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EARTH SCIENCES (461 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 371 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Geophysica     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances In Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Algological Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Andean geology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Geographia, Geologia, Mineralogia et Petrographia     Open Access  
Annals of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Annals of GIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anthropocene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Ocean Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Petrochemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Arctic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Artificial Satellites : The Journal of Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Asian Review of Environmental and Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atlantic Geology : Journal of the Atlantic Geoscience Society / Atlantic Geology : revue de la Société Géoscientifique de l'Atlantique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Australian Journal of Earth Sciences: An International Geoscience Journal of the Geological Society of Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas     Open Access  
Boreas: An International Journal of Quaternary Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bulletin of Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Bulletin of Volcanology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Cadernos de Geociências     Open Access  
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Carbonates and Evaporites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
CATENA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemical Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chinese Geographical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ciencia del suelo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencias Espaciales     Open Access  
Climate and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Cogent Geoscience     Open Access  
Comptes Rendus Geoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Contemporary Trends in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Continental Shelf Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Contributions to Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Coral Reefs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cretaceous Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cybergeo : European Journal of Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Depositional Record     Open Access  
Developments in Geotectonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Developments in Quaternary Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Développement durable et territoires     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Diatom Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
E&S Engineering and Science     Open Access  
E3S Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Earth and Planetary Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138)
Earth and Space Science     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Earth Interactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Earth Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Earth Surface Dynamics (ESurf)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Earth System Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Earth System Dynamics Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earth, Planets and Space     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Earthquake Spectra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Ecohydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ecological Questions     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Electromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Energy Exploration & Exploitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Environmental Geosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal  
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Estudios Geográficos     Open Access  
European Journal of Mineralogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
European Journal of Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Exploration Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Facies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Fieldiana Life and Earth Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Física de la Tierra     Open Access  
Folia Musei rerum naturalium Bohemiae occidentalis. Geologica et Paleobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Quaternaria     Open Access  
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Earth Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers of Earth Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Fundamental and Applied Limnology / Archiv für Hydrobiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
