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  Subjects -> EARTH SCIENCES (Total: 598 journals)
    - EARTH SCIENCES (443 journals)
    - GEOLOGY (67 journals)
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    - HYDROLOGY (17 journals)
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EARTH SCIENCES (443 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances In Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Algological Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Andean geology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annales UMCS, Geographia, Geologia, Mineralogia et Petrographia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annals of GIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Annals of Glaciology     Full-text available via subscription  
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Ocean Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Petrochemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Remote Sensing Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Artificial Satellites     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Atlantic Geology : Journal of the Atlantic Geoscience Society / Atlantic Geology : revue de la Société Géoscientifique de l'Atlantique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Australian Journal of Earth Sciences: An International Geoscience Journal of the Geological Society of Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas     Open Access  
Boreas: An International Journal of Quaternary Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Bulletin of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Bulletin of Volcanology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Carbonates and Evaporites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
CATENA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Central European Journal of Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Geographical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ciencia del suelo     Open Access  
Climate and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Comptes Rendus Geoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Contemporary Trends in Geoscience     Open Access  
Continental Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Continental Shelf Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Contributions to Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Coral Reefs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cretaceous Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cybergeo : European Journal of Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Geotectonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Quaternary Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Développement durable et territoires     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Diatom Research     Hybrid Journal  
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
E3S Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Earth and Planetary Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179)
Earth Interactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Earth Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Earth Surface Dynamics (ESurf)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Earth System Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Earth System Dynamics Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earth, Planets and Space     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Earthquake Spectra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Ecohydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Electromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Energy Exploration & Exploitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Geosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Geotechnics     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Journal Cover Erwerbs-Obstbau
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1439-0302 - ISSN (Online) 0014-0309
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2210 journals]   [SJR: 0.173]   [H-I: 8]
  • Elliptic Fourier analysis for shape distinction of Turkish hazelnut
    • Abstract: Abstract Shape is a crucial physical property of agricultural products and hence is an important parameter for assessing the quality standard. In the present study, shape variations among 17 hazelnut cultivars grown in Turkey were revealed from their digital images using shape descriptors obtained from elliptic Fourier analysis (EFA), which is a shape-based methodology. Subsequently, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to summarize the variations among the hazelnut cultivars. This was followed by linear discriminant analysis using the first four principal components, representing 93.9 % of the total variance, obtained from the PCA to discriminate the 17 hazelnut cultivars. Estimates of Hotelling’s pairwise comparisons from the multivariate analysis based on the shape variables obtained from the EFA revealed ideal shape differences between the hazelnut cultivars. Hierarchical cluster analysis divided the cultivars into six clusters according to their shape characteristics. In addition, size (projected area, length, width, thickness, surface area, geometric mean diameter), shape (shape index, sphericity, roundness, and elongation), and gravimetric (mass and volume) features of the 17 common hazelnut cultivars were also determined via an image processing technique.An analysis of variance was performed to test the differences among these variables in a descriptive method. We found that EFA provided excellent discrimination between the hazelnut cultivars with respect to their shape features.
