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  Subjects -> EARTH SCIENCES (Total: 645 journals)
    - EARTH SCIENCES (468 journals)
    - GEOLOGY (69 journals)
    - GEOPHYSICS (27 journals)
    - HYDROLOGY (21 journals)
    - OCEANOGRAPHY (60 journals)

EARTH SCIENCES (468 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 371 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Geophysica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances In Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Algological Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Andean geology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annales UMCS, Geographia, Geologia, Mineralogia et Petrographia     Open Access  
Annals of Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Annals of GIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Glaciology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anthropocene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Ocean Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Petrochemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Remote Sensing Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Arctic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Artificial Satellites : The Journal of Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Asian Review of Environmental and Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atlantic Geology : Journal of the Atlantic Geoscience Society / Atlantic Geology : revue de la Société Géoscientifique de l'Atlantique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Australian Journal of Earth Sciences: An International Geoscience Journal of the Geological Society of Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas     Open Access  
Boreas: An International Journal of Quaternary Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Bulletin of Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Bulletin of Volcanology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cadernos de Geociências     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Carbonates and Evaporites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
CATENA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese Geographical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chinese Journal of Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ciencias Espaciales     Open Access  
Climate and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Cogent Geoscience     Open Access  
Comptes Rendus Geoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contemporary Trends in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Continental Shelf Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Contributions to Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Coral Reefs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cretaceous Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cybergeo : European Journal of Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Depositional Record     Open Access  
Developments in Geotectonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Developments in Quaternary Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Développement durable et territoires     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Diatom Research     Hybrid Journal  
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
E&S Engineering and Science     Open Access  
E3S Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Earth and Planetary Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Earth and Space Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Earth Interactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Earth Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Earth Surface Dynamics (ESurf)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Earth System Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Earth System Dynamics Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Earth's Future     Open Access  
Earth, Planets and Space     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Earthquake Spectra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Ecohydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Ecological Questions     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Electromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Energy Exploration & Exploitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Geosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Geotechnics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal  
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Estudios Geográficos     Open Access  
European Journal of Mineralogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Exploration Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Facies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Fieldiana Life and Earth Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Física de la Tierra     Open Access  
Folia Musei rerum naturalium Bohemiae occidentalis. Geologica et Paleobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Quaternaria     Open Access  
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Frontiers in Earth Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers of Earth Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Fundamental and Applied Limnology / Archiv für Hydrobiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
GEM - International Journal on Geomathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geo-Marine Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Geoacta     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Geocarto International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geochemistry : Exploration, Environment, Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Geochronometria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geoderma Regional : The International Journal for Regional Soil Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Geodinamica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geodynamics & Tectonophysics     Open Access  
Geoenvironmental Disasters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geofluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geoforum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Géographie physique et Quaternaire     Full-text available via subscription  
Geography and Natural Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geoheritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geoinformatica Polonica : The Journal of Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences     Open Access  
Geoinformatics & Geostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Geological Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Geology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Geomagnetism and Aeronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
GEOmedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geomorphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Geophysical & Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geophysical Journal International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Geophysical Prospecting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
GeoResJ     Open Access  
Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geoscience Canada : Journal of the Geological Association of Canada / Geoscience Canada : journal de l'Association Géologique du Canada     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Geoscience Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geoscience Frontiers     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Geoscience Letters     Open Access  
Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geosciences Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geoscientific Model Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Geotectonic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Geotectonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
GFF     Hybrid Journal  
GISAP : Earth and Space Sciences     Open Access  
Glass Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Global and Planetary Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Global Biogeochemical Cycles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Gondwana Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Grassland Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ground Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
GSA Today     Partially Free  
Helgoland Marine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
History of Geo- and Space Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Hydrobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Hydrogeology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Hydrological Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Indian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal on Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Geology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Advanced Geosciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Advanced Remote Sensing and GIS     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Advancement in Earth and Enviromental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Advancement in Remote Sensing, GIS, and Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Coal Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Forest, Soil and Erosion     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of Geographical Information Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Erwerbs-Obstbau
  [SJR: 0.206]   [H-I: 9]   [0 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1439-0302 - ISSN (Online) 0014-0309
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2281 journals]
  • Effects of Bio-Bor Fertilizer Applications on Fruit Yield, Antioxidant
           Enzyme Activity and Freeze Injury of Strawberry
    • Abstract: Abstract Deficiency of Boron (B) is widespread in the many parts of region of Turkey. So, the effects of boron and plant growth promoting bacteria (Bio-B) on the fruit yield, antioxidant enzyme activity and plant freeze injury of strawberry cv. Fern were investigated under field conditions between 2013 and 2014. The experimental plot was a completely randomized design with 4 replicates. Control and Bio-B were used as fertilizer agent in the experiment. Bio-B fertilizer was applied in three methods as soil, foliar and soil + foliar application methods to strawberry plants. Data through 2 years showed that the use of Bio-B significantly increased fruit yield, antioxidant enzyme activity and decreased freeze injury of strawberry leaf. Soil + foliar applications of Bio-B fertilizer increased to fruit yield compared to the control by 55.91 %. However, foliar application of Bio-B fertilizer increased to catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity compared with the control treatment 41.86 %, 48.99 %, and 26.59 %, respectively and decreased freeze injury of strawberry leaves 27.41 %. Overall, the results of this study suggest that Bio-B fertilizer application have the potential to increase the yield, antioxidant enzyme activity and decreased freeze injury of strawberry plants under field conditions.
      PubDate: 2016-04-13
       
