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EARTH SCIENCES (466 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Geophysica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances In Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Algological Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Andean geology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annales UMCS, Geographia, Geologia, Mineralogia et Petrographia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annals of GIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Glaciology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anthropocene     Hybrid Journal  
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Ocean Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Petrochemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Remote Sensing Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Arctic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Artificial Satellites : The Journal of Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Asian Review of Environmental and Earth Sciences     Open Access  
Atlantic Geology : Journal of the Atlantic Geoscience Society / Atlantic Geology : revue de la Société Géoscientifique de l'Atlantique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Australian Journal of Earth Sciences: An International Geoscience Journal of the Geological Society of Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas     Open Access  
Boreas: An International Journal of Quaternary Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Bulletin of Volcanology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cadernos de Geociências     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Carbonates and Evaporites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
CATENA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese Geographical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chinese Journal of Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia del suelo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencias Espaciales     Open Access  
Climate and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Cogent Geoscience     Open Access  
Comptes Rendus Geoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contemporary Trends in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Continental Shelf Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Coral Reefs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cretaceous Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cybergeo : European Journal of Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Depositional Record     Open Access  
Developments in Geotectonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Developments in Quaternary Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Développement durable et territoires     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Diatom Research     Hybrid Journal  
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
E&S Engineering and Science     Open Access  
E3S Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Earth and Planetary Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Earth and Space Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earth Interactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Earth Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Earth Surface Dynamics (ESurf)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Earth System Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Earth System Dynamics Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earth, Planets and Space     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Earthquake Spectra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Ecohydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Ecological Questions     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Electromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Journal Cover Erwerbs-Obstbau
  [SJR: 0.206]   [H-I: 9]   [0 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1439-0302 - ISSN (Online) 0014-0309
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2280 journals]
  • In vitro Germination of Early Ripening Sweet Cherry Varieties ( Prunus
           avium L.) at Different Fruit Ripening Stages
    • Abstract: In vitro embryo culture enabled satisfactory germination of immature seeds produced in crosses from early ripening sweet cherry varieties (Prunus avium L.). Three varieties —‘Rita’, ‘Bigarreau Burlat’ and ‘Carmen’— were crossed with ‘Early Star’ as male parent. Germination rate was affected by the developmental stage of both fruit and embryo. Fruit ripening stage was a critical factor for culture infection rate that increased with maturity. In-ovule embryo culture on Murashige and Skoog medium without hormones improved the embryo size but did not increase the germination rate due to a further increase in infection rate. Ex-ovule embryo culture on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with BA 1 mg L−1, NAA 0.5 mg L−1, 20 g L−1sucrose, 10 g L−1 sorbitol and 6 g L−1agar during the stratification time increased embryo length. Germination was performed on Brooks and Hough medium at the 22 ± 1 °C with 16/8 h light/dark photoperiod. The highest germination rate (75 %) was reached in embryos that were 3−4 mm in length, after 30-days stratification at 4 °C. Embryos in fruits at green-yellow stage that were 3−4 mm long were morpho-physiologically developed to produce bipolar seedlings, without combined application of embryo culture and micropropagation.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08
