Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1473 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (86 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (676 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (384 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (106 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (117 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (117 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 117 of 117 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACSMs Health & Fitness Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACTIVE : Journal of Physical Education, Sport, Health and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ágora para la Educación Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
American Journal of Sexuality Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Applied Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Apunts. Medicina de l'Esport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Exercise in Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arquivos de Ciências do Esporte     Open Access  
Athletic Training & Sports Health Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
BMC Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Childhood Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Éthique & Santé     Full-text available via subscription  
Fat Studies : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Body Weight and Society     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Fisioterapia em Movimento     Open Access  
Fitness & Performance Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food Science and Human Wellness     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Sports and Active Living     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gelanggang Pendidikan Jasmani Indonesia     Open Access  
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geron     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Health and Physical Education Pedagogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Health Education Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Health Marketing Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Home Healthcare Now     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Human Movement     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Human Movement Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
IISE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesia Performance Journal     Open Access  
İnönü Üniversitesi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 56)
International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
International Journal of Men's Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90)
International Journal of Obesity Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Spa and Wellness     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sport, Exercise & Training Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Isokinetics and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of American College Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Human Sport and Exercise     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Motor Learning and Development     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Physical Activity and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Physical Activity and Hormones     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Education and Human Movement     Open Access  
Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Sport and Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Sport Sciences and Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Kinesiology : International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Kinesiology     Open Access  
Kinesiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Krankenhaus-Hygiene - Infektionsverhütung     Full-text available via subscription  
Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Médecine & Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription  
Mental Health and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Movimiento Humano y Salud     Open Access  
Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Obesity Research & Clinical Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Obesity Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Obesity Science & Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Obesity Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pain Management in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
PALAESTRA : Adapted Sport, Physical Education, and Recreational Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Physical Activity and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Preventing Chronic Disease     Free   (Followers: 2)
Psychology of Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Quality in Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBONE - Revista Brasileira de Obesidade, Nutrição e Emagrecimento     Open Access  
RBPFEX - Revista Brasileira de Prescrição e Fisiologia do Exercício     Open Access  
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport     Hybrid Journal  
Retos : Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deportes y Recreación     Open Access  
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Atividade Física & Saúde     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Ciências do Esporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Educação Física e Esporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista da Educação Física : UEM     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología del Ejercicio y el Deporte     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte : International Journal of Medicine and Science of Physical Activity and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue phénEPS / PHEnex Journal     Open Access  
SIPATAHOENAN : South-East Asian Journal for Youth, Sports & Health Education     Open Access  
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Sport and Fitness Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Sport Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Sport Sciences for Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport- und Präventivmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Strength & Conditioning Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Timisoara Physical Education and Rehabilitation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise     Open Access  
Yoga Mimamsa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Здоровье человека, теория и методика физической культуры и спорта     Open Access  

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Psychology of Sport and Exercise
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.282
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 20  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1469-0292 - ISSN (Online) 1469-0292
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3147 journals]
  • Thought processes during set shot goalkicking in Australian Rules
           football: An analysis of youth and semi-professional footballers using
           Think Aloud.
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): Sam Elliott, Amy Whitehead, Terry MagiasAbstractAt present, there has been little attention given to exploring the cognitive processes of athletes in Australian Rules football during self-paced tasks such as the set shot goal kick attempt. Therefore, this study used a Think Aloud (TA) protocol analysis to explore the cognitions of Junior and Adult footballers undertaking the performance of a set shot goal kicking attempt in naturalistic conditions. This involved 64 male Australian Rules footballers, comprising 37 elite-level senior (adult) players (M age = 23.3 years) and 27 elite-level junior (M age = 14.6 years) players. Player's verbalisations were recorded during each performance of the goal kicking task, transcribed verbatim, and deductively and inductively analysed. The analyses revealed that planning, gathering information and description of outcome were the main three verbalised themes overall among junior and adult footballers. The analyses also indicated that as task difficulty increases, athlete cognitions relating to self-doubt increases and pre-performance routines decreases. In contrast to Adults, our results indicate that Junior footballers gather more information when undertaking close range set shot goal kicking attempts and also verbalise more diagnostic outcomes and comments relating to self-doubt when undertaking long range set shot goal kicking attempts. Adult footballers were also found to verbalise more reactive comments across all kick distances and verbalise more thoughts relating to mental readiness and pre-performance routine from close range compared long range distances. These findings have implications for the acquisition of skill in sport and draw on key perspectives from Dynamic Systems Theory to advance understanding of the cognitive processes underpinning set shot goal kicking performance in Australian Rules football.
       
  • Reciprocal relations between autonomous motivation from self-determination
           theory and social cognition constructs from the theory of planned
           behavior: A cross-lagged panel design in sport injury prevention
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): Derwin King Chung Chan, Lei Zhang, Alfred Sing Yeung Lee, Martin S. HaggerAbstractObjectivesThe present study examined reciprocal relations between autonomous motivation from self-determination theory (SDT) and constructs from the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in a sport injury context.MethodsThe study adopted a three-wave longitudinal cross-lagged panel design. Physical education students in China (N = 4414; Mage = 14.42, SD = 1.75) completed self-report measures of autonomous motivation, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control with respect to sport injury prevention at baseline (T1) and at two follow-up occasions one (T2) and three (T3) months later. Proposed reciprocal relations between autonomous motivation and the TPB constructs controlling for construct stability over time were tested using structural equation modeling.ResultsThree cross-lagged SEMs for effects of constructs measured at T1 on constructs measured at T2 and T3, and effects of constructs measured at T2 on constructs measured at T3 met goodness-of-fit criteria (CFI > 0.95, TLI > 0.94, RMSEA = 0.03, SRMR = 0.05) with consistent patterns of effects. Across the three models, autonomous motivation predicted the prospectively-measured TPB constructs with small-to-medium effect sizes (β range = 0.17 to 0.32, ps 
       
  • Evaluating the Coaching for Life Skills online training program: A
           randomised controlled trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): Martin Camiré, Kelsey Kendellen, Scott Rathwell, Stéphanie TurgeonAbstractObjectivesHigh school sport is considered a suitable context in which to develop life skills, yet most coaches are not equipped with the knowledge/tools needed to deliberately teach life skills. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Coaching for Life Skills online training program in helping coaches create environments conducive to the teaching of life skills.DesignRandomised controlled trial using a concurrent multiple baseline across groups design.MethodA total of 1,238 (58.8% male) Canadian high school coaches completed baseline testing examining coach-athlete relationship, coach interpersonal behaviours, and life skills teaching. Participants were then randomly assigned to an experimental, waitlist, or control group. A final sample of 285 (59.7% male) participants completed the trial (i.e., 36 experimental, 58 waitlist, and 191 control). Data were analysed using 3 x 3 repeated measures factorial analyses.ResultsAcross the three constructs assessed, there were no significant within-subject main effects for time, group, or for the interaction between time and group.ConclusionsAlthough the results were not statistically significant, visual analysis indicated positive directional changes for all three dependent variables, with increases in mean scores observed for both experimental and waitlist group participants following their completion of the Coaching for Life Skills online training program. Findings have implications for the design of online coach training programs aimed at helping coaches teach life skills through sport.
       
