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EARTH SCIENCES (463 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Geophysica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances In Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Algological Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Andean geology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales UMCS, Geographia, Geologia, Mineralogia et Petrographia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Annals of GIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Annals of Glaciology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anthropocene     Hybrid Journal  
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Ocean Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Petrochemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Remote Sensing Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Arctic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Artificial Satellites     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Atlantic Geology : Journal of the Atlantic Geoscience Society / Atlantic Geology : revue de la Société Géoscientifique de l'Atlantique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Australian Journal of Earth Sciences: An International Geoscience Journal of the Geological Society of Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas     Open Access  
Boreas: An International Journal of Quaternary Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Bulletin of Volcanology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cadernos de Geociências     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Carbonates and Evaporites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
CATENA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese Geographical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chinese Journal of Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia del suelo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencias Espaciales     Open Access  
Climate and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cogent Geoscience     Open Access  
Comptes Rendus Geoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contemporary Trends in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Continental Shelf Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Coral Reefs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cretaceous Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cybergeo : European Journal of Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Depositional Record     Open Access  
Developments in Geotectonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Developments in Quaternary Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Développement durable et territoires     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Diatom Research     Hybrid Journal  
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
E&S Engineering and Science     Open Access  
E3S Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Earth and Planetary Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 101)
Earth and Space Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earth Interactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Earth Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Earth Surface Dynamics (ESurf)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Earth System Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Earth System Dynamics Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earth, Planets and Space     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Earthquake Spectra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ecohydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Electromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Energy Exploration & Exploitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Journal Cover   Erwerbs-Obstbau
  [SJR: 0.206]   [H-I: 9]   [0 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1439-0302 - ISSN (Online) 0014-0309
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2276 journals]
  • Evaluation of the Effect of Different Harvest Time on the Fruit Quality of
           Foşa Nut
    • Abstract: Abstract This study was carried out in Arsin (Trabzon/Turkey) in 2011. The effects of different harvest time and altitudes on the quality of the nuts have been investigated. The study was performed on Foşa hazelnut and the harvest process has been conducted at three terms, which are on normal harvest time and ten days before and after harvest time. The harvested nuts were dried in the shade on the concrete floor until their moisture content decreased to 5 %. Some properties of nuts including yield, fruit weight, internal weight, shell thickness, and protein, oleic, and linoleic acid amounts have been investigated. As evaluated all of the fruit properties it can be concluded that 11 August is the most suitable harvest date for coast zone. On the other hand, no significant differences were obtained in the point of protein, oleic, and linoleic acid amounts for different harvest time and altitudes.
      PubDate: 2015-11-17
  • Determination of Some Engineering Properties of Pecan ( Carya
           illinoinensis ) for New Design of Cracking System
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, strength and frictional properties of pecan was determined as a functional of moisture content. A pecan was loaded between two parallel plates to determine the rupture force, deformation, power and firmness required to initiate pecan rupture and determined static and dynamic friction. The tests were carried out at five moisture contents of 5.23 %, 10.36 %, 15.78 %, 20.08 % and 25.42 % db and three axes (X, Y, Z). Physical characteristics of the pecan such as mass, dimensions (length, thickness and width), geometric mean diameter, sphericity, volume, and shell thickness were determined. The force required to initiate nut rupture decreased from 112.321 to 98.723 N, from 82.872 to 63,988 N and from 80.093 to 62.758 N for the length, suture and width orientations of loading with an increase in moisture content. The highest toughness (20.460 Jmm− 3) was obtained at moisture content of 25.42 % db. The firmness decreased to a minimum value when moisture content was increased from 5.23 to 10.36 % db and later increased as moisture content was increased further from 10.36 to 25.42 % db. The static and dynamic coefficients of friction on various surfaces, namely, plywood, mild steel and galvanized metal also increased linearly with increase in moisture content. The plywood surface offered the maximum friction followed by mild metal and galvanized metal.