  • Determination of Pomological and Morphological Characteristics with Fatty
           Acid Composition of High Kernel Ratio Walnut Genotypes
    • Abstract: Abstract In this selection survey that was performed to select the types with superior properties among the population of seedling walnut trees in Çankırı location, fruit samples were collected individually from 67 trees. Than these types were evaluated for fruit and tree properties and eight walnut types with fruit weight between 11.90 and 15.83 g, interior weight between 6.66 and 8.82 g, the interior ratio between 53.06 and 60.41 %, shell thickness between 1.21 and 1.50 mm were selected as promising. For these types the shell color was determined as dark in two types and tawny in six types. The inner color was found to be light yellow in four types and dark yellow in four types. The selected types were in a good condition for full and sound interior ratio. Seven types gave 100 % full and sound inner. Whereas one type gave 20 % empty fruit. Four types showed homogamous blooming, one types showed protandrous blooming and three types displayed protogynous blooming. The total oil content of selected types varied from 43.16 to 58.68 %. The range of fatty acid contents in the fruits of these types were also determined between 50.83 and 60.77 % for linoleic acid, between 16.14 and 26.44 % for oleic acid, between 5.42 and 7.29 % for palmitic acid, between 11.08 and 14.25 % for linolenic acid and between 1.70 and 2.55 % for stearic acid.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01
       
  • Fruit Characteristics and Detachment Parameters of Sour Cherry ( Prunus
           cerasus L. cv. ‘Kütahya’) as Affected by Various Maturity
           Stages
    • Abstract: Abstract The variability in fruit maturity and quality has difficulties in determining the optimal harvesting maturity. Therefore, maturity stage in harvest is crucial for both fruit quality and minimizing the fruit detachment force. This study investigates the fruit characteristics and detachment parameters of sour cherry (cv. ‘Kütahya’) in terms of different maturity stages. Sour cherries were grouped into five different maturity stages by observation according to their color and dimensions. The fruit mass and dimension increased as a function of maturity stage; however, the fruit mass remained almost same after the 4th stage. The highest values of total soluble solids and titrable acid contents of sour cherry were gained in the last stage of maturity. The value of chroma of fruit outer color was higher 50 % than that of fruit inner color in the 1st maturity stage. However, it was almost same in the 5th stage of maturity. Increasing fruit maturity caused a decrease in the values of fruit detachment force ranging from 4.25 to 1.78 N, giving the coefficient of determination of 0.947. Similarly, the ratio of fruit detachment force to fruit mass, detachment stress, and specific energy decreased as the fruit maturity increased. The harvest of sour cherry is done only once in the optimum time to decrease the harvest cost. Minimizing the variability in fruit maturity throughout the tree is essential for gaining the maximum profit and lower fruit detachment force in this convenient time. Results of this study indicated that 3rd−5th maturity stages were critical for harvest. In order to attain the maximum poundage per tree and color for the market the most of the fruits should be in these stages. Therefore, appropriate management strategies that could homogenize the maturity throughout the tree should be applied.
      PubDate: 2016-02-16
       