GEM - International Journal on Geomathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geo-Marine Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Geoacta     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Geocarto International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Geochemistry : Exploration, Environment, Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Geochronometria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geoderma Regional : The International Journal for Regional Soil Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Geodinamica Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geodynamics & Tectonophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geoenvironmental Disasters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geoforum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Géographie physique et Quaternaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Geography and Natural Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geoheritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geoinformatica Polonica : The Journal of Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences     Open Access  
Geoinformatics & Geostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Geological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Geology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Geology, Geophysics and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geomagnetism and Aeronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GEOmedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geomorphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Geophysical & Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geophysical Journal International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Geophysical Prospecting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
GeoResJ     Hybrid Journal  
Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Geoscience Canada : Journal of the Geological Association of Canada / Geoscience Canada : journal de l'Association Géologique du Canada     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Geoscience Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geoscience Frontiers     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Geoscience Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geoscience Records     Open Access  
Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geosciences Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geoscientific Model Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotectonic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Geotectonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
GISAP : Earth and Space Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Glass Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Global and Planetary Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Global Biogeochemical Cycles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Gondwana Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
GPS Solutions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Grassland Science     Hybrid Journal  
Ground Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Groundwater for Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Helgoland Marine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
History of Geo- and Space Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Hydrobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Hydrogeology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Hydrological Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Indian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Indonesian Journal on Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Geology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Advanced Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advanced Remote Sensing and GIS     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
International Journal of Advancement in Earth and Enviromental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advancement in Remote Sensing, GIS, and Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
International Journal of Coal Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
International Journal of Earthquake and Impact Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geographical Information Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
International Journal of Geomechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Erwerbs-Obstbau
  [SJR: 0.198]   [H-I: 10]   [0 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1439-0302 - ISSN (Online) 0014-0309
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2354 journals]
  • Apfel oder Acai: Brasiliens Obstbau im ökonomischen und klimatischen
    • Authors: M. Blanke
      Pages: 245 - 252