      PubDate: 2015-11-16
  • Determination of Pomological and Morphological Characteristics and
    • Abstract: Abstract The present study was conducted in order to determine the pomological and morphological characteristics and chemical compositions of some local apple varieties grown in Gumushane. As a result of field work in Gumushane province, sixteen different apples, which are Summer Apple, English apple, Green Belly, Black Belly and Yellow Belly Apples, Amasya Marble, Bey Apple, Chest Apple, Mahsusa, Arabian Girl, Willow Apple, Tavşanbaşı, Yellow Hıdır, Local Marble, Bride Apple, and Fatty Apple were collected in order to analyze. The average results of pomological and morphological properties and chemical compositions were obtained as following: fruit mass; 127.36 g, fruit width; 65.23 mm, fruit length; 57.30 mm, fruit stalk thickness; 2.17 mm, fruit stalk length; 17.63 mm, stalk pit depth; 12.75 mm, flower pit depth; 10.29 mm, fruit firmness; 13.79 kg/cm2, seed house width; 15.89 mm, seed house length; 17.39 mm, number of seeds; 4.3, water soluble dry matter content; 14.53 %, ash content; 1.11 %, pH; 3.8, titratable acidity; 0.69 g/L, water content; 83.8 %, reducing sugar; 5.04 g/100 g, sucrose; 2.25 g/100 g, and the amount of total sugars; 7.29 g/100. The fruit peel color was determined by considering the light transmittance (L). The average L values were ranged between 112.06 and 66.32. On the other hand among the mineral elements, potassium and manganese amounts were determined as the highest and the lowest, respectively.
      PubDate: 2015-11-16
  • The Relationship Between Growth Vigour of Rootstock and Phenolic Contents
           in Apple ( Malus × domestica )
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of the study is to determine the effect of different growth vigorous rootstocks on phenolic compounds in leaves of apple. For this purpose it was used the leaves of cultivar ‘Red Chief’ grafted on dwarf (M9), semi-dwarf (M26) and semi-vigorous (MM106) rootstocks. During mid-July, the leaf samples were taken from the middle part of annual shoots. Phenolics of the leaves were determined by HPLC analysis. While significant differences among the rootstocks for p-hydroxybenzoic acid, eriodictyol, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid were detected, these differences were insignificant for gallic acid and quercetin. It was shown that semi-vigorous rootstocks (MM106) had higher phenolic contents in total than the other two dwarf rootstocks. In addition, apigenin-7-glucoside, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, epicatechin, syringic acid, catechin, rutin, resveratrol, hesperidin, naringenin, luteolin, apigenin and acacetin could not to be detected. Data showed that there is the relationship between growth vigour and phenolic contents of apple leaves. Especially, p-hydroxy benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid contents were higher in semi-vigorous rootstock than in dwarf rootstock.
      PubDate: 2015-11-10
  • Chemical Compositions of Myrtle ( Myrtus communis L.) Genotypes Having
           Bluish-Black and Yellowish-White Fruits
    • Abstract: Abstract Total soluble solids, acidity, pH, tannic acid, ascorbic acid, phenolic and fatty acid compositions of fruits of four myrtle genotypes (two with bluish-black and two with yellowish-white-colored fruits) were investigated in the study. Total soluble solids, acidity, pH, tannic acid and ascorbic acid contents of myrtle genotypes ranged from 15.50 % to 24.00 %, from 0.06 % to 0.15 %, from 5.38 to 5.64, from 23.63 µg/g to 52.46 µg/g and from 1.43 mg/100 g to 2.82 mg/100 g among genotypes, respectively. Predominant phenolic compounds were naringin, gallic and clorogenic acids for the genotypes having yellowish-white fruits and naringin, gallic, caffeic, p-hydroxybenzoic, chlorogenic and syringic acids for the genotypes having bluish-black fruits. Rosmarinic, p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acids were detected from only genotypes having bluish-black fruits. While caffeic acid was found at very high levels in Genotype 2 and Genotype 11 having bluish-black fruits (181.50 and 157.95 µg/g, respectively), a very low level of caffeic acid (2.95 µg/g) was detected in only the fruits of Genotype 17 having yellowish-white fruits. The data suggest a positive relationship between these phenolics (caffeic, rosmarinic, p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acids) and bluish-black color in fruits. Total fat contents of fruits ranged from 3.83 to 4.13 % among genotypes. The predominant fatty acids of myrtle fruits were linoleic acid (69.47–71.71 %), palmitic acid (10.18–13.40 %) and oleic acid (10.14–13.48 %). The proportion of unsaturated fatty acids changed between 81.09 and 83.97 % in the genotypes evaluated.