  • Aus anderen Fachzeitschriften
    • PubDate: 2016-02-16
       
  • Mitteilungen
    • PubDate: 2016-02-16
       
  • Yield and Quality Response of Young ‘Gala, Galaxy’ Trees under
           Different Irrigation Regimes
    • Abstract: Abstract This study was conducted in 2007–2008 to determine the effects of different irrigation regimes on yield, quality and water-yield relationships of young dwarf ‘Gala, Galaxy’ apple trees in Isparta-Turkey. Irrigation water was applied based on a ratio of class A pan evaporation (rates of 0.0 (kcp0), 0.25 (kcp1), 0.50 (kcp2), 0.75 c (kcp3), 1.00 (kcp4) and 1.25 (kcp5)) with 5-day intervals. The effects of irrigation regimes on yield and fruit weight were statistically significant. Seasonal evapotranspiration was measured as 246.5–608.2 mm and 289.3–631.9 mm in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Water use efficiency lead to a yield ranging from 0.0023 to 0.0055 t ha−1mm−1 and from 0.0033 to 0.0111 t ha−1mm−1 and irrigation water use efficiency varies from 0.0009 to 0.0073 t ha−1mm−1 and from 0.0045 to 0.0186 t ha−1mm−1 in 2007 and 2008, respectively. The annual average yield response factor, ky, was 1.22. As a result of the research, it was concluded that the irrigation schedule for the 0.75 kcp3 treatment, applying 0.75 of evaporation from class A pan, could be used in the irrigation of young dwarf apple trees without evident reduction in yield and that high water use efficiencies could be obtained.
      PubDate: 2016-02-16
       
  • In vitro Germination of Early Ripening Sweet Cherry Varieties ( Prunus
           avium L.) at Different Fruit Ripening Stages
    • Abstract: Abstract In vitro embryo culture enabled satisfactory germination of immature seeds produced in crosses from early ripening sweet cherry varieties (Prunus avium L.). Three varieties —‘Rita’, ‘Bigarreau Burlat’ and ‘Carmen’— were crossed with ‘Early Star’ as male parent. Germination rate was affected by the developmental stage of both fruit and embryo. Fruit ripening stage was a critical factor for culture infection rate that increased with maturity. In-ovule embryo culture on Murashige and Skoog medium without hormones improved the embryo size but did not increase the germination rate due to a further increase in infection rate. Ex-ovule embryo culture on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with BA 1 mg L−1, NAA 0.5 mg L−1, 20 g L−1sucrose, 10 g L−1 sorbitol and 6 g L−1agar during the stratification time increased embryo length. Germination was performed on Brooks and Hough medium at the 22 ± 1 °C with 16/8 h light/dark photoperiod. The highest germination rate (75 %) was reached in embryos that were 3−4 mm in length, after 30-days stratification at 4 °C. Embryos in fruits at green-yellow stage that were 3−4 mm long were morpho-physiologically developed to produce bipolar seedlings, without combined application of embryo culture and micropropagation.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08
       
