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  Subjects -> EARTH SCIENCES (Total: 656 journals)
    - EARTH SCIENCES (470 journals)
    - GEOLOGY (73 journals)
    - GEOPHYSICS (28 journals)
    - HYDROLOGY (22 journals)
    - OCEANOGRAPHY (63 journals)

EARTH SCIENCES (470 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 371 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Geophysica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances In Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Algological Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Andean geology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Geographia, Geologia, Mineralogia et Petrographia     Open Access  
Annals of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Annals of GIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Annals of Glaciology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anthropocene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Ocean Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Petrochemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Remote Sensing Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Arctic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Artificial Satellites : The Journal of Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Asian Review of Environmental and Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atlantic Geology : Journal of the Atlantic Geoscience Society / Atlantic Geology : revue de la Société Géoscientifique de l'Atlantique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Australian Journal of Earth Sciences: An International Geoscience Journal of the Geological Society of Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas     Open Access  
Boreas: An International Journal of Quaternary Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bulletin of Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Bulletin of Volcanology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cadernos de Geociências     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Carbonates and Evaporites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
CATENA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese Geographical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ciencia del suelo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencias Espaciales     Open Access  
Climate and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Cogent Geoscience     Open Access  
Comptes Rendus Geoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contemporary Trends in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Continental Shelf Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Contributions to Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Coral Reefs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cretaceous Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cybergeo : European Journal of Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Depositional Record     Open Access  
Developments in Geotectonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Developments in Quaternary Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Développement durable et territoires     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Diatom Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
E&S Engineering and Science     Open Access  
E3S Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Earth and Planetary Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 109)
Earth and Space Science     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Earth Interactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Earth Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Earth Surface Dynamics (ESurf)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Earth System Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Earth System Dynamics Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earth, Planets and Space     Open Access   (Followers: 65)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Earthquake Spectra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Ecohydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ecological Questions     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Electromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Energy Exploration & Exploitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Environmental Geosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal  
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Estudios Geográficos     Open Access  
European Journal of Mineralogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Remote Sensing     Open Access  
Exploration Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Facies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Fieldiana Life and Earth Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Física de la Tierra     Open Access  
Folia Musei rerum naturalium Bohemiae occidentalis. Geologica et Paleobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Quaternaria     Open Access  
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Earth Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers of Earth Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Fundamental and Applied Limnology / Archiv für Hydrobiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
GEM - International Journal on Geomathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geo-Marine Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Geoacta     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geocarto International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Geochemical Perspectives     Hybrid Journal  
Geochemistry : Exploration, Environment, Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Geochronometria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geoderma Regional : The International Journal for Regional Soil Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Geodinamica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geodynamics & Tectonophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geoenvironmental Disasters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geofluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geoforum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Géographie physique et Quaternaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Geography and Natural Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geoheritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geoinformatica Polonica : The Journal of Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences     Open Access  
Geoinformatics & Geostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Geology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Geology, Geophysics and Environment     Open Access  
Geomagnetism and Aeronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GEOmedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geomorphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Geophysical & Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geophysical Journal International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Geophysical Prospecting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
GeoResJ     Hybrid Journal  
Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geoscience Canada : Journal of the Geological Association of Canada / Geoscience Canada : journal de l'Association Géologique du Canada     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Geoscience Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geoscience Frontiers     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Geoscience Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geoscience Records     Open Access  
Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geosciences Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geoscientific Model Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotectonic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Geotectonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
GISAP : Earth and Space Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Glass Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Global and Planetary Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Global Biogeochemical Cycles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Gondwana Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Grassland Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ground Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Groundwater for Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription  
Helgoland Marine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
History of Geo- and Space Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Hydrobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Hydrogeology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Hydrological Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Indian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Indonesian Journal on Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Geology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Advanced Geosciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Advanced Remote Sensing and GIS     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
International Journal of Advancement in Earth and Enviromental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advancement in Remote Sensing, GIS, and Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
International Journal of Coal Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
  [SJR: 0.881]   [H-I: 34]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0009-2819
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • C-N elemental and isotopic investigation in agricultural soils: Insights
           on the effects of zeolitite amendments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): Giacomo Ferretti, Dario Di Giuseppe, Claudio Natali, Barbara Faccini, Gianluca Bianchini, Massimo Coltorti
      In this paper we present an elemental and isotopic investigation of carbon and nitrogen in the soil-plant system. Plants grown in an unamended soil were compared to plants grown in a soil amended with natural and NH4 +-enriched zeolitites. The aim was to verify that zeolitites at natural state increase the chemical fertilization efficiency and the nitrogen transfer from NH4 +-enriched zeolitites to plants. Results showed that plants grown on plots amended with zeolitites have generally a δ15N approaching that of chemical fertilizers, suggesting an enhanced nitrogen uptake from this specific N source with respect to the unamended plot. The δ15N of plants grown on NH4 +-enriched zeolitites was strongly influenced by pig-slurry δ15N (employed for the enrichment process), confirming the nitrogen transfer from zeolitites to plants. The different agricultural practices are also reflected in the plant physiology as recorded by the carbon discrimination factor, which generally increases in plots amended with natural zeolitites, indicating better water/nutrient conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T00:45:37Z
       
  • Geology, geochemistry and petrogenesis of post-collisional adakitic
           intrusions and related dikes in the Khoynarood area, NW Iran
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): Hossein Mahmoudi Nia, Saeid Baghban, Vartan Simmonds
      The Khoynarood area is located in the northwest of Iran, lying at the northwestern end of the Urumieh–Dokhtar volcano-plutonic belt and being part of the Qaradagh–South Armenia domain. The main intrusive rocks outcropped in the area have compositions ranging from monzonite–quartz monzonite, through granodiorite, to diorite–hornblende diorite, accompanied by several dikes of diorite–quartz diorite and hornblende diorite compositions, which were geochemically studied in order to provide further data and evidence for the geodynamic setting of the region. The SiO2, Al2O3 and MgO contents of these rocks are about 58.32–68.12%, 14.13–18.65% and 0.68–4.27%, respectively. They are characterized by the K2O/Na2O ratio of 0.26–0.58, Fe2O3 +MnO+MgO+TiO2 content about 4.27–13.13%, low Y (8–17ppm) and HREE (e.g., 1–2ppm Yb) and high Sr contents (750–1330ppm), as well as high ratios of Ba/La (13.51–50.96), (La/Yb)N (7–22), Sr/Y (57.56–166.25), Rb/La (1.13–2.96) and La/Yb (10–33.63), which may testify to the adakitic nature of these intrusions. Their chemical composition corresponds to high-silica adakites, displaying enrichments of LREEs and LILEs and preferential depletion of HFSEs, (e.g., Ti, Ta and Nb). The REE differentiation pattern and the low HREE and Y contents might be resulted from the presence of garnet and amphibole in the solid residue of the source rock, while the high Sr content and the negative anomalies of Ti, Ta and Nb may indicate the absence of plagioclase and presence of Fe and Ti oxides in it. As a general scenario, it may be concluded that the adakitic rocks in the Khoynarood were most likely resulted from detachment of the subducting Neo-Tethyan eclogitic slab after subduction cessation between Arabian and Central Iranian plates during the upper Cretaceous–early Cenozoic and partial melting of the detached slab, followed by interactions with metasomatized mantle wedge peridotite and contamination with continental crust.

      PubDate: 2017-02-23T17:39:49Z
       
  • Relationship among geochemical elements in soil and grapes as terroir
           fingerprintings in Vitis vinifera L. cv. “Glera”
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2017
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): Salvatore Pepi, Luigi Sansone, Milvia Chicca, Carmela Vaccaro
      Prosecco, one of the most popular sparkling wines in the world, is produced in Italy. For this reason, it is important to develop a scientific method for determining geographic origin in order to prevent fraudulent labelling. To establish the relationship between geochemistry of vineyard soil and chemical composition of grape, a geochemical characterization of “Glera”, a Vitis vinifera cultivar from Italian Region, Veneto was undertaken. We evaluated the relationship between major and trace elements in soil and their concentrations in “Glera” grape berries in vineyards belonging to five localities in the Veneto alluvial plain, all included in the Controlled Designation of Origin (DOC) area of Prosecco. A statistically significant correspondence between the soil and grape was observed for Sr. Multivariate analysis (LDA) allowed discrimination of samples of soil and grape berries from each single winery according to the geographic origin. The elements that could establish a reliable correspondence between the geolithological features of the vineyard soil and the chemical composition of grape berries are: Sr, Ba, Ca, Mg, Al, K, Zn, B, Ni, Co.

      PubDate: 2017-02-10T16:30:51Z
       
  • Geochemistry of S, Cu, Ni, Cr and Au-PGE in the garnet amphibolites from
           the Akom II area in the Archaean Congo Craton, Southern Cameroon
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2017
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): Beyanu Anehumbu Aye, Elisé Sababa, Paul-Désiré Ndjigui
      The fresh and weathered garnet amphibolites, from the Akom II area in the Archaean Congo Craton, were investigated to determine the S, Cu, Ni, Cr, and Au-PGE values. The garnet amphibolites are composed of amphibole, plagioclase, garnet, quartz, and accessory apatite, spinel, sericite, pyrite, chalcopyrite and non-identified opaque minerals. The presence of apatite, sericite, and two generations of opaque minerals suggests that they might be affected by hydrothermal alteration. They are characterized by moderate Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, V, Zn, and Co contents with negative Eu- and Ce-anomalies. The sulfur concentrations are variable (380–1710ppm). According to the sulfur contents, amphibolites can be grouped into two: amphibolites with low contents, ranging between 380 and 520ppm (av.=457ppm); and amphibolites with elevated contents, varying from 1140 to 1710ppm (av.=1370ppm). Amphibolites contain contrast amounts of Cu (∼1800 to 5350ppm) while nickel contents attain 121ppm. Chromium contents vary from 43 to 194ppm. Sulfur correlates positively with Cu and Cr, but negatively with Ni and Ni/Cr ratio. The total Au-PGE contents attain 59ppb. The presence of amphibole and feldspars confirms the low degree of amphibolite weathering. The secondary minerals are constituted of kaolinite, gibbsite, goethite and hematite. Despite the accumulation of some elements, the major and trace element distribution is quite similar to that of fresh amphibolites. Nevertheless, the weathering processes lead to the depletion of several elements such as S (239–902ppm), Cu (520–2082ppm), and Ni (20–114ppm). Chromium and Au-PGE show an opposite trend marked by a slight enrichment in the weathered amphibolites. Amidst the Au-PGE, Pd (60ppb) and Pt (23ppb) have elevated contents in the fresh rocks as well as in the weathered materials. The PPGE contents are much higher than IPGE contents in both types of materials. The Pd/Pt, Pd/Rh, Pd/Ru, Pd/Ir, Pd/Os, and Pd/Au values indicate that Pt, Rh, Ru, Ir, Os and Au are more mobile than Pd. Chondrite-normalized base metal patterns confirm the abundance of Pd and the slight enrichment of Au-PGE in weathered rocks. Palladium, Rh and Ir are positively correlated with S. Conversely Pt and Ru are negatively correlated with S and Au is not correlated with S. Despite the high and variable S and Cu contents, the garnet amphibolites possess low Au-PGE and other base metals contents.