  • Hysteresis behaviour of psychobiological variables during exercise
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2020Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): Lluc Montull, Pablo Vázquez, Robert Hristovski, Natàlia BalaguéAbstractObjectivesThe rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and the heart rate (HR) have been widely studied and monitored during exercise, but their hysteresis behaviour is still unexplored. Our aim was to study the hysteresis behaviour of RPE and HR in triathletes and non-athletes.DesignCross-sectional study.MethodEighteen triathletes at different competitive levels (elite n = 9, non-elite n = 9) and ten students were tested while cycling and running, using a pyramidal protocol (incremental/decremental workloads). The hysteresis area, considered positive when values of the dependent variables (RPE and HR) at the same workload were higher in the decremental phase than in the incremental phase, and vice versa for the negative areas, was calculated in all tests. The Wilcoxon matched-pairs test and Kruskal Wallis ANOVA were applied to detect intra- and inter-group differences, respectively, of RPE and HR values during the incremental and decremental phases, as well as between cycling and running.ResultsThe following results were observed: a) an incoherent relationship of RPE with HR and workload, b) positive hysteresis areas of RPE and HR in all groups during cycling and running, c) a partial negative hysteresis area of RPE, but not of HR, in the triathlete groups, d) larger hysteresis areas of RPE and HR in students than in triathletes, and e) larger hysteresis areas in cycling than in running.Conclusionsthe study of the hysteresis behaviour of RPE and HR reveals the history dependency of both variables, highlights their incoherent or non-unique relationship during a pyramidal exercise, and questions their widely assumed linear association to workload intensity. The hysteresis area is proposed as a new non-invasive marker of exercise stress and tolerance that should be further investigated.
       
  • Characterizing positive and negative ‘voicers’ in elite sport teams:
           The role of the Five Factor Model and narcissism in players’ frequency
           and passing on of voice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2020Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): Stef Van Puyenbroeck, Jeroen Stouten, Joeri Hofmans, Koen Van Meervelt, Gert Vande BroekAbstractObjectiveThis study examined the role of the Five Factor Model and grandiose narcissism in players’ positive (i.e., constructive voice, supportive voice) and negative voice (i.e., defensive voice, destructive voice) in elite sport teams.MethodPlayers from six field hockey and seven korfball teams from the two highest national levels were assessed for four weeks. Using social network analyses, players’ personality was related to their self-reported voice frequency, their voice frequency as perceived by all teammates (other-ratings), and the extent to which they pass on voice.ResultsExtraversion was positively related to players’ frequency of positive and negative voice. Other traits such as conscientiousness and emotional stability were only related to, respectively, positive or negative types of voice. Not all personalities (e.g., extraversion) were consistent in how they assess their own voice versus how others perceive this. Interestingly, traits such as extraversion, emotional stability and the agentic facet of narcissism were found to predict the passing on of voice.ConclusionThis study explored the importance of personality for (a) players’ frequency of a differentiated set of positive and negative voice and (b) the extent to which they function as ‘gates’ that more covertly pass on voice. Further, the results provide perspective on how specific personalities view their voice behavior versus how their teammates perceive their voice behavior. In this way, this study is a first step in identifying players who have the potential to endanger or strengthen a team in a clear or subtle, yet influential way.
       
  • Coaching the quiet: Exploring coaches’ beliefs about shy children in
           a sport context
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Psychology of Sport and Exercise, Volume 47Author(s): Alison Kirkpatrick, Linda Rose-Krasnor, Laura L. Ooi, Robert J. CoplanAbstractOrganized sports may enhance the social skills and peer relationships of shy children. Interactions with coaches may be critical determinants of these benefits. Thus, our goal was to explore coaches’ beliefs, attitudes, and responses to shy children. Participants were 447 undergraduate students (343 female; Mage = 19.39 years, SD = 2.12) with coaching experience. Participants indicated their anticipated behaviours, emotions, and perceived implications in response to hypothetical children exhibiting shy, unsociable, and verbally exuberant behaviours in a sport context. Coaches viewed shy behaviour more problematically than both verbally exuberant and unsociable behaviours, anticipating the most negative implications for shy children’s peer relationships, development, and team performance and supporting the use of differential coaching strategies. However, despite reporting the most worry about shyness, coaches were less likely to intervene in response to shyness compared to exuberance. We discuss the implications that our results may have for the adjustment of shy children.
       
  • Experimental comparison of physical activity self-efficacy measurement: Do
           vignettes reduce motivational confounding'
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Psychology of Sport and Exercise, Volume 47Author(s): Alexander Lithopoulos, Stina J. Grant, David M. Williams, Ryan E. RhodesAbstractObjectivesSelf-efficacy is one of the most reliable correlates of physical activity, yet a growing body of literature has demonstrated that traditional self-efficacy measures may be flawed because they measure perceived capability and other constructs such as motivation. This study adds to this evidence base by comparing a standard self-efficacy measurement group and two measurement conditions that may provide greater validity: motivation held constant (i.e., adding “If you really wanted to” at the beginning of the item) and vignette (i.e., adding a clarifying vignette before the item). The first objective of this study was to compare these groups regarding self-efficacy scores. The second objective was to examine whether physical activity level (i.e., adhering to physical activity guidelines or not) interacted with measurement condition.DesignRandomized cross-sectional design with three independent groups.MethodParticipants were 444 undergraduate students (M age in years = 21.10, SD = 3.73) who completed an online survey measuring physical activity self-efficacy and behaviour.ResultsThe vignette group had higher self-efficacy scores than the standard and motivation held constant groups. Scores were also higher among those adhering to guidelines and there were no differences between the groups for physically active individuals. Finally, among those not adhering to the guidelines, the vignette group had especially high scores compared to the other groups.ConclusionsThis study demonstrated that reading a vignette prior to completing a self-efficacy item clarifies the meaning of the item thereby improving validity of the measure.
       