      PubDate: 2014-11-12
  • Aus anderen Fachzeitschriften
    • PubDate: 2014-11-06
  • Biodiversity of figs ( Ficus carica l.) in Coruh valley of Turkey
    • Abstract: Abstract The Coruh valley lies within the Caucasus ecological zone, which is considered by the World Wild Fund for Nature and by Conservation International as a one of the biodiversity hotspot in the world. The valley is also recognized by Turkish conservation organizations as an important plant area, an important bird area, a key biodiversity area and has been nominated as a high priority area for protection. This valley is rich in plants and contains 104 nationally threatened plant species of which 67 are endemic to Turkey. Fig (Ficus carica L.) is one of the most important wild edible fruit tree along with pomegranate and olive in the valley. Figs have been used for fresh consumption for centuries and also an important element of natural landscape of the valley. The valley abundantly has black, purple and yellow-green fruited fig trees. In this study we determined some important tree, leaf and fruit morphological characteristics of 50 selected wild grown fig accessions naturally found in the valley. The results showed that the investigated morphological traits of fig accessions displayed significant differences each other. Principal coordinate analysis showed that diversity among the accessions was high and the accessions had black and yellow-green colored fruits were the most diverse groups.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31
  • Determination of Heat Requirements and Effective Heat Summations of Some
           Pomegranate Cultivars Grown in Southern Anatolia
    • Abstract: Abstract Temperature (high and low) is one of the most limiting environmental factors for growth and production of fruits in different parts of the world. For temperate-zone fruit species, a certain total heat requirements are needed in order to obtain ripe fruits. The aim of this study was to determine heat requirements of three commercial pomegranate cultivars (‘Suruc’, ‘Katirbasi’ and ‘Hicaznar’) grown in Southern Anatolia region. The cultivars showed a narrower range of heat requirements for flowering (growing degree hours, GDH), i.e. ‘Suruc’ (25,000), ‘Katirbasi’ (25,270), ‘Hicaznar’ (28,000) and a wide range of heat requirements for fruit ripening, i.e. ‘Suruc’ (73,670), ‘Katirbasi’ (74,105) and ‘Hicaznar’ (88,052) GDH. Under the Sanliurfa province conditions, two years average of effective heat summation requirement from bud swelling to 50 % flowering stage for ‘Suruc’, ‘Katirbasi’ and ‘Hicaznar’ cultivars are calculated as 643, 655 and 718 growing degree days (GDD) and from bud swelling to harvest are 2734, 2802 and 3289 GDD. It can be concluded that the effective heat summation of Sanliurfa province is enough for commercial growing for all pomegranate cultivars.
      PubDate: 2014-10-23
  • Der FAO-Report über die Familienbetriebe im Apfelanbau Südtirols
    • PubDate: 2014-10-16
  • Polyphenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Berries of Four Russian
           Cultivars of Lonicera kamtschatica (Sevast.) Pojark
    • Abstract: Abstract Nowadays increasing attention has been focused on polyphenolic compounds as the main representants of antioxidants in horticultural crops including fruits. The edible honeysuckle has an unique position among lesser known fruits due to its high level of antioxidants. In the present study we determined polyphenolic profile and antioxidant capacity of four Russian cultivars of edible honeysuckle including ‘Gerda 25’, ‘Amfora’, ‘Morena’, ‘Lipnicka’, which found together in a single location in Mendel University in Brno, The Czech Republic. Polyphenolic compounds were detected by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detector (HPLC-ED). The antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH test. According to the results there were differences among cultivars in terms of polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity and Lonicera kamtschatica ‘Gerda 25’ were found to be possessed the highest content of phenolic compounds corresponding to the highest value of antioxidant activity.
      PubDate: 2014-10-10
  • Nachruf Prof. Dr. Erhard Schürmer
    • PubDate: 2014-10-10
  • Some Physicochemical Characteristics, Bioactive Content and Antioxidant
           Characteristics of Non-Sprayed Barberry ( Berberis vulgaris L. ) Fruits
           from Turkey
    • Abstract: Abstract Increasing consumer demands for indigenous, non-sprayed with pesticides and less-known or “forgotten” fruits necessitate knowledge on their breeding, cultivation, biochemical content, harvesting and marketing. Anatolia is rich for wild edible fruit species and barberry is abundant throughout Anatolia. The aim of this study was to determine some important physicochemical characteristics, bioactive content and antioxidant capacity of fruits from nineteen promising barberry (Berberis vulgaris L.) genotypes grown in the Coruh valley, Northeastern Anatolia. The results indicated genotype-specific differences for most of the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant capacity and the content of some bioactive compounds. Fruit mass ranged from 0.073 (‘Coruh-7’) to 0.267 g (‘Coruh-11’). Total phenolic content ranged from 2532 (‘Coruh-’) to 3719 mg GAE per liter fruit juice (‘Coruh-11’). The genotype ‘Coruh-12’ had the highest total monomeric anthocyanin content (1004 mg per liter fruit juice) as cyanidin-3-glucoside. The highest total antioxidant capacity was observed in fruits of ‘Coruh-8’ and ‘Coruh-9’ genotypes with all three antioxidant-determining methods. We conclude that the barberry fruits represent a good source of bioactive phytochemicals because of their high phenolic and anthocyanin contents.