      PubDate: 2017-02-10T16:30:51Z
       
  • Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Soltan Maidan basalts (E Alborz, Iran):
           Implications for asthenosphere-lithosphere interaction and rifting along
           the N margin of Gondwana
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2017
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): Morteza Derakhshi, Habibollah Ghasemi, Laicheng Miao
      Soltan Maidan Basaltic Complex with thickness up to about 1300m is located in the eastern Alborz zone, north of Iran. This complex is dominantly composed of transitional to mildly alkaline basaltic lava flows, agglomerates and tuffs, together with a few thin sedimentary interlayers. Field geological evidence and study of palynomorph assemblages in the shale interlayer show Late Ordovician to Early Late Silurian ages. Chondrite- and primitive-mantle normalized multi-element patterns of Soltan Maidan basalts demonstrate enrichment in highly incompatible elements relative to less incompatible ones and their patterns are most similar to OIB. Trace elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions indicate interaction and mixing of asthenospheric mantle source (OIB-type) with enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle components (EM1-type). This asthenosphere-lithosphere interaction occurred in an extensional continental setting, which resulted in opening of the Paleotethys Ocean in the north of Gondwana during the Late Silurian to Middle Devonian.

      PubDate: 2017-02-03T15:17:16Z
       
  • Zr-in-rutile thermometry of eclogites from the Karakaya Complex in NW
           Turkey: Implications for rutile growth during subduction zone metamorphism
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2017
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): Firat Şengün
      Eclogites occur as a tectonic slice within a metabasite-phyllite-marble unit of the Karakaya Complex in northwest Turkey. The high-pressure mineral assemblage in eclogite is mainly composed of garnet+omphacite+glaucophane+epidote+quartz. Trace element characteristics of rutile and Zr-in-rutile temperatures were determined for eclogites from the Karakaya Complex. Core-rim analyses of rutile grains yield remarkable trace element zoning with lower contents of Zr, Nb and Ta in the core than in the rim. The variations in Zr, Nb and Ta can be ascribed to growth zoning rather than diffusion effects. The Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios increase with a decrease in Ta and Hf contents, which could be ascribed to the effect of metamorphic dehydration in subduction zones on rutile Nb/Ta differentiation. The rutile grains from eclogites in the Karakaya Complex are dominated by subchondritic Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios. It can be noted that subchondritic Nb/Ta may record rutile growth from local sinks of aqueous fluids from metamorphic dehydration. The Zr contents of all rutile grains range between 81 and 160ppm with an average of 123ppm. The Zr-in-rutile thermometry yields temperatures of 559–604°C with an average temperature of 585°C for eclogites from the Karakaya Complex. This average temperature suggests growth temperature of rutile before peak pressure during the subduction. However, some rutile grains have higher Zr contents in the outermost rims compared to the core. Zr-in-rutile temperatures of the rims are about 20°C higher than those of the cores. This suggests that the outermost rims would have grown from a distinct fluid at higher temperatures than that of the cores. Moreover, Zr contents and calculated temperatures in both inclusion rutile and matrix rutile from eclogites are identical, which suggests that eclogites within the Karakaya Complex belong to the same tectonic slice and underwent similar metamorphic evolution.

      PubDate: 2017-02-03T15:17:16Z
       
  • Origin of highly siderophile and chalcogen element fractionations in the
           components of unequilibrated H and LL chondrites
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2017
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): Yogita Kadlag, Harry Becker
      Osmium isotopic compositions, abundances of highly siderophile elements (HSE: platinum group elements, Re and Au), the chalcogen elements S, Se and Te and major and minor elements were analysed in physically separated size fractions and components of the ordinary chondrites WSG 95300 (H3.3, meteorite find) and Parnallee (LL3.6, meteorite fall). Fine grained magnetic fractions are 268-65 times enriched in HSE compared to the non-magnetic fractions. A significant deviation of some fractions of WSG 95300 from the 4.568 Ga 187Re-187Os isochron was caused by redistribution of Re due to weathering of metal. HSE abundance patterns show that at least four different types of HSE carriers are present in WSG 95300 and Parnallee. The HSE carriers display (i) CI chondritic HSE ratios, (ii) variable Re/Os ratios, (iii) lower than CI chondritic Pd/Ir and Au/Ir and (iv) higher Pt/Ir and Pt/Ru than in CI chondrites. These differences between components clearly indicate the loss of refractory HSE carrier phases before accretion of the components. Tellurium abundances correlate with Pd and are decoupled from S, suggesting that most Te partitioned into metal during the last high-temperature event. Tellurium is depleted in all fractions compared to CI chondrite normalized Se abundances. The depletion of Te is likely associated with the high temperature history of the metal precursors of H and LL chondrites and occurred independent of the metal loss event that depleted LL chondrites in siderophile elements. Most non-magnetic and slightly magnetic fractions have S/Se close to CI chondrites. In contrast, the decoupling of Te and Se from S in magnetic fractions suggests the influence of volatility and metal-silicate partitioning on the abundances of the chalcogen elements. The influence of terrestrial weathering on chalcogen element systematics of these meteorites appears to be negligible.

      PubDate: 2017-02-03T15:17:16Z
       
  • An improved EPMA analytical protocol for U-Th-Pbtotal dating in xenotime:
           Age constraints from polygenetic Mangalwar Complex, Northwestern India
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2017
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): Pranjit Hazarika, Biswajit Mishra, Manoj Kumar Ozha, Kamal Lochan Pruseth
      EPMA U-Th-Pbtotal dating in U- and Th bearing minerals (e.g., monazite, zircon, and xenotime) is a low-cost and reliable technique used for retrieving age information from detrital, diagenetic and low to high-T metamorphic, as well as magmatic rocks. Although, the accuracy on measured ages obtained using EPMA is considered to be poor compared to isotopic ages, the superior spatial resolution, ability to integrate textural and age information by in-situ measurement, lack of sample damage and easier and cheaper data generation in EPMA make chemical dating a very valuable tool to decipher diverse petrological processes. This contribution presents an improved analytical protocol to obtain precise estimates of U, Th and Pb concentrations in xenotime. Results were tested on monazite standard (Moacyr pegmatite, Brazil; TIMS age: 487±1Ma) as the reference material. The proposed analytical protocol has been successfully applied to achieve an analytical uncertainty of less than 10% in U, Th and Pb measurements in xenotime. The protocol was further used to resolve polygenetic xenotime ages (ca. 1.82, 1.28 and 0.93Ga) in metapelite samples from the Mangalwar Complex, Northwestern India. Monazites in the same samples were also analyzed and found to preserve the two younger ages (i.e., ca. 1.28 and 1.0Ga). The obtained ages from the xenotime and monazite very well corroborate with the earlier published ages from the area validating the proposed analytical protocol.

      PubDate: 2017-02-03T15:17:16Z
       
  • The nature, origin and modification of insoluble organic matter in
           chondrites, the major source of Earth’s C and N
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 January 2017
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): C.M.O’D. Alexander, G.D. Cody, B.T. De Gregorio, L.R. Nittler, R.M. Stroud
      All chondrites accreted ∼3.5wt.%C in their matrices, the bulk of which was in a macromolecular solvent and acid insoluble organic material (IOM). Similar material to IOM is found in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and comets. The IOM accounts for almost all of the C and N in chondrites, and a significant fraction of the H. Chondrites and, to a lesser extent, comets were probably the major sources of volatiles for the Earth and the other terrestrial planets. Hence, IOM was both the major source of Earth’s volatiles and a potential source of complex prebiotic molecules. Large enrichments in D and 15N, relative to the bulk solar isotopic compositions, suggest that IOM or its precursors formed in very cold, radiation-rich environments. Whether these environments were in the interstellar medium (ISM) or the outer Solar System is unresolved. Nevertheless, the elemental and isotopic compositions and functional group chemistry of IOM provide important clues to the origin(s) of organic matter in protoplanetary disks. IOM is modified relatively easily by thermal and aqueous processes, so that it can also be used to constrain the conditions in the solar nebula prior to chondrite accretion and the conditions in the chondrite parent bodies after accretion. Here we review what is known about the abundances, compositions and physical nature of IOM in the most primitive chondrites. We also discuss how the IOM has been modified by thermal metamorphism and aqueous alteration in the chondrite parent bodies, and how these changes may be used both as petrologic indicators of the intensity of parent body processing and as tools for classification. Finally, we critically assess the various proposed mechanisms for the formation of IOM in the ISM or Solar System.

      PubDate: 2017-01-27T18:42:47Z
       
  • The variability of δ34S and sulfur speciation in sediments of the
           Sulejów dam reservoir (Central Poland)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2017
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): Wojciech Drzewicki, Adriana Trojanowska-Olichwer, Mariusz Orion Jędrysek, Stanisław Hałas
      The study was carried out on the Sulejów dam reservoir (Central Poland). Water and sediment samples were collected between February and October 2006. Sulfur compounds in the sediment were chemically extracted and subjected to isotopic analysis. Large variability of SO4 2− concentration in the water column (from 10.3 to 36.2mg/dm3) and the isotopic composition of sulfur (δ34S from 2.1 to 5.4‰) was observed. The main identified sources of SO4 2− were watercourses, surface runoff, and phosphorus fertilizers. Both oxidized sulfur species (SO4 2−) and its reduced forms were found in sediments. Particular sulfur forms were characterized by large variations in both, concentrations and the isotopic composition of sulfur. SO4 2− in the sediment and in the water column had different genesis. Bacterial oxidation of organic sulfur and its binding in SO4 2− were observed in the sediment. Under reducing conditions, oxidized and organic sulfur is converted to H2S which reacted with Fe or other metallic ions leading to metal sulfide precipitation. Monosulfides were shown to have a very low concentration, ranging up to 0.07mg/g of sediment. The transformation of elemental sulfur from sulfides through their chemical oxidation occurred in the sediment.

      PubDate: 2017-01-27T18:42:47Z
       
  • X-ray computed tomography of planetary materials: A primer and review of
           recent studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2017
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): Romy D. Hanna, Richard A. Ketcham
      X-ray computed tomography (XCT) is a powerful 3D imaging technique that has been used to investigate meteorites, mission-returned samples, and other planetary materials of all scales from dust particles to large rocks. With this technique, a 3D volume representing the X-ray attenuation (which is sensitive to composition and density) of the materials within an object is produced, allowing various components and textures to be observed and quantified. As with any analytical technique, a thorough understanding of the underlying physical principles, system components, and data acquisition parameters provides a strong foundation for the optimal acquisition and interpretation of the data. Here we present a technical overview of the physics of XCT, describe the major components of a typical laboratory-based XCT instrument, and provide a guide for how to optimize data collection for planetary materials using such systems. We also discuss data processing, visualization and analysis, including a discussion of common data artifacts and how to minimize them. We review a variety of recent studies in which XCT has been used to study extraterrestrial materials and/or to address fundamental problems in planetary science. We conclude with a short discussion of anticipated future directions of XCT technology and application.