  • The effects of smart phone video analysis on focus of attention and
           performance in practice and competition
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Psychology of Sport and Exercise, Volume 47Author(s): Beth Yeoman, Phil D.J. Birch, Oliver R. RunswickAbstractObjectivesResearch has consistently found that focus of attention (FOA) affects motor learning and performance. However, much of the previous work has used artificially manipulated FOA of novice participants performing laboratory tasks. There is a paucity of work that has tested transfer to more complex competition environments. We aimed to investigate the effects of smart phone video analysis, which commonly occurs in natural practice settings in golf, on skilled player’s FOA and performance in both practice and competition.DesignThis study employed a mixed experimental design. The between participants factor was the use of video analysis (practice with video vs practice only) and the repeated measures factor was time point (pre-intervention vs post-intervention).MethodAltogether, 19 skilled golfers (handicap: M = 5.79, SD = 5.80) took part in a four-week practice intervention with (n = 10) or without (n = 9) the use of smart phone video analysis. Driving range performance and competition performance were measured pre- and post-intervention. Practice diaries provided measures of FOA during the intervention period.ResultsThe practice with video group displayed a significantly more internal FOA throughout the intervention period than the practice only group. This resulted in a significant time by group interaction for driving range performance that showed an increase in performance for the practice only group and a decrease for the practice with video group. However, the performance effects did not transfer to competition scores.ConclusionsFindings enhance our understanding of the effects of video analysis on FOA and question whether FOA effects transfer from on range practice to on course performance.
       
  • Para athlete activism: A qualitative examination of disability activism
           through Paralympic sport in Ireland
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Psychology of Sport and Exercise, Volume 47Author(s): Damian Haslett, Inhyang Choi, Brett SmithAbstractObjectivesLittle attention has been given to how Para athletes use their platforms for disability activism. This paper fills this gap by examining how Irish Para athletes take actions to create social change around disability.MethodsA qualitative methodology was adopted. 28 elite-level Irish Para athletes were recruited and participated in interviews. The data set was analysed using a reflexive thematic analysis.ResultsThree themes: ‘Para athlete activisms’ captures different ways of doing disability activism; ‘tensions between different activist identities’ concerns (hyper)critical discourses about various activist identities; ‘ableist influences on Para sport culture’ captures contexts that enable or prevent performing disability activism.ConclusionsThe central theoretical contribution is an interpretation of Para athlete activism in terms of a contextually informed continuum of behaviour change. This article is an evidence base for Para sport cultures that wish to connect with disability activism. Practical opportunities are discussed around the psychology of adversity, social legacy value, identity politics and challenging ableism.
       
  • A holistic ecological approach to sport and study: The case of an athlete
           friendly university in Denmark
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Psychology of Sport and Exercise, Volume 47Author(s): Kristoffer Henriksen, Louise Kamuk Storm, Andreas Kuettel, Lukas Linnér, Natalia StambulovaAbstractObjectivesDual career development environments (DCDEs) exist to support student-athletes in their endeavours to combine sport with education or work. Such environments are likely to vary in their structure, processes, philosophy, and degree of efficiency. With the overall aim of applying the holistic ecological approach (Henriksen, Stambulova & Roessler, 2010) to the study of DCDEs, the objectives of the present study are: (a) to provide a holistic description of a Danish athlete-friendly university as a DCDE, and (b) to investigate the factors influencing the environment’s effectiveness.MethodologyBased on two working models, the study takes a case study approach and a real-time perspective and uses multiple sources of data (interviews, observations, and documents).ResultsTwo empirical models summarize the findings and portray the DCDE as: (1) centred on a dual career (DC) support team that serves to support communication and coordination between the sport, study, and private domains; (2) focused on providing individual solutions for each athlete; (3) teaching student-athletes to plan, prioritize, communicate, and take responsibility for the balance in their DC endeavour; and (4) deeply rooted in a shared DC philosophy that puts sport first and recognizes that the student-athletes must be seen as whole persons.ConclusionResearcher-practitioners in the DC context are encouraged to focus not only on the challenges and coping strategies of the individual student-athletes but to understand and (if necessary) optimize the entire environment around them.
       
  • Implementation of a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program to
           reduce stress, anxiety, and depression and to improve psychological
           well-being among retired Iranian football players
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Psychology of Sport and Exercise, Volume 47Author(s): Ebrahim Norouzi, Markus Gerber, Frough Fattahi Masrour, Mohammad Vaezmosavi, Uwe Pühse, Serge BrandAbstractObjectivesTo test whether a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program could reduce symptoms of anxiety, stress, and depression, and increase psychological well-being among retired Iranian football players compared to an active control group.DesignRandomized controlled trial, with an 8-week MBSR intervention (16 group sessions, 90 min each) and an active control group. Three data assessments were performed at baseline, eight weeks later after completion of the intervention, and again twelve weeks later at follow-up.MethodsForty male retired football players (Mage = 34.05, SD = 1.72) were randomly assigned either to the MBSR intervention or the active control condition. All participants completed questionnaires on perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and psychological well-being. Repeated measures analyses of variance were used to assess time by group interactions.ResultsSignificant time by group interaction effects were found for all outcomes. In the MBSR group, psychological well-being improved and symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression decreased over time from baseline to intervention completion and to follow-up. In the active control group, the outcomes remained relatively stable across time.ConclusionsThe present findings suggest that among male retired Iranian football players, a MBSR intervention has the potential to reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression, and to increase their psychological well-being. Potential (underlying) mechanisms were not assessed in the present study. In future investigations, researchers should try to gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms which may explain the observed effects.
       
  • Integrated mindfulness-based intervention: Effects on mindfulness skills,
           cognitive interference and performance satisfaction of young elite
           badminton players
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Psychology of Sport and Exercise, Volume 47Author(s): Julie Doron, Quentin Rouault, Marc Jubeau, Marjorie BernierAbstractObjectivesMindfulness- and acceptance-based interventions (MABI) in sport settings need further development and validation to fulfil the desired outcomes related to sport performance. The current study aimed to design and implement a MABI integrated into the badminton training of young elite players (MBI programme), and to investigate its impact on sport performance-related outcomes.DesignTwo stages: (a) design and implementation of the MBI programme, and (b) evaluation using a mixed methods approach.MethodParticipants were young elite badminton players, assigned either to the 8-week MBI programme (n = 18; Mage = 16.22), or the 8-week placebo programme (n = 11; Mage = 16.64). Participants completed pre- and post-intervention measures of mindfulness skills, cognitive interference, and performance satisfaction. Social validation interviews were conducted with MBI participants to collect their overall perceptions of the programme.ResultsMANCOVA indicated a large intervention effect on the main outcome variables (partial η2 = 0.58). The results of univariate ANCOVAs showed that post-intervention awareness, performance worries and task-irrelevant thoughts differed significantly across the groups. In addition, follow-up t-tests provided additional information regarding changes from pre- to post-intervention among the MBI and control groups separately. Social validation data gave further insights into what athletes had retained and applied from the MBI programme.ConclusionsContrasting results highlighted the need to better explore mindfulness mechanisms in MABI and the way they are inter-related, in order to strengthen changes in sport performance-related outcomes.
       