      Abstract: Zusammenfassung Trotz schwieriger wirtschaftlicher Lage (7–10 % Inflation, Konjunkturschwäche, Rezession mit Konsumeinbruch, Petrobras-Skandal und Währungsverlust [4 Real = 1 €]) exportiert Brasilien, weltweit drittgrößter Obstproduzent mit 46 Mio. t Obst auf 2,2 Mio. ha (2013), ca. 3 % der eigenen Obsterzeugung mit einem Warenwert von fast 765 Mio. US $ (2013) – Exportziel für 2017 ist 1 Mrd. US $, davon 80 % nach Europa. Der Apfelanbau Brasiliens zwischen 26° und 31° südl. Breitengrad mit 55 % ‘Gala‘ und 40 % ‘Fuji‘ stieg von 0,65 Mio. t im Jahre 2002 auf eine Rekordernte von 1,4 Mio. t auf 39.600 ha in 2011/12, gefolgt von 1,16 Mio. t in den beiden Jahren 2013/14 und 2014/15 und nur noch 0,8 Mio. t in 2015/16 (Regen zur Blüte) bei leichtem Rückgang der Anbaufläche auf 36.090 ha (2015) aufgrund geringen Kältereizes um Fraiburgo (unter 600 CH) – und damit ähnlicher Erntemenge wie in Deutschland auf 31.400 ha Apfelfläche. Der Apfelanbau in Brasilien ist weitgehend frei von Apfelwickler und Feuerbrand, aber bei 1700 mm Jahresniederschlag von Apfelschorf- und Glomorella-Pilzen betroffen und leidet unter den Folgen des Klimawandels: Ungenügender Kältereiz fördert vertikale vegetative Triebe, flache gesprenkelte Früchte mit langem Fruchtstiel (‘Gala‘), Sonnenbrand (‘Fuji‘) und verhindert den Anbau von Apfel- und Birnensorten mit hohem Kältebedürfnis; warme Nachttemperaturen im Herbst führen zu ungenügender Farbausbildung bei beiden Sorten. Den Obstkonsum Brasiliens von 31,4 kg dominieren die drei Obstarten Apfelsine (7,5 kg), Banane (6,8 kg) und Apfel mit 4,2 kg/Kopf/Jahr (2013) bzw. 6,1 kg/Kopf (2015) im Vergleich zu den großen drei Fleischarten mit ca. 36 kg Rind, ca. 34 kg Schwein und ca. 10 kg Geflügel bei einem Fleischkonsum von ca. 80 kg/Kopf/Jahr. Bisherige staatliche Apfel-Neuzüchtungen von EMBRAPA wie ’Eva’ (low chill, sehr früh; Januar), die nicht lagerfähigen Frühsorten ’Condessa’, ’Monalisa’ und ’Princesa’ (medium chill: 300–450 CH) wurden in den letzten 3 Jahren ergänzt durch neue interessante Lagersorten wie ‘Daiane‘, ‘Venice‘ sowie ‘M 58/07‘ und ‘M 10/09‘ – beide noch ohne Sortennamen – und je eine rote Mutante von ‘Gala‘ (‘Gala, Maxi‘; von RASIP) und ‘Fuji‘ (‘Fuji, Suprema‘) mit 500–600 CH; alle bieten marktorientierte Fruchtqualität mit roten, mittelgroßen, süßen Früchten mit wenig Säure und einem Zucker:Säure-Verhältnis von 25–55:1, fehlt jedoch noch der Marktzugang aufgrund unzureichender Akzeptanz und Vermarktungsstrategie.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-017-0328-8
      Issue No: Vol. 59, No. 4 (2017)
  • Study on Antioxidant Components in Rosé Wine Originating from the Wine
           Growing Region of Moravia, Czech Republic
    • Authors: Mojmir Baron; Jiri Sochor; Lenka Tomaskova; Bozena Prusova; Michal Kumsta
      Pages: 253 - 262
      Abstract: The estimation of antioxidants in fruit, vegetables, beverages, and foodstuffs has been discussed in a great number of scientific studies, but until now, problems concerning the analysis of antioxidant components of rosé wine has not been adequately investigated. This paper presented results of a study on antioxidant components contained in some samples of rosé wine originating from the Moravian wine growing region. The experiments involved altogether 48 samples of rosé wine made of grapes of the varieties ‘Blaufränkisch’, ‘Blauer Portugieser’, ‘Pinot Noir’, ‘Sankt Laurent’, and ‘Zweigeltrebe’. Grapes were harvested in 2013. Spectrophotometry was used to estimated antioxidant activity (53–73 mg L−1 GAE), content of total polyphenols (152–369 mg L−1), hydrocinnamic acid (52–148 mg L−1), flavonols (25–294 mg L−1) and anthocyanins (88–1754 mg L−1). The HPLC method was used for the detection of some important antioxidants, i. e. catechin, epicatechin, malvidin-3-glucoside, cis- and trans-resveratrol, ferrulic acid, coumaric acid and caftaric acid. This study enabled to determine basic profiles of the most important antioxidant components of the most popular Moravian red grapevine varieties. The studied wines were analyzed from several different aspects, which is not standard.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-016-0317-3
      Issue No: Vol. 59, No. 4 (2017)
  • Electrochemical Properties and Biochemical Composition of Cv. Shiraz Wine
           Grape ( V. vinifera  L.) Depending on Various Dose and Application Time
           of Foliar Microbial Fertilizer Treatments
    • Authors: Demir Kok; Erdınc Bal
      Pages: 263 - 268
      Abstract: Utilization from bio fertilization is well known a considerable tool to improve the yield and fruit quality of various crop fruits through the increasing emphasis on maintain of soil health, minimize environmental pollution and decrease the use of chemical fertilization. In this study, in order to improve wine grape quality features of cv. Shiraz, four different doses of foliar microbial fertilizer, including 0, 1000, 2000 and 3000 ppm were applied at two different terms as Term I (mostly; pre-bloom applications) and Term II (mostly; post-bloom applications). However, there were no influences of application terms of foliar microbial fertilizer treatments; treatment doses had considerable effects on yield and quality parameters. The lowest p-values, meaning the highest berry quality, from doses of foliar microbial fertilizer were obtained from 2000 ppm (105.08 μW), 1000 ppm (110.40 μW), 3000 ppm (112.97 μW) and 0 ppm (119.58 μW). Comparing the applications of foliar microbial fertilizer, it was observed that doses of 2000 ppm (3155.56 mg/kg), 1000 ppm (3000.92 mg/kg) and 3000 ppm (2530.19 mg/kg) exhibited higher total phenolic compounds content when compared with 0 ppm treatment (2206.97 mg/kg). Berries from grapevines applied with the doses of 2000, 1000 and 3000 ppm foliar microbial fertilizer respectively shown higher total anthocyanin content such as 1230.19, 1160.85 and 865.86 mg/kg compared to 0 ppm (637.37 mg/kg). As a result, research the findings indicated that 2000 and 1000 ppm doses of foliar microbial fertilizer were obviously effective on wine grape quality features of cv. Shiraz in terms of electrochemical property, total phenolic compounds content and total anthocyanin content.