      PubDate: 2017-01-27T18:42:47Z
       
  • Mineralogical characteristics of upper Jurassic Mikulov Marls, the Czech
           Republic, in relation to their thermal maturity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2017
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): Iva Sedláková, Eva Geršlová, Peter Uhlík, Vladimir Opletal
      The Upper Jurassic Marls of Mikulov present a formation that is considered to be the most promising strata to produce hydrocarbons in the Vienna basin. The marls are composed of dark pelagic marlstones that frequently contain layers of limestone with thickness reaching several hundreds of meters. Twenty-seven core samples from selected wells located in the south-eastern portion of the Czech Republic representing depths ranging from 2300 to 4500m were analyzed by x-ray diffraction to assess bulk mineralogy and the progress of smectite illitization. Bulk mineralogy of the Mikulov Marls comprises carbonates (mean value=54.4 mass%), clay minerals (26.6 mass%), quartz (15.0 mass%), and feldspar (1.6 mean%). In the decreasing order, the clay mineral fraction is composed of illite/mica, kaolinite, illite-smectite, and chlorite. The amount of smectite in illite-smectite decreases with depth from 70% to 28%. There is a change from random to ordered interstratification at the depth of 3300m. The transition from short-range ordering (R1) to long-range ordering (R3) occurs at depths greater than 4,500m. There was a good correspondence between thermal maturity parameters: the percentage of smectite in illite-smectite structures and vitrinite reflectance as a parameter of organic matter. The increase of the metamorphic grade was compared in respect to the geothermal gradient with adjacent basins.

      PubDate: 2017-01-20T17:34:12Z
       
  • Editorial board members
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry, Volume 76, Issue 4


      PubDate: 2016-11-30T07:52:46Z
       
  • Combined bulk-rock Hf- and Nd-isotope compositions of Mesoarchaean
           metavolcanic rocks from the Ivisaartoq Supracrustal Belt, SW Greenland:
           Deviations from the mantle array caused by crustal recycling
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry, Volume 76, Issue 4
      Author(s): Kristoffer Szilas, J. Elis Hoffmann, Toni Schulz, Christina Hansmeier, Ali Polat, Sebastian Viehmann, Haino Uwe Kasper, Carsten Münker
      Bulk-rock Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope compositions, as well as major and trace element data are presented for metavolcanic rocks from the Mesoarchaean (ca. 3075 Ma) Ivisaartoq Supracrustal Belt in the Nuuk region of southern West Greenland. The εHft calculated at 3075 Ma range from +0.8 to +3.1 and the corresponding εNdt values range from +0.7 to +3.6, which forms an array that is displaced off the mantle array for these two isotopic systems. Primitive mantle normalized trace element plots of the metabasalts display negative Nb- and Ti-anomalies in combination with the elevated Th abundances, which is consistent with a subduction zone affinity as proposed by previous studies of this metavolcanic belt. No significant correlations are observed between the isotope compositions and proxies of shallow crustal contamination in the Ivisaartoq rocks, despite clear evidence for inherited Eoarchaean zircon [Polat et al. (2009a) Chemical Geology 268, 248-271], which would have dominated the bulk-rock Hf-isotope budget. Furthermore, the measured samples are less radiogenic than the estimate for the depleted mantle composition at 3075 Ma. The lack of isotope and trace element correlation suggests incomplete equilibration between the crustal contaminant and the parental Ivisaartoq melts. We prefer a petrogenetic model with some combination of slab-derived metasomatism of the mantle source region for the Ivisaartoq magmas, which homogenized their trace element contents, in combination with the incorporation of granitoid residue with unradiogenic Hf-isotope composition at higher degrees of partial melting and finally the eruption of mechanically entrained Eoarchaean crust without significant chemical equilibration. The geochemical arc-affinity and lower than depleted mantle (DM) isotope compositions of these metavolcanic rocks support the notion that crustal recycling and plate tectonics has been operating on Earth since at least the Mesoarchaean Eon.

      PubDate: 2016-11-30T07:52:46Z
       
  • Petrogenesis and geochemical characteristics of plagiogranites from Naga
           Ophiolite Belt, northeast India: Fractional crystallization of MORB-type
           magma
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): Ranjit Nayak, B.V. Rao
      The Naga Ophiolite Belt is a part of the Naga-Arakan-Yoma flysch trough that occurs along the Indo-Myanmar border. It is represented by peridotites, mafic-ultramafic cumulates, mafic volcanics, mafic dykes, plagiogranites, pelagic sediments and minor felsic to intermediate intrusives. Minor plagiogranites, gabbros and thin serpentinite bands occur juxtaposed near Luthur, with the slate-phyllite-metagreywacke sequence (Phokpur Formation) adjacent to the contact. The development of tonalites, trondhjemites and diorites in the oceanic crust, which is grouped as plagiogranites, offers an opportunity to study the process of formation of silicic melts from mafic crust. Plagiogranites from Naga Ophiolite Belt contains moderate SiO2 (51.81–56.71wt.%), low K2O (0.08–1.65wt.%) and high Na2O (4.3–5.03wt.%). The Naga Ophiolite Belt plagiogranites like ocean-ridge granites contain low K2O, high Na2O and CaO. The rocks investigated from Naga Ophiolite Belt contain TiO2 concentrations above the lower limit for fractionated Mid Oceanic Ridge Basalt which is above 1wt% of TiO2 and the ternary plots of A (Na2O+K2O) F(FeOT) M(MgO) and TiO2-K2O-SiO2/50 indicate that the plagiogranite are tholeiitic in character and gabbro samples are calc-alkaline in nature. The plagiogranites are enriched in Rb, Ba, Th, U, Nb and Sm against chondrite with negative anomalies on Sr and Zr whereas Y and Yb are depleted to Mid Oceanic Ridge Basalt. The chondrite normalized REE patterns of the plagiogranite display enrichments in LREE (LaN/SmN: 2.37–3.62) and flat HREE (Eu/Eu*: 0.90–1.06). The Mid Oceanic Ridge Basalt normalization of gabbro is characterized by strong enrichment of LILE like Ba and Th. The REE pattern is about 50–100 times chondrite with slight enrichment of LREE (LaN/SmN =2.21–3.13) and flat HREE (Eu/Eu*: 0.94–1.19). The major-element and trace element data of the NOB plagiogranites and their intrusive nature with host gabbroic rock suggest that the plagiogranites were produced by fractional crystallization of basaltic parental magmas at Mid Oceanic Ridge.

      PubDate: 2016-11-30T07:52:46Z
       
  • In–situ LA–ICP–MS trace elemental analyzes of magnetite: The Tieshan
           skarn Fe–Cu deposit, Eastern China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): Minfang Wang, Wei Wang, Kun Liu, Przemysław P. Michalak, Ketao Wei, Mingyue Hu
      The Tieshan Fe–Cu deposit is located in the Edong district, which represents the westernmost and largest region within the Middle–Lower Yangtze River Metallogenic Belt (YRMB), Eastern China. Skarn Fe–Cu mineralization is spatially associated with the Tieshan pluton, which intruded carbonates of the Lower Triassic Daye Formation. Ore bodies are predominantly located along the contact between the diorite or quartz diorite and marbles/dolomitic marbles. This study investigates the mineral chemistry of magnetite in different skarn ore bodies. The contrasting composition of magnetite obtained are used to suggest different mechanisms of formation for magnetite in the western and eastern part of the Tieshan Fe–Cu deposit. A total of 178 grains of magnetite from four magnetite ore samples are analyzed by LA–ICP–MS, indicating a wide range of trace element contents, such as V (13.61–542.36ppm), Cr (0.003–383.96ppm), Co (11.12–187.55ppm) and Ni (0.19–147.41ppm), etc. The Ti/V ratio of magnetite from the Xiangbishan (western part of the Tieshan deposit) and Jianshan ore body (eastern part of the Tieshan deposit) ranges from 1.32 to 5.24, and 1.31 to 10.34, respectively, indicating a relatively reduced depositional environment in the Xiangbishan ore body. Incorporation of Ti and Al in magnetite are temperature dependent, which hence propose that the temperature of hydrothermal fluid from the Jianshan ore body (Al=3747–9648ppm, with 6381ppm as an average; Ti=381.7–952.0ppm, with 628.2ppm as an average) was higher than the Xiangbishan ore body (Al=2011–11122ppm, with 5997ppm as an average, Ti=302.5–734.8, with 530.8ppm as an average), indicating a down–temperature precipitation trend from the Jianshan ore body to the Xiangbishan ore body. In addition, in the Ca+Al+Mn versus Ti+V diagram, magnetite is plotted in the skarn field, consideration with the ternary diagram of TiO2–Al2O3–MgO, proposing that the magnetite ores are formed by replacement, instead of directly crystallized from iron oxide melts, which provide a better understanding regarding the composition of ore fluids and processes responsible for Fe mineralization in the Tieshan Fe–Cu deposit.

