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  Subjects -> EARTH SCIENCES (Total: 656 journals)
    - EARTH SCIENCES (472 journals)
    - GEOLOGY (73 journals)
    - GEOPHYSICS (28 journals)
    - HYDROLOGY (21 journals)
    - OCEANOGRAPHY (62 journals)

EARTH SCIENCES (472 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 371 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Geophysica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances In Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Algological Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Andean geology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Geographia, Geologia, Mineralogia et Petrographia     Open Access  
Annals of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of GIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Annals of Glaciology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anthropocene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Ocean Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Petrochemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Remote Sensing Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Arctic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Artificial Satellites : The Journal of Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Asian Review of Environmental and Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atlantic Geology : Journal of the Atlantic Geoscience Society / Atlantic Geology : revue de la Société Géoscientifique de l'Atlantique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Australian Journal of Earth Sciences: An International Geoscience Journal of the Geological Society of Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas     Open Access  
Boreas: An International Journal of Quaternary Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bulletin of Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Bulletin of Volcanology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cadernos de Geociências     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Carbonates and Evaporites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
CATENA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese Geographical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ciencias Espaciales     Open Access  
Climate and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Cogent Geoscience     Open Access  
Comptes Rendus Geoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contemporary Trends in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Continental Shelf Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Contributions to Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Coral Reefs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cretaceous Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cybergeo : European Journal of Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Depositional Record     Open Access  
Developments in Geotectonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Developments in Quaternary Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Développement durable et territoires     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Diatom Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
E&S Engineering and Science     Open Access  
E3S Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Earth and Planetary Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 103)
Earth and Space Science     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Earth Interactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Earth Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Earth Surface Dynamics (ESurf)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Earth System Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Earth System Dynamics Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earth, Planets and Space     Open Access   (Followers: 65)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Earthquake Spectra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Ecohydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ecological Questions     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Electromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Energy Exploration & Exploitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Environmental Geosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal  
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Estudios Geográficos     Open Access  
European Journal of Mineralogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
European Journal of Remote Sensing     Open Access  
Exploration Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Facies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Fieldiana Life and Earth Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Física de la Tierra     Open Access  
Folia Musei rerum naturalium Bohemiae occidentalis. Geologica et Paleobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Quaternaria     Open Access  
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Earth Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers of Earth Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Fundamental and Applied Limnology / Archiv für Hydrobiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
GEM - International Journal on Geomathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geo-Marine Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Geoacta     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geocarto International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Geochemical Perspectives     Hybrid Journal  
Geochemistry : Exploration, Environment, Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Geochronometria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geoderma Regional : The International Journal for Regional Soil Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Geodinamica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geodynamics & Tectonophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geoenvironmental Disasters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geofluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geoforum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Géographie physique et Quaternaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Geography and Natural Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Geoheritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geoinformatica Polonica : The Journal of Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences     Open Access  