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-017-0319-9
      Issue No: Vol. 59, No. 4 (2017)
  • Chemical and Non-Chemical Thinning Treatments Influence Berry Growth and
           Composition of Cv. Shiraz Wine Grape ( V. vinifera  L.)
    • Authors: Demir Kok; Erdınc Bal
      Pages: 269 - 273
      Abstract: Yield management is important subject in modern grape growing and winter pruning and cluster thinning treatments were used for yield control. Standard cluster thinning is generally labor intensive and expensive method and grape growers try to new methods, which are alternative to cluster thinning for reducing berry set. The goal of the present research was to investigate the effects of chemical thinning treatments such as ethephon (ETH), gibberellic acid (GA3), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and non-chemical thinning treatments such as early leaf removal (ELR) and standard cluster thinning (SCT) on decreasing grape yield and enhancing berry composition of cv. Shiraz. In this study, percentages of berry set of cv. Shiraz were decreased by both chemical and non-chemical thinning treatments compared to Control. The results from these two different thinning methods shown certainly significant differences in berry composition of cv. Shiraz. Eventually, the best results in improved quality characteristics of cv. Shiraz were obtained from ELR treatment and treatments of ELR, ETH, GA3, NAA and SCT successively resulted in considerable enhancements in quality attributes of cv. Shiraz.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-017-0321-2
      Issue No: Vol. 59, No. 4 (2017)
  • Energy Input-Output Analysis of Organic Grape Production: A Case
           Study from Adiyaman Province
    • Authors: Mehmet Fırat Baran; Fuat Lüle; Osman Gökdoğan
      Pages: 275 - 279
      Abstract: In this study, it was aimed to perform an energy analysis of organic grape production in Besni district of Adıyaman province of Turkey. In order to determine the energy input-output of organic grape production, the observations and surveys were performed in the 82 organic grape growers in Adıyaman province. 82 farms were selected on full count method. The data obtained from study were collected from 82 different farms (398.32 hectares) by face to face questionnaires and observations. In organic grape farms, energy input-output analysis was also determinated by observation and survey methods in production season in 2015. In organic grape production, energy input was calculated as 24,875.06 MJ ha−1 and energy output was calculated as 163,430 MJ ha−1. Energy use efficiency, energy productivity, specific energy and net energy in organic grape production were calculated as 6.57; 0.56 kg MJ−1, 1.79 MJ kg−1 and 138,554.94 MJ ha−1, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-017-0322-1
      Issue No: Vol. 59, No. 4 (2017)
  • Antioxidant Capacity, Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Enzymes of Wild
           Grape Seeds from Different Accessions Grown in Iran
    • Authors: Hamid Hassanpour; Rogayeh Khoshamad
      Pages: 281 - 290
      Abstract: Grape seeds contain high levels of phytochemicals, that have been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases. In this study, the polyphenolic content, antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity in the seeds of 20 wild grape accessions native to Iran were investigated. The antioxidant capacity of the wild grape seeds was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Fe2+ chelating. Total phenolic (TP), total flavanoid (TF) and total proanthocyanidin (TPA) content ranged from 44.86 to 155.1, 23.21 to 131.91, and 10.11 to 26.10 mg/g seed, respectively. All seed extracts showed remarkable DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Fe2+ chelating ranging from 27.34 to 78.57%, 198.83 to 590.86 µmol TE/g and 23.12 to 62.98%, respectively. Grape seed extracts had the greatest antioxidant enzymes activity guaiacol peroxidase (G-POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). Based on HPLC analyses, catechin was the most abundant compound identified (25.89 mg/g) for all accessions. Additionally, significant correlations among different antioxidant assays were found. With the high amount of total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity, seeds of P6, P7 and P8 accessions might be evaluated as a nutritional supplement.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-017-0323-0