  • A Review of Sooty Blotch and Flyspeck Disease in German Organic Apple
    • Abstract: Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) fungi colonise the surface of a range of fruits, especially apple, without penetrating the cuticle. Economic damage results from the exclusion of severely affected fruit batches from being marketed as table apples. A study of SBFS was conducted in 2007–2012 in the two largest German apple production areas, i.e. the Lake Constance and Lower Elbe regions. The absence of this disease complex from orchards under integrated pest management in both regions in all years was explained by the collateral effects of scab and storage-rot sprays with captan and quinone-outside inhibitors (QoI) such as trifloxystrobin. However, SBFS was economically relevant in organically managed orchards, being generally more severe in Southern Germany than in the North. In both regions, Peltaster cerophilus was the most frequently isolated SBFS fungus and was chiefly responsible for crop losses. Cyphellophora sessilis, Microcyclosporella mali and Schizothyrium pomi also contributed to SBFS in some organic orchards, whereas a diversity of additional species was confined to untreated orchards. Evidence was obtained that P. cerophilus overwinters within orchards, fruit mummies being one of presumably several colonised plant organs. Infections of young apple fruits were initiated at any time following the end of flowering, and P. cerophilus was capable of causing several infection cycles per season by means of conidial inoculum. The colonisation of sheets of waxed paper by P. cerophilus indicated that this species does not require fruit leachates for growth. No further expansion of colonies was observed during cold storage; instead, P. cerophilus was gradually displaced by other fungi. Differences in the susceptibility of apple varieties to P. cerophilus were due to fruit ripening, late-maturing cultivars being most heavily colonised, and to surface properties, varieties with a waxy bloom being conspicuously less strongly colonised than others. This fungus was unable to colonise russeted fruit areas. Repeated spray treatments with lime-sulphur and potassium bicarbonate throughout the season were effective and necessary to control SBFS in organic production. This strategy threatens the fungicide-saving potential offered by scab-resistant apple varieties. Cultural measures against SBFS include summer pruning as well as the manual removal of fruit mummies in winter.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08
  • Breeding Perennial Fruit Crops for Quality Improvement
    • Abstract: Fruits play a crucial role in human diets and as a commercial commodity in trade. The consumers have considered fruit quality as the most important criteria that decides its acceptability. Fruit quality-based overall acceptability determines the success of any breeding programme, as a number of improved varieties with desired traits including resistance to stresses could not be popularized due to their poor quality fruits. However, breeding for quality improvement in perennial fruit crops is hampered by a number of limitations including large size of the plant, long juvenile phase and environmental problems (e.g. fruit drops due to natural calamities). Besides, fruit quality is a polygenic trait, which is quantitatively inherited and thus making breeding programme complicated in quality improvement of fruit crops. Several attempts have been made to improve the quality characters in annual staple crops, however this aspect is conveniently ignored in case of perennial fruit crops. A balanced approach combining conventional and non-conventional breeding techniques could help in addressing this issue. The biotechnological approaches provide precision, reliability and are considered to reduce the breeding cycle in long duration crops. Efficacy of approaches like marker assisted selection, candidate gene, genomics, trangenics, cisgenics has shown to be advantageous when dealing with cumbersome crops. This review would focus on problems in fruit breeding and present status of different breeding approaches for fruit quality improvement in fruit trees.
      PubDate: 2016-01-08
  • Einfluss von Unterlagen im Vergleich zu selbstbewurzelten
           Birnenbäumen auf vegetative und generative Parameter unter
           biologischen Anbaubedingungen in Ostösterreich
    • Abstract: Zusammenfassung Im Frühjahr 2006 wurden im Versuchszentrum der Universität für Bodenkultur in Wien die Birnensorten ‘Bosc’s’ Flaschenbirne’, ‘Williams’ Christ’ und ‘Uta’ auf den Unterlagen Kirchensaller Mostbirne (Sämling), Pyrodwarf, Farold 69, Quitte Adams (mit Zwischenveredlung ‘Conference’) und wurzelecht aus in-vitro Kultur gepflanzt, als Spindel erzogen und acht Jahre unter biologischen Anbaubedingungen getestet. Die wurzelechten ‘Williams’- und ‘Bosc’s’-Bäume waren im Pflanzjahr stark betroffen von Baumausfällen, wuchsen mittelstark und kamen später in den Ertrag als die veredelten Bäume. Die Unterlage Quitte Adams war auf dem kalkreichen Standort sehr schwach wüchsig, Chlorosen, Baumausfälle und kleinere Früchte waren die Folge, die allerdings höhere Brix-, Vitamin C- und Apfelsäure-Werte aufwiesen. ‘Bosc’s’ zeigte auf allen Unterlagen insgesamt niedrige Erträge im Beobachtungszeitraum. Gute Erträge und Fruchtqualitäten wurden bei ‘Williams’ auf Farold 69 und Sämling erzielt, während bei der schwachwüchsigen Sorte ‘Uta’ der Sämling wenig Baumausfälle und die höchsten Erträge aufwies. Pyrodwarf wies geringe Baumausfälle auf, war ähnlich in Wuchs und Ertrag wie Farold 69 und Sämling, allerdings waren die Früchte bei ‘Williams’ und ‘Bosc’s’ etwas kleiner.