  • Careful what you say to yourself: Exploring self-talk and youth tennis
           performance via hierarchical linear modeling
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): Jordan Thibodeaux, Adam WinslerAbstractResearchers have examined self-talk and performance in tennis matches, but the current understanding of speech-to-performance associations in tennis is hindered by conflicting evidence from self-report and observation, and by the use of relatively simple statistical analyses that fail to account for speech and performance events being nested within both points and individuals over time throughout a tennis match. In the current study, 28 youth tennis players (Mage = 12 years) were observed, and their speech and performance coded with the Self-Talk and Gestures Rating Scale. The relation between self-talk and performance was measured on the same point (K), as well as on the subsequent point (K+1). Bivariate (non-nested) analyses supported a concurrent, but not a predictive relation between self-talk and performance, consistent with prior work. With multivariate, hierarchical linear modeling that accounts for total points played in a set within person, and player behavior on the prior point, we found that positive and negative self-talk were strongly related to concurrent point performance, and to a less extent, to subsequent K+1 point performance. The occurrence of positive self-talk on point K appeared to increase the odds of winning the subsequent point compared to when positive self-talk talk did not appear, but the margin was small. Researchers should continue to observe self-talk in athletes, as well as examine multilevel speech-to-performance associations, especially when data are gathered within naturalistic settings in real time.
       
  • Variability and creativity in small-sided conditioned games among elite
           soccer players
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2020Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): Simone Caso, John van der KampAbstractObjectiveSmall-sided conditioned games (SSCG) in soccer are games with a small number of players, often played on smaller than regular pitches and with adapted rules. It has been argued that SSCG foster soccer players’ physical, technical and tactical performances and creativity. This study tested the latter conjecture by analysing video-footage of individual actions of elite soccer players’ in 5 v 5, 6 v 6, 7 v 7 SSCG played during regular training sessions and 11-aside training matches. Based on the ecological dynamics approach, we hypothesized that smaller formats would result in players making more individual actions. We additionally anticipated that the smaller formats players would induce a larger repertoire of actions, that is, an increased variability of actions, and that such increase in variability would be associated with more creative actions. Along the same lines, we reasoned that midfielders would make more creative actions than defenders and attackers.MethodWe categorized 3555 soccer actions on the ball and without the ball of 24 elite soccer players.ResultsPlayers produced more actions in smaller SSCG formats compared to the larger SSCG format and the 11-aside match. They also produced more different actions in SSCG than the 11-aside match. Furthermore, ten creative actions (i.e., actions that were adequate and only made by one or two players) were discerned. The creative actions emerged most often in the smaller SSCG, and were absent in the 11-aside matches. Finally, strikers, defenders and midfielders did not show reliable differences in terms of number, variability and creativity of action.ConclusionSSCG in soccer do indeed stimulate variability and creativity of individual actions. It is important to confirm whether these immediate effects of SSCG generalize across longer time scales.
       
  • Fitness- and appearacen-related self-conscious emotions and sport
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2019Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): Eva Pila, Catherine M. Sabiston, Diane E. Mack, Philip M. Wilson, Jennifer Brunet, Kent C. Kowalski, Peter R.E. CrockerAbstractDespite well-documented benefits of sport participation for adolescents, girls are less likely to initiate participation and more likely to disengage from sport, compared to boys. Due to the highly evaluative and social nature of the sport context, girls’ emotional experiences around their body’s abilities, function, and fitness are important – yet understudied – predictors of sport participation. The objectives of this longitudinal study were to describe changes in fitness-related and appearance-related self-conscious emotions (i.e., guilt, shame, authentic pride, hubristic pride) and sport experiences (i.e., sport commitment, enjoyment, anxiety) over time, and examine whether such emotions predict differences in sport experiences between adolescent girls and variation in girls’ sport experiences across adolescence. A sample of 518 girls involved in organized sport completed questionnaires once a year across a three-year period. Results from multilevel models reveal detrimental changes in emotions, sport commitment and enjoyment among adolescent girls. Further, fitness-related emotions remain significant predictors of sport experiences above and beyond appearance-related emotions thus highlighting the importance of fitness-related emotions in predicting sport experiences. Examining both between and within-person effects is novel in elucidating the predictive capacity of fitness-related emotions as they explain differences between girls – as well as variations in girls’ sport experiences over time.
       
  • A qualitative evaluation of a mental health literacy intervention for
           parents delivered through community sport clubs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2019Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): Diarmuid Hurley, Christian Swann, Mark S. Allen, Stewart A. VellaAbstractIntervention studies have rarely targeted parent mental health literacy despite its importance for adolescent mental health. This qualitative study evaluated the experiences of parents (n = 352) who participated in the Ahead of the Game mental health literacy workshop delivered through community sport clubs. Moreover, the study aimed to investigate the relevance, retention and use of intervention content by parents, assess the acceptability and feasibility of delivering mental health education through community sport clubs, and identify strategies for increased engagement. In total, 17 parents (13 mothers, four fathers) participated in semi-structured interviews up to one month after the workshop. Reflexive thematic analysis revealed that parents perceived mental health education as important and valuable, and believed the community sport club was an appropriate setting to discuss adolescent mental health. Parents reported increased awareness and knowledge of mental health disorders and help-seeking options, and increased confidence and preparedness to communicate and assist someone experiencing a mental health issue. The workshop stimulated conversation about mental health between parents and their children, and between parents within and outside the sport club community. Parents used information and resources provided in the workshop to help those in their networks and reflected back on the workshop when noticing changes in their adolescent’s behavior. Potential additions to the workshop (as suggested by parents) included increased discussion among parents as well as opportunities for further information sessions or tailored online material. Future research might look to engage more fathers, actively encourage parents to aid in the recruitment of others, and investigate long-term adolescent mental health outcomes.
       
  • An internal focus of attention is optimal when congruent with afferent
           proprioceptive task information
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 November 2019Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): Gottwald, Owen, Lawrence, McNevinAbstractWhilst benefits of an external focus are shown to govern several characteristics of skill execution, specificity theory indicates that sources of afferent information most useful to performance execution are typically prioritised during processing.ObjectivesWe investigated whether an internal focus facilitates performance when pertinent afferent information is proprioceptive in nature and congruent with attentional focus. We also considered whether the mechanisms behind attentional focus differences are attributable to planning processes or online motor control.DesignExperiments 1 and 2 adopted a randomised design, whilst experiment 3 used a repeated measures approach.MethodIn Experiment 1 we investigated movement variability as a measure of planning and error correction under external and internal focus conditions in an aiming task. Experiment 2 removed visual information to increase pertinence of proprioceptive feedback for movement execution and Experiment 3 adopted a leg-extension task, where proprioceptive salience was enhanced using an ankle weight. We hypothesized that this would increase congruency between internal focus instructions and movement production.ResultsExperiments 1 and 2 revealed reduced amplitude errors under an internal focus whilst Experiment 3 showed similar findings with the addition of lower EMG activity when adopting an internal focus. Movement variability findings were indicative of enhanced planning.ConclusionsWhen pertinence of proprioceptive information was amplified, benefits of an internal focus were more pronounced and performance was higher. Participants were better able to focus on movement characteristics to process proprioceptive feedback: something not afforded under an external focus. This raises doubts regarding the rigidity of the constrained action hypothesis.
       