Geoinformatics & Geostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Geology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Geology, Geophysics and Environment     Open Access  
Geomagnetism and Aeronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription  
GEOmedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geomorphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Geophysical & Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geophysical Journal International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Geophysical Prospecting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
GeoResJ     Hybrid Journal  
Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geoscience Canada : Journal of the Geological Association of Canada / Geoscience Canada : journal de l'Association Géologique du Canada     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Geoscience Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geoscience Frontiers     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Geoscience Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geoscience Records     Open Access  
Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geosciences Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geoscientific Model Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotectonic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Geotectonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
GISAP : Earth and Space Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Glass Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Global and Planetary Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Global Biogeochemical Cycles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Gondwana Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Grassland Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ground Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Groundwater for Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription  
GSA Today     Partially Free  
Helgoland Marine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
History of Geo- and Space Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Hydrobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Hydrogeology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Hydrological Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Indian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Indonesian Journal on Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Geology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Advanced Geosciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Advanced Remote Sensing and GIS     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
International Journal of Advancement in Earth and Enviromental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advancement in Remote Sensing, GIS, and Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
International Journal of Coal Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Erwerbs-Obstbau
  [SJR: 0.198]   [H-I: 10]   [0 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1439-0302 - ISSN (Online) 0014-0309
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Nicht-destruktive Erkennung von Berostung bei Birnen
    • Authors: Matthias Klemm; Olga Röttger; Lutz Damerow; Michael Blanke
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Zusammenfassung Ziel der Untersuchungen war es, herauszufinden, ob glatte Berostung auf Früchten mit einem Glanz-(Luster-)Sensor nicht invasiv und zeitnah erkannt werden kann – unter dem Einfluss von Sorte, Schalenfarbe und Oberflächenkrümmung, d. h. Messposition auf der konkaven Frucht. Dazu wurden Birnen dreier Sorten aus dem LEH auf dreierlei Weise untersucht, zuerst visuell auf Berostungsart und -verteilung, mit dem 3D Farbmikroskop auf Rauigkeitstiefe und Oberflächenbeschaffenheit und mit einem Glanz- bzw. Lustersensor. ‘Conference’ Birnen aus Belgien wiesen die stärkste flächige glatte Berostung im bauchigen Bereich des Kelches und fleckige Berostung am Stielende auf, ‘Alexander Lucas’ aus Deutschland kleine flächige Berostung im Bauchbereich mit sonst glatter unberosteter Schale und ‘Abate Fetel’ aus Italien flächige glatte Berostung in den oberen cm nahe am Stielansatz der Frucht. Untersuchungen mit einem 3D Farb-Mikroskop bei 200facher Vergrößerung zeigten eine 2,5 fach höhere Rauigkeitstiefe – als Maß der Unebenheit der Fruchtschale – bei den berosteten Schalenpartien der ‘Conference’ Birnen von ca. 50 µm im Vergleich zu den glatten, unberosteten Schalenarealen der ‘Alexander Lucas’ Birnen mit nur ca. 20 µm. Schwach berostete Früchte der Birnensorte ‘Alexander Lucas’ erreichten signifikant höhere und solche von ‘Abate Fetel’ tendenziell höhere Luster-(Glanz-)werte mit geringerer Streuung der Messwerte als stark berostete Früchte der gleichen Sorte. Luster-(Glanz-)werte im schmalen Halsbereich lagen etwas höher als im bauchigen Bereich der Frucht; dunkle Schalenfarbe wies höhere Lusterwerte auf als helle. Diese ersten Untersuchungen mit 180 Einzelmessungen deuten darauf hin, dass die Erkennung glatter Berostung mit diesem Sensorsystem auf einer Kombination von Farbe und Oberflächenbeschaffenheit bzw. Rauheit beruht. Weiterer Forschungsbedarf besteht. Die Ergebnisse stehen im Einklang mit denen bei Pflaumen, bei denen ebenfalls eine raue, bereifte Oberfläche geringe, aber eine spiegelnde, glatte, polierte Fruchtoberfläche höhere Lusterwerte erzeugte.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-016-0299-1
      Issue No: Vol. 59, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Determination of Energy Use Efficiency of some Apple ( Malus x domestica
           ) Production in Turkey: a Case Study of Eğirdir Region
    • Authors: Osman Gokdogan; Mehmet Firat Baran
      Pages: 13 - 18