      PubDate: 2014-10-07
  • Der Feind in meinem Beet
    • PubDate: 2014-09-25
  • Signifikante Unterschiede zwischen biologischen und konventionellen
    • PubDate: 2014-08-08
  • Aus anderen Fachzeitschriften
    • PubDate: 2014-08-07
  • Biology and control of the apple canker fungus        class="a-plus-plus">Neonectria ditissima (syn.
           N. galligena) from a
           Northwestern European perspective
    • Abstract: Abstract A review of apple canker caused by Neonectria ditissima is presented for Northwestern Europe with a focus on the Lower Elbe region (Northern Germany). Whereas conidia released by rainsplash are produced mainly from spring to autumn, the liberation of wind-borne ascospores peaks in autumn and/or early spring. Infection occurs via natural as well as pruning-induced wounds, some of which are present throughout the year. Autumnal leaf scars are the most frequent entry point for N. ditissima. Wounds on tree trunks, especially bark cracks in the crotch regions, are potentially even more serious because cankers on trunks and leader shoots commonly cause the total loss of a tree. Surface moisture is a prerequisite for leaf scar infections but possibly not for an entry through other wounds. Irrespective of the entry route, successful infection of a wound requires a mass inoculum of at least 50–100 conidia or ascospores. Infections of trees originating in nurseries may enter a state of latency from which they can break out up to 3 years after the trees have been explanted into the production orchard. Streaks of brown wood discolourations can be caused both by systemic colonisation of the xylem by N. ditissima and by winter frost damage. Apple varieties may show pronounced differences in their sensitivity to canker. For highly susceptible varieties, this disease can be a major production-limiting factor. Flower infections by N. ditissima commonly lead to a pre-harvest rot at the blossom end of the fruit, whereas infections of the growing fruit before harvest lead to a storage rot. Rigorous pruning is an essential canker control measure. Chemical control during the growing season is achieved by apple scab fungicides such as dithianone, captan or dodine. At leaf fall and in winter, copper fungicides are indispensible for controlling canker on highly susceptible varieties in Northern Germany.
      PubDate: 2014-07-22
  • Nicht-destruktive Bestimmung der Beduftung bzw. des Duftfilmes bei
    • Abstract: Zusammenfassung Pflaumen und andere Früchte entwickeln während ihres Fruchtwachstums eine halbtransparente, weißliche Schicht auf ihrer Oberfläche, die als Beduftung oder Duftfilm bezeichnet wird. Die Beduftung auf Pflaumen verschiedener Farbe (Hauszwetsche, Reneclaude, Mirabelle) wurde mit Hilfe eines Rasterelektronen – Mikroskopes, eines Farbmessgerätes und eines industriellen Sensors, der einen Anteil des reflektierten Lichtes als sog. ‘luster level’ in 15 mm Abstand misst, nicht-destruktiv und zeitgleich – im Vergleich zu einer Farbmessung – untersucht. Wachsanalysen der europäischen Pflaumen resultierten in 175–205 µg Wachs/cm2 Fruchtoberfläche mit Linolen- und Ursolsäure als dominierende Fettsäuren. Mikroskopische Aufnahmen zeigten die natürliche epikutikuläre Oberflächenstruktur mit Wachsplättchen, die nach Polieren mit einem weichen Tuch abgeschwächt wurde. Mit Hilfe des Luster-Sensors wurde es möglich, Veränderungen der Beduftung bzw. der natürlichen Bewachsung nach Polieren zu bestimmen; sie führten zu einer Verdoppelung der ‘luster level’ von 120–170 auf 300–500 Luster-Einheiten und damit zu einem klaren Ergebnis bzw. Abgrenzung beider Oberflächenzustände gegeneinander, die beim Polieren weniger auf Wachsabrieb, sondern eher auf Wachsumverteilung und –umstrukturierung zurückzuführen sind. Durch Polieren stieg der a-Wert im Lab Farbraum geringfügig von 2,35 auf 2,85 an, während der b-Wert von − 14 stark auf − 5 anstieg, d. h. der optische Farbeindruck wird durch das Verändern der Wachskristalle auf der Pflaumenoberfläche stärker blau. Obwohl die Beduftung der Hauszwetsche durch ihren dunkelblauen Hintergrund optisch besser sichtbar ist als bei den gelben Mirabellen und grünen Renecloden, war sie mit diesem optischen Glanzsensor genauso gut nicht-destruktiv messbar und somit genauer als bei Messung der Fruchtfarbe mittels eines optischen Farbmessgerätes. Diese Ergebnisse lassen sich vermutlich auch auf andere Früchte mit vergleichbarem Wachsfilm wie z. B. rote Weinbeeren und Heidelbeeren übertragen und z. B. auf einer Sortierstraße oder mit einem Handgerät schnell, einfach und preiswert Glanzgrad bzw. Intensität des Handlings nach Abreiben der Oberflächenwachse bestimmen.