      Issue No: Vol. 59, No. 4 (2017)
  • Estimation of the Colour Properties of Apples Varieties Using Neural
    • Authors: Zeynel Abidin Kus; Bunyamin Demir; Ikbal Eski; Feyza Gurbuz; Sezai Ercisli
      Pages: 291 - 299
      Abstract: The consumer acceptance and the quality standard of agricultural products such as apple are determined mostly by their colour. Colour is measured with a colorimeter and quantified using the C.I.E. L*, a*, b* colour space system. It is used commonly by researchers for the classification and identification of apple fruit. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first study investigating the prediction of some colour properties of six apple varieties through artificial neural networks (ANN). The apple varieties are ‘Amasya’, ‘Starking’, ‘Granny Smith’, ‘Pink Lady’, ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Arapkızı’ and the colour properties are L* (lightness), a* (redness), b* (yellowness), C* (chroma), h* (hue angle), CI (chroma index). General Regression Neural Networks (GRNN) and Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Interface System (ANFIS) structures were employed to predict the colour properties. According to the experimental and simulation results, the proposed ANFIS predictor had a superior performance in prediction of these colour parameters.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-017-0324-z
      Issue No: Vol. 59, No. 4 (2017)
  • Study of Genetic Diversity of Pear Genotypes and Cultivars ( Pyrus
           communis L.) Using Inter - Simple Sequence Repeat Markers (ISSR)
    • Authors: Shadan Khorshidi; Gholamhossein Davarynejad; Leila Samiei; Mohammad Moghaddam
      Pages: 301 - 308
      Abstract: ISSR molecular marker was used to investigate genetic diversity of ‘Dare Gazi’ genotypes of Mashhad Esteghlal orchard and its relationship with other commercial and native cultivars of pear. Among ‘Dare Gazi’ genotypes of Mashhad Esteghlal orchard 23 genotypes were selected base on difference in tree vigor, leaf color, shape and color of fruit and also 33 other commercial and native pear cultivars from Esteghlal orchard and other Mashhad commercial orchards were studied. A total number of 230 DNA fragments were obtained using 11 primers of which 225 were polymorphic. On average, each primer produced 20.9 bands. Dice similarity coefficient ranged from 0.27 (between ‘Dom Kaj’ and Asian pear) to 1 (between ‘Dare Gazi’ 1 and 2 genotypes). Sample cluster dendrogram indicated that 56 genotypes were divided into 12 distinct clusters. The dendogram generated on the principle of Unweight Pair Wise Method using Arithmetic Average (UPGMA) was constructed by Dice coefficient and the genotypes were grouped into 12 clusters. ‘Dare Gazi’ genotypes did not show 100% similarity due to seed propagation or mutation, as ‘Dare Gazi’ 3 and 18 genotypes had the lowest similarity coefficient (0.64). Asian pears were placed in a separate group from European pears. And ‘Dare Gazi’ genotypes from different orchards were grouped separately, but all of them are called as ‘Dare Gazi’ pear for convenience. ISSR molecular marker can well identify the genetic variability among genotypes and cultivars and found suitable for grouping them.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-017-0325-y
      Issue No: Vol. 59, No. 4 (2017)
  • Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on Branching
           and Growing of Apple Sapling
    • Authors: Nazmi Coşkun; Lütfi Pırlak
      Pages: 309 - 313
      Abstract: According to the control, applications increased sapling height and this increasing was found important as statistically. Generally, bacteria applications more increase than Perlan on sapling height. Effect of bacteria and Perlan applications on sapling diameter showed different in cultivars and years. Generally, sapling diameter was increase by applications. Applications that on branching was important in 2009, but not important in 2010 as statistically. The most effective applications on branching were T8 and BA-8+T8 in ‘Granny Smith’, in ‘Red Delicious, Red Chief’ BA-8+T8 and BA-8, in ‘Fuji’ Perlan and BA-8 in 2009. Effect of applications on lateral branch degree was different in years and cultivars. According to the control, bacteria and Perlan applications raised length of lateral branch also bacteria was more effective than Perlan. Finally, plant growth promoting bacteria more increased branching and sapling quality than Perlan.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-017-0326-x
      Issue No: Vol. 59, No. 4 (2017)
  • Physico-Chemical Profiling of Promising Sweet Orange Cultivars Grown Under
           Different Agro-Climatic Conditions of Pakistan
    • Authors: Syed Bilal Hussain; Muhammad Akbar Anjum; Sajjad Hussain; Shaghef Ejaz; Maqsood Ahmed
      Pages: 315 - 324