      Abstract: Abstract This research aims to make an analysis of energy use efficiency of apple (‘Starkrimson Delicious’ and ‘Golden Delicious’) production in Eğirdir region of Turkey, during the production season of 2012. Production data this research was collected in 2013. In order to determine the energy use efficiency of apple, various surveys have been conducted in 71 apple farms, selected through Simple Random Sampling method, located in Eğirdir region of Turkey. The data have been collected through face to face questionnaires and first hand observations. The energy input and output values in apple production have been calculated as 34,703.63 MJ ha−1 and 95,034 MJ ha−1, respectively. Energy inputs consist of diesel fuel energy by 29.04 %, chemical fertilizers energy by 24.28 %, machinery energy by 15.70 %, chemical energy by 9.84 %, human labor energy by 8.54 %, electricity energy by 5.63 %, irrigation energy by 3.97 %, farmyard manure energy by 2.88 % and lime energy by 0.12 %. Energy use efficiency, energy productivity, specific energy and net energy in apple production have been calculated as 2.74, 1.16 kg MJ−1, 0.86 MJ kg−1 and 60,330.36 MJ ha−1, respectively. The total energy input consumed has been classified as direct, by 47.17 %, indirect, by 52.83 %, renewable, by 15.38 % and non-renewable, by 74.62 %.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-016-0290-x
      Issue No: Vol. 59, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Biodiversity in Indigenous Germplasm of Pyrus from Pakistan Based on
           Phenotypical and Morphological Traits
    • Authors: Maqsood Ahmed; Muhammad Akbar Anjum; Sajjad Hussain; Shaghef Ejaz; Shakeel Ahmad; Sezai Ercisli
      Pages: 19 - 27
      Abstract: Abstract A comprehensive analysis of various horticulturally important morphological traits of sixty pear accessions located in five districts of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (Pakistan) was carried out. Several qualitative and quantitative traits were investigated in situ and after the harvesting of leaf and fruit samples. The rich diversity was observed for qualitative traits (i. e. growth habit, blooming time, intensity of flowering, fruit setting, ripening time, productivity, and fruit shape and color) among pear accessions. As for the quantitative traits, significant variation was observed for leaf area (8.96–27.17 cm2), flowering duration (11–24 days), fruit weight (68.1–322.3 g), average fruit length (2.68–9.87 cm) and average fruit width (1.82–8.12 cm) between pear accessions. Based on qualitative and quantitative data, two dendograms were constructed by using cluster analysis which separated pear accessions into three distinct groups. The cluster analysis showed considerable differences between the accessions for qualitative and quantitative traits. Furthermore, a close association between accessions was noted inside the clusters for qualitative and quantitative traits. The results showed rich diversity and similarity between the pear accessions and needs further assessment at molecular level to elucidate their phylogenetic relationship.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-016-0291-9
      Issue No: Vol. 59, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Investigating Root Density of Plum and Apple Trees Grafted on Low-Vigor
           Rootstocks to Improve Orchard Management
    • Authors: Cristian Paltineanu; Silvia Nicolae; Nicolae Tanasescu; Emil Chitu; Sergiu Ancu
      Pages: 29 - 37
      Abstract: Abstract Plum and apple trees are the most widely spread fruit trees in south-eastern Europe. The main purpose of this paper is to characterize the spatial distribution of roots in medium and course textured soils to improve orchard management. ’Stanley’ plum cultivar grafted on Saint Julien A semi-dwarf rootstock and ’Topaz’ apple cultivar grafted on M.9 dwarf rootstock were studied in a temperate climate and medium and course textured soils. The trench technique was used. There was an intense concentration of roots near the trees and the roots did not occupy the whole soil space between tree rows. The finest tree roots in both species were prevalent. Root density was higher in tree rows versus inter-rows. Both the inter-row and in-row distances can be reduced to increase tree density if light penetration into canopy is sufficient. When a full irrigation regime is applied, a soil depth of 0.8 m would be sufficient for water application, and soil depths of 0.4 to 0.6 m would be recommended for deficit irrigation; water and fertilizers should only be applied over the surface area covering most of the roots. When a more strict control on root activity is desired, the tree roots could be cut vertically at 0.5–0.8 m distance from tree rows. The results could also be used in regions and countries with similar soil texture and climate conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-016-0293-7
      Issue No: Vol. 59, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Effect of Storage on Textural and Sensory Properties of Czech Apple
           Cultivars
    • Authors: Martin Král; Martina Ošťádalová; Bohuslava Tremlová
      Pages: 39 - 43
      Abstract: Abstract Sensory and texture profile analysis are a major component of consumer preference of quality in apples. The objective of the study was to investigate textural and sensory changes during storage. Six different apple cultivars grown in Czech Republic, harvested in 2014, were studied. Fruits were assessed within a day of harvest after overnight storage at room temperature (20 °C), and after stored in normal atmospheres at 3 °C for two different periods, 30 and 90 days with a relative humidity of approximately 95 %. Juiciness was found to be a key parameter of apple sensory analyses. The most relevant textural profile marker, which significantly decreased in all cultivars during storage, was hardness. The first principal component (PC1) described 40.1 % of the variation amongst samples the second (PC2) 18.3 % and third (PC3) 16.0 %. Principal component analysis illustratively divided all the studied cultivar in storage time according sensory and texture descriptors and explained relationships between lots of variables affecting apple quality.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-016-0294-6
      Issue No: Vol. 59, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • The Potential of Caprifig Genotypes for Sheltering Blastophaga psenes  L.