      PubDate: 2016-11-30T07:52:46Z
       
  • The Braunschweig meteorite − a recent L6 chondrite fall in Germany
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): Rainer Bartoschewitz, Peter Appel, Jean-Alix Barrat, Addi Bischoff, Marc W. Caffee, Ian A. Franchi, Zelimir Gabelica, Richard C. Greenwood, Mourad Harir, Dennis Harries, Rupert Hochleitner, Jens Hopp, Matthias Laubenstein, Barbara Mader, Rosa Marques, Andreas Morlok, Gert Nolze, Maria Isabel Prudêncio, Pierre Rochette, Alexander Ruf, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Erhard Seemann, Marian Szurgot, Roald Tagle, Radosław A. Wach, Kees C. Welten, Mona Weyrauch, Karl Wimmer
      On April 23rd 2013 at 2:07a.m., a 1.3kg meteorite fell in the Braunschweig suburb Melverode (52° 13′ 32.19″ N. 10° 31′ 11.60″ E). Its estimated velocity was 250km/h and it formed an impact pit in the concrete fall site with a diameter of 7cm and a depth of 3cm. Radial dust striae are present around the impact pit. As a result of the impact, the meteorite disintegrated into several hundred fragments with masses up to 214g. The meteorite is a typical L6 chondrite, moderately shocked (S4) – but with a remarkably high porosity (up to 20vol%). The meteorite was ejected from its parent body as an object with a radius of about 10–15cm (15–50kg). The U,Th-He gas retention age of ∼550 Ma overlaps with the main impact event on the L-chondrite parent body ∼470 Ma ago that is recorded by many shocked L chondrites. The preferred cosmic-ray exposure age derived from production of radionuclides and noble gas isotopes is (6.0±1.3) Ma.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Cordierite from a high-temperature low-pressure shear zone of the
           south-western Bohemian Massif (Moldanubian terrain, Austria)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): Robert Sturm
      A medium-scale shear zone exposed in the gneiss rocks of the South-western Bohemian Massif (Moldanubian Zone) contains cordierite, whose Na p.f.u. is subject to a significant increase from the centre to the edge of the deformation area, whilst other elements only show negligible variations. Coexisting mineral phases of cordierite include garnet, biotite, and sillimanite. According to the results obtained from the garnet-cordierite Fe2+/Mg2+-exchange thermometer a decrease of peak temperature from 639°C in the central mylonite to 593°C in the marginal mylonite can be observed, which indicates significant shear heating. Lithological pressures were estimated by considering the position of cordierite-forming reactions in the P-T field and the stability of coexisting sillimanite. They are subject to a reduction from 0.35GPa in the highest deformed mylonite to 0.31GPa at the margin of the shear zone. According to the results of comprehensive petrographic and mineralogical studies the investigated shear zone underwent a Variscan HT-LP metamorphic event implying the formation of cordierite and an Alpine MT-LP event entailing the rotation and decomposition of the cordierite phase.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Melting and differentiation of early-formed asteroids: The perspective
           from high precision oxygen isotope studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): Richard C. Greenwood, Thomas H. Burbine, Martin F. Miller, Ian. A. Franchi
      A number of distinct methodologies are available for determining the oxygen isotope composition of minerals and rocks, these include laser-assisted fluorination, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and UV laser ablation. In this review we focus on laser-assisted fluorination, which currently achieves the highest levels of precision available for oxygen isotope analysis. In particular, we examine how results using this method have furthered our understanding of early-formed differentiated meteorites. Due to its rapid reaction times and low blank levels, laser-assisted fluorination has now largely superseded the conventional externally-heated Ni “bomb” technique for bulk analysis. Unlike UV laser ablation and SIMS analysis, laser-assisted fluorination is not capable of focused spot analysis. While laser fluorination is now a mature technology, further analytical improvements are possible via refinements to the construction of sample chambers, clean-up lines and the use of ultra-high resolution mass spectrometers. High-precision oxygen isotope analysis has proved to be a particularly powerful technique for investigating the formation and evolution of early-formed differentiated asteroids and has provided unique insights into the interrelationships between various groups of achondrites. A clear example of this is seen in samples that lie close to the terrestrial fractionation line (TFL). Based on the data from conventional oxygen isotope analysis, it was suggested that the main-group pallasites, the howardite eucrite diogenite suite (HEDs) and mesosiderites could all be derived from a single common parent body. However, high precision analysis demonstrates that main-group pallasites have a Δ17O composition that is fully resolvable from that of the HEDs and mesosiderites, indicating the involvement of at least two parent bodies. The range of Δ17O values exhibited by an achondrite group provides a useful means of assessing the extent to which their parent body underwent melting and isotopic homogenization. Oxygen isotope analysis can also highlight relationships between ungrouped achondrites and the more well-populated groups. A clear example of this is the proposed link between the evolved GRA 06128/9 meteorites and the brachinites. The evidence from oxygen isotopes, in conjunction with that from other techniques, indicates that we have samples from approximately 110 asteroidal parent bodies (∼60 irons, ∼35 achondrites and stony-iron, and  ∼15 chondrites) in our global meteorite collection. However, compared to the likely size of the original protoplanetary asteroid population, this is an extremely low value. In addition, almost all of the differentiated samples (achondrites, stony-iron and irons) are derived from parent bodies that were highly disrupted early in their evolution. High-precision oxygen isotope analysis of achondrites provides some important insights into the origin of mass-independent variation in the early Solar System. In particular, the evidence from various primitive achondrite groups indicates that both the slope 1 (Y&R) and CCAM lines are of primordial significance. Δ17O differences between water ice and silicate-rich solids were probably the initial source of the slope 1 anomaly. These phases most likely acquired their isotopic composition as a result of UV photo-dissociation of CO that took place either in the early solar nebula or precursor giant molecular cloud. Such small-scale isotopic heterogeneities were propagated into larger-sized bodies, such as asteroids and planets, as a result of early Solar System processes, including dehydration, aqueous alteration, melting and collisional interactions. There is increasing evidence that chondritic parent bodies accreted relatively late compared to achondritic asteroids. This may account for the fact that apart from a few notable exceptions’ such as the aubrite-enstatite chondrite association, known chondrite groups could not have been the parents to the main achondrite groups.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Paleofluids circulation associated with the Gerês late-orogenic granitic
           massif, northern Portugal
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): L. Jaques, F. Noronha, N. Liewig, I. Bobos
      The Hercynian late-orogenic granites from the Gerês massif, northern Portugal, underwent intense hydrothermal activity along tectonic structures striking N-S and NE-SW. The first hydrothermal stage is characterized by the albitization of feldspars (primary K-feldspar and plagioclase) followed by the dissolution of magmatic quartz, the chloritization of biotite, and the muscovitization of magmatic biotite and feldspars and occasionally of authigenic albite. Whole-rock geochemistry shows a decrease of SiO2, K2O and Rb and an increase of Na2O, Al2O3 and Sr amounts during the albitization. The second hydrothermal stage is characterized by a mineral assemblage consisting of secondary quartz, albite, chlorite, hematite, apatite, muscovite, epidote, sphene and carbonates, which infilled the cavities produced by the early quartz leaching. Mass balance calculations demonstrate a noticeable element mobilization during the granite alteration. The average ∑REE of the Gerês granite is nearly constant at 154ppm, but ranges from 91 to 163ppm in the altered rocks. A relative LREE depletion and a slight HREE enrichment associated with a negative Eu anomaly characterize the feldspathization process of Gerês granite. The average ∑REE of the Carris granite is at 159ppm but in the altered epidote+chlorite+hematite assemblage it reaches about 201ppm with a slight HREE increase. Two different fluids were involved in the hydrothermal alteration. A first aqueous fluid (Lw1), with a low to intermediate salinity (<10wt.% eq. NaCl) circulated along the main structures (N-S, NE-SW and NW-SE), characterized by entrapment temperature lower than 350°C and maximum pressure of 115MPa followed by a later colder and more saline fluid (Lw2) under a temperature of 220°C and a pressure of about 27MPa. Oxygen isotope data obtained on magmatic quartz indicate δ18Oquartz of+9.3 and+11.0‰, pointing to an interaction of magmatic fluids with others of meteoric origin. For the secondary quartz, δ18Owater of +0.5 and +0.7‰ were calculated for a temperature of 250°C, suggesting a meteoric fluid with a possible seawater signature. The K-Ar data of K-feldspar from the altered rocks confirm an age of 273.6±11.7 Ma, attributed to the first alteration process. Younger K-Ar ages between 155.8±6.7 Ma and 124±5.3 Ma were also obtained in the feldspathized rocks, confirming the late hydrothermal activity. Albitization and quartz dissolution of granitic rocks from the Gerês massif occurred at depths shallower than 5km, induced by the circulation of fluids along brittle structures, during the orogenic uplift and extensional tectonics which affected the Iberian Massif in the Early Permian. A second major event is attributed to late hydrothermal circulations of aqueous brines until a depth of about 3km, presumably derived from interaction with sub-surface evaporites throughout Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. These late hydrothermal events probably reflect the rifting episodes and the rising of geothermal gradient, associated with the opening of the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Biscay, respectively.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Mixing geochemistry of cold water around non-volcanic thermal springs in
           high-grade metamorphic terrain, Sri Lanka
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): D.T. Jayawardana, D.T. Udagedara, A.A.M.P. Silva, H.M.T.G.A. Pitawala, W.K.P. Jayathilaka, A.M.N.M. Adikaram
      A geochemical survey was conducted on thermal water and cold water around non-volcanic geothermal fields at Mahaoya and Marangala in Sri Lanka. One hundred forty-two samples were analyzed for fifteen selected irons to investigate geochemical relationships resulting from water-rock interactions and mixing. Based on measurements using a Na-K-Mg geothermometer, the maximum temperatures of thermal reservoirs were estimated to be 148°C in Mahaoya and 191°C in Marangala, which were higher values than those obtained using Na-Li and Li-Mg geothermometers. This suggests that the reservoirs extend from intermediate to deep levels. Hydrogeochemistry of thermal waters is distinct from that of cold water; higher contents of Na, K, Cl, F, SO4, and TDS in thermal water are most likely due to the dissolution of feldspar, mica, and sulfide minerals in the granitic rocks. Conversely, lower values of Fe, Mg, Cu, Zn, and Pb imply less ferromagnesian minerals in the basement. Classification based on major ions reveals a Na-K-SO4 type of thermal water for Mahaoya and Marangala. Cold water is dominated by the Na-K-HCO3 type, which indicates deep groundwater influence by iron exchange. Non-mixing cold water indicates a Ca-HCO3 type. In general, chemistry of cold water wells (<400m) close to the thermal water changes significantly due to direct mixing of thermal water and cold water. In comparison, a contrasting action occurs with increasing distance from the geothermal field. Gradual decline of SO4 with increasing distance from thermal water may indicate a trend of clear oxidation. However, the chemistry of more distant wells demarcates deep circulations through fractures and faults in the basement.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Geochronological, geochemical and mineralogical constraints on the
           petrogenesis of appinites from the Laoniushan complex, eastern Qinling,
           central China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): Lixue Ding, Changqian Ma, Jianwei Li, Lianxun Wang
      Appinites are commonly derived from a mantle source and are potentially significant in constraining the tectonic nature and evolution of ancient orogens, yet they have received little attention because of their limited outcrop. Here we investigate the newly identified appinitic rocks from the Laoniushan complex in the eastern Qinling Orogen. The appinites are composed of coarse-grained hornblendite, medium- and fine-grained hornblende-gabbro, and diorite porphyrite in the field occurrence. Winthin the appinitic rocks, the hornblendite displays features of cumulates. This study presents LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb data, mineral chemistry and whole rock geochemistry of the appinites. Zircons in the mafic to ultramafic rocks yield a U-Pb age of 152±1Ma. The geochemistry of the rocks displays: lower SiO2, higher Fe2O3 T and MgO contents, relatively flat chondrite normalized REE patterns with slight enrichment in light REE and a minor negative Eu anomaly; enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements(LILE, e.g. Rb, Ba, Sr and P), and depletion in high field strength elements(HFSE, e.g. Nb, Zr, Hf and Ti). Such geochemical features, together with crust-like bulk Sr-Nd isotopic compositions(initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7057–0.7072, εNd(t)=−17.2 to −9), suggest that the Laoniushan appinites likely originated from an ancient metasomatised mantle, followed by fractional crystallization in the petrogenetic process. The studied appinites were most likely generated in an intracontinental extensional environment in the Late Mesozoic.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Dissolution kinetics of selected natural minerals relevant to potential
           CO2-injection sites – Part 2: Dissolution and alteration of carbonates
           and feldspars in CO2-bearing brines
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): Astrid Holzheid
      Chemical interaction processes among injected CO2, saline fluids and potential reservoir materials are experimentally simulated to derive dissolution rates of natural materials (minerals) that can be used as input parameters for modeling of CO2 storage in deep saline formations and risk analyses. In order to study dissolution processes, mineral aliquots were exposed to CO2-bearing brines at elevated temperature (60, 100, 150°C) and pressure (85bar) and at various run durations. Several potential reservoir rocks include carbonates as cement. Calcite and dolomite grains were therefore mainly used as solid starting material. Experiments with the two feldspar varieties alkali feldspar and almost pure anorthite were performed in addition. Grain sizes of the mineral starting materials varied between <63μm and 500μm with most experiments performed at grain size fractions of 160 – 250μm and 250 – 500μm. All experiments run with a complex synthetic brine (total dissolved solids: ∼156g/l) according to a natural upper cretaceous formation water. Dry ice was used as CO2-source. All experiments were done in closed batch reactors. These reactors allow mimicking reservoir conditions far from the injection site as well as reservoir conditions after finishing the CO2 injection. The concentration changes during the experiment were monitored by ICP-OES measurements of the initial and the post-run fluids. Dissolution rates were derived based on the concentration changes of the brine. Most of the studied experimental variables and parameters (temperature, run duration, grain size, brine composition – expressed as pH-value and ionic strength) impact alteration of the reacting agents, i.e. they change the chemical composition of the brine, change the surfaces of the mineral aliquots exposed to the CO2-bearing brine, and induce formation of secondary minerals. Hence, all influencing parameters on dissolution processes have to be considered and time-resolved changes of the dissolution behavior have to be implemented in numerical simulations of processes at CO2 injection sites and CO2 storage reservoirs.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Dissolution kinetics of selected natural minerals relevant to potential
           CO2-injection sites − Part 1: A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): Astrid Holzheid
      This publication provides a literature review on experimental studies of dissolution kinetics of mainly carbonates and feldspar group minerals, i.e. most common minerals at potential CO2-injection and/or storage sites. Geochemical interaction processes between injected CO2 and coexisting phases, namely reservoir and cap rock minerals and formation fluids close to the CO2-injection site can be simulated by flow-through or mixed flow reactors, while processes far from the injection site and long-term processes after termination actual CO2-injection can be mimicked by batch reactors. At sufficient small stirring rates or fluid flow rates as well as low solute concentrations flow-through reactors are also able to simulate processes far from the injection site. The experimental parameter temperature not only intensifies the dissolution process, the dominant dissolution mechanisms are also influenced by temperature. The dissolution mechanisms change from incongruent and surface controlled mechanisms at lower temperatures to congruent and transport controlled mechanisms at higher temperatures. The CO2 partial pressure has only a second order influence on dissolution behavior compared to the influence of pH-value and ionic strength of the CO2-bearing brine. Minerals exposed to CO2-bearing brines at elevated temperatures and pressures are subject of alteration, leading to severe changes of reactive surfaces and potential precipitation of secondary minerals. Computational simulations of mineral reactions at potential CO2 storage sites have therefore to include not only the time-resolved changes of dissolution behavior and hence kinetics of mineral dissolution, but also the influence of secondary minerals on the interaction of the minerals with CO2-enriched brines.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Alteration processes of cement induced by CO2-saturated water and its
           effect on physical properties: Experimental and geochemical modeling study
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): Byoung-Young Choi, Hikweon Lee, Gi-Tak Chae, Taehee Kim, Jeong-Chan Kim
      The objective of this study is to understand cement alteration processes with the evolution of porosity and hardness under geologic CO2 storage conditions. For this study, the cylindrical cement cores (class G) were reacted with CO2–saturated water in a vessel (40°C and 8MPa) for 10 and 100 days. After the experiment, the CO2 concentration and Vickers hardness were measured in the hydrated cement core to estimate the carbonation depth and to identify the change in hardness, respectively. Diffusive-reactive transport modeling was also performed to trace the alteration processes and subsequent porosity changes. The results show that cement alteration mainly results from carbonation. With alteration processes, four different reaction zones are developed: degradation zone, carbonation zone, portlandite depletion zone, and unreacted zone. In the degradation zone, the re-dissolution of calcite formed in the carbonation zone leads to the increase of porosity. In contrast, the carbonation zone is characterized by calcite formation resulting mainly from the dissolution of portlandite. The carbonation zone acts as a barrier to CO2 intrusion by consuming dissolved CO2. Especially in this zone, although the porosity decreases, the Vickers hardness increases. Our results show that cement alteration processes can affect the physical and hydrological properties of the hydrated cement under CO2-saturated conditions. Further long-term observation is required to confirm our results under in-situ fluid chemistry of a CO2 storage reservoir. Nonetheless, this study would be helpful to understand alteration processes of wellbore cements under CO2 storage conditions.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Editorial board members
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry, Volume 76, Issue 3