      PubDate: 2016-01-08
  • Personalia
    • PubDate: 2015-12-23
  • Interaction of Crop Load and Irrigation on Yield, Fruit Size, Color and
           Stem-end Splitting Ratio of Apple c.v. ‘Gala, Galaxy’
    • Abstract: In this study, the interaction between crop load and irrigation level on yield, fruit size, skin color and stem-end splitting fruit ratio in the apple cultivar ‘Gala, Galaxy’ grafted on rootstock M9 were investigated. Six irrigation programs were applied during the whole growth season: deficit irrigation (rates of 0.25 kc, 0.50 kc, 0.75 kc), full irrigation (rate of 1.00 kc), excess irrigation (rate of 1.25 kc) and non-irrigation (rates of 0.00 kc of “Class A” pan evaporation coefficient). Four crop loads in each irrigation application were performed by hand thinning after the June drop as a- a low crop load (3 fruits cm−2 TCA), b- a medium crop load (5 fruits cm−2 TCA), c- a heavy crop load (7 fruits cm−2 TCA), and d- an un-thinned crop load (> 7 fruits cm−2 TCA). The total tree yield increased with crop load and irrigation levels. Fruit size was significantly increased by the low crop load. Irrigation increased the fruit size compared to non-irrigation treatment. Further 0.75 kc, 1.00 kc and 1.25 kc irrigation treatments significantly increased the fruit length. Irrigation reduced the fruit flesh firmness. While the low crop load increased the skin red color, it decreased the fruit skin brightness. The yellowness of skin decreased with increasing in the irrigation amount. Irrigation reduced the skin brightness and yellowness, but it increased red color. Crop load and irrigation significantly affected the stem-end splitting fruit ratio. While the splitting fruit ratio increased with a decrease in the crop load, it decreased with an increase in irrigation amount, relatively. Consequently, the low and medium crop load treatments would be beneficial to increase the ratio of marketable fruits without any significant losses in yield for ‘Gala’ apple, especially under 0.75 kc deficit irrigation treatment.
      PubDate: 2015-12-21
  • Erratum to: Determination of Pomological and Morphological Characteristics
           with Fatty Acid Composition of High Kernel Ratio Walnut Genotypes
    • PubDate: 2015-12-15
  • Morphological Characterization of Autochthonous Apple Genetic Resources in
    • Abstract: Autochthonous apple varieties are still keeping their importance in Montenegro and they are valuable resources as human food and an important part of rural landscape. The aim of this study was to study and preserve morphological diversity of 30 autochthonous apple varieties in Montenegro between 2008 and 2010. We found a great variation on blooming period and maturation time among varieties and classified them as very early, early, mid and late for blooming and early, middle, late and very late for maturation. Fruit weight varied in wide range from 40.76 g to 206.74 g and ‘Krupnaja’, ‘Krstovača’ and ‘Babovača’ produced biggest fruits (191.83–206.74 g). Soluble solid content (SSC) varied between 11.0 to 16.1 % among varieties and ‘Borovača’, ‘Aleksandrija’, ‘Krstovača’, ‘Dapsićanka’, ‘Bosnika’, ‘Rebrača’ and ‘Babovača’ had the highest SSC values imply that they can be commercially used in production of spirits, wine, concentrate and jam and also for drying. Based on 3-year average data for 25 properties, UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) dendrogram showed a high degree of variability among the studied varieties dividing them into 5 groups and 3 independent accessions.