           for Caprification of Edible Figs
    • Authors: Karim Anjam; Abdollah Khadivi-Khub; Ali Sarkhosh
      Pages: 45 - 49
      Abstract: Abstract Caprifig (Ficus carica L.) as pollen sources, play a major role in edible fig caprification by Blastophaga psenes L. The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of three caprifig genotypes (Poozdombali, Kouhi and Kouhaki) for the shelter of B. psenes wasp in Estahban region, Fars province, Iran. Summer (profichi) crop fruits per genotype were harvested in full maturity period and evaluated for five times for the shelter of B. psenes wasp. Significant differences among caprifig genotypes were found for B. psenes number for the three times carried out (0, 21 and 28 days), but they did not show significant differences for two times (7 and 14 days). At day of harvesting, Poozdombali showed the highest B. psenes wasp number (341.33) and Kouhaki had the lowest (200.00) and they showed significant differences for this character in this time. Also, seven days after harvesting, Poozdombali showed the highest wasp number (106.67) and Kouhi and Kouhaki had the lowest (104.33), but not significant difference. Number of B. psenes at the day of harvesting was the highest for all of the genotypes and at 28 days after harvesting was the lowest. Cluster analysis identified two major clusters with several sub-clusters. Caprifig trees with having high B. psenes number are essential for a suitable caprification. Thus, Poozdombali genotype with the highest B. psenes number, is suitable in this important trait to be used for edible figs caprification.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-016-0296-4
      Issue No: Vol. 59, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • An Empirical Analysis on the Determinants of Government-subsidised Crop
           Insurance Purchase in Grape Production in Turkey
    • Authors: Hasan Yilmaz; Meltem Merkez; Nukhet Unlu
      Pages: 51 - 60
      Abstract: Abstract Crop production after natural calamities requires compensation system similar to crop insurance. Developing crop insurance in line with international practice is critical to the sound development of the country’s agriculture. The new government-subsidised crop insurance system has had an important position in horticulture sector of Turkey, recently. Crop insurance is one of the possible measures to meet the risks that may occur because of the natural disasters and to ensure continuity of production in horticulture sector of Turkey. Grape is one of the most important horticultural products for export in Turkey. Grape has always played an important agricultural, social and commercial role in Turkey. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of grape growers who purchase government-subsidised crop insurance. The data used in this study was collected from grape growers via face to face interview conducted with the help of questionnaire and the data was analyzed as descriptive and inferential statistics. Within the context of the research, 88 growers were interviewed in the 2015 production season. Data obtained was analyzed using Chi-square (χ2) test. In this study, insured and non-insured grape farms were compared in terms of their personal, socioeconomic, technical and structural characteristics, grape growing practices, and their communication and information-seeking behaviors. The results revealed that there is a statistically significant difference between the insured and non-insured grape farms in terms of educational level of farmer, household size, agricultural credit use by farmer, amount of produced grape, type of vineyard, the aim of grape growing, type of irrigation system employed, situation soil testing made by farmers’, information sources about government-subsidised crop insurance of farmer, the participation of farmers in extension activities about grape production, agricultural advisory status of farmers and status of receiving an agricultural support of farmers variables. And, as a result, insurance tied to credit access and technology adaptation provides farmers with a good income and can makes the purchase of crop insurance attractive. Additional, insurance companies and government extension units should be provided further information and awareness studies to growers about government-subsidised crop insurance.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-016-0297-3
      Issue No: Vol. 59, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Seasonal Changes of Shoot Carbohydrates and Growth Characteristics of
           ‘Trakya İlkeren’ Grape Variety ( Vitis vinifera  L.)
    • Authors: Bülent Köse; Seda Ateş
      Pages: 61 - 70
      Abstract: Abstract This research was conducted to determine the changes in the seasonal carbohydrates of annual shoots and growth characteristics of 10 years old ‘Trakya İlkeren’ grape variety. Grapevines are grafted on 5BB and 5C rootstocks and they were grown in heavy clay soil conditions. In the study, changes of sugar, starch and total carbohydrates were determined from bud burst to dormancy. While sugar, starch and total carbohydrates showed significant differences (P < 0.01) there were no differences between rootstocks. Although sugar, starch and total carbohydrates of shoots decreased from bud burst to blooming, they increased thereafter until vegetative growth stopped. Total carbohydrates of annual shoots have been found to accumulate in period from blooming to harvest. Total and mean leaf area, shoot length and diameter, total chlorophyll and chlorophyll a/b ratio showed significantly variation among rootstocks and phenological stages (P < 0.01). Whereas the highest chlorophyll contents were found in the blooming, it was found at the lowest through to harvest. Overall mean and total leaf area, shoot length and shoot diameter, total chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a/b ratio were significantly higher on 5BB grafted vines. In the study, 5BB rootstocks are found suitable in terms of shoot carbohydrate accumulation and growth characteristics for ‘Trakya İlkeren’ grape variety.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-016-0298-2
      Issue No: Vol. 59, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Effects of Iron Sulfate, Zinc Sulfate, Iron Chelate, Powder Sulphur and
           Humic Acid Applications on Vegetative Growth of Sweet Cherry ( Prunus
           avium  L.)