      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Greenhouse gas emissions from soils—A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry, Volume 76, Issue 3
      Author(s): Cornelius Oertel, Jörg Matschullat, Kamal Zurba, Frank Zimmermann, Stefan Erasmi
      Soils act as sources and sinks for greenhouse gases (GHG) such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). Since both storage and emission capacities may be large, precise quantifications are needed to obtain reliable global budgets that are necessary for land-use management (agriculture, forestry), global change and for climate research. This paper discusses exclusively the soil emission-related processes and their influencing parameters. It reviews soil emission studies involving the most important land-cover types and climate zones and introduces important measuring systems for soil emissions. It addresses current shortcomings and the obvious bias towards northern hemispheric data. When using a conservative average of 300mg CO2e m−2 h−1 (based on our literature review), this leads to global annual net soil emissions of ≥350Pg CO2e (CO2e=CO2 equivalents=total effect of all GHG normalized to CO2). This corresponds to roughly 21% of the global soil C and N pools. For comparison, 33.4 Pg CO2 are being emitted annually by fossil fuel combustion and the cement industry.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Assessment of trace metal and rare earth elements contamination in rivers
           around abandoned and active mine areas. The case of Lubumbashi River and
           Tshamilemba Canal, Katanga, Democratic Republic of the Congo
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry, Volume 76, Issue 3
      Author(s): Emmanuel K. Atibu, Naresh Devarajan, Amandine Laffite, Gregory Giuliani, Joseph A. Salumu, Richard C. Muteb, Crispin K. Mulaji, Jean-Paul Otamonga, Vicky Elongo, Pius T. Mpiana, John Poté
      Active and abandoned mine activities constitute the sources of deterioration of water and soil quality in many parts of the world, particularly in the African Copperbelt regions. The accumulation in soils and the release of toxic substances into the aquatic ecosystem can lead to water resources pollution and may place aquatic organisms and human health at risk. In this study, the impact of past mining activity (i.e., abandoned mine) on aquatic ecosystems has been studied using ICP-MS analysis for trace metals and Rare Earth Elements (REE) in sediment samples from Lubumbashi River (RL) and Tshamilemba Canal (CT), Katanga, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Soil samples from surrounding CT were collected to evaluate trace metal and REE concentrations and their spatial distribution. The extent of trace metal contamination compared to the background area was assessed by Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo ). Additionally, the trace metal concentrations probable effect levels (PELs) for their potential environmental impact was achieved by comparing the trace metal concentrations in the sediment/soil samples with the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs). Spearman's Rank-order correlation was used to identify the source and origin of contaminants. The results highlighted high concentrations of trace metals in surface sediments of CT reaching the values of 40152, 15586, 610, 10322, 60704 and 15152mgkg−1 for Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, Fe and Mn, respectively. In the RL, the concentrations reached the values of 24093, 2046, 5463, 3340, 68290 and 769mgkg−1 for Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, Fe and Mn, respectively. The ΣREE varied from 66 to 218 and 142–331mgkg−1 for CT and RL, respectively. The soil samples are characterized by variable levels of trace metals. The EF analysis showed “extremely severe enrichment” for Cu and Co. However, no enrichment was observed for REE. Except for Mo, Th, U, Eu, Mo, Ho and Tm for which Igeo is classified as “moderately polluted and/or unpolluted”, all elements in different sites are classified in the class 6, “extremely polluted”. The trace metal concentrations in all sampling sites largely exceeded the SQGs and the PELs for the Protection of Aquatic Life recommendation. Cu and Co had positive correlation coefficient values (r=0.741, P<0.05, n=14). This research presents useful tools for the evaluation of water contamination in abandoned and active mining areas.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Geology, mineralogy, and geochemistry of low grade Ni-lateritic soil (Oman
           Mountains, Oman)
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry, Volume 76, Issue 3
      Author(s): Salah A. Al-Khirbash
      The laterite profiles investigated in the present study developed after the emplacement of a slab of oceanic crust and upper mantle sequence (the Semail ophiolite) onto the East Arabian margin during the late Cretaceous. The laterites formed as a result of prolonged weathering of the ophiolite assemblage under tropical to subtropical conditions. Nine laterite profiles have been examined for their Ni potential along a NW-SE segment of the Oman Mountains. The preserved laterite profile shows variations in thickness, mineralogy, and chemical composition. The profiles show a vertical succession from bedrock protolith through saprolite, oxide laterite, to clay laterite. The laterite profiles are unconformably capped either by clastics rocks of the Late Cretaceous Qahlah Formation or by Palaeogene carbonates of the Jafnayn or Abat Formations. The protolith corresponds either to a fine-grained, blackish to greenish serpentinized peridotite or to a coarse-grained dark green altered layered gabbro. The bulk geochemistry of the studied profiles indicates a typical low Ni-laterite pattern in which magnesium (Mg) and silica (Si) become depleted towards the top of the profile, whereas iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) increase. A significant enrichment in Ni and Co occurred as a result of the laterization process. Ni concentrations average 0.63% (Ibra), 0.72% (East Ibra), 0.67% (Al-Russayl), and 0.33% (Tiwi). Other elements such as Cr, V, Pb, TiO2, Zr, Ba, and Zn were also remobilized across the profiles during the laterization processes.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Sediment characteristics and mineralogy of salt mounds linked to
           underground spring activity in the Lop Nor playa, Western China
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry, Volume 76, Issue 3
      Author(s): Lichun Ma, Qingfeng Tang, Baoguo Li, Yufei Hu, Wenjun Shang
      Salt mounds are commonly distributed along playa margins and typically comprise alternating layers of loose fine sand and slightly hard halite-rich sediments as a result of long-term underground spring activity. A model of salt mound development was constructed for this study. It suggests that wind-blown sand supply and upward recharge of underground springs are two important factors in salt mound construction. Furthermore, it proposes that salt mound height is mainly controlled by the vertical transport range of underground springs and the thickness of the capillary fringe. A 1.5m representative profile dug from the center of salt mound LP1 in the Lop Nor playa revealed a fairly complicated mineral assemblage including halite, gypsum, anhydrite, glauberite, epsomite, anhydrite, calcite, bischofite, polyhalite, schoenite, kieserite and carnallite. This matches closely with the assemblage predicted by the EQL/EVP model. The groundwater in the area is highly concentrated brine rich in Cl− and Na+ and poor in Ca2+, displaying low alkalinity, and containing considerable amounts of SO4 2−, Mg2+ and K+. Chemical analysis of groundwater revealed considerable variation in the salinity and chemical composition of groundwater over time. The Cs-137 technique was used to measure the accumulated ages of the salt mounds. This method may prove useful in the research of relatively young playa environments where carbon dating techniques are unworkable because of an absence of carbon-rich materials in recent saline sediments.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • The synorogenic pegmatitic quartz veins of the Guacha Corral Shear zone
           (Sierra de Comechingones, Argentina): A textural, chemical, isotopic,
           cathodoluminescence and fluid inclusion study
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry, Volume 76, Issue 3
      Author(s): G. Morteani, F. Eichinger, A. Tarantola, A. Müller, J. Götze, J.A. Sfragulla
      The quartz veins and pegmatites of the Sierra de Comechingones (Sierras de Córdoba, NE Argentina) belong to the Comechingones Pegmatite field (CPF). For the quartz veins and the zoned pegmatites related parental granites are missing. The country rock of the quartz veins are mylonitic augengneisses in granulite to upper amphibolite facies. Field relations, microscopy, cathodoluminescence, radiometric age data, fluid inclusion, chemical and isotopic composition and literature define the quartz veins as synorogenic formed during the high-temperature phase of the Famatinian (480–460Ma) event. During the Famatinian up to the Achalian (382–366Ma) event the synorogenic quartz veins were subjected to high temperature ductile deformation documented by folding, boudinage and finally brittle shearing. K-Ar ages of illite from the shear zones of about 166Ma document the final cooling of the Sierras Pampeanas below 100°C. The long lasting thermal and deformational history of the study area is reflected by very different populations of fluid inclusions in vein quartz with remarkably high contents of thermogenic hydrocarbons in the early-formed fluid inclusions. LA–ICP–MS analysis reveals very low lattice-bound trace element contents, i.e. high purity quartz.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • A comparison of black claystones, lignites and dump materials from the
           Maritsa Iztok Coal Basin, Bulgaria, using organic geochemical proxies
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry, Volume 76, Issue 3
      Author(s): K. Markova, M. Stefanova, Z. Milakovska, S.P. Marinov
      Geochemical analysis of dump materials from the opencast Maritsa Iztok mines, Bulgaria, was carried out based on biomarker assemblages of hydrocarbon fractions. Organic matter (OM) and secondary transformations in three representative samples (massive black claystones and materials from the Iztok and Staroselets dump sites) were studied using geochemical proxies. A number of differences were recognised in the respective OM compositions of the samples compared to both published data and between the individual dump samples themselves. The ОM of the studied samples was found to be polar, but also contains some apolar compounds. It consists mainly of resins and asphalthenes. Claystone OM is of the dispersed type, with intense oxidative-reductive interactions in a lacustrine environment resulting in its transformation into an inert material. Dump sample kerogen is of Type II and mixed Type II/III. In all samples, “odd” numbered n-alkanes are found in higher amounts. Diterpenoids (С19, С20) with pimarane, abietane and phyllocladane skeletons are preponderant. Tri- and tetracyclic terpenoids and steranes have been identified in the black claystones OM only. Hopanes are present in low amounts in extractable OM from all three samples. Biomarkers indicate that black claystone OM is formed from aqueous flora, with a minor supply of gymnosperms (mainly G. Sequoia). Iztok Dump OM is structured by higher plants with an aqueous vegetation input. The Staroselets Dump OM formation is assigned to an active microbial reworking of aqueous vegetation and bacteria with a minor coniferous supply. Different geochemical parameters admit anoxic stratified bottom waters for the black claystones with an addition of deep water stagnation for Staroselets sample in a Maritsa Iztok Basin (MIB) aqueous environment. An attempt was also made to track the effect of secondary processes (oxidation, destruction, dearomatisation), temperature, water drainage and wash-out on dump materials. Leaching and weak degradation processes in the MIB dump environment are likely for a time span of ca. 40–50 years, considering the low percentage of short-chain n-alkanes, long-chain prevalence and low Pr/nC17 and Ph/nC18 ratios, with the Iztok Dump sample experiencing more advanced transformations.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Thermodynamic properties of tooeleite, Fe63+(As3+O3)4(SO4)(OH)4·4H2O
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry, Volume 76, Issue 3
      Author(s): Juraj Majzlan, Edgar Dachs, Artur Benisek, Christian Bender Koch, Ralph Bolanz, Jörg Göttlicher, Ralph Steininger