      Abstract: Sweet oranges are produced on large scale all over the world and demanded due to less number of seeds and are better juice quality. A study was carried out with the objective to characterize promising sweet orange cultivars for better quality fruits production under different agro-climatic conditions of Punjab (Pakistan). Fruits of three promising sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) cultivars viz. ‘Blood Red’, ‘Musambi’ and were harvested from commercial citrus groves at five different locations. Starting from Multan, in the direction of increasing altitude, four more sites viz. Sahiwal, Faisalabad, Sargodha and Chakwal were selected after every 100–150 km distance. Fruits were evaluated in terms of different physical and biochemical characters. Results showed significant influence of climatic conditions on physico-chemical properties of the cultivars at all the locations. Fruits harvested from Multan and Sahiwal showed higher fruit weight, diameter and peel weight. More juicy fruits with higher vitamin C content were produced under mild temperature environmental conditions of Chakwal. Overall, ‘Musambi’ fruits had more total soluble solids and reducing and total sugars. ‘Musambi’ was found to be good source of bioactive compounds i. e. vitamin C and total phenolic content, had the maximum antioxidant activity as compared to ‘Blood Red’ and ‘Succari’ and may be explored as potential cultivar in Sargodha and Chakwal.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-017-0327-9
      Issue No: Vol. 59, No. 4 (2017)
  • Energy Input-Output Analysis in Organic Mulberry ( Morus spp. ) Production
           in Turkey: a Case Study Adiyaman-Tut Region
    • Authors: Osman Gokdogan; Halil Ibrahim Oguz; Mehmet Firat Baran
      Pages: 325 - 330
      Abstract: The goal of this study is to do the energy input-output analysis of organic mulberry. This study was conducted at the organic mulberry producing facilities during the 2015–2016 production seasons in Adiyaman-Tut region of Turkey. The agricultural input energies and output energies used in organic mulberry production were computed to determine the energy input-output analysis. According to the research findings, the energy inputs in organic mulberry production were computed respectively as 3948 MJ ha−1 (59.01%) drip and sprinkler irrigation energy, 1092.42 MJ ha−1 (16.33%) gravity irrigation energy, 449.33 MJ ha−1 (6.72%) diesel fuel energy, 416.52 MJ ha−1 (6.23%) farmyard manure energy, 335.14 MJ ha−1 (5.01%) human labour energy, 253.52 MJ ha−1 (3.79%) machinery energy, 93.12 MJ ha−1 (1.39%) transportation energy, 75.78 MJ ha−1 (1.13%) animal labour energy and 26.62 MJ ha−1 (0.40%) organic fertilizer energy. Total input energy was computed as 6690.46 MJ ha−1. Production output organic mulberry yield were calculated as 37,627.84 MJ ha−1. The energy output/input ratio, specific energy, energy productivity and net energy computations were computed respectively as 5.62, 1.51 MJ kg−1, 0.66 kg MJ−1 and 30,937.37 MJ ha−1. The consumed total energy input in organic mulberry production could be classified as 88.20% direct, 11.80% indirect, 88.10% renewable and 11.90% non-renewable.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-017-0333-y
      Issue No: Vol. 59, No. 4 (2017)
  • Determination of Energy Input-Output Analysis in Plum ( Prunus domestica
            L.) Production
    • Authors: Mehmet Firat Baran; Halil Ibrahim Oguz; Osman Gokdogan
      Pages: 331 - 335
      Abstract: The aim of this research is to compose the energy input-output analysis of plum in Nevsehir province in Turkey. This research was conducted at the plum cultivating facilities during the 2015–2016 production seasons in Nevsehir province of Central Anatolian Region in Turkey. The agricultural input energies and output energies used in plum cultivation were calculated to determine the energy input-output analysis. According to the research findings, the energy inputs in plum cultivation were calculated respectively 3920 MJ ha−1 (44.99%) chemical fertilizers energy, 1618.91 MJ ha−1 (18.58%) diesel fuel energy, 1125.85 MJ ha−1 (12.92%) chemicals energy, 1069.20 MJ ha−1 (12.27%) machinery energy, 723.24 MJ ha−1 (8.30%) human labour energy and 255 MJ ha−1 (2.93%) irrigation water energy. Production output plum yield were calculated as 12,112.50 MJ ha−1. The energy output/input ratio, specific energy, energy usage efficiency and net energy calculations were calculated respectively as 1.39, 1.37 MJ kg−1, 0.73 kg MJ−1 and 3400.30 MJ ha−1.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-017-0332-z
      Issue No: Vol. 59, No. 4 (2017)
  • Sustainable Mitigation of Alkaline Stress in Grapevine Rootstocks ( Vitis
           spp.) by Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria
    • Authors: Ummuhan Karaca; Ali Sabir