    • Authors: Sabahittin Abay; Lütfi Pirlak
      Pages: 71 - 75
      Abstract: Abstract This study was carried out in İscehisar district of Afyonkarahisar on ‘0900-Ziraat’ sweet cherry cultivar for two successive years in 2011 and 2012. Ten different applications consisting of 80 g FeSO4.7H2O tree−1, 20 g FeEDDHA tree−1, 420 mL TKİ-Hümas tree−1, 80 g FeSO4.7H2O + 420 mL TKİ-Hümas tree−1, 200 g powder sulphur (S) tree−1, 80 g FeSO4.7H2O + 200 g powder S tree−1, 25 g ZnSO4.7H2O tree−1, 25 g ZnSO4.7H2O + 420 mL TKİ-Hümas tree−1 and 25 g ZnSO4.7H2O + 200 g powder S tree−1 were subjected for determination of their effect on vegetative growth of sweet cherry. In this study, shoot diameter, shoot length, leaf total chlorophyll content, leaf area and leaf iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) contents were obtained. Shoot length, shoot diameter and leaf area showed general increases in 80 g FeSO4.7H2O + 200 g powder S tree−1 and 25 g ZnSO4.7H2O + 200 g powder S tree−1 treatments. The results clearly indicated that he treatments had different effects on the shoot length and shoot diameter although there was a differences between the experimental years. Particularly, significantly positive effects of the treatments on leaf total chlorophyll was apparent for the second year’s observations. In addition, Fe and Zn concentrations in leaf were markedly increased in response to the treatments.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-016-0300-z
      Issue No: Vol. 59, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Determining the Energy Usage Efficiency of Walnut ( Juglans Regia
            L.) Cultivation in Turkey
    • Authors: Mehmet Fırat Baran; Osman Gökdoğan; Halil İbrahim Oğuz
      Pages: 77 - 82
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study is to reveal the energy balance of walnut in Central Anatolian Region in Turkey. This study has been conducted at the walnut cultivating facilities during the 2014–2015 production season in Kırşehir, Konya, Nevşehir and Niğde provinces of Central Anatolian Region in Turkey, where walnut cultivation is intense. In the study, a total of 28 walnut cultivation facilities, yielding walnut, have been selected through Neyman method and surveys and observations have been performed in these facilities. The agricultural input energies and output energies used in walnut cultivation have been calculated to define the energy use efficiency. According to the study findings, the energy inputs in walnut cultivation are calculated respectively 17,851.33 MJ ha−1 (74.40%) chemical fertilizer energy, 2229.87 MJ ha−1 (9.29%) fuel energy, 1640.64 MJ ha−1 (6.83%) irrigation water energy, 1539 MJ ha−1 (6.41%) machine energy, 508.02 MJ ha−1 (%2.11) chemical energy, 180.35 MJ ha−1 (0.75%) human labour energy and 43.33 MJ ha−1 (0.18%) farm manure energy. Production outputs have been calculated as 14,679.52 MJ ha−1. Following the energy calculations, the output/input ratio, specific energy, energy efficiency and net energy calculations have been calculated respectively as 0.61, 30.20 MJ kg−1, 0.03 kg MJ−1 and −9313.02 MJ ha−1. Benefit-cost ratio was calculated as 1.88, by dividing the gross value of production by the total cost of production per hectare in walnut production.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-016-0301-y
      Issue No: Vol. 59, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Electrochemical Properties and Biochemical Composition of Cv. Shiraz Wine
           Grape ( V. vinifera  L.) Depending on Various Dose and Application Time
           of Foliar Microbial Fertilizer Treatments
    • Authors: Demir Kok; Erdınc Bal