      Tooeleite, nominally Fe6 3+(As3+O3)4(SO4)(OH)4·4H2O, is a relatively uncommon mineral of some acid-mine drainage systems. Yet, if it does occur, it does so in large quantities, indicating that some specific conditions favor the formation of this mineral in the system Fe-As-S-O-H. In this contribution, we report the thermodynamic properties of synthetic tooeleite. The sample was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. These methods confirmed that the sample is pure, devoid of amorphous impurities of iron oxides, and that the oxidation state of arsenic is 3+. Using acid-solution calorimetry, the enthalpy of formation of this mineral from the elements at the standard conditions was determined as −6196.6±8.6kJmol−1. The entropy of tooeleite, calculated from low-temperature heat capacity data measured by relaxation calorimetry, is 899.0±10.8Jmol−1 K−1. The calculated standard Gibbs free energy of formation is −5396.3±9.3kJmol−1. The log K sp value, calculated for the reaction Fe6(AsO3)4(SO4)(OH)4·4H2O+16H+ =6Fe3+ +4H3AsO3 +SO4 2− +8H2O, is −17.25±1.80. Tooeleite has stability field only at very high activities of aqueous sulfate and arsenate. As such, it does not appear to be a good candidate for arsenic immobilization at polluted sites. An inspection of speciation diagrams shows that the predominance field of Fe3+ and As3+ overlap only at strongly basic conditions. The formation of tooeleite, therefore, requires strictly selective oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+ and, at the same time, firm conservation of the trivalent oxidation state of arsenic. Such conditions can be realized only by biological systems (microorganisms) which can selectively oxidize one redox-active element but leave the other ones untouched. Hence, tooeleite is the first example of an “obligatory” biomineral under the conditions prevailing at or near the Earth's surface because its formation under these conditions necessitates the action of microorganisms.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Petrogenesis of a late-Variscan rhyodacite at the Ossa Morena-Central
           Iberian zones boundary, Iberian Massif, Central Portugal: Evidence for the
           involvement of lithospheric mantle and meta-igneous lower crust
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry, Volume 76, Issue 3
      Author(s): S.B.A. Henriques, A.M.R. Neiva, G.R. Dunning
      A late-Variscan rhyodacite is exposed at the contact between the Ossa Morena Zone and the Central Iberian Zone of the Iberian Massif, Central Portugal. Dykes of rhyodacite intruded the Série Negra Unit and the Sardoal Complex that are part of the Cadomian basement. The igneous crystallization age of the rhyodacite (308±1 Ma) was obtained on igneous monazite by the ID-TIMS U-Pb method. It is broadly coeval with the emplacement of late-Variscan granitoids during the last deformation phase of the Variscan Orogeny (ca. 304–314 Ma) and with the development of the large late-Variscan strike-slip shear zones (ca. 307 Ma). The rhyodacite samples are calc-alkaline, show identical composition and belong to the same magmatic sequence. The rhyodacite isotopic signatures (Sm-Nd and δ18O) are consistent with depleted-mantle juvenile sources and the contribution of the meta-igneous lower crust. The input of mantle juvenile sources is related to Variscan reactivation of lithospheric fractures. The inherited Neoproterozoic (ca. 619 Ma) and Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1054 Ma) zircon ages, are similar to those of the Central Iberian Zone. This suggests that lower crust of the Central Iberian Zone was involved in the magma generation of the rhyodacite. Coeval late-Variscan magmatic rocks display a larger contribution from ancient crustal components, which may be attributed to the smaller volume and faster cooling rate of the rhyodacite and consequent lower melting of the crust. Mixing of juvenile mantle-derived melts with melts from the lower continental crust was followed by fractional crystallization of garnet and amphibole that remained in the source. Fractional crystallization of plagioclase, biotite, quartz and zircon occurred in shallower magma chambers. Fractional crystallization of zircon was not significant.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Geochronology and magma oxygen fugacity of Ehu S-type granitic pluton in
           Zhe-Gan-Wan region, SE China
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry, Volume 76, Issue 3
      Author(s): Jun-Ting Qiu, Liang Qiu
      In this paper, we determined the U-Pb isotopic and trace element compositions of zircons from the Ehu S-type granite in the Zhe-Gan-Wan region, SE China, using in-situ laser ablation (LA) ICP-MS. The weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 132.0±0.6Ma for the Ehu granite indicates that the pluton was formed in the Early Cretaceous and during the Late Mesozoic Cu-Mo mineralization quiescence in Zhe-Gan-Wan region. The calculated logarithmic magma oxygen fugacities for Ehu granite range from −19.19 to −11.43 with an average magma oxidation state of FMQ-0.29, which is much lower than those of Cu-Mo bearing granites in the Zhe-Gan-Wan region. Since Ehu granite was derived from partial melting of metasedimentary basement without fractional crystallization and mantle-derived magma contamination, the low oxidation state of this granite suggests that the assimilation of metasedimentary basement component may not significantly increase the oxidation state of reduced melts from asthenospheric mantle and could not generate oxidized magmas that are favorable for Cu-Mo mineralization.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Natural iron oxalates and their analogous synthetic counterparts: A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry, Volume 76, Issue 3
      Author(s): Enrique J. Baran
      Four iron-containing natural oxalates, usually classified as organic minerals, are known (humboldtine, minguzzite, stepanovite and zhemchuzhnikovite). Their occurrences and general properties are presented and briefly discussed. The subsequent part of the review is devoted to the discussion of synthetic oxalato-complexes, analogous to these natural species, including usual synthetic procedures and a thorough analysis of their crystallographic and structural peculiarities. The thermal, spectroscopic and magnetic properties of these complexes are also analyzed in detail and comparisons with other closely related complexes are also included in the discussions.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Data analysis of a revisited exploration geochemical dataset of quartz
           porphyrites from SW Jordan using GIS techniques
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): Ghazi Saffarini, Ghaleb H. Jarrar, Harald. G. Dill, Hind Ghanem, Najel Yaseen
      The spatial distribution of Cu and its pathfinder elements in quartz porphyrites along Wadi Araba was studied in order to gain an insight about the geologic framework of Cu mineralization in the area. A geochemical exploration data set of 242 samples was revisited. Multivariate statistical and geostatistical analysis were performed on the data set. The objectives of the study were to define Cu relationships with its possible pathfinder elements and to figure out whether geostatistical treatment of exploration data would help telescoping already existing Cu mineralization in Wadi Araba, SW Jordan. Factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were performed on the data set. The results of which indicate that seven elements, namely, Ba, Cr, Mn, Ni, Sc, Sr and V can be considered as pathfinder elements for Cu. Significant correlations do exist between Cu and these elements. The encountered experimental semivariograms of the defined pathfinders were fit to exponential models with varying nugget effects with the exception of Mn which was fit to the spherical model. Ordinary kriging was found to be most appropriate to generate geochemical exploration maps. The applied methods succeeded in deriving valuable information and visualizing the already existing Cu mineralization in Wadi Abu Khusheiba area.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Evidence of Mid-ocean ridge and shallow subduction forearc magmatism in
           the Nagaland-Manipur ophiolites, northeast India: constraints from
           mineralogy and geochemistry of gabbros and associated mafic dykes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): A. Krishnakanta Singh, S. Khogenkumar, L. Romendro Singh, R.K. Bikramaditya, Ch. Mangi Khuman, S.S. Thakur
      We discuss here the mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of mafic intrusive rocks from the Nagaland-Manipur Ophiolites (NMO) of Indo-Myanmar Orogenic Belt, northeast India to define their mantle source and tectonic environment. Mafic intrusive sequence in the NMO is characterized by hornblende-free (type-I) and hornblende-bearing (type-II) rocks. The type-I is further categorized as mafic dykes (type-Ia) of tholeiitic N-MORB composition, having TiO2 (0.72–1.93wt.%) and flat REE patterns (LaN/YbN =0.76–1.51) and as massive gabbros (type-Ib) that show alkaline E-MORB affinity, having moderate to high Ti content (TiO2 =1.18 to 1.45wt.%) with strong LREE-HREE fractionations (LaN/YbN =4.54–7.47). Such geochemical enrichment from N-MORB to E-MORB composition indicates mixing of melts derived from a depleted mantle and a fertile mantle/plume source at the spreading center. On the other hand, type-II mafic intrusives are hornblende bearing gabbros of SSZ-type tholeiitic composition with low Ti content (TiO2 =0.54wt.%–0.86wt.%) and depleted LREE pattern with respect to HREE (LaN/YbN =0.37–0.49). They also have high Ba/Zr (1.13–2.82), Ba/Nb (45.56–151.66) and Ba/Th (84.58–744.19) and U/Th ratios (0.37–0.67) relative to the primitive mantle, which strongly represents the melt composition generated by partial melting of depleted lithospheric mantle wedge contaminated by hydrous fluids derived from subducting oceanic lithosphere in a forearc setting. Their subduction related origin is also supported by presence of calcium-rich plagioclase (An16.6–32.3). Geothermometry calculation shows that the hornblende bearing (type-II) mafic rocks crystallized at temperature in range of 565°–625°C±50 (at 10kbar). Based on these available mineralogical and geochemical evidences, we conclude that mid ocean ridge (MOR) type mafic intrusive rocks from the NMO represent the section of older oceanic crust which was generated during the divergent process of the Indian plate from the Australian plate during Cretaceous period. Conversely, the hornblende-bearing gabbros (type-II) represent the younger oceanic crust which was formed at the forearc region by partial melting of the depleted mantle wedge slightly modified by the hydrous fluids released from the subducting oceanic slab during the initial stage of subduction of Indian plate beneath the Myanmar plate.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Separation of a geochemical anomaly from background by fractal and
           U-statistic methods, a case study: Khooni district, Central Iran
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 September 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): Neda Mahvash Mohammadi, Ardeshir Hezarkhani, Bashir Shokouh Saljooghi
      Separation of geochemical anomalies from background are one of the important steps in mineral exploration. The Khooni mineral district (Central Iran) has complex geochemical surface expression due to a complex geological background. This region was chosen as a study area for recognition of the spatial distribution of geochemical elements and separating anomalies from background using stream sediment geochemical data. In the past decades, geochemical anomalies have been identified by means of various methods. Some of these separation methods include: statistical analysis methods, spatial statistical methods and fractal and multi-fractal methods. In this article, two efficient methods, i.e. U-statistics and the fractal concentration-area for separation and detection of anomalous areas of the background were used. The U spatial statistic method is a weighted mean, which considers sampling point positions and their spatial relation in the estimation of anomaly location. Also, fractal and multi-fractal models have also been applied to separate anomalies from background values. In this paper, the concentration–area model (C–A) was suggested to separate the anomaly of background. For this purpose, about 256 stream sediment samples were collected and analyzed. Then anomaly maps of elements were generated based on U spatial statistics and the C-A fractal methods for Au, As and Sb elements. According to obtained results, the U-statistics method performed better than C-A method. Because the comparisons of the known deposits and occurrences against the anomalous area created using thresholds from U-statistics and C-A method show that the spatial U-statistics method hits all of 3 known deposits and occurrences, the C-A fractal method hits 1 and fails 2. In addition, the results showed that these methods with regard to spatial distribution and variability within neighboring samples, in addition to concentration value frequency distributions and correlation coefficients, have more accurate results than the traditional approaches.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Petrogenesis and geodynamic evolution of the Kajan Neogene subvolcanic
           rocks, Nain, Central Iran
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): Shirin Golkaram, Nematollah Rashidnejad–Omran, Hossein Azizi, Yoshihiro Asahara, David M. Buchs, Iain McDonald, José Francisco Santos