      Abstract: Practical use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on plants under stress conditions remains elusive because most of the studies focused on merely evaluating the plant growth-promoting effects on non-stressed plants. This study focused on the effect of root inoculation of different PGPRs on the growth and physiology of grapevine rootstocks 41 B, 99 R and 140 Ru grown in soilless culture with elevated pH. The rootstocks in pots under glasshouse condition were inoculated with Agrobacterium rubi A18 and Bacillus subtilis OSU 142 bacteria in early spring. To increase the pH of growth medium, the plants were watered with 250 mL plant−1 bicarbonate solution (840 g L−1 NaHCO3) four times (beginning at 3–4 cm shoot growth) with one-month interval during the vegetation. Along with the bicarbonate supplementation to growth medium, root rhizosphere pH increased from an initial value 7.76 to the final values between 8.10 and 8.26. Although the bacteria population decreased progressively, they were able to alleviate the negative effects of high pH by improving vegetative growth, leaf physiology and nutrient acquisition in many cases. The bacteria strains employed in this study can be recommended to support grapevine growth and physiology under alkaline conditions for a sustainable and environment-friendly viticulture.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-017-0361-7
  • Nachruf
    • PubDate: 2017-11-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-017-0360-8
  • The role of Pre-harvest Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) Treatments on Total
           Phenolics, Antioxidant Capacity and Fruit Quality Attributes of Sweet
           Cherry Cultivars
    • Authors: Kenan Yildiz; Kemal Kilic; Yakup Ozkan; Burhan Ozturk; Emine Kucuker
      Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of pre-harvest aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) treatments on fruit quality parameters and bioactive compounds of sweet cherry fruits (Prunus avium L. cvs. ’0900 Ziraat’, ‘Regina’ and ’Sweetheart’). Whole trees were sprayed once with an aqueous solution containing AVG (0, 100 and 200 mg L−1) three weeks before the anticipated commercial harvest. Measurements were performed a week before anticipated harvest date, at anticipated harvest date and a week after anticipated harvest date. AVG treatments significantly maintained flesh firmness of all three sweet cherry cultivars. Harvest was delayed at least for a week through the keeping of flesh firmness with AVG treatments. The treatments slowed down the red skin color development in all three cultivars. The measurements performed over fruits collected at different ripening stages revealed that AVG resulted in decreased total phenolics and total anthocyanin and ultimately decreased antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry fruits. AVG treatments also decreased soluble solids content and increased titratable acidity of the fruits. This study revealed that pre-harvest AVG treatments were more effective in delaying sweet cherry fruit softening. The main advantage is to maintain the firmness of late-harvested fruit by retaining fruit quality attributes of sweet cherry fruit.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-017-0362-6
  • Determining the Physico-Chemical Characterstics of the Rosehip Genotypes
           Grown Naturally in Adiyaman Province
    • Authors: Deniz Eroğul; H. İbrahim Oğuz
      Abstract: Turkey is an important gene centre of rosehip populations and rosehip is naturally grown in the province of Adıyaman. This study has been conducted on rosehip fruits found in various altitudes in Adıyaman to determine the changes of their physico-chemical characteristics. The fruit weights of the genotypes used in the study ranged between 2.72 g–1.29 g, fruit width between 14.12–10.44 g and fruit length has ranged between 23.18 mm–18.62 mm. The rosehip genotypes to be processed to food are required to have a bulky fruit and a high amount of fruit flesh. The genotype with the highest fruit flesh ratio was found to have the lowest seed weight by 0.25 g, while the genotypes with the highest seed weight had this value ranging between 0.50–0.59 g. Rosehip genotypes dry matter ratio has ranged between 44.27 and 37.11%. While the a*, b*, C* and h° values of rosehip fruits had significant differences based on the genotypes, L* values had similarities. Genotypes had ranging WSDM contents of 33.56–22.50%, TA contents of 2.96–1.57%, pH values of 4.06–3.82, C vitamins of 782.34–352.16 mg/100 g, total phenol contents of 5.42–3.62 mg GAE/g DM and antioxidant activities of 113.60–56.80 µmol TE/g DM. The rosehip fruits containing high levels of fructose and glucose were found to be low in saccharose content. Fructose, glucose and saccharose contents of rosehip genotype fruits were found to be 22.93–16.86, 20.22–13.77 and 0–0.90 g/100 g DM, respectively. According to the outcomes of the study, physico-chemical characteristics of the rosehip fruits displayed significant differences, and these differences were affected by type, genotype and ecologic conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-017-0358-2
  • Design of Neural Network Predictor for the Physical Properties of Almond
    • Authors: İkbal Eski; Bünyamin Demir; Feyza Gürbüz; Zeynel Abidin Kuş; Kadir Uğurtan Yilmaz; Mehmet Uzun; Sezai Ercişli