  • Testing a coaching assessment tool derived from adult education in adult
           sport
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 November 2019Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): Bradley W. Young, Scott Rathwell, Bettina CallaryAbstractObjectivesThe effective tailoring of instructional approaches to adult learners is beneficial in educational domains. No tool exists to assess coaches’ use of adult-tailored methods in Masters (>35+ years-old) sport. This study tested the content (face) and factorial (convergent, discriminant) validity of a self-report survey, derived from instructor assessment in adult education, for Masters sport coaches’ assessment of adult-oriented approaches.DesignPhase 1 involved a systematic search to nominate a survey for import to sport. Phase 2 involved the vetting of face validity among the researchers, and with 12 Masters coaches. Phase 3 tested the fit of a hypothesized factor structure to survey data from Masters coaches.MethodTwelve coaches (8 m, 4 f, ages = 27–75 years) representing eight sports judged the face validity of the Instructional Perspectives Inventory (IPI), resulting in descriptive statistics for each item’s suitability. A multi-sport sample of 383 Masters coaches (271 m, 110 f, 2 undisclosed; Mage=49.32, SD = 13.60) completed the IPI, with responses submitted to confirmatory factor analyses and exploratory structural equation modeling. Results: Frequencies revealed awkwardness with items from disparate factors of the IPI, especially reverse-coded factors. The hypothesized measurement model was ill fitting to data obtained from sport coaches.ConclusionsImporting an established adult instructor survey from education and establishing its preliminary validity in adult sport was challenging. The resultant survey, even with minor modifications, proved insensitive to the context of Masters sport. Future research should translate content from emerging qualitative literature on the coached Masters context into a more viable quantitative instrument.
       
  • Adaptive thinking: Can adaptive dispositional attributions protect against
           the harmful effects of maladaptive situational attributions'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): Ross M. Murray, Pete Coffee, Robert C. EklundAbstractObjectivesThe study was designed to examine if dispositional team-referent attributions moderate relationships between situational team-referent attributions and collective efficacy.DesignIn this cross-sectional design investigation, team athletes completed measures of dispositional team-referent attributions, situational team-referent attributions, and collective efficacy. Team outcome (i.e., win-loss status) was recorded.MethodAthletes (N = 163) on sport teams (K = 17) completed a measure of dispositional team-referent attributions (i.e., attributional style). They also completed a measure of situational team-referent attributions in reference to their most recent team competition and a measure of collective efficacy in reference to their next upcoming team competition.ResultsFollowing team victory, simple slopes analysis revealed a moderating effect such that adaptive dispositional team-referent attributions appeared to protect against the effects of maladaptive situational team-referent attributions on collective efficacy. This trend was demonstrated across stability and globality attribution dimensions. Following team defeat, no significant interaction effects were observed.ConclusionsThe results suggest that developing adaptive dispositional attributions after success may protect athletes from experiencing deleterious effects of maladaptive situational attributions. Future research is needed to confirm these results and understand how these results can be applied to attributional retraining interventions in sport.
       
  • Multidimensional motivation for exercise: A latent profile and transition
           analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2019Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): Lydia G. Emm-Collison, Simon J. Sebire, Ruth Salway, Janice L. Thompson, Russell JagoAbstractObjectivesTo: a) identify motivational profiles for exercise, using Self-Determination Theory as a theoretical framework, among a sample of parents of UK primary school children; b) explore the movement between motivational profiles over a five year period; and c) examine differences across these profiles in terms of gender, physical activity and BMI.DesignData were from the *PROJECT DETAILS HIDDEN FOR REVIEW* cohort.Methods2555 parents of British primary school children participated across three phases when the child was aged 5–6, 8–9, and 10–11. Parents completed a multidimensional measure of motivation for exercise and wore an ActiGraph GT3X + accelerometer for five days in each phase. Latent profile and transition analyses were conducted using a three-step approach in MPlus.ResultsSix profiles were identified, comprising different combinations of motivation types. Between each timepoint, moving between profiles was more likely than remaining in the same one. People with a more autonomous profile at a previous timepoint were unlikely to move to more controlled or amotivated profiles. At all three timepoints, more autonomous profiles were associated with higher levels of MVPA and lower BMI.ConclusionsThe results show that people’s motivation for exercise can be described in coherent and consistent profiles which are made up of multiple and simultaneous types of motivation. More autonomous motivation profiles were more enduring over time, indicating that promoting more autonomous motivational profiles may be central to facilitating longer-term physical activity engagement.
       
  • The role of instruction preference in analogy learning: Brain activity and
           motor performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2019Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): Tina van Duijn, Hamish Crocket, Rich S.W. MastersAbstractThis study examined the role of verbal instruction preference when learning motor skills by analogy. During skill learning, analogies are a useful tool for providing knowledge about how to move. It has been argued that analogy instructions reduce reliance on verbal information processes during motor planning, compared to traditional forms of instruction (i.e., explicit rules about how to move). This may be reflected by reduced verbal activity in the brain, measured by EEG alpha power at the temporal region, as well as reduced verbal-motor cross-communication (EEG T7-Fz coherence) during the preparation phase of a movement. Preference for using verbal or visual instructions is likely to influence the efficacy of analogy instructions. This study investigated whether preference for verbal instructions was related to a) changes in performance and b) changes in verbal-cognitive information processing during performance of an adapted basketball task after instruction by analogy. Basketball novices with a high preference for verbal instructions (n = 15) showed significantly decreased activation of verbal brain regions when they used the analogy (high-alpha power), but their performance remained stable. Novices with a low preference for verbal instructions (n = 13) did not show a significant decrease in activation of verbal regions, and their performance deteriorated significantly after introduction of the analogy instruction. It is likely that both cognitive and performance changes after analogy instruction depend on personal aspects of information processing, such as verbal preference.
       