  • A Review of Sooty Blotch and Flyspeck Disease in German Organic Apple
           Production
    • Abstract: Abstract Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) fungi colonise the surface of a range of fruits, especially apple, without penetrating the cuticle. Economic damage results from the exclusion of severely affected fruit batches from being marketed as table apples. A study of SBFS was conducted in 2007–2012 in the two largest German apple production areas, i.e. the Lake Constance and Lower Elbe regions. The absence of this disease complex from orchards under integrated pest management in both regions in all years was explained by the collateral effects of scab and storage-rot sprays with captan and quinone-outside inhibitors (QoI) such as trifloxystrobin. However, SBFS was economically relevant in organically managed orchards, being generally more severe in Southern Germany than in the North. In both regions, Peltaster cerophilus was the most frequently isolated SBFS fungus and was chiefly responsible for crop losses. Cyphellophora sessilis, Microcyclosporella mali and Schizothyrium pomi also contributed to SBFS in some organic orchards, whereas a diversity of additional species was confined to untreated orchards. Evidence was obtained that P. cerophilus overwinters within orchards, fruit mummies being one of presumably several colonised plant organs. Infections of young apple fruits were initiated at any time following the end of flowering, and P. cerophilus was capable of causing several infection cycles per season by means of conidial inoculum. The colonisation of sheets of waxed paper by P. cerophilus indicated that this species does not require fruit leachates for growth. No further expansion of colonies was observed during cold storage; instead, P. cerophilus was gradually displaced by other fungi. Differences in the susceptibility of apple varieties to P. cerophilus were due to fruit ripening, late-maturing cultivars being most heavily colonised, and to surface properties, varieties with a waxy bloom being conspicuously less strongly colonised than others. This fungus was unable to colonise russeted fruit areas. Repeated spray treatments with lime-sulphur and potassium bicarbonate throughout the season were effective and necessary to control SBFS in organic production. This strategy threatens the fungicide-saving potential offered by scab-resistant apple varieties. Cultural measures against SBFS include summer pruning as well as the manual removal of fruit mummies in winter.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08
       
  • Breeding Perennial Fruit Crops for Quality Improvement
    • Abstract: Abstract Fruits play a crucial role in human diets and as a commercial commodity in trade. The consumers have considered fruit quality as the most important criteria that decides its acceptability. Fruit quality-based overall acceptability determines the success of any breeding programme, as a number of improved varieties with desired traits including resistance to stresses could not be popularized due to their poor quality fruits. However, breeding for quality improvement in perennial fruit crops is hampered by a number of limitations including large size of the plant, long juvenile phase and environmental problems (e.g. fruit drops due to natural calamities). Besides, fruit quality is a polygenic trait, which is quantitatively inherited and thus making breeding programme complicated in quality improvement of fruit crops. Several attempts have been made to improve the quality characters in annual staple crops, however this aspect is conveniently ignored in case of perennial fruit crops. A balanced approach combining conventional and non-conventional breeding techniques could help in addressing this issue. The biotechnological approaches provide precision, reliability and are considered to reduce the breeding cycle in long duration crops. Efficacy of approaches like marker assisted selection, candidate gene, genomics, trangenics, cisgenics has shown to be advantageous when dealing with cumbersome crops. This review would focus on problems in fruit breeding and present status of different breeding approaches for fruit quality improvement in fruit trees.
      PubDate: 2016-01-08
       
  • Einfluss von Unterlagen im Vergleich zu selbstbewurzelten
           Birnenbäumen auf vegetative und generative Parameter unter
           biologischen Anbaubedingungen in Ostösterreich
    • Abstract: Zusammenfassung Im Frühjahr 2006 wurden im Versuchszentrum der Universität für Bodenkultur in Wien die Birnensorten ‘Bosc’s’ Flaschenbirne’, ‘Williams’ Christ’ und ‘Uta’ auf den Unterlagen Kirchensaller Mostbirne (Sämling), Pyrodwarf, Farold 69, Quitte Adams (mit Zwischenveredlung ‘Conference’) und wurzelecht aus in-vitro Kultur gepflanzt, als Spindel erzogen und acht Jahre unter biologischen Anbaubedingungen getestet. Die wurzelechten ‘Williams’- und ‘Bosc’s’-Bäume waren im Pflanzjahr stark betroffen von Baumausfällen, wuchsen mittelstark und kamen später in den Ertrag als die veredelten Bäume. Die Unterlage Quitte Adams war auf dem kalkreichen Standort sehr schwach wüchsig, Chlorosen, Baumausfälle und kleinere Früchte waren die Folge, die allerdings höhere Brix-, Vitamin C- und Apfelsäure-Werte aufwiesen. ‘Bosc’s’ zeigte auf allen Unterlagen insgesamt niedrige Erträge im Beobachtungszeitraum. Gute Erträge und Fruchtqualitäten wurden bei ‘Williams’ auf Farold 69 und Sämling erzielt, während bei der schwachwüchsigen Sorte ‘Uta’ der Sämling wenig Baumausfälle und die höchsten Erträge aufwies. Pyrodwarf wies geringe Baumausfälle auf, war ähnlich in Wuchs und Ertrag wie Farold 69 und Sämling, allerdings waren die Früchte bei ‘Williams’ und ‘Bosc’s’ etwas kleiner.
      PubDate: 2016-01-08
       