      PubDate: 2014-07-17
  • Das Potential von Apfel-Birne-Hybriden für die Kernobstzüchtung
    • Abstract: Zusammenfassung Hybriden von Apfel und Birne wurden bereits verschiedentlich durch klassische Züchtung erzeugt und beschrieben, allerdings haben bisher keine vitalen und fertilen Hybriden Eingang in die Kernobstzüchtung finden können. Kürzlich haben die Autoren die von M. Zwintzscher in den 80er Jahren erzeugte putative Hybride untersucht und konnten auf genetischer, physiologischer und phänotypischer Ebene ihren Hybridcharakter bestätigen. Anders als im Fall anderer Hybriden gelang mit Zwintzscher’s Hybride als mütterliche Linie durch H. Schimmelpfeng in den 90er Jahren bereits die Züchtung von fünf F2-Hybrid-Pflanzen. Diese sind auch schon blühfähig, fruchten regelmäßig und drei der F2-Linien könnten sogar selber Sortenpotential besitzen. Durch die Existenz dieser vitalen und fertilen Hybriden bietet sich die Gelegenheit, über diese F2-Linien verschiedene Anteile des Birnen-Genoms und damit interessante neue genetische Faktoren auf klassischem Wege in das Apfel-Genom einzukreuzen und damit für die Apfelzüchtung verfügbar zu machen. Mit Teilen des Birnen-Genoms könnten Nicht-Wirts-Resistenzen der Birne gegen Apfel-spezifische Pathogene wie den Apfelschorf (Venturia inaequalis) oder auch neue Aroma-Biosynthese-Gene eingekreuzt werden. Ein neues Projekt zur Züchtung einer entsprechenden F3-Generation wird hier vorgestellt.
      PubDate: 2014-07-10
  • Landwirtschaft für das Klima – Ein FiBL-Projekt sucht nach
           nachhaltigen Systemen
    • PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Opportunities and Challenges of Carbon Footprint, Climate or CO       class="a-plus-plus">2 Labelling for Horticultural Products
    • Abstract: Abstract The number of fruits on the German and European markets with a carbon label is on the increase. This contribution reviews the existing carbon labels by evaluating, categorising and giving background information to provide guidance for labelling home-grown horticultural produce. The existing labels worldwide were classified in 10 categories: (1) CO2 value; (2) Colour code (with or without CO2 value); (3) CO2 reduction (Carbon Trust, Tesco’s, UK) or conversion labels; (4) Climatop for Migros, Switzerland (temporal label for the best product within a product category, e.g., banana, rice, salt); (5) Airfreight labels, e.g., Marks & Spencer’s UK (without further information); (6) ‘Climate, carbon offset or CO2-neutral’, e.g., NewTree, (only when using gold standard CO2 emission certificates); (7) unaccounted CO2 compensation measures (such as planting young trees: ‘CO2 pineapple’ in Costa Rica); (8) Sustainability labels (ProPlanet, REWE), (9) sustainability reports (printed or online) and (10) QR-Code on the shelf or product to access web-based information. The ‘Pros and Cons’ of the climate labels are compared with respect to the seasonal fruit and vegetables often sold on the markets as lose items and the stakeholder interest. Labelling approaches 4, 8, 9 and 10 appeared suitable for seasonal fruits and vegetables based on criteria such as transparency, clarity, objectivity and integration in the sustainability context. Overall, it is difficult to use labels with a CO2 value for horticultural products, because (a) the consumer may find it difficult to judge and memorise numeric values, particularly if expressed on different units (e.g. packet size, 1 l, 100 g) and (b) because of the big variation between the farm production systems and the variability between the year to year weather and (c) the consumer may find shopping with a seasonal crop calendar and country of origin label a better choice.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Aus anderen Fachzeitschriften