      Abstract: Abstract Utilization from bio fertilization is well known a considerable tool to improve the yield and fruit quality of various crop fruits through the increasing emphasis on maintain of soil health, minimize environmental pollution and decrease the use of chemical fertilization. In this study, in order to improve wine grape quality features of cv. Shiraz, four different doses of foliar microbial fertilizer, including 0, 1000, 2000 and 3000 ppm were applied at two different terms as Term I (mostly; pre-bloom applications) and Term II (mostly; post-bloom applications). However, there were no influences of application terms of foliar microbial fertilizer treatments; treatment doses had considerable effects on yield and quality parameters. The lowest p-values, meaning the highest berry quality, from doses of foliar microbial fertilizer were obtained from 2000 ppm (105.08 μW), 1000 ppm (110.40 μW), 3000 ppm (112.97 μW) and 0 ppm (119.58 μW). Comparing the applications of foliar microbial fertilizer, it was observed that doses of 2000 ppm (3155.56 mg/kg), 1000 ppm (3000.92 mg/kg) and 3000 ppm (2530.19 mg/kg) exhibited higher total phenolic compounds content when compared with 0 ppm treatment (2206.97 mg/kg). Berries from grapevines applied with the doses of 2000, 1000 and 3000 ppm foliar microbial fertilizer respectively shown higher total anthocyanin content such as 1230.19, 1160.85 and 865.86 mg/kg compared to 0 ppm (637.37 mg/kg). As a result, research the findings indicated that 2000 and 1000 ppm doses of foliar microbial fertilizer were obviously effective on wine grape quality features of cv. Shiraz in terms of electrochemical property, total phenolic compounds content and total anthocyanin content.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-017-0319-9
       
  • The Genus Fragaria in Croatia
    • Authors: Dubravka Dujmović Purgar; Boris Duralija; Aleš Vokurka; Marija Todorić; Vesna Židovec
      Abstract: Abstract Only three native species of genus Fragaria (F. moschata, F. vesca and F. viridis) are recorded in three regions of Croatia. These species as well as many of their hybrids, are, or once were, cultivated for their edible fruits. The majority of cultivated strawberries in Europe belong to garden strawberries F. x ananassa (hybrids of F. chiloensis and F. virginiana). The most expanded wild strawberry species in Croatia is a woodland strawberry (F. vesca) whose berries are gathered seasonally as wild edible fruits. They often contain higher amount of nutrients and bioactive compounds in comparison to cultivated varieties. The research on the genus Fragaria species distribution in Croatia has not been carried out, and so is the case with many others wild growing fruit species in Croatia. By summing up a number of individual citations and observations, it is possible to get a perspective regarding the current state of their distribution.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-017-0318-x
       
  • The Use of Multi Criteria Models for Decision Support System in Fruit
           Production
    • Authors: Črtomir Rozman; Aleksandar Maksimović; Adis Puška; Zoan Grgić; Karmen Pažek; Boris Prevolšek; Ferhat Ćejvanović
      Abstract: Abstract The success or failure of an investment project in fruit production also depends on the selection of the fruit species and variety. When selecting the variety for the creation of a new orchard it is necessary to perform the synthesis of different data and to look at all aspects of the investment. This paper presents the application of DEX multi-criteria decision making. The model was applied on 7 varieties of plum from the western Balkans region that were assessed by experts from “The association of agricultural economists of Western Balkans” using the Delphi method. By applying this model it has been shown that the ’Stanley’ is the most suitable for starting a new orchard while the varieties ’Čačanska ljepotica’ and ’Čačanska rodna’ are also very suitable for starting new fruit orchards and they have also received the value attribute “very acceptable”. Using this model all strong and weak sides of the observed plum variety were shown. For the final selection it is necessary to conduct research at a specific micro location where all characteristics of that area would also be taken into consideration.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-017-0320-3
       
  • Spezifisches Gewicht neuer Apfelsorten
    • Authors: Irene Höller; Walter Guerra; Karin Gummerer