      PubDate: 2015-11-30
  • Zinc Ameliorates Fruit Yield and Quality of Mangoes Cultivated in
           Calcareous Soils
    • Abstract: Zinc (Zn) deficiency is frequently observed in mangoes grown in calcareous soils. Inherent inability of mango to extract sufficient Zn from the soil exacerbates this situation. Therefore, mitigating effects of Zn application was investigated on flowering, fruit setting, yield and quality of mango cv. Samar Bahisht Chaunsa growing in calcareous soils. The experiment consisted of five treatments: control—no Zn, soil application of 50 and 100 g ZnSO4 per tree and foliar application of 0.5  and 1.0 % ZnSO4 solution. Zn was applied twice in the 2nd week of November, 2011 and 3rd week of March, 2012, respectively. The experiment was repeated on the same dates during the next growing season. Zn application significantly increased number of flower panicle, fruits matured panicle, leaf Zn concentrations, fruit size, peel thickness, fruit weights at harvest and after ripening and fruit yield tree, whereas it reduced malformed panicles and early fruit drop. However, flower sex ratio and fruit set remained statistically unaffected. Similarly, fruit quality in terms of total soluble solids, flesh color, aroma, flavor and overall acceptability significantly improved as compared to control. Foliar application mitigated Zn deficiency more effectively than the soil application in calcareous soils.
      PubDate: 2015-11-23
  • Evaluation of the Effect of Different Harvest Time on the Fruit Quality of
           Foşa Nut
    • Abstract: This study was carried out in Arsin (Trabzon/Turkey) in 2011. The effects of different harvest time and altitudes on the quality of the nuts have been investigated. The study was performed on Foşa hazelnut and the harvest process has been conducted at three terms, which are on normal harvest time and ten days before and after harvest time. The harvested nuts were dried in the shade on the concrete floor until their moisture content decreased to 5 %. Some properties of nuts including yield, fruit weight, internal weight, shell thickness, and protein, oleic, and linoleic acid amounts have been investigated. As evaluated all of the fruit properties it can be concluded that 11 August is the most suitable harvest date for coast zone. On the other hand, no significant differences were obtained in the point of protein, oleic, and linoleic acid amounts for different harvest time and altitudes.
      PubDate: 2015-11-17
  • Determination of Some Engineering Properties of Pecan ( Carya
           illinoinensis ) for New Design of Cracking System
    • Abstract: In this study, strength and frictional properties of pecan was determined as a functional of moisture content. A pecan was loaded between two parallel plates to determine the rupture force, deformation, power and firmness required to initiate pecan rupture and determined static and dynamic friction. The tests were carried out at five moisture contents of 5.23 %, 10.36 %, 15.78 %, 20.08 % and 25.42 % db and three axes (X, Y, Z). Physical characteristics of the pecan such as mass, dimensions (length, thickness and width), geometric mean diameter, sphericity, volume, and shell thickness were determined. The force required to initiate nut rupture decreased from 112.321 to 98.723 N, from 82.872 to 63,988 N and from 80.093 to 62.758 N for the length, suture and width orientations of loading with an increase in moisture content. The highest toughness (20.460 Jmm− 3) was obtained at moisture content of 25.42 % db. The firmness decreased to a minimum value when moisture content was increased from 5.23 to 10.36 % db and later increased as moisture content was increased further from 10.36 to 25.42 % db. The static and dynamic coefficients of friction on various surfaces, namely, plywood, mild steel and galvanized metal also increased linearly with increase in moisture content. The plywood surface offered the maximum friction followed by mild metal and galvanized metal.