  • Psychological characteristics, sport engagement, and performance in alpine
           skiers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2019Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): B. Fawver, R.L. Cowan, B. DeCouto, K.R. Lohse, L. Podlog, A.M. WilliamsAbstractPreviously, investigators have sought to clarify the role of psychological factors in the development of expertise across numerous sport domains; however, almost no empirical work exists on winter sport athletes. Using a retrospective design, we examined associations between psychological traits, engagement in practice-related activities, and performance among sub-elite level, youth alpine skiers. A total of 169 skiers (88 women) enrolled at professional development academies in the United States completed a battery of questionnaires assessing practice history profiles and performance milestones, as well as various psychological factors (e.g., mental toughness, grit, perfectionism). Performance was assessed using national ranking across both speed and technical disciplines. In addition to linear models and MANOVA/MANCOVA tests, linear mixed-effect regressions were utilized to assess relationships between psychological factors, practice hours, and ranking over time. Higher scores on perfectionistic strivings (personal standards) were associated with improved performance. Also, grit was associated with increased engagement in individual practice hours. Coach-led one-on-one practice hours were associated with increased perfectionistic concerns (e.g., parental pressure), while indirect exposure (e.g., attending events without competing) was associated with decreased mental toughness. Findings highlight potentially important associations between athletes’ dispositional characteristics, prolonged ski engagement, and performance trajectory.
       
  • “It’s a big adjustment coming from the reserve to living in a totally
           different society”: Exploring the well-being of First Nations athletes
           playing sports in an urban mainstream context
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 November 2019Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): Shara R. Johnson, Tarrant Crosschild, Jennifer Poudrier, Heather J.A. Foulds, Tara-Leigh McHugh, Louise Humbert, Leah J. FergusonAbstractIndigenous athletes living in remote or rural areas, interested in pursuing sport at elite levels, often relocate from their home communities to urban “mainstream” centres. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore the psychological well-being and multicultural adjustment experiences of two relocating First Nations athletes. Conversational group interviews and photovoice reflections were adopted to hear stories from six participants: two First Nations female siblings who relocated from a rural First Nation community to pursue hockey, the athletes’ parents, and the athletes’ billet parents. Five themes were created to explain how the athletes adjusted and strove to flourish in their new environment: (1) Interconnected webs of support; (2) Managing emotional challenges; (3) Progressing during setbacks; (4) Comfort in new environments; and, (5) Maintaining cultural connections. Findings suggest that First Nations athletes who relocate from their home communities may require a robust support network and nurturing environment to flourish in an urban mainstream sport context.
       
  • Self-affirmation and physical activity messages
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2019Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): Shaelyn M. Strachan, Maxine Myre, Tanya R. Berry, Laura A. Ceccarelli, Brittany N. Semenchuk, Cindy MillerAbstractWe examined the effects of a self-affirmation intervention in conjunction with message frame on attentional bias toward physical activity messages, and explicit psychological and behavioral responses to these messages. Inactive participants (N = 153) completed either a self-affirmation or a control task, were told they were not active enough for health benefits, then read either a gain or loss-framed message, followed by an attentional bias task and questionnaires measuring message processing, psychological reactions and behavior. One week later, participants completed an on-line measure of physical activity. Message frame did not moderate the self-affirmation effect. Self-affirmed participants reported slightly higher self-efficacy for exercising in the future and slightly lower, but not significant, perceived threat than participants in the control group. Self-affirmation and messages may need to be further supplemented with more intense interventions accompanied with adequate resources to facilitate intentions for and actual behavioral change for a complex behavior like physical activity.
       
  • N-of-1 methods: A practical guide to exploring trajectories of behaviour
           change and designing precision behaviour change interventions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2019Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): Dominika Kwasnicka, Felix NaughtonAbstractObjectives(1) To introduce N-of-1 methods and how they can help the researchers identify predictors of behavioural outcomes, (2) to provide examples of studies that test individual theory-based predictions of physical activity and/or exercise; (3) to provide a practical example dataset to illustrate how to design and undertake a basic analysis for an N-of-1 study; and (4) to suggest a future agenda for N-of-1 physical activity and exercise research.DesignFactors for consideration when designing an N-of-1 study include variability of predictors and outcomes, assessment frequency and appropriate analysis methods. Existing literature and piloting can help inform these aspects.MethodsWe use a dataset of 24 individuals who collected data over 28 days to illustrate example analysis procedures. Data, guidance and associated SPSS and R syntax are made available to provide researchers with tools to learn about and practice N-of-1 analysis.ResultsGuidance on dealing with missing data, looking at graphical representations of N-of-1 data, managing autocorrelation using the prewhitening method and analysing N-of-1 datasets is provided. Using the example dataset, we demonstrate how to identify antecedents of physical activity (steps) to assess directionality of associations. We also include an overview of aggregating N-of-1 datasets using multilevel modelling.ConclusionsN-of-1 methodology provides a means of tracking individual patterns of behaviour and identifying potential antecedents of physical activity and exercise to help determine causality. Assisted by mobile technologies, there is great potential to enrich our understanding of movement behaviour using this approach to inform interventions.
       
  • Associations between physical activity and sedentary time profiles
           transitions and changes in well-being in youth: The UP&DOWN longitudinal
           study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 June 2019Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): David Sánchez-Oliva, Irene Esteban-Cornejo, Carmen Padilla-Moledo, Alejandro Pérez-Bey, Óscar L. Veiga, Verónica Cabanas-Sánchez, José Castro-PiñeroAbstractObjectivesThe current study aimed at analyzing the associations between latent transitions based on sedentary time and physical activity levels and changes in Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), positive affect, and negative affect over two years in children and adolescents.DesignLongitudinal design.MethodsParticipants were 1099 children and adolescents (544 girls) aged 8–18 years old (11.72 ± 2.39 years). Sedentary and physical activity levels were assessed by accelerometry. Well-being was approached through self-reported HRQoL, positive affect, and negative affect. Latent profile and latent transition analysis were developed at baseline and 2-year follow-up. Furthermore, we analyzed the cross-sectional relationship between lifestyle profiles and well-being, as well as the associations between profiles transitions and changes in well-being indicators.ResultsFour profiles were identified at both time-points, respectively: highly sedentary (7.7% and 8.3%), sedentary (34.4% and 35.9%), active (46.3% and 44.3%), and highly active (11.6% and 11.5%). Participants belonging to the highly active profiles showed better HRQL (p 
       
  • ‘Habitually deciding’ or ‘habitually doing’' A
           response to Hagger (2019)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2019Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): Benjamin Gardner, Amanda L. Rebar, Phillippa LallyAbstractHagger (2019) offers an insightful synthesis of recent theoretical and empirical developments in understanding of habit and its relevance to physical activity. This commentary extends coverage of one such advance, namely the distinction between two manifestations of habit in physical activity: habitually ‘deciding’ to engage in activity (i.e. habitual instigation), and habitually ‘doing’ the activity (habitual execution). We explore the rationale for this distinction and argue that most contemporary theory and evidence around habitual physical activity – and by extension, Hagger’s review – implicitly focuses on instigation and neglects execution. We offer hypotheses around the potential roles that habitual execution may play in physical activity. Broadening the scope of inquiry within the field to more fully encompass habitual performance would achieve a more comprehensive and informative account that incorporates concepts of skill acquisition and mastery.
       