      Abstract: Zusammenfassung Am Land- und Forstwirtschaftlichen Versuchszentrum Laimburg wurde in den Jahren von 2007 bis 2013 das spezifische Gewicht von 121 Apfelsorten aus der eigenen Sortensammlung mittels hydrostatischer Methode (Archimedisches Prinzip) ermittelt. Dazu wurde jährlich im selben Zeitraum eine Stichprobenanzahl von 10 Äpfeln pro Sorte mit einer einheitlichen sortentypischen Fruchtgröße untersucht. Die Sorten stammten vorwiegend von den Standorten Laimburg (220 m Meereshöhe) und Latsch (700 m Meereshöhe). Mit den Messdaten wurde eine Klasseneinteilung nach 4 spezifischen Gewichtskategorien von 0,75 bis 0,91 g/cm3 vorgenommen. 76 % der Sorten gliederten sich in die mittleren Kategorien ein, da sie spezifische Gewichtsgrößen von 0,80 bis 0,86 g/cm3 aufwiesen. Bei den spezifisch „sehr leichten“ Sorten war zum Beispiel ‘Golden Delicious’ enthalten und bei den spezifisch „sehr schweren“ Sorten ‘Braeburn’, ‘Nicoter Kanzi®’ und ‘Scifresh Jazz®’. Das spezifische Gewicht verändert sich kaum durch Jahres- oder Standorteinflüsse, da es vielmehr von vorwiegend genetisch bedingten Merkmalen wie beispielsweise dem Interzellularvolumen und dem Trockensubstanzgehalt der Frucht abhängig ist. Auch Fruchtgröße und Reifegrad zählen zu den Einflussfaktoren. Das spezifische Gewicht ist eine interessante Zusatzinformation zur Beschreibung einer Apfelsorte.
      PubDate: 2017-01-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-016-0316-4
       
  • Study on Antioxidant Components in Rosé Wine Originating from the Wine
           Growing Region of Moravia, Czech Republic
    • Authors: Mojmir Baron; Jiri Sochor; Lenka Tomaskova; Bozena Prusova; Michal Kumsta
      Abstract: Abstract The estimation of antioxidants in fruit, vegetables, beverages, and foodstuffs has been discussed in a great number of scientific studies, but until now, problems concerning the analysis of antioxidant components of rosé wine has not been adequately investigated. This paper presented results of a study on antioxidant components contained in some samples of rosé wine originating from the Moravian wine growing region. The experiments involved altogether 48 samples of rosé wine made of grapes of the varieties ‘Blaufränkisch’, ‘Blauer Portugieser’, ‘Pinot Noir’, ‘Sankt Laurent’, and ‘Zweigeltrebe’. Grapes were harvested in 2013. Spectrophotometry was used to estimated antioxidant activity (53–73 mg L−1 GAE), content of total polyphenols (152–369 mg L−1), hydrocinnamic acid (52–148 mg L−1), flavonols (25–294 mg L−1) and anthocyanins (88–1754 mg L−1). The HPLC method was used for the detection of some important antioxidants, i. e. catechin, epicatechin, malvidin-3-glucoside, cis- and trans-resveratrol, ferrulic acid, coumaric acid and caftaric acid. This study enabled to determine basic profiles of the most important antioxidant components of the most popular Moravian red grapevine varieties. The studied wines were analyzed from several different aspects, which is not standard.
      PubDate: 2017-01-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-016-0317-3
       
  • Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Unripe Grape
           (Qora)
    • Authors: Hatef Bagheri; Mohsen Esmaiili
      Abstract: Abstract Optimization of the extraction and analysis of phytochemicals can improve the production and quality of foods. The aim of this study is to evaluate ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from unripe grape (Vitis vinifera). At first stage, conventional thermal extraction was carried out in order to optimize the temperature (50, 70, 90 °C) and duration (20, 40, and 60 min) of the process (control). Investigations showed that the optimum condition of temperature and duration is 70 °C and 30 min, respectively. Then, grape pulp was treated for 30 min by ultrasound at a fixed frequency of 20 kHz. Results showed that ultrasound application increased the total phenolic content of the samples considerably. In addition, individual phenolic composition of the samples, namely rutin, gallic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, and resveratrol were measured by HPLC. A good relation was observed between chromatographic and total phenol results. This study showed that ultrasound-assisted extraction is a sufficient method to produce verjuice as a rich and inexpensive source of antioxidants.