      PubDate: 2015-11-16
  • Determination of Pomological and Morphological Characteristics and
    • Abstract: The present study was conducted in order to determine the pomological and morphological characteristics and chemical compositions of some local apple varieties grown in Gumushane. As a result of field work in Gumushane province, sixteen different apples, which are Summer Apple, English apple, Green Belly, Black Belly and Yellow Belly Apples, Amasya Marble, Bey Apple, Chest Apple, Mahsusa, Arabian Girl, Willow Apple, Tavşanbaşı, Yellow Hıdır, Local Marble, Bride Apple, and Fatty Apple were collected in order to analyze. The average results of pomological and morphological properties and chemical compositions were obtained as following: fruit mass; 127.36 g, fruit width; 65.23 mm, fruit length; 57.30 mm, fruit stalk thickness; 2.17 mm, fruit stalk length; 17.63 mm, stalk pit depth; 12.75 mm, flower pit depth; 10.29 mm, fruit firmness; 13.79 kg/cm2, seed house width; 15.89 mm, seed house length; 17.39 mm, number of seeds; 4.3, water soluble dry matter content; 14.53 %, ash content; 1.11 %, pH; 3.8, titratable acidity; 0.69 g/L, water content; 83.8 %, reducing sugar; 5.04 g/100 g, sucrose; 2.25 g/100 g, and the amount of total sugars; 7.29 g/100. The fruit peel color was determined by considering the light transmittance (L). The average L values were ranged between 112.06 and 66.32. On the other hand among the mineral elements, potassium and manganese amounts were determined as the highest and the lowest, respectively.
      PubDate: 2015-11-16
  • The Relationship Between Growth Vigour of Rootstock and Phenolic Contents
           in Apple ( Malus × domestica )
    • Abstract: The aim of the study is to determine the effect of different growth vigorous rootstocks on phenolic compounds in leaves of apple. For this purpose it was used the leaves of cultivar ‘Red Chief’ grafted on dwarf (M9), semi-dwarf (M26) and semi-vigorous (MM106) rootstocks. During mid-July, the leaf samples were taken from the middle part of annual shoots. Phenolics of the leaves were determined by HPLC analysis. While significant differences among the rootstocks for p-hydroxybenzoic acid, eriodictyol, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid were detected, these differences were insignificant for gallic acid and quercetin. It was shown that semi-vigorous rootstocks (MM106) had higher phenolic contents in total than the other two dwarf rootstocks. In addition, apigenin-7-glucoside, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, epicatechin, syringic acid, catechin, rutin, resveratrol, hesperidin, naringenin, luteolin, apigenin and acacetin could not to be detected. Data showed that there is the relationship between growth vigour and phenolic contents of apple leaves. Especially, p-hydroxy benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid contents were higher in semi-vigorous rootstock than in dwarf rootstock.
      PubDate: 2015-11-10
  • Chemical Compositions of Myrtle ( Myrtus communis L.) Genotypes Having
           Bluish-Black and Yellowish-White Fruits
    • Abstract: Total soluble solids, acidity, pH, tannic acid, ascorbic acid, phenolic and fatty acid compositions of fruits of four myrtle genotypes (two with bluish-black and two with yellowish-white-colored fruits) were investigated in the study. Total soluble solids, acidity, pH, tannic acid and ascorbic acid contents of myrtle genotypes ranged from 15.50 % to 24.00 %, from 0.06 % to 0.15 %, from 5.38 to 5.64, from 23.63 µg/g to 52.46 µg/g and from 1.43 mg/100 g to 2.82 mg/100 g among genotypes, respectively. Predominant phenolic compounds were naringin, gallic and clorogenic acids for the genotypes having yellowish-white fruits and naringin, gallic, caffeic, p-hydroxybenzoic, chlorogenic and syringic acids for the genotypes having bluish-black fruits. Rosmarinic, p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acids were detected from only genotypes having bluish-black fruits. While caffeic acid was found at very high levels in Genotype 2 and Genotype 11 having bluish-black fruits (181.50 and 157.95 µg/g, respectively), a very low level of caffeic acid (2.95 µg/g) was detected in only the fruits of Genotype 17 having yellowish-white fruits. The data suggest a positive relationship between these phenolics (caffeic, rosmarinic, p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acids) and bluish-black color in fruits. Total fat contents of fruits ranged from 3.83 to 4.13 % among genotypes. The predominant fatty acids of myrtle fruits were linoleic acid (69.47–71.71 %), palmitic acid (10.18–13.40 %) and oleic acid (10.14–13.48 %). The proportion of unsaturated fatty acids changed between 81.09 and 83.97 % in the genotypes evaluated.