    • PubDate: 2014-04-11
  • Cultivars Resulting From Cherry Breeding in Germany
    • Abstract: Abstract In Germany the sweet and sour cherry breeding is concentrated at the Julius Kühn-Institut in Dresden-Pillnitz. The main breeding goals are directed on sweet cherries for fresh market and sour cherries for processing. The selection of new cultivars is focused on fruit quality, high and stable fruit set and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. In result of the breeding activities in sweet cherry four new cultivars, ‘Narana’, ‘Areko’, ‘Swing’, ‘Habunt’, were selected. ‘Narana’ is an early ripening cultivar with good fruit characteristics. ‘Areko’ ripens in the middle of the cherry season some days before cultivar ‘Kordia’ and has large, firm fruits. The both cultivars ‘Swing’ and ‘Habunt’ are self-compatible and more recommended for the use in house gardening. In sour cherry breeding four new cultivars, ‘Coralin’, ‘Spinell’, ‘Jachim’, ‘Boas’, were selected. The cultivar ‘Coralin’ shows good characteristics for processing and mechanical harvest and is tolerant to fungus diseases on leaves. With the large and tasty fruits, the cultivar ‘Spinell’ is mainly suitable for fresh consumption. The both other cultivars ‘Jachim’ and ‘Boas’ have a pillar growth habit.
      PubDate: 2014-03-27
  • Pomological Characteristics of Some Autochthonous Genotypes of Cornelian
           Cherry (Cornus mas L.) in Bosnia
           and Herzegovina
    • Abstract: Abstract Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) is a perennial deciduous shrub, widespread in forest populations in Southeast Europe with tolerance against some pests and diseases and rich in nutrients such as organic acids, carotenoids, anthocyanins, polyphenols, vitamin C and vitamin E. The aim of this paper was to determine basic pomological and technological characteristics of Cornelian cherry using three forest populations at Visegrad, Gorazde and Drvar in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the two years, 2010 and 2011. The Cornelian cherries weighted from 1.8 g (Gorazde in 2011) to 2.6 g per fruit (Drvar in 2010), did not ripen homogenously on a tree as shown by the large variation in their red colour CIE- a values of between 7.5 (Drvar), 14.2 (Gorazde) and 18.3 (Visegrad) and soluble solids between 16.1 (Visegrad) and 17.6 % (Gorazde). The most abundant organic acid in Cornelian cherry was malic acid with 35–43 g kg−1 FM, followed by tartaric (1.1–2.8 g kg−1 FM) and citric acid (0.1–1.8 g kg−1 FM) and smaller amounts of quinic, shikimic and fumaric acid below 0.05 g kg−1 FM each, resulting in sugar:acid ratios of 3.3:4.7 and slightly acidic or bitter flavour. The concentration of the phenolic compounds of the Cornelian cherry fruits, as determined by HPLC-MS, was influenced by the growing region with large concentrations of the anthocyanin procyanidin B1 (0.7–0.9 g kg−1 FM) and B2 (0.1–0.2 g kg−1 FM) and the peonidin 3-glucoside (0.2–0.7 g kg−1 FM) and the flavonol quercetin 3-O-robinobioside (1.8–2.6 mg kg−1 FM), which is larger than in many sweet and sour cherries, raspberry, red current and gooseberry.