      Kajan subvolcanic rocks in the Urumieh–Dokhtar magmatic arc (UDMA), Central Iran, form a Late Miocene-Pliocene shallow-level intrusion. These subvolcanics correspond to a variety of intermediate and felsic rocks, comprising quartz diorite, quartz monzodiorite, tonalite and granite. These lithologies are medium-K calc-alkaline, with SiO2 (wt.%) varying from 52% (wt.%) to 75 (wt.%). The major element chemical data also show that MgO, CaO, TiO2, P2O5, MnO, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 define linear trends with negative slopes against SiO2, whilst Na2O and K2O are positively correlated with silica. Contents of incompatible trace elements (e.g. Ba, Rb, Nb, La and Zr) become higher with increasing SiO2, whereas Sr shows an opposite behaviour. Chondrite-normalized multi-element patterns show enrichment in LILE relative to HFSE and troughs in Nb, P and Ti. These observations are typical of subduction related magmas that formed in an active continental margin. The Kajan rocks show a strong affinity with calc-alkaline arc magmas, confirmed by REE fractionation (LaN/YbN =4.5–6.4) with moderate HREE fractionation (SmN/YbN =1.08–1.57). The negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* <1), the low to moderate Sr content (<400ppm) and the Dy/Yb values reflect plagioclase and hornblende (+- clinopyroxene) fractionation from a calc-alkaline melt Whole–rock Sr and Nd isotope analyses show that the 87Sr/86Sr initial ratios vary from 0.704432 to 0.705989, and the 143Nd/144Nd initial ratios go from 0.512722 to 0.512813. All the studied samples have similar Sr-Nd isotopes, indicating an origin from a similar source, with granite samples that has more radiogenic Sr and low radiogenic Nd isotopes, suggesting a minor interaction with upper crust during magma ascent. The Kajan subvolcanic rocks plot within the depleted mantle quadrant of the conventional Sr-Nd isotope diagram, a compositional region corresponding to mantle-derived igneous rocks.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Strongly peraluminous leucogranite (Ebrahim-Attar granite) as evidence for
           extensional tectonic regime in the Cretaceous, Sanandaj Sirjan zone,
           northwest Iran
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): Hossein Azizi, Keivan Mohammadi, Yoshihiro Asahara, Motohiro Tsuboi, Narges Daneshvar, Behzad Mehrabi
      The Ebrahim-Attar (EBAT) leucogranite body is intruded within the Jurassic metamorphic complex of the Ghorveh area, located in the northern part of the Sanandaj Sirjan zone (SaSZ) of northwest Iran. The granite comprises alkali feldspar, quartz, Na-rich plagioclase and to a lesser extent, muscovite and biotite. Garnet and beryl are also observed as accessory minerals. Additionally, high SiO2 (71.4–81.0wt%) and Rb (145–440ppm) content; low MgO (<0.12wt%), Fe2O3 (<0.68wt.%), Sr (mainly<20ppm), Ba (<57ppm), Zr (10–53ppm) and rare earth elements (REEs) low content (3.88–94.9ppm with an average=21.2ppm); and flat REE patterns with a negative Eu anomaly characterize these rocks. The chemical composition and mineral paragenesis indicate that the rocks were formed by the partial melting of siliciclastic to pelitic rocks and can be classified as per-aluminous leucogranite or strongly per-aluminous (SP) granite. The Rb-Sr whole rock and mineral isochrons confirm that crystallization of the body occurred at 102.5±6.1 Ma in Albian. The 87Sr/86Sr(i) and 143Nd/144Nd(i) ratios are 0.7081±0.009 and 0.51220±0.00005, respectively, and εNd(t) values range from −5.8 to −1.6. These values verify that the source of this body is continental crust. The Nd model ages (TDM2) vary between 1.0 and 1.3 Ga and are more consistent with the juvenile basement of Pan African crust. Based on these results, we suggest that the upwelling of the hot asthenospheric mantle in the SaSZ (likely during the Neo-Tethys rollback activity) occurred after the late Cimmerian orogeny. Consequently, we suggest that this process was responsible for a thinning and heating of the continental crust, from which the SP granite was produced by the partial melting of muscovite rich in pelitic or felsic-metapelitic rocks in the northern SaSZ.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Combination of single and sequential chemical extractions to study the
           mobility and host phases of potentially toxic elements in airborne
           particulate matter
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): Péter Sipos, Chung Choi, Zoltán May
      Risk assessment of metals associated to airborne particulate matter (PM) has usually been based on the analysis of their total concentrations, which is a poor indicator of metal mobility. Chemical fractionation processes may provide an additional level of information, however, chemical complexity and small sample sizes do not allow to combine several extraction methods. Additionally, analysing the metal concentrations during the extractions exceptionally provides restricted information about metals’ speciation. To overcome these limitations we collected total suspended particulate matter (TSP) samples from the air filters placed in the air supply channel of methane-heated turbines of thermal power stations which allows collecting large amounts of TSP materials. Additionally, we combined single and sequential chemical extractions in which not only the concentrations of potentially toxic elements (PTE) (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) but also that of the major chemical components (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Ti) were analysed. Our aims were to study these metals’ mobility and speciation through the study of their association to major chemical components. Accumulation of the studied PTEs in the TSP material suggests moderate contamination for Ni, Cd and Cr whereas a heavy one for Cu, Zn and Pb. Three groups of these PTEs could be distinguished based on their mobility. The highly mobile Zn and Cd (large ratios of water and weak acid soluble fractions) can be considered as especially harmful elements to environment. The moderately mobile Pb and Cu (large ratios of reducible and oxidizable fractions, respectively) may potentially have a negative effect on the environment, whereas the immobile Cr and Ni cannot be expected to pose a serious risk. Based on the statistical evaluation of extraction data, the potential phases for Zn and Cu are presented by metal-sulphates, -nitrates, -chlorides, -carbonates and -hydroxides, as well as sorbed forms. Lead primarily hosted by metal-carbonates and sorbed forms, as well as by -hydroxides, whereas Cu by organic matter. Finally, Cr and Ni are mostly incorporated into very resistant phases, most probably by magnetite or other resistant metal-oxides. Combination of single and sequential extractions, as well as that of the analysis of not only the target elements but also the major chemical components were found to be a very effective tool to study the host phases of PTEs in the TSP material. The necessity for relatively large sample amounts for such analyses could be fulfilled using special sampling methodology; however, obvious disadvantages of this kind of sampling must be taken into account when resulted data are evaluated.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Spatial variability of soils and stream sediments and the remediation
           effects in a Portuguese uranium mine area
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): Ana Margarida Ribeiro Neiva, Paula Cristina Simões de Carvalho, Isabel Margarida Horta Ribeiro Antunes, Marina Marques da Silva Cabral Pinto, António Carlos Tavares dos Santos, Pedro P. Cunha, Maria Mafalda Costa
      The old Senhora das Fontes uranium mine, located in central Portugal, was closed down in 1971. The treatment of ores from this mine and other mines by heap-leach ended in 1982. Seven dumps partially covered by vegetation were left in the area. Soil and stream sediment samples were collected in December 2009. The remediation was carried out from May 2010 to January 2011. Stream sediment samples were collected again in October 2013. Before the remediation, soils from inside the mine influence area have higher Al, As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Sr, Th, U and Zn concentrations than soils from outside this area, due to radionuclides, metals and metalloid released from the mine dumps. The principal component analysis (PCA) shows a distinction between soils from inside and outside the mine influence area. The U(VI), As(V) and metals from soils can be adsorbed to Fe-oxyhydroxides and the humic acid can increase the U uptake. Soils must not be used for public or private green and residential areas, because they are contaminated in U, As, Co, Cd and Ni. Before the remediation, downstream sediments have higher Al, As, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, U and Zn than upstream sediments, due to erosion and percolation of water through the mine dumps. The PCA shows a distinction between downstream and upstream sediments. The U(VI), Th and As(V) can be adsorbed to Fe-oxyhydroxides. The stream sediments are contaminated in As, Mn, Th and U. Downstream sediments are the most contaminated in U and As. After the remediation, upstream and downstream sediments have generally higher Al, Fe, As, Cr, Ni, Th, U and Zn concentrations than before the remediation, attributed to the relocation of dumps. Radionuclides, metals and metalloids were transported by surface water. Consequently downstream sediments have higher Al, As, Cu, Mn, Ni, Th, U and Zn concentrations than upstream sediments. The U(VI), Th and As(V) can be adsorbed to Fe-oxyhydroxides. Stream sediments became more contaminated in U, Th and As than before the remediation, but more intensively downstream.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Do lunar and meteoritic archives record temporal variations in the
           composition of solar wind noble gases and nitrogen? A reassessment in the
           light of Genesis data
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 July 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
      Author(s): Rainer Wieler
      Since about half a century samples from the lunar and asteroidal regoliths been used to derive information about elemental and isotopic composition and other properties of the present and past solar wind, predominantly for the noble gases and nitrogen. Secular changes of several important compositional parameters in the solar wind were proposed, as was a likely secular decrease of the solar wind flux. In 2004 NASA’s Genesis mission returned samples which had been exposed to the solar wind for almost 2.5 years. Their analyses resulted in an unprecendented accuracy for the isotopic and elemental composition of several elements in the solar wind, including noble gases, O and N. The Genesis data therefore also allow to re-evaluate the lunar and meteorite data, which is done here. In particular, claims for long-term changes of solar wind composition are reviewed. Outermost grain layers from relatively recently irradiated lunar regolith samples conserve the true isotopic ratios of implanted solar wind species. This conclusion had been made before Genesis based on the agreement of He and Ne isotopic data measured in the aluminum foils exposed to the solar wind on the Moon during the Apollo missions with data obtained in the first gas release fractions of stepwise in-vacuo etch experiments. Genesis data allowed to strengthen this conclusion and to extend it to all five noble gases. Minor variations in the isotopic compositions of implanted solar noble gases between relatively recently irradiated samples (<100Ma) and samples irradiated billions of years ago are very likely the result of isotopic fractionation processes that happened after trapping of the gases rather than indicative of true secular changes in the solar wind composition. This is particularly important for the 3He/4He ratio, whose constancy over billions of years indicates that hardly any 3He produced as transient product of the pp-chains has been mixed from the solar interior into its outer convective zone. The He isotopic composition measured in the present-day solar wind therefore is identical to the (D+ 3He)/4He ratio at the start of the suns’s main sequence phase and hence can be used to determine the protosolar D/H ratio. Genesis settled the long-standing controversy on the isotopic composition of nitrogen in lunar regolith samples. The 15N/14N ratio in the solar wind as measured by Genesis is lower than in any lunar sample. This proves that nitrogen in regolith samples is dominated by non-solar sources. A postulated secular increase of 15N/14N by some 30% over the past few Ga is not tenable any longer. Genesis also provided accurate data on the isotopic composition of oxygen in the solar wind, invaluable for cosmochemisty. These data superseded but essentially confirmed one value – and disproved a second one – derived from lunar regolith samples shortly prior to Genesis. Genesis also confirmed prior conclusions that lunar regolith samples essentially conserve the true elemental ratios of the heavy noble gases in the solar wind (Ar/Kr, Kr/Xe). Several secular changes of elemental abundances of noble gases in the solar wind had been proposed based on lunar and meteoritic data. I argue here that lunar data – in concert with Genesis – provide convincing evidence only for a long-term decrease of the Kr/Xe ratio by almost a factor of two over the past several Ga. It appears that the enhancement of abundances of elements with a low first ionisation potential in the solar wind (FIP effect) changed with time. Finally, Genesis allows a somewhat improved comparison of the present-day flux of solar wind Kr and Xe with the total amount of heavy solar wind noble gases in the lunar regolith. It remains unclear whether the past solar wind flux has been several times higher on average than it is today.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Editorial board members
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry, Volume 76, Issue 2