      PubDate: 2015-10-22
  • The Investigation of Relationships Between Some Fruit and Kernel Traits
           with Canonical Correlation Analysis in Ankara Region Walnuts
    • Abstract: Canonical correlation analysis is a multivariate technique, which is employed to examine relationships between two variable sets, each of that consist of two or more variables. In the analysis, by maximizing the relationships between two sets, it is aimed to obtain new variables called as canonical variates that formed by linear combinations of the original variables for each sets. In this study, it is aimed to examine the relationships between some fruit and kernel characteristics of Ankara region walnuts. Thus, the following eight traits Fruit Length (mm), Fruit Width (mm) Fruit Height (mm) Fruit Weight (g), Shell Thickness (mm), Kernel Weight (g), Kernel Ratio (%) and Filled-firm Kernel Ratio (%) of 364 walnut samples were measured. First five of these characteristics were grouped as X variable and the rest of as Y variable. As a result, the correlation between the first canonical variable pair was found as 0.979 (p < 0.01).
      PubDate: 2015-10-21
  • Estimating the Economic Costs and Level of Pesticide Use in Oil Rose (
           Rosa damascena Mill .) Orchards: Evidence from a Survey for the Lakes
           Region of Turkey
    • Abstract: The main objective of this study was to estimate the economic losses resulting from overdose used of pesticide and determining of economic costs on practices of pesticide application and level of pesticide use on oil rose production in Turkey. Lakes Region of Turkey was chosen as research area because oil rose is a major crop grown in the study area. The data used in this study were collected from oil rose growers using a face-to-face interview. The result of the analyses showed that farmers use agricultural chemical more than the recommendations of extension units, depending on the prospectus of chemicals in the oil rose production. The average usages per hectare of active ingredient of insecticides and fungicides were determined to be 2 612.80 and 2 347.50 gr-ml-cc, respectively. An average plant protection cost was € 593.31 ha−1, which was 25.17 % of total oil rose production costs. It was calculated that economic loss was € 172.37 per hectare due to overdose of agricultural chemicals. The percentages of this loss were 58.66 %, 37.56 % and 3.78 % copper sulfate, pesticides and sulfur, respectively. It was calculated that economic loss was € 64.73 per hectare due to overdose of pesticides. The percentages of this loss are 61.40 % and 38.60 % insecticide and fungicide, respectively. Gain threshold was calculated as 637.75 kg ha−1.
      PubDate: 2015-09-23
  • Exkursionsbericht: Kernobstanbau in Australien
    • Abstract: Zusammenfassung Die Postkongress Exkursion des IHC bot einen Einblick in den Kernobstanbau im Granitgürtel am 28° südlichen Breitengrad südlich von Brisbane. Die Kombination von Hügellagen mit Winterkälte und Sommerregen ermöglicht ein gemäßigtes Mikroklima, das nicht nur den Anbau, sondern auch eine Ernteverfrühung von Äpfeln ermöglicht. Kleine Bäume, „Pedestrian orchards“ ohne Einsatz von Arbeitsbühnen, erzielen bei den Standardsorten wie ‚Gala‘, ‚Granny Smith‘ und ‚Pink Lady‘ auf M 26 Erntemengen um 80 t/ha. Hagelschutznetze sind weit verbreitet; die Netze stammen häufig aus Neuseeland, die Pfosten sind Hartholz-Eucalyptusstämme aus Buschrodungen; Honigbienen (5 Völker/ha) – Australien ist Varroa frei- werden unter dem Hagelschutznetz zur Bestäubung der Apfelblüten eingesetzt. Alternanz ist kein Problem. Automatisierung und Mechanisierung spielen bei einem gesetzlichen Mindestlohn von € 14/h in der Obstbauforschung eine große Rolle sowie der prognostizierte Verlust an winterlichem Kältereiz (Chilling). Arbeitskräfte sind Rucksacktouristen vorwiegend aus Europa, auch aus Deutschland; einheimische Kräfte sind aufgrund des hohen Wohlstandes und der geringen Arbeitslosigkeit im Land schwer zur Arbeit auf dem Feld zu bewegen. Nachhaltigkeit und Carbon Footprint spielen auch deshalb eine große Rolle in einem Umfeld mit hohen Kosten, hohen Preisen, aber auch hohen Umsätzen. Australien ist offiziell frei von Feuerband. Dies ist häufig ein Streitpunkt bei Apfelimporten aus Neuseeland.