  • Personalia
    • PubDate: 2015-12-23
       
  • Interaction of Crop Load and Irrigation on Yield, Fruit Size, Color and
           Stem-end Splitting Ratio of Apple c.v. ‘Gala, Galaxy’
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, the interaction between crop load and irrigation level on yield, fruit size, skin color and stem-end splitting fruit ratio in the apple cultivar ‘Gala, Galaxy’ grafted on rootstock M9 were investigated. Six irrigation programs were applied during the whole growth season: deficit irrigation (rates of 0.25 kc, 0.50 kc, 0.75 kc), full irrigation (rate of 1.00 kc), excess irrigation (rate of 1.25 kc) and non-irrigation (rates of 0.00 kc of “Class A” pan evaporation coefficient). Four crop loads in each irrigation application were performed by hand thinning after the June drop as a- a low crop load (3 fruits cm−2 TCA), b- a medium crop load (5 fruits cm−2 TCA), c- a heavy crop load (7 fruits cm−2 TCA), and d- an un-thinned crop load (> 7 fruits cm−2 TCA). The total tree yield increased with crop load and irrigation levels. Fruit size was significantly increased by the low crop load. Irrigation increased the fruit size compared to non-irrigation treatment. Further 0.75 kc, 1.00 kc and 1.25 kc irrigation treatments significantly increased the fruit length. Irrigation reduced the fruit flesh firmness. While the low crop load increased the skin red color, it decreased the fruit skin brightness. The yellowness of skin decreased with increasing in the irrigation amount. Irrigation reduced the skin brightness and yellowness, but it increased red color. Crop load and irrigation significantly affected the stem-end splitting fruit ratio. While the splitting fruit ratio increased with a decrease in the crop load, it decreased with an increase in irrigation amount, relatively. Consequently, the low and medium crop load treatments would be beneficial to increase the ratio of marketable fruits without any significant losses in yield for ‘Gala’ apple, especially under 0.75 kc deficit irrigation treatment.
      PubDate: 2015-12-21
       
  • Erratum to: Determination of Pomological and Morphological Characteristics
           with Fatty Acid Composition of High Kernel Ratio Walnut Genotypes
    • PubDate: 2015-12-15
       
  • Zinc Ameliorates Fruit Yield and Quality of Mangoes Cultivated in
           Calcareous Soils
    • Abstract: Abstract Zinc (Zn) deficiency is frequently observed in mangoes grown in calcareous soils. Inherent inability of mango to extract sufficient Zn from the soil exacerbates this situation. Therefore, mitigating effects of Zn application was investigated on flowering, fruit setting, yield and quality of mango cv. Samar Bahisht Chaunsa growing in calcareous soils. The experiment consisted of five treatments: control—no Zn, soil application of 50 and 100 g ZnSO4 per tree and foliar application of 0.5  and 1.0 % ZnSO4 solution. Zn was applied twice in the 2nd week of November, 2011 and 3rd week of March, 2012, respectively. The experiment was repeated on the same dates during the next growing season. Zn application significantly increased number of flower panicle, fruits matured panicle, leaf Zn concentrations, fruit size, peel thickness, fruit weights at harvest and after ripening and fruit yield tree, whereas it reduced malformed panicles and early fruit drop. However, flower sex ratio and fruit set remained statistically unaffected. Similarly, fruit quality in terms of total soluble solids, flesh color, aroma, flavor and overall acceptability significantly improved as compared to control. Foliar application mitigated Zn deficiency more effectively than the soil application in calcareous soils.
      PubDate: 2015-11-23
       