      PubDate: 2017-01-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-016-0315-5
       
  • Postharvest Quality Maintenance of Table Grapes cv. ’Alphonse
           Lavallée’ by Exogenous Applications of Salicylic Acid, Oxalic Acid and
           MAP
    • Authors: Ferhan K. Sabir; Ali Sabir
      Abstract: Abstract Treating the grape with elicitors such as jasmonic, oxalic or salicylic acid can reportedly activate several defense mechanisms, including the accelerated expression of defense genes, enhances in the cell wall composition, and the accumulation of antimicrobial compounds such as phytoalexins. Salicylic acid (SA) and oxalic acid (OA) with or without MAP (Modified Atmosphere Packaging) were tested for their effects on extending storage life of grapes cv. ’Alphonse Lavallée’. After treatments (control, MAP, 5 mM OA, 2 mM SA, SA + MAP, OA + MAP) grapes were stored at 1 °C, 90% R.H. up to 60 days. Overall, all the treatments had significant positive effects on postharvest quality of grapes. SA + MAP was the most effective treatment with the lowest weight loss and decay incidence, the greatest rachis chlorophyll content and berry detachment force at the end of 60 d storage. Effects of SA were also very close to those obtained by the combined treatment. SA alone or SA + MAP treatment may be recommended as an environmental friendly, healthy and sustainable method for extending postharvest quality of grapes up to 60 d, without significant adverse effect on produces. Considering the cost and ease of application, SA alone could be preferred as an effective alternative strategy for traditional chemical treatments.
      PubDate: 2017-01-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-016-0314-6
       
  • Morphological, Biochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Local Loquat (
           Eriobotrya Japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.) Germplasm from Turkey
    • Abstract: Abstract Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica L.) grown well for commercial purposes in subtropical regions nearly 30 countries and originated from China. The most important loquat producers in the world are China, Spain, Turkey, Pakistan, India, Italy and Brazil. In this study, ten pre-selected promising loquat genotypes sampled from eastern Black region and analyzed for their important morphological, biochemical and antioxidant characteristics. The standard cultivar ‘Sayda’ is also included in the study. The results indicated differences for all of the morphological, biochemical and antioxidant characteristics among tested genotypes. Fruit mass and fruit flesh percentage of the genotypes ranged from 35.40 g (LOQ-8) to 46.90 g (LOQ-5) and from 79.40 (%) to 86.32 (%) indicating some local genotypes had higher fruit mass and fruit flesh percentage than standard cultivar ‘Sayda’. Total phenolic content was the highest as 263 μg GAE/g in LOQ-7 genotype while the lowest in LOQ-8 genotype (185 μg GAE/g). LOQ-7 genotype had the highest total antioxidant capacity. Local genotypes in general have higher total phenolic, total carotenoid, vitamin C and antioxidant activity than cv. ‘Sayda’.
      PubDate: 2016-12-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-016-0313-7
       
  • Determination of Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value with Fatty Acid
           Compositions of African Mangosteen ( Garcinia Livingstonei )
    • Abstract: Abstract African mangosteen (Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson) is native to Africa and is exotic to other parts of the world. It is a fruit bearing tree with multiple uses. This study was purposed to determine, by analysis, the chemical compositions and nutritive value of the fruits of African mangosteen. Proximate compositions varied with the portions such as epicarp, mesocarp, endocarp and seed tested. All fruit portions contained carbohydrate (37.67–95.02%) and crude protein (0.65–31.76%) as their major components. Moisture (0.45–3.42%), crude fat (1.23–19.55%), crude fiber (2.93–21.13%) and ash (1.76–5.44%) were also found at different levels, depending upon the portions. All portions of fruit were rich in macro and micro elements. The fruits also possessed phenolics (174.02–10.725 mg GAE per g), flavonoid (19.25 to 99.98 µg QE per g) and alkaloid (1.56 to 9.49 mg/kg) contents. The constitution of tannins and oxalate which contribute towards the anti-nutritive value was also low, thus making the fruits beneficial for consumption. Quality attributes like relative amount of oleic acid, total unsaturated fatty acid, acid value, free fatty acid, peroxide value and iodine value showed that the seed oil of African mangosteen can become one among the oleic acid based vegetable oils for consumption.
      PubDate: 2016-12-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-016-0311-9
       
  • Personalia
    • Authors: Georg Noga
      PubDate: 2016-12-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10341-016-0312-8
       
 
 
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