      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Advances in determining asteroid chemistries and mineralogies
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry, Volume 76, Issue 2
      Author(s): Thomas H. Burbine
      Considerable progress has been made in the last few years in determining asteroid chemistries and mineralogies. Dedicated spacecraft missions have allowed mineralogical predictions based on ground-based data to be confirmed or refuted. These missions include NEAR-Shoemaker to (253) Mathilde and (433) Eros, Hayabusa to (25143) Itokawa, and Dawn to (4) Vesta and (1) Ceres, the upcoming Hayabusa2 to (162173) Ryugu, and the upcoming OSIRIS-Rex to (101955) Bennu. All of these missions have or will make significant advances that could not have been made through just Earth-based observations. The recovery of Almahata Sitta from 2008 TC3 was a rare opportunity to recover meteorite samples from a spectrally observed body from a naturally occurring event. This review will discuss the importance of spacecraft missions to asteroids.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Geochemical mapping based on geological units: A case study from the
           Marnoso-arenacea formation (Northern Apennines, Italy)
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry, Volume 76, Issue 2
      Author(s): Valerio Lancianese, Enrico Dinelli
      Geochemical maps can provide us with much information on geology, earth surface processes and anthropogenic pressure and are valuable tools for ore prospecting and land management. Stream sediments represent an integral of the various possible sources of sediments upstream from the sampling point therefore there can be multiple signal sources but generally the prevailing signal source is the one related to bedrock geology. Stream sediments collected from active second-order channels including singular geological units, were selected in order to determine the geochemical characteristics of each unit. The aim of this study was to analyse their potential for using them to integrate geological interpretation and produce a geologically-oriented geochemical map. From the 770 samples collected for a regional geochemical mapping program, we selected 149 samples whose catchment basin included only one of the members recognized within the Marnoso–Arenacea formation. This Middle-Upper Miocene (Langhian–Tortonian) turbiditic unit forms the backbone of the Romagna Apennines and has been subdivided into 14 members according to age and lithostratigraphic criteria. The results indicate that there are marked differences in the composition of the members of the Marnoso Arenecea formation which indicate the provenance of the sediment and the palaeogeographic evolution of the units. By means of univariate and multivariate statistical analyses (Factor analyses) two main types of sediment compositions are identified: Tortonian members are characterized by sialic coarse grain- sediments while the Langhian–Serravallian members are richer in carbonate fraction, slightly enriched in a mafic contribution. This study elaborated the geochemical data from a geological point of view by integrating the information available in literature to spatially extend the interpretation based on limited site observation as for petrographic studies. In general, the geochemical map based on a geological unit could be a useful tool for carrying out the geological reconstruction of a complex area.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Preservation of coal-waste geochemical markers in vegetation and soil on
           self-heating coal-waste dumps in Silesia, Poland
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry, Volume 76, Issue 2
      Author(s): Monika J. Fabiańska, Justyna Ciesielczuk, Magdalena Misz-Kennan, Łukasz Kruszewski, Adam Kowalski
      Occurrence and distributions of geochemical markers on vegetation and in soils covering two self-heating coal waste dumps were investigated with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and compared with those of bitumen expelled on the coal waste dump surface. Presence of biomarkers, alkyl aromatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and such polar compounds as phenols indicate that components of self-heating coal wastes indeed migrate to soils and plants surface and their characteristic fingerprints can be applied in passive monitoring to investigate migration of contaminants from self-heating coal wastes. Moreover, results allow to discriminate between the Upper- and Lower Silesian coal basins, notwithstanding value shifts caused by heating. Mechanisms enabling the migration of geochemical compounds into soils include mixing with weathered coal-waste material, transport in gases emitted due to self-heating and, indirectly, by deposition of biomass containing geochemical substances. Transport in gases involves mostly lighter compounds such as phenols, methylnaphthalenes, methylbiphenyls, etc. Distributions and values of geochemical ratios are related to differences in their boiling temperatures in the case of lighter compounds but preserve geochemical features in the case of heavier compounds such as pentacyclic trierpanes.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Assessment of groundwater quantity and quality and saltwater intrusion in
           the Damghan basin, Iran
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry, Volume 76, Issue 2
      Author(s): Milad Ebrahimi, Hamidreza Kazemi, Majid Ehtashemi, Thomas D. Rockaway
      This study describes the groundwater quantity and quality conditions in the Damghan aquifer in Iran. The quantitative analysis of data obtained from observation wells indicates overexploitation of groundwater during recent years, which has resulted in deterioration of water quality. The mean water level has declined about 7.4m between years of 1966 and 2010. The hydrochemical facies of water collected from sampling wells were investigated though Piper and Chadha diagrams, and the general dominant type of water in the study area was determined as Na-Cl. The quality assessment examined the suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation purposes. Compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water, all regions were found to have unpotable groundwater. Furthermore, unsuitability of groundwater for agricultural applications due to high salinity was observed through analysis of major quality indicators. The saltwater intrusion was investigated by ionic ratio analyses and was determined to be the main factor contributing to high salinity and deterioration of the groundwater quality in the Damghan basin.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
  • Isotopic and geochemical identifications of groundwater salinisation
           processes in Salalah coastal plain, Sultanate of Oman
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry, Volume 76, Issue 2
      Author(s): Brahim Askri, Abdelkader T. Ahmed, Razan Ali Al-Shanfari, Rachida Bouhlila, Khater Ben Khamis Al-Farisi
      A detail investigation was carried out to improve the current knowledge of groundwater salinisation processes in coastal aquifers using hydrochemical and isotopic parameters. Data of major ions for 40 wells located in the Salalah plain aquifer, Sultanate of Oman, were collected during pre-monsoon 2004 and analysed. The groundwater changes along the general flow path towards the coast from fresh (EC<1500μS/cm), brackish (EC: 1500–3000μS/cm) and saline (EC>3000μS/cm). Results of inverse modeling simulations using PHREEQC show that dissolution of halite may be the main source of Cl and Na in the study area. Ionic delta calculation indicates that the depletion of Na and K and enrichment of Ca and Mg in groundwater were probably attributed to reverse ion exchange reactions. During a sampling campaign conducted in October 2015, 11 groundwater samples were collected for Cl, Br and isotopic analysis (2H/18O). Molar Cl/Br ratios in fresh groundwater were higher than those of seawater, indicating the impact of halite dissolution on the groundwater quality. For saline groundwater, these ratios were less than those of seawater, showing the influence of anthropogenic input from agriculture on the same. Relatively depleted isotopic signature of all groundwater samples show that the monsoon precipitation is the main source of groundwater recharge in the study area.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T15:41:10Z
       
 
 
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