      PubDate: 2015-10-22
  • The Investigation of Relationships Between Some Fruit and Kernel Traits
           with Canonical Correlation Analysis in Ankara Region Walnuts
    • Abstract: Abstract Canonical correlation analysis is a multivariate technique, which is employed to examine relationships between two variable sets, each of that consist of two or more variables. In the analysis, by maximizing the relationships between two sets, it is aimed to obtain new variables called as canonical variates that formed by linear combinations of the original variables for each sets. In this study, it is aimed to examine the relationships between some fruit and kernel characteristics of Ankara region walnuts. Thus, the following eight traits Fruit Length (mm), Fruit Width (mm) Fruit Height (mm) Fruit Weight (g), Shell Thickness (mm), Kernel Weight (g), Kernel Ratio (%) and Filled-firm Kernel Ratio (%) of 364 walnut samples were measured. First five of these characteristics were grouped as X variable and the rest of as Y variable. As a result, the correlation between the first canonical variable pair was found as 0.979 (p < 0.01).
      PubDate: 2015-10-21
  • Estimating the Economic Costs and Level of Pesticide Use in Oil Rose (
           Rosa damascena Mill .) Orchards: Evidence from a Survey for the Lakes
           Region of Turkey
    • Abstract: Abstract The main objective of this study was to estimate the economic losses resulting from overdose used of pesticide and determining of economic costs on practices of pesticide application and level of pesticide use on oil rose production in Turkey. Lakes Region of Turkey was chosen as research area because oil rose is a major crop grown in the study area. The data used in this study were collected from oil rose growers using a face-to-face interview. The result of the analyses showed that farmers use agricultural chemical more than the recommendations of extension units, depending on the prospectus of chemicals in the oil rose production. The average usages per hectare of active ingredient of insecticides and fungicides were determined to be 2 612.80 and 2 347.50 gr-ml-cc, respectively. An average plant protection cost was € 593.31 ha−1, which was 25.17 % of total oil rose production costs. It was calculated that economic loss was € 172.37 per hectare due to overdose of agricultural chemicals. The percentages of this loss were 58.66 %, 37.56 % and 3.78 % copper sulfate, pesticides and sulfur, respectively. It was calculated that economic loss was € 64.73 per hectare due to overdose of pesticides. The percentages of this loss are 61.40 % and 38.60 % insecticide and fungicide, respectively. Gain threshold was calculated as 637.75 kg ha−1.
      PubDate: 2015-09-23
  • Bestimmung pomologischer und morphologischer Eigenschaften mit Hilfe der
           Fettsäurezusammensetzung bei Genotypen der Walnuss mit einem
           günstigen Verhältnis zwischen Nussschale und Nusskern
    • Abstract: Abstract In this selection survey that was performed to select the types with superior properties among the population of seedling walnut trees in Çankırı location, fruit samples were collected individually from 67 trees. Than these types were evaluated for fruit and tree properties and eight walnut types with fruit weight between 11.90 and 15.83 g, interior weight between 6.66 and 8.82 g, the interior ratio between 53.06 and 60.41 %, shell thickness between 1.21 and 1.50 mm were selected as promising. For these types the shell color was determined as dark in two types and tawny in six types. The inner color was found to be light yellow in four types and dark yellow in four types. The selected types were in a good condition for full and sound interior ratio. Seven types gave 100 % full and sound inner. Whereas one type gave 20 % empty fruit. Four types showed homogamous blooming, one types showed protandrous blooming and three types displayed protogynous blooming. The total oil content of selected types varied from 43.16 to 58.68 %. The range of fatty acid contents in the fruits of these types were also determined between 50.83 and 60.77 % for linoleic acid, between 16.14 and 26.44 % for oleic acid, between 5.42 and 7.29 % for palmitic acid, between 11.08 and 14.25 % for linolenic acid and between 1.70 and 2.55 % for stearic acid.
