (aerobic and resistance) on the expression of several miRNAs in healthy subjects, athletes, young, elderly and in patients with congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus type 2 associated with morbid obesity, prediabetic, and patients with intermittent claudication. It is safe to assume that miRNA changes, both in muscle tissues and bodily fluids, are presumably associated with the benefits induced by acute and chronic physical exercise. Thus, a better understanding of changes in miRNAs as a response to physical exercise might contribute to the development of miRNAs as therapeutic targets for the improvement of exercise capacity in individuals with any given disease. However, additional studies are necessary to draw accurate conclusions.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Torque Ratios of Professional Male Soccer Players:
           A Systematic Review
    • Authors: Baroni; Bruno Manfredini; Ruas, Cassio Victora; Ribeiro-Alvares, João Breno; Pinto, Ronei Silveira
      Abstract: imageBaroni, BM, Ruas, CV, Ribeiro-Alvares, JB, and Pinto, RS. Hamstring-to-quadriceps torque ratios of professional male soccer players: A systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 281–293, 2020—The goal of this review was to determine the isokinetic hamstring-to-quadriceps (H/Q) torque ratios of professional male soccer players. Systematic searches were independently carried out by 2 researchers in 7 electronic databases. Only studies with teams from the first or second national leagues were included. From these studies, we extracted the players' H/Q conventional (concentric/concentric) and/or functional (eccentric/concentric) ratios. The initial search resulted in 2,128 articles that were filtered to 30 articles (1,727 players) meeting the inclusion criteria. The H/Q conventional ratio was assessed in 27 studies (1,274 players), whereas the H/Q functional ratio was assessed in 15 studies (1,082 players). The H/Q conventional ratio mean scores of professional male soccer players were close to 60% when tested at low to intermediate angular velocities (12°·s−1 = 52 ± 7%; 30°·s−1 = 52 ± 8%; 60°·s−1 = 65 ± 12%; 90°·s−1 = 57 ± 6%; 120°·s−1 = 65 ± 16%; 180°·s−1 = 67 ± 17%) and around 70–80% at fast angular velocities (240°·s−1 = 80 ± 40%; 300°·s−1 = 70 ± 15%; 360°·s−1 = 80 ± 13%). The H/Q functional ratio mean scores of professional male soccer players were close to 80% at 60°·s−1 (79 ± 19%), around 100–130% at intermediate to fast angular velocities (120°·s−1 = 127 ± 42%; 180°·s−1 = 96 ± 19%; 240°·s−1 = 109 ± 22%; 300°·s−1 = 123 ± 18%), and near or above 130% when angular testing velocities were mixed (eccentric hamstring < concentric quadriceps; 30/240°·s−1 = 132 ± 26%; 60/180°·s−1 = 129 ± 20%; 60/240°·s−1 = 153 ± 30%). In conclusion, considering the tested isokinetic angular velocity, professional male soccer players do not meet the traditional reference landmarks used to assess the strength balance between quadriceps and hamstring muscles (i.e., 60 and 100% for H/Q conventional and functional ratios, respectively), which supports a need for specific reference values according to the angular velocity selected for testing H/Q torque ratios.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Abstracts
    • Abstract: imageNo abstract available
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Manuscript Clarification for “Use of Mobile Applications to Collect Data
           in Sport, Health, and Exercise Science: A Narrative Review”
    • Authors: Ferriero; Giorgio; Vercelli, Stefano; Fundarò, Cira; Ronconi, Gianpaolo
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Author's Response
    • Authors: Peart; Daniel J.; Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Shaw, Matthew P.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
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