      PubDate: 2014-02-25
  • Mechanische Fruchtbehangsregulierung bei Apfel verbessert
           Fruchtgröße, Fruchtfestigkeit, Fruchtausfärbung und die
           Source: Sink – Verhältnisse mit mehr Einzelfruchtständen
           (Singlets) bei ‘Gala’
    • Abstract: Zusammenfassung In einem Dauer-Ausdünnversuch mit zehnjährigen Apfelbäumen der Sorte ‘Gala, Mondial’ mit einer Blühstärke von 7–8 auf dem Campus Klein-Altendorf der Universität Bonn wurden die Blüten am 21. April 2009 mechanisch ausgedünnt. Jede der Varianten (Rotorgeschwindigkeit: 360 oder 420 U/min bei einer Fahrgeschwindigkeit von 5 oder 7,5 km/h) verbesserte das Source: Sink-Verhältnis im Vergleich zur nicht behandelten Kontrolle mit folgenden Ergebnissen: Die mechanische Fruchtbehangsregulierung reduzierte die Zahl der Äpfel pro „Leitast“ von ca. 18 in der nicht behandelten Kontrolle auf 12–13 Früchte beim mittleren und bis auf 8 Äpfel beim stärksten Eingriff (420 U/min; 5 km/h). Die mechanische Fruchtbehangsregulierung verdoppelte – wie erwünscht – durch seine selektive Wirkung die Anzahl der Fruchtstände mit nur einer Frucht („Singlet“) von ca. 2 pro „Leitast“ in der Kontrolle auf 3–4. Der Junifruchtfall war bei mechanischer Fruchtbehangsregulierung genauso stark wie bei der unbehandelten Kontrolle. Die Äpfel der mechanischen Fruchtbehangsregulierung hatten ein um 20 g bis 48 g signifikant höheres durchschnittliches Fruchtgewicht als die der Kontrolle. Die beiden stärkeren mechanischen Eingriffe mit 420 U/min hatten einen höheren Anteil (43 bis 63 %) an Äpfeln über 70 mm Durchmesser. Die Kombination mit einer Handausdünnung erzielte zwar die größten ‘Gala’ – Äpfel (> 70 mm = 70 %), aber mit erheblicher Ertragseinbuße von 55 %. Der Anteil gut gefärbter Äpfel mit 75–100 % roter Deckfarbe war sowohl bei den manuellen als auch den mechanisch ausgedünnten Varianten (78 bis 98 %) wesentlich höher als in der Kontrolle mit 55 % und wird auf das Wirkprinzip der mechanischen Fruchtbehangsregulierung zurückgeführt, die wirkungsvoll Blüten bis zum Inneren der Baumkrone entfernt. Die mechanische Fruchtbehangsregulierung verbesserte die Fruchtfestigkeit von 9,4 kg/cm2 in der nicht ausgedünnten Kontrolle auf 10,4 kg/cm2. Die mechanische Fruchtbehangsregulierung machte die Handausdünnung überflüssig- auch die Kombination von mechanischer mit Handausdünnung brachte keine Vorteile. Das vegetative Wachstum war bei Einsatz der Bonner Ausdünnmaschine nicht verstärkt. Alternanz und Übergrößen traten aufgrund der verwendeten Sorte nicht auf. Berücksichtigt man alle drei Faktoren: Fruchterlös HKL 1, Maschinenkosten und Ersparnis der reduzierten Handausdünnung, dann erhöhte die mechanische Fruchtbehangsregulierung die Wirtschaftlichkeit gegenüber der nicht ausgedünnten Kontrolle um € 220/ha (420 U/min bei 7,5 km/h) und € 1.844/ha (360 U/min bei 5 km/h), führte aber zu einem Verlust von € 1.120 bei dem intensivsten Eingriff (420 U/min bei 5 km/h) bei angenommenen Kosten von € 120/ha für die maschinelle Ausdünnung und € 200 Ersparnis für die Handausdünnung. Die mechanische Fruchtbehangsregulierung wirkte positiv auf die Fruchtqualität (Fruchtgröße, Fruchtfestigkeit, Ausfärbung) bei 15–25 % weniger Ertrag gegenüber der nicht ausgedünnten Kontrolle bei der sonst chemisch schwer auszudünnenden Sorte ‘Gala’.
      PubDate: 2014-02-21
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