      PubDate: 2015-07-24
  • Exkursionsbericht: Kernobstanbau in Australien
    • Abstract: Zusammenfassung Die Postkongress Exkursion des IHC bot einen Einblick in den Kernobstanbau im Granitgürtel am 28° südlichen Breitengrad südlich von Brisbane. Die Kombination von Hügellagen mit Winterkälte und Sommerregen ermöglicht ein gemäßigtes Mikroklima, das nicht nur den Anbau, sondern auch eine Ernteverfrühung von Äpfeln ermöglicht. Kleine Bäume, „Pedestrian orchards“ ohne Einsatz von Arbeitsbühnen, erzielen bei den Standardsorten wie ‚Gala‘, ‚Granny Smith‘ und ‚Pink Lady‘ auf M 26 Erntemengen um 80 t/ha. Hagelschutznetze sind weit verbreitet; die Netze stammen häufig aus Neuseeland, die Pfosten sind Hartholz-Eucalyptusstämme aus Buschrodungen; Honigbienen (5 Völker/ha) – Australien ist Varroa frei- werden unter dem Hagelschutznetz zur Bestäubung der Apfelblüten eingesetzt. Alternanz ist kein Problem. Automatisierung und Mechanisierung spielen bei einem gesetzlichen Mindestlohn von € 14/h in der Obstbauforschung eine große Rolle sowie der prognostizierte Verlust an winterlichem Kältereiz (Chilling). Arbeitskräfte sind Rucksacktouristen vorwiegend aus Europa, auch aus Deutschland; einheimische Kräfte sind aufgrund des hohen Wohlstandes und der geringen Arbeitslosigkeit im Land schwer zur Arbeit auf dem Feld zu bewegen. Nachhaltigkeit und Carbon Footprint spielen auch deshalb eine große Rolle in einem Umfeld mit hohen Kosten, hohen Preisen, aber auch hohen Umsätzen. Australien ist offiziell frei von Feuerband. Dies ist häufig ein Streitpunkt bei Apfelimporten aus Neuseeland.
      PubDate: 2015-07-23
  • Fruit Weight, Total Phenolics, Acidity and Sugar Content of Edible Wild
           Pear ( Pyrus elaeagnifolia Pall.) Fruits
    • Abstract: Abstract Wild pear (Pyrus eleagnifolia) is a naturally grown species mainly in inner Anatolia and its edible small fruits are traditionally consumed by local peoples and are called “Ahlat” in Turkey. Its seedlings are also used as rootstock for commercial pear cultivars. In this study, we reported first time pomological characteristics and biochemical compositions in fruits of a wide number selected wild pears genotypes (Pyrus eleagnifolia Pall.) from inner Anatolia. The obtained results revealed that there were significant differences among wild pear genotypes for all analyzed parameters. Fruit weight, total phenolics, total acidity and total sugar contents of the fruits varied from 4.71 to 27.09 g, 42.79 to 119.14 mg GAE/100 g, 0.20 to 1.40 g/100 g and 8.36 to 19.31 g/100 g, respectively. Considering these values, it was concluded that naturally grown wild pears of Anatolia with their rich salubrious biochemical compounds could reliably be used as a food source for humans.