  • Integrating moral and achievement variables to predict doping likelihood
           in football: A cross-cultural investigation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): Maria Kavussanu, Mariya Yukhymenko, Anne Marie Elbe, Antonis HatzigeorgiadisAbstractObjectivesIn our study, we had two objectives. Our first objective was to test a social-cognitive model of doping in sport. In this model, we examined personal (i.e., moral disengagement, moral identity, anticipated guilt) and contextual (i.e., performance motivational climate) predictors of doping likelihood and whether performance motivational climate moderates the relationship between moral disengagement and doping likelihood. The second objective was to determine whether this model is invariant across sex and country.DesignWe used a cross-sectional study design.MethodParticipants were 1495 (729 females) elite football players (mean age 20.4 ± 4.4) recruited from 93 teams in the UK, Denmark and Greece. They completed questionnaires measuring the aforementioned variables.ResultsMoral disengagement positively predicted doping likelihood both directly and indirectly via anticipated guilt. The direct relationship was significant only when performance climate was perceived as average or high. Moral identity negatively predicted doping likelihood via both moral disengagement and anticipated guilt; and performance climate positively predicted doping likelihood. The model was largely invariant across sex and country.ConclusionsOur findings suggest that young elite football players in the UK, Denmark and Greece are less likely to use banned substances to enhance their performance, if they consider being moral an important part of who they are, and if they perceive a low performance climate in their team. Moral identity is likely to trigger feelings of guilt associated with the use of banned substances. Our findings highlight the importance of moral variables in predicting doping likelihood.
       
  • Daily relations between social perceptions and physical activity among
           college women
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2019Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): Danielle Arigo, Kristen Pasko, Jacqueline A. MogleAbstractObjectivesThere is a need to develop more effective physical activity (PA) promotion programs for college women. Theory and evidence suggest that perceptions of the social environment play a role in college women’s PA, though little is known about how these perceptions are associated with PA at the day level. The goal of this study was to examine relations between changes in college women’s daily social perceptions and objectively assessed PA over seven days.DesignDaily diary method.MethodCollege women (n = 80, MAge = 20, MBMI = 23.1 kg/m2) wore Fitbit wristbands and completed daily self-reports of (1) the quantity and perceived intensity of their social interactions (positive/negative), and (2) the occurrence of social comparisons (based on appearance/health/status) for seven days.ResultsMultilevel models showed daily variability in predictors and outcomes (ps 
       
  • Predictors of cancer survivors’ response to a community-based
           exercise program
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2019Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): Jennifer Brunet, Doris Howell, Darren Au, Jennifer M. Jones, Holly Bradley, Antonia Berlingeri, Daniel Santa MinaAbstractObjectiveTo explore the degree to which sociodemographic (i.e., age, sex, ethnicity, weight status, vocational status, marital status), medical (i.e., stage of cancer, treatment status, comorbidity burden), functional (i.e., self-rated health, exercise capacity), cognitive (i.e., exercise self-efficacy beliefs), and behavioural (i.e., program adherence, extra-curricular exercise) factors predicted cancer-related fatigue and quality of life among 224 cancer survivors who participated in the community-based Wellspring Cancer Exercise Program (WCEP).DesignProspective, quasi-experimental single-group repeated measures design.MethodData on predictors and outcomes were collected using self-report and objective measures upon enrollment in the program (week 0), every 10 weeks until program completion (weeks 10, 20, 30), and at 16-weeks follow-up (46 weeks). Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling.ResultsIn general, participants who were working or transitioning to work, rated their health better, and had higher exercise self-efficacy beliefs had lower cancer-related fatigue, and those who rated their health better and had higher exercise self-efficacy beliefs had higher quality of life. Also, there was a significant interaction between time and exercise self-efficacy beliefs for cancer-related fatigue and quality of life such that greater improvements were observed among participants with higher exercise self-efficacy beliefs.ConclusionCancer survivors’ perceptions of their health and their ability to exercise should be fostered to ensure they respond positively to physical activity programs in terms of cancer-related fatigue and quality of life.
       
  • Within-day time-varying associations between motivation and
           movement-related behaviors in older adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2019Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): Jaclyn P. Maher, Genevieve F. DuntonAbstractObjectivesEmerging evidence suggests both motivation and movement-related behaviors vary within and across days. Yet common data analytic approaches assume static or consistent relationships between motivation and behavior across time. Just as motivation and behavior change across time, so too might associations between motivation and behavior. This study will apply time-varying effect modeling to Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data to examine time of day differences in how motivational constructs predict older adults’ subsequent movement-related behavior over the next 2 h.DesignOlder adults (n = 104) completed a 10-day EMA protocol.MethodParticipants answered up to 6 EMA prompts/day to assess momentary intentions and self-efficacy to stand or move as well as intentions and self-efficacy to limit sedentary time over the next 2 h. Participants wore an activPAL accelerometer continuously to measure time spent being upright (i.e., standing or moving) and time spent sitting.ResultsOn weekdays, intentions and self-efficacy were generally predictive of subsequent behavior in the expected direction over the majority of the day whereas these constructs predicted subsequent behavior in the expected directions over a smaller range of times on weekend days.ConclusionsThis study adds to emerging evidence that associations between motivational constructs and subsequent behavior change over the course of the day, but that changes in associations may be different depending on the day of week. This work has implications for intervention design and the timing of intervention content delivery in approaches like just-in-time adaptive interventions.
       
  • Why do they do it' Differences in high-intensity exercise-affect
           between those with higher and lower intensity preference and tolerance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 April 2019Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): Allyson G. Box, Steven J. PetruzzelloAbstractEvidence suggests high-intensity exercise results in a more negative affective response when compared to moderate- or low-intensity exercise. However, a large number of individuals continue participating in high-intensity exercise, in spite of these supposed declines in affective state.PurposeDetermine whether trait differences influence variability in exercise-affect for those with higher versus lower exercise intensity preference and/or tolerance, and determine the mediating relationship between traits, exercise behavior, and affective states.MethodsUndergraduates (N = 245, 20.3 ± 1.7 yrs, BMI = 23.7 ± 3.8, 60.8% female, 82% regular exercisers) completed the Preference for and Tolerance of the Intensity of Exercise Questionnaire. They then completed a 15-min high-intensity body-weight circuit (HIC), a walk, and a reading condition, where valence (via Feeling Scale), perceived physiological activation (via Felt Arousal Scale), and ratings of perceived exertion were taken prior to, every 3-min during, and 20-min post (P20) condition, while activity enjoyment was assessed immediately post.ResultsMultivariate ANOVAs revealed significant differences (ps 
       