  • Determination of Some Engineering Properties of Pecan ( Carya
           illinoinensis ) for New Design of Cracking System
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, strength and frictional properties of pecan was determined as a functional of moisture content. A pecan was loaded between two parallel plates to determine the rupture force, deformation, power and firmness required to initiate pecan rupture and determined static and dynamic friction. The tests were carried out at five moisture contents of 5.23 %, 10.36 %, 15.78 %, 20.08 % and 25.42 % db and three axes (X, Y, Z). Physical characteristics of the pecan such as mass, dimensions (length, thickness and width), geometric mean diameter, sphericity, volume, and shell thickness were determined. The force required to initiate nut rupture decreased from 112.321 to 98.723 N, from 82.872 to 63,988 N and from 80.093 to 62.758 N for the length, suture and width orientations of loading with an increase in moisture content. The highest toughness (20.460 Jmm− 3) was obtained at moisture content of 25.42 % db. The firmness decreased to a minimum value when moisture content was increased from 5.23 to 10.36 % db and later increased as moisture content was increased further from 10.36 to 25.42 % db. The static and dynamic coefficients of friction on various surfaces, namely, plywood, mild steel and galvanized metal also increased linearly with increase in moisture content. The plywood surface offered the maximum friction followed by mild metal and galvanized metal.
      PubDate: 2015-11-16
       
  • Determination of Pomological and Morphological Characteristics and
           
    • Abstract: Abstract The present study was conducted in order to determine the pomological and morphological characteristics and chemical compositions of some local apple varieties grown in Gumushane. As a result of field work in Gumushane province, sixteen different apples, which are Summer Apple, English apple, Green Belly, Black Belly and Yellow Belly Apples, Amasya Marble, Bey Apple, Chest Apple, Mahsusa, Arabian Girl, Willow Apple, Tavşanbaşı, Yellow Hıdır, Local Marble, Bride Apple, and Fatty Apple were collected in order to analyze. The average results of pomological and morphological properties and chemical compositions were obtained as following: fruit mass; 127.36 g, fruit width; 65.23 mm, fruit length; 57.30 mm, fruit stalk thickness; 2.17 mm, fruit stalk length; 17.63 mm, stalk pit depth; 12.75 mm, flower pit depth; 10.29 mm, fruit firmness; 13.79 kg/cm2, seed house width; 15.89 mm, seed house length; 17.39 mm, number of seeds; 4.3, water soluble dry matter content; 14.53 %, ash content; 1.11 %, pH; 3.8, titratable acidity; 0.69 g/L, water content; 83.8 %, reducing sugar; 5.04 g/100 g, sucrose; 2.25 g/100 g, and the amount of total sugars; 7.29 g/100. The fruit peel color was determined by considering the light transmittance (L). The average L values were ranged between 112.06 and 66.32. On the other hand among the mineral elements, potassium and manganese amounts were determined as the highest and the lowest, respectively.
      PubDate: 2015-11-16
       
  • The Relationship Between Growth Vigour of Rootstock and Phenolic Contents
           in Apple ( Malus × domestica )
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of the study is to determine the effect of different growth vigorous rootstocks on phenolic compounds in leaves of apple. For this purpose it was used the leaves of cultivar ‘Red Chief’ grafted on dwarf (M9), semi-dwarf (M26) and semi-vigorous (MM106) rootstocks. During mid-July, the leaf samples were taken from the middle part of annual shoots. Phenolics of the leaves were determined by HPLC analysis. While significant differences among the rootstocks for p-hydroxybenzoic acid, eriodictyol, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid were detected, these differences were insignificant for gallic acid and quercetin. It was shown that semi-vigorous rootstocks (MM106) had higher phenolic contents in total than the other two dwarf rootstocks. In addition, apigenin-7-glucoside, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, epicatechin, syringic acid, catechin, rutin, resveratrol, hesperidin, naringenin, luteolin, apigenin and acacetin could not to be detected. Data showed that there is the relationship between growth vigour and phenolic contents of apple leaves. Especially, p-hydroxy benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid contents were higher in semi-vigorous rootstock than in dwarf rootstock.
      PubDate: 2015-11-10
       