      PubDate: 2015-07-11
  • Optimization of Factors Affecting In vitro Establishment, Ex vitro Rooting
           and Hardening for Commercial Scale Multiplication of Silk Banana ( Musa
    • Abstract: Abstract Factors concerning aseptic culture establishment and hardening were studied in detail in choicest Silk Banana. Effect of size of sucker (small, medium and large), carbon concentration (10, 20 and 30 g/l), season of initiation (wet and dry) and pre-treatments such as segmentation and incision to the explants were studied during initiation. Further, hardening related factors such as substrates used for primary and secondary hardening, nursery nutrition (source and frequency of application) and pre-treatments for ex vitro rooting were also studied. Results revealed that small suckers were most suited for initiations with the least contamination, maximum establishment and higher percentage of greening. Lower concentration of sucrose, though delayed greening, resulted in 100 % establishment of explants. Initiations performed during the drier period were completely free from the fungal contamination and showed less bacterial contamination than those performed during the rainy season. Segmentation of explant into four parts during first subculture supported maximum shoot proliferation by overcoming apical dominance. Coir pith was observed to be the most congenial substrate during primary hardening, whereas coir pith alone or sand: red earth: coir pith (1:1:1) supported superior performance of plantlets during secondary hardening. Single application of mono ammonium phosphate improved growth of plantlets during secondary hardening. Pre-treatment with mono ammonium phosphate gave the best response in terms of rooting and hardening of un-rooted micro-shoots. Thus, the discussed methodology could help the industries to take up commercial scale propagation of Silk Banana.
      PubDate: 2015-06-14
  • A Morphometric Study of Autochthonous Plum Genotypes Based on Multivariate
    • Abstract: Abstract Iran is one of the most important plum producers in the world. The present study was conducted to compare agro-morphological characteristics of 100 traditional plum genotypes in Iran. The results showed statistically significant differences between the studied genotypes and leaf dimensions, fruit shape, fruit density, fruit color and fruit flesh firmness showed the highest relative range of variation. Flowering time was extended from 25 March to 5 April and fruit ripening from late July to early August. There were high positive correlations between fruit weight and fruit dimensions and between fruit weight and leaf dimensions. Principal component analysis showed high discrimination capabilities of variables measured. Most of these variables were characters linked to fruit and leaf size. Cluster analysis grouped the studied genotypes into two main clusters with several sub-clusters. In can be concluded that fruit weight, fruit color and fruit flesh firmness are very important characteristics and probably are the first characters to be considered in a farmers selection process. The results of the current study provided information which may be useful for determining the biodiversity of autochthonous genotypes, for the purposes of obtaining guidelines in determining in situ and ex situ germplasm characterization.
      PubDate: 2015-06-11
  • Determination of Genetic Diversity Among Wild Grown Apples From Eastern
           Black Sea Region in Turkey Using ISSR and RAPDs Markers
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, we investigated interspecific variations of apple genotypes using ISSR (Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats) and RAPD (Randomly amplified Polymorphic DNA) technique. Total 19 genotypes of wild grown local varieties were collected from Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey and have been studied for the analysis of ISSR and RAPD profile to examine their relationship. From total 53 RAPD and ISSR primer investigated, 28 could amplify clearly and consistently. All bands obtained from ISSR and RAPDs primer were polymorphic. The dendrogram realized from the RAPD and ISSR markers grouped the 19 genotypes into two major clusters. Cluster I comprised ‘Bey Apple’, ‘Fatty Apple’, ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Yellow Belly Apple’, ‘Bride Apple’, ‘Green Belly Apple’, ‘Summer Apple’, ‘Yomra Apple’, ‘Tavşanbaşı’, ‘Black Belly Apple’, ‘Chest Apple’, ‘Local Marble’, ‘English Apple’, ‘Willow Apple’, ‘Arabian Girl’, ‘Yellow Hıdır’ and cluster II contained ‘Starking Delicious’, ‘Mahsusa’, ‘Amasya Marble’. Genetic diversity data from this study will be helpful in using and exploiting the wild genetic material for breeding purposes as well as for further research.