  • The association between negative affect and physical activity among adults
           in a behavioral weight loss treatment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 March 2019Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): Stephanie G. Kerrigan, Leah Schumacher, Stephanie M. Manasse, Caitlin Loyka, Meghan L. Butryn, Evan M. FormanAbstractIntroductionMany individuals engaged in behavioral weight loss make suboptimal increases in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Theoretically, reductions in negative affect could reinforce MVPA. However, little work has been done investigating the association between facets of negative affect (e.g., average levels of negative affect, variability in negative affect) and MVPA among individuals attempting to increase MVPA as part of a behavioral weight loss attempt.MethodsParticipants (n = 139) provided data at month 6 of a year-long behavioral weight loss program (at which point the prescription for MVPA had reached the highest level). Participants wore an accelerometer and provided EMA ratings of affect over the same week.ResultsIndividuals engaged in more frequent and longer periods of MVPA had lower average negative affect and variability in negative affect across the assessment period. Lower negative affect one day predicted greater time spent in MVPA on the next day; lower variability in negative affect than one’s average level also predicted greater time spent in MVPA on the next day. Greater engagement in MVPA than one’s own mean on one day did not predict mean or variability in affect.DiscussionEngaging in MVPA over time may reduce negative affect, while lower negative affect may increase motivation to engage in MVPA. Importantly, day-to-day effects indicated that affect is an important acute predictor of MVPA behavior. It is possible that individuals, particularly those with higher negative affect or variability in negative affect, may benefit from the inclusion of skills to manage negative affect in programs prescribing physical activity.
       
  • Challenging assumptions about habit: A response to Hagger (2019)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2019Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): L. Alison PhillipsAbstractWidely cited literature assumes habits to be: (1) specific and rigid behavioral responses; (2) in response to location- and timing-stable, external contexts, (3) goal-independent, and (4) enacted without conscious awareness. Hagger (2019) recently reviewed this literature as it applies to the physical activity domain. The purpose of this article is to challenge these assumptions in favor of a habit conceptualization that is more applicable to physical activity: (1) behavioral instigation and/or execution can be habitual, allowing for variable responses to cues; (2) stable contexts can be internal or functional (cued by a preceding action) but may vary in timing and physical location; (3) a shift from external to internal goal dependence may characterize habit development; and (4) types of automaticity other than purely nonconscious enactment may characterize habitual action. I present theory and research that supports these alternative characterizations and discuss their ramifications for physical activity adoption and maintenance via habit.
       
  • Longitudinal relations between psychological distress and
           moderate-to-vigorous physical activity: A latent change score approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2019Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): Daniel F. Gucciardi, Kwok Hong Law, Michelle D. Guerrero, Eleanor Quested, Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Nikos Ntoumanis, Ben JacksonAbstractObjectivesThe effect of physical inactivity on mental health risk is well established; however, less is known about about how psychological distress might deter participation in physical activity. Guided by advancements in the treatment of longitudinal data, the aim of this study was to examine patterns and predictors of change in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and psychological distress (e.g., feeling nervous, worthless).Design methodAustralian adults (4944 females, Mage = 34.63 years ±5.34; 4322 males, Mage = 37.51 years ±6.14) provided baseline data as part of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) and were followed for measurements every two years for 10 years.ResultsLatent change score analyses revealed support for a reciprocal effects model, whereby change in MVPA and psychological distress occurred as a function of individuals’ prior levels of, and/or prior change in these variables.ConclusionsThis investigation is the first to document that changes in MVPA and psychological distress are coupled temporally. Notably, we observed that individuals’ distress levels at a given time point predicted subsequent change on both MVPA and distress; a finding which provides novel and important insight into how adults’ activity levels and psychological distress fluctuate relative to one another.
       
  • Feeling states of people experiencing depression, anxiety, or comorbid
           depression and anxiety symptoms during a multi-day charity cycling ride:
           An ecological momentary assessment study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2019Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): Amanda L. Rebar, Rob Stanton, Ruth Wells, Zachary Steel, Simon RosenbaumAbstractObjectiveRegular exercise has substantial benefits for mental health. The way people feel during exercise impacts motivation. This study investigated whether experiencing depression, anxiety or comorbid depression and anxiety symptoms impacted feeling state responses throughout a charity cycling ride.DesignTo achieve this aim, we conducted an ecological momentary assessment study of feeling states (via Pleasant and Negative Affect Schedule items) across a multi-day cause-based cycling event.MethodMultivariate and univariate generalized linear mixed models was applied to test how affective and self-conscious emotional experiences changed across time and whether feeling state change differed between people experiencing depression, anxiety, or comorbid depression and anxiety symptoms.ResultsFor people experiencing depression symptoms, positive feelings decreased and negative feelings increased throughout the event. People experiencing anxiety symptoms had initially elevated negative feeling states that decreased across the event. For people experiencing comorbid depression and anxiety symptoms, changes in pride mirrored that of people experiencing only depression symptoms (decrease from initially high levels); whereas changes in guilt mirrored that of people experiencing only anxiety symptoms (initially high levels that decreased throughout event).ConclusionsThese findings demonstrate that depression and anxiety symptoms put people at risk for having negative affective and emotional experiences during exercise events and that these effects are further complicated when depression and anxiety symptoms co-occur. Exercise events and interventions must consider how to mitigate the potentially demotivating impacts that negative affective judgments can have on motivation for future exercise participation of people experiencing depression and/or anxiety symptoms.
       
  • Comparing the effects of goal types in a walking session with healthy
           adults: Preliminary evidence for open goals in physical activity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2019Source: Psychology of Sport and ExerciseAuthor(s): Christian Swann, Andrew Hooper, Matthew J. Schweickle, Gregory Peoples, Judy Mullan, Daniel Hutto, Mark S. Allen, Stewart A. VellaAbstractObjectivesGoal-setting is one of the most common strategies used to increase physical activity. Current practice is often based on specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-bound (SMART) goals. However, theory and research suggests that this approach may be problematic. Open goals (e.g., “see how well you can do”) have emerged as a possible alternative, but are yet to be tested experimentally in physically active tasks. In a walking-based session, this study aimed to experimentally compare the effects of open, SMART and do-your-best goals with a control condition on distance walked and psychological variables related to engagement.DesignRepeated measures design (mixed model).MethodParticipants (N = 78; Mage = 55.88) were randomly assigned to one of four goal conditions: an open, SMART, or do-your-best goal, or a control condition (“walk at your normal pace”), before completing a baseline and two manipulated attempts of a 6-min walking test.ResultsOpen, SMART, and do-your-best goals achieved greater distance walked, and higher ratings of perceived exertion, than the control across both experimental attempts. Open and SMART goals led to greater enjoyment of the session. However, SMART goals led to higher pressure/tension, while open goals led to higher perceptions of performance and higher interest in repeating the session.ConclusionsThese findings provide preliminary evidence for the efficacy of setting open goals in physical activity, and suggest that they may be more psychologically adaptive to pursue than SMART or do-your-best goals. Implications are discussed, and recommendations are made for future goal-setting research in physical activity.
       
 
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