  • Chemical Compositions of Myrtle ( Myrtus communis L.) Genotypes Having
           Bluish-Black and Yellowish-White Fruits
    • Abstract: Abstract Total soluble solids, acidity, pH, tannic acid, ascorbic acid, phenolic and fatty acid compositions of fruits of four myrtle genotypes (two with bluish-black and two with yellowish-white-colored fruits) were investigated in the study. Total soluble solids, acidity, pH, tannic acid and ascorbic acid contents of myrtle genotypes ranged from 15.50 % to 24.00 %, from 0.06 % to 0.15 %, from 5.38 to 5.64, from 23.63 µg/g to 52.46 µg/g and from 1.43 mg/100 g to 2.82 mg/100 g among genotypes, respectively. Predominant phenolic compounds were naringin, gallic and clorogenic acids for the genotypes having yellowish-white fruits and naringin, gallic, caffeic, p-hydroxybenzoic, chlorogenic and syringic acids for the genotypes having bluish-black fruits. Rosmarinic, p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acids were detected from only genotypes having bluish-black fruits. While caffeic acid was found at very high levels in Genotype 2 and Genotype 11 having bluish-black fruits (181.50 and 157.95 µg/g, respectively), a very low level of caffeic acid (2.95 µg/g) was detected in only the fruits of Genotype 17 having yellowish-white fruits. The data suggest a positive relationship between these phenolics (caffeic, rosmarinic, p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acids) and bluish-black color in fruits. Total fat contents of fruits ranged from 3.83 to 4.13 % among genotypes. The predominant fatty acids of myrtle fruits were linoleic acid (69.47–71.71 %), palmitic acid (10.18–13.40 %) and oleic acid (10.14–13.48 %). The proportion of unsaturated fatty acids changed between 81.09 and 83.97 % in the genotypes evaluated.
      PubDate: 2015-10-22
       
  • The Investigation of Relationships Between Some Fruit and Kernel Traits
           with Canonical Correlation Analysis in Ankara Region Walnuts
    • Abstract: Abstract Canonical correlation analysis is a multivariate technique, which is employed to examine relationships between two variable sets, each of that consist of two or more variables. In the analysis, by maximizing the relationships between two sets, it is aimed to obtain new variables called as canonical variates that formed by linear combinations of the original variables for each sets. In this study, it is aimed to examine the relationships between some fruit and kernel characteristics of Ankara region walnuts. Thus, the following eight traits Fruit Length (mm), Fruit Width (mm) Fruit Height (mm) Fruit Weight (g), Shell Thickness (mm), Kernel Weight (g), Kernel Ratio (%) and Filled-firm Kernel Ratio (%) of 364 walnut samples were measured. First five of these characteristics were grouped as X variable and the rest of as Y variable. As a result, the correlation between the first canonical variable pair was found as 0.979 (p < 0.01).
      PubDate: 2015-10-21
       
  • Estimating the Economic Costs and Level of Pesticide Use in Oil Rose (
           Rosa damascena Mill .) Orchards: Evidence from a Survey for the Lakes
           Region of Turkey
    • Abstract: Abstract The main objective of this study was to estimate the economic losses resulting from overdose used of pesticide and determining of economic costs on practices of pesticide application and level of pesticide use on oil rose production in Turkey. Lakes Region of Turkey was chosen as research area because oil rose is a major crop grown in the study area. The data used in this study were collected from oil rose growers using a face-to-face interview. The result of the analyses showed that farmers use agricultural chemical more than the recommendations of extension units, depending on the prospectus of chemicals in the oil rose production. The average usages per hectare of active ingredient of insecticides and fungicides were determined to be 2 612.80 and 2 347.50 gr-ml-cc, respectively. An average plant protection cost was € 593.31 ha−1, which was 25.17 % of total oil rose production costs. It was calculated that economic loss was € 172.37 per hectare due to overdose of agricultural chemicals. The percentages of this loss were 58.66 %, 37.56 % and 3.78 % copper sulfate, pesticides and sulfur, respectively. It was calculated that economic loss was € 64.73 per hectare due to overdose of pesticides. The percentages of this loss are 61.40 % and 38.60 % insecticide and fungicide, respectively. Gain threshold was calculated as 637.75 kg ha−1.
      PubDate: 2015-09-23
       
 
 
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