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
  • Economic Analysis of Pesticides Applications in Apple Orchards in West
           Mediterranean Region of Turkey
    • Abstract: Abstract The main objective of this study was to determine the amounts and types of pesticides used in apple orchards, as apples are one of the most important products of Turkey and to analyze the amount of economic losses on farm-level and costs of pesticides use in comparison with application levels used by growers and suggested in apple production by extension units and pesticide prospectus. Furthermore, the use of agricultural chemicals and practices by the growers were also determined. Production data for 2011 was collected from 114 apple producers who used pesticides. The average area of apple production was 1.43 ha with 24,274.30 kg ha−1. The average cost of apple production was € 3,736.19 ha−1. The average usages per hectare of active ingredient of insecticides, fungicides and acaricides were determined to be 13,701.60 g, 11,394.60 g and 2,152.20 g, respectively. Average plant protection costs were € 1,574.42 ha−1, which made up 42.14 % of the apple production costs. In the study area, the excessive use of agricultural chemicals was determined in the apple production. It was calculated that economic loss was € 549.71 per hectare due to overdose of agricultural chemicals. The percentages of this loss were 86.00, 0.52 and 13.47 %, due to pesticides, copper sulfate and winter and mineral oils respectively. It was calculated that the economic loss was € 472.73 per hectare due to overdose of pesticides. The percentages of this loss were 63.63, 26.70 and 9.67 % due to insecticides, fungicides and acaricides respectively.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Mineral Composition of Leaves and Fruit in Some Myrtle ( Myrtus communis
           L.) Genotypes
    • Abstract: Summary The mineral composition of leaves and fruits of two myrtle genotypes with yellowish-white and purple-black fruits from Çandır village (Isparta) and a genotype with yellowish-white fruits from Serik (Antalya), all of which had high fruit quality, was determined in this study. The results of the study showed that both leaves and fruits of myrtle were rich in K, Ca, Mg, and P contents. No significant correlation could be found between the fruit colors (purple-black and yellowish-white) and mineral contents of the genotypes. The highest total minerals were obtained from Genotype 11 (with purple-black fruits) for the leaf samples but from Genotype 17 (with yellowish-white fruits) for the fruit samples.
      PubDate: 2015-05-20
  • Do the Rootstocks Determine Tree Growth, Productivity and Fruit Quality of
           Pears, which Grow on Typical Heavy and Acidic Soil?
    • Abstract: Abstract During first 5 years after planting, we investigated the impact of quinces MA and BA.29 rootstocks on tree growth, precocity, yield, fruit quality and leaf nutrients content 60 days after full bloom (DAFB) of ‘Starking Delicious’, ‘Abbé Fetel’, and ‘Conference’ pear cultivars which are grown in the Cacak region on heavy and acidic soil. Results showed that rootstocks significantly influenced a small number of features which were evaluated. MA promoted better values of fruit weight and fruit length, whereas BA.29 increased leaf width and leaf area. Impact of rootstocks on tree growth and yield attributes were not found. A stronger effect than that of rootstock on all characteristics which were evaluated had the cultivar per se (genotype). Among cultivars, ‘Conference’ showed the highest values of leaf dimensions, leaf area and ripening index (RI); ‘Abbé Fetel’ had the highest flower numbers per umbels, cumulative yield, yield efficiency, all fruit physical characteristics, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total sugar content and vitamin C content, while ‘Starking Delicious’ had the highest tree vigor, yield per tree and unit area.