      PubDate: 2015-07-23
  • Fruit Weight, Total Phenolics, Acidity and Sugar Content of Edible Wild
           Pear ( Pyrus elaeagnifolia Pall.) Fruits
    • Abstract: Wild pear (Pyrus eleagnifolia) is a naturally grown species mainly in inner Anatolia and its edible small fruits are traditionally consumed by local peoples and are called “Ahlat” in Turkey. Its seedlings are also used as rootstock for commercial pear cultivars. In this study, we reported first time pomological characteristics and biochemical compositions in fruits of a wide number selected wild pears genotypes (Pyrus eleagnifolia Pall.) from inner Anatolia. The obtained results revealed that there were significant differences among wild pear genotypes for all analyzed parameters. Fruit weight, total phenolics, total acidity and total sugar contents of the fruits varied from 4.71 to 27.09 g, 42.79 to 119.14 mg GAE/100 g, 0.20 to 1.40 g/100 g and 8.36 to 19.31 g/100 g, respectively. Considering these values, it was concluded that naturally grown wild pears of Anatolia with their rich salubrious biochemical compounds could reliably be used as a food source for humans.
      PubDate: 2015-07-11
  • A Morphometric Study of Autochthonous Plum Genotypes Based on Multivariate
    • Abstract: Iran is one of the most important plum producers in the world. The present study was conducted to compare agro-morphological characteristics of 100 traditional plum genotypes in Iran. The results showed statistically significant differences between the studied genotypes and leaf dimensions, fruit shape, fruit density, fruit color and fruit flesh firmness showed the highest relative range of variation. Flowering time was extended from 25 March to 5 April and fruit ripening from late July to early August. There were high positive correlations between fruit weight and fruit dimensions and between fruit weight and leaf dimensions. Principal component analysis showed high discrimination capabilities of variables measured. Most of these variables were characters linked to fruit and leaf size. Cluster analysis grouped the studied genotypes into two main clusters with several sub-clusters. In can be concluded that fruit weight, fruit color and fruit flesh firmness are very important characteristics and probably are the first characters to be considered in a farmers selection process. The results of the current study provided information which may be useful for determining the biodiversity of autochthonous genotypes, for the purposes of obtaining guidelines in determining in situ and ex situ germplasm characterization.
      PubDate: 2015-06-11
  • Determination of Genetic Diversity Among Wild Grown Apples From Eastern
           Black Sea Region in Turkey Using ISSR and RAPDs Markers
    • Abstract: In this study, we investigated interspecific variations of apple genotypes using ISSR (Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats) and RAPD (Randomly amplified Polymorphic DNA) technique. Total 19 genotypes of wild grown local varieties were collected from Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey and have been studied for the analysis of ISSR and RAPD profile to examine their relationship. From total 53 RAPD and ISSR primer investigated, 28 could amplify clearly and consistently. All bands obtained from ISSR and RAPDs primer were polymorphic. The dendrogram realized from the RAPD and ISSR markers grouped the 19 genotypes into two major clusters. Cluster I comprised ‘Bey Apple’, ‘Fatty Apple’, ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Yellow Belly Apple’, ‘Bride Apple’, ‘Green Belly Apple’, ‘Summer Apple’, ‘Yomra Apple’, ‘Tavşanbaşı’, ‘Black Belly Apple’, ‘Chest Apple’, ‘Local Marble’, ‘English Apple’, ‘Willow Apple’, ‘Arabian Girl’, ‘Yellow Hıdır’ and cluster II contained ‘Starking Delicious’, ‘Mahsusa’, ‘Amasya Marble’. Genetic diversity data from this study will be helpful in using and exploiting the wild genetic material for breeding purposes as well as for further research.
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
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