      Abstract: In this study, an adaptive neuro fuzzy interface system (ANFIS) based predictor was designed to predict the physical properties of four almond types. Measurements of the dimensions, length, width and thickness were carried out for one hundred randomly selected samples of each type. With using these three major perpendicular dimensions, some physical parameters such as projected area, arithmetic mean diameter, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, surface area, volume, shape index and aspect ratio were estimated. In in a various Artificial Neural Network (ANN) structures, ANFIS structure which has given the best results was selected. The parameters analytically estimated and those predicted were given in the form of figures. The root mean-squared error (RMSE) was found to be 0.0001 which is quite low. ANFIS approach has given a superior outcome in the prediction of the Physical Properties of Almond Nuts.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-017-0349-3
  • Polypeptide Alteration During The Cold Stratification In Mazzard Seed
    • Authors: Servet Aras; Emine Arslan; Ahmet Eşitken; Merve Kılıç
      Abstract: Many seeds of woody plants require low temperature for germination and that’s called seed dormancy has been investigated for relations of proteins by several researchers. We determined polypeptide profiles of cold-stratified Mazzard seeds. Seeds were studied in five different periods: seeds in dormancy (none stratified), 30, 60, 90 and 120 days cold-stratified. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE) of the soluble protein fractions from stratified and none stratified seeds was utilized for determination of changes in polypeptides. SDS-PAGE revealed a decrease in the concentrations of 14 polypeptides and appearance of four low-molecular weight (15.1, 16.3, 17.8 and 19.4 kDa) polypeptides were determined in 90 and 120 day stratified seeds. The study results exhibited the evidences of the involvement of protein changes in response of Mazzard seeds during cold stratification.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-017-0356-4
  • Evaluation of Pomological and Morphological Characteristics and Chemical
           Compositions of Local Pear Varieties ( Pyrus communis  L.) Grown in
           Gumushane, Turkey
    • Authors: Ozgun Kalkisim; Zuhal Okcu; Besim Karabulut; Duygu Ozdes; Celal Duran
      Abstract: The aim of the present research was to investigate the fruit quality of twenty different local pear varieties (Pyrus communis L.), namely Ahlat, Ankara, Arpa, Bıldırcın, Çermai, Cinci, Gelin Boğan, Hacı Hamza, Hahır, Kabak, Kızıl, Kokulu, Mehrani, Menendi, Sulu, Şalgam, Tokat Sultanı, Turşu, Yaz, and Yaz Meyriği, grown in Gumushane province in terms of pomological and morphological characteristics and chemical compositions. The fruit mass, fruit width and length, fruit stem thickness and length, fruit kernel width and length, hardness of pulp, number of seeds, leaf width and length, leaf stem length and thickness, and water soluble dry matter (WSDM) of the pear fruits have been determined as pomological and morphological characteristics. On the other hand, the chemical compositions of the pear varieties have been evaluated in terms of protein, ash, sucrose, fructose, glucose, total sugar, titratable acidity, moisture, and mineral element levels. Both pomological and morphological results demonstrated that the local pear varieties are important in terms of rehabilitation studies and detailed selection studies on these local varieties should be performed. The chemical analyses result of the pear varieties revealed that there is no component that may be harmful to human health when consumed, and also these varieties contains the necessary amount of mineral elements.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-017-0354-6
  • Root System Distribution of Highbush Blueberry Crops of Various Ages in
           Medium-Textured Soils
    • Authors: Cristian Paltineanu; Mihai Coman; Silvia Nicolae; Irina Ancu; Mirela Calinescu; Monica Sturzeanu; Emil Chitu; Mihaela Ciucu; Claudia Nicola
      Abstract: The paper deals with the spatial distribution of root density in highbush blueberry plantations of various ages for a proper planting distance recommendation and a better irrigation and fertilization management. The environmental conditions consist of sandy-loamy soils and a continental temperate climate. Two highbush blueberry cultivars were studied, ‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Blueray’. Root density (RD) and density of root cross-sectional area (RCSA) were investigated for various root diameters. It was found that the prevalent type of roots in highbush blueberry crops is the hair type, with root diameters less than 0.1 mm. Both RD and RCSA decreased with distance from plant and with soil depth; the 38-year-old crop showed a more developed root system versus the 8‑year-old crop. In both cases the roots did not grow more than 0.6 m laterally and more than 0.7 m deep. According to these results, the planting distances in highbush blueberry could be reduced to substantially increase the number of plants/ha and fruit yield. Irrigation application should be carried out to wet a proper soil volume, about 0.6–0.7 m deep for older crops, and about 0.5 m deep for younger crops.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-017-0357-3
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