      PubDate: 2015-05-04
  • Some Fruit Characteristics of Selected Cornelian Cherries ( Cornus mas L.)
           from Montenegro
    • Abstract: Abstract Some important fruit characteristics of twelve promising cornelian cherry selections from Montenegro were presented. Average fruit mass and flesh ratio of promising selections ranged from 1.90 g (BA-13) to 4.40 g (BR-135) and 83.16 % (BA-13) to 88.63 % (BR-135). External fruit color was dark red in the majority of selections but there were also selections with a red and yellow color. The selections had a total dry matter content between 18.83 % (BP-07) and 27.73 % (BP-54); total acid content between 1.65 % (BP-38) and 3.54 % (BP-07); total sugar content between 10.42 % (PL-99) and 17.52 % (BR-135), reducing sugar content between 8.73 % (BP-21) and 15.78 % (BR-135); sucrose content between 0.29 % (BP-38) and 3.51 % (BA-13); ash content between 0.65 % (BP-07) and 1.59 % (ŽB-143); Ca-pectate content between 1.03 % (BA-13) and 2.47 % (BP-51) and vitamin C content between 52 mg/100 g (BP-07) and 103 mg/100 g (ŽB-143). The results showed that a particularly high content of pectin and vitamin C of the selections make them suitable for table use and various forms of processing. The selection BR-135 was found to be the most promising overall for the best fruit mass and chemical composition characteristics, except its vitamin C content.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
  • Micropropagation of Promising Jujube ( Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) Genotypes
    • Abstract: Abstract In the present study, two selected jujube genotypes (20-C-51 and 20-C-52) were used. The effects of different growth regulator combinations, carbon sources (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and silver nitrate concentrations on in vitro propagation of jujube were investigated. The highest percentage of explants that produced shoots (100 %) and the number of shoots per explant (5.5) were obtained on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg L−1 TDZ + 0.5 mg L−1 BAP + 0.1 mg L−1 IBA + 0.3 mg L−1 GA3. Different amounts of carbon sources and silver nitrate did not increase the percentage of explant that developed in to shoots and the number of shoots per explant. The highest rooting percentage (76.7 %) was obtained on MS and half-strength MS media supplemented with 2.0 mg L−1 IBA.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
  • Exkursionsbericht: Süßkirschenproduktion in Australien
    • Abstract: Zusammenfassung Auf einer Fachexkursion in den Südosten und Süden Australiens machten sich Obstbauern im Dezember 2014 ein Bild von der australischen Süßkirschenproduktion. Der Anbau ist exportorientiert, was hohe Standards bei Sortierung, Verpackung und Haltbarkeit erfordert. Große Produktionseinheiten, niedrige Baumformen wie der Spanish Bush oder der Kym-Green-Bush sowie ein hoher Technisierungsgrad bei Sortierung und Verpackung helfen, die Kosten trotz hoher Stundenlöhne zu senken. Durch größere Nähe zu den Hauptabnehmern in Ostasien im Vergleich zum Mitbewerber Chile und die Nutzung der Luftfracht können Preise realisiert werden, die eine Produktion wirtschaftlich machen.
      PubDate: 2015-04-22
  • Dimensional, Frictional, and Color Properties of Four Quince Cultivars (
           Cydonia oblonga Miller)
    • Abstract: Abstract Basic dimensional, frictional and color properties of four quince cultivars, namely ‘Kış Ayvası’, ‘Anzav Dere’, ‘Ekmek Ayvası’ and ‘Ecem’, were determined in this study. Physical features, namely length, width, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, aspect ratio, surface area, projected area, volume, mass, static coefficient of friction on aluminum, plywood and steel surfaces, and color features such as L*, a*, b*, hue angle, and chroma were determined and compared for the quince cultivars. The differences among the cultivars were statistically significant in terms of most properties investigated. The values of length, width, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, and fruit mass of four quince cultivars were established between 75.32–91.68 mm, 68.56–90.53 mm, 70.72–90.88 mm, 94.02–99.18 %, and 175.12–329.44 g., respectively. The highest static coefficient of friction (0.47) has observed for aluminum surface as the lowest static coefficient of friction (0.23) has observed for steel surface.
      PubDate: 2015-03-23
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