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    - EARTH SCIENCES (427 journals)
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EARTH SCIENCES (427 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (9 followers)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (12 followers)
Advances In Physics     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (13 followers)
Algological Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (13 followers)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access   (2 followers)
Andean geology     Open Access   (5 followers)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Annales UMCS, Geographia, Geologia, Mineralogia et Petrographia     Open Access   (1 follower)
Annals of Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (9 followers)
Annals of GIS     Hybrid Journal   (15 followers)
Annals of Glaciology     Full-text available via subscription  
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (9 followers)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Applied Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Applied Ocean Research     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Applied Petrochemical Research     Open Access   (3 followers)
Applied Remote Sensing Journal     Open Access   (5 followers)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (19 followers)
Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research     Full-text available via subscription   (6 followers)
Artificial Satellites     Open Access   (11 followers)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (16 followers)
Atlantic Geology : Journal of the Atlantic Geoscience Society / Atlantic Geology : revue de la Société Géoscientifique de l'Atlantique     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences     Open Access   (14 followers)
Australian Journal of Earth Sciences: An International Geoscience Journal of the Geological Society of Australia     Hybrid Journal   (11 followers)
Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas     Open Access  
Boreas: An International Journal of Quaternary Research     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
Bragantia     Open Access   (2 followers)
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (9 followers)
Bulletin of Geosciences     Open Access   (7 followers)
Bulletin of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (12 followers)
Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (15 followers)
Bulletin of Volcanology     Hybrid Journal   (11 followers)
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (10 followers)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (17 followers)
Carbonates and Evaporites     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
CATENA     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Central European Journal of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Central European Journal of Physics     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Chemical Geology     Hybrid Journal   (9 followers)
Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Chinese Geographical Science     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Chinese Journal of Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Ciencia del suelo     Open Access  
Climate and Development     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (17 followers)
Comptes Rendus Geoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (5 followers)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (11 followers)
Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Continental Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (1 follower)
Continental Shelf Research     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
Contributions to Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Coral Reefs     Hybrid Journal   (17 followers)
Cretaceous Research     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Cybergeo : European Journal of Geography     Open Access   (3 followers)
Developments in Geotectonics     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Developments in Quaternary Science     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Développement durable et territoires     Open Access   (2 followers)
Diatom Research     Hybrid Journal  
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
E3S Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Earth and Planetary Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (103 followers)
Earth Interactions     Full-text available via subscription   (7 followers)
Earth Science Research     Open Access   (5 followers)
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
Earth System Dynamics     Open Access   (4 followers)
Earth System Dynamics Discussions     Open Access   (3 followers)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (1 follower)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
Earthquake Spectra     Full-text available via subscription   (11 followers)
Ecohydrology     Hybrid Journal   (11 followers)
Ecological Questions     Open Access   (5 followers)
Electromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (9 followers)
Energy Exploration & Exploitation     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
Environmental Geosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal  
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science     Hybrid Journal   (15 followers)
Estudios Geográficos     Open Access  
European Journal of Mineralogy     Full-text available via subscription   (6 followers)

        1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Annals of Geophysics    [11 followers]  Follow    
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
     ISSN (Print) 1593-5213 - ISSN (Online) 2037416X
     Published by INGV, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia Homepage  [1 journal]   [SJR: 0.507]   [H-I: 25]
  • Cloud attenuation studies of the six major climatic zones of Africa for Ka
           and V satellite system design
    • Authors: Temidayo Victor Omotosho, Jit Singh Mandeep, Mardina Abdullah
      Abstract: Cloud cover statistics, cloud base and top height, cloud temperature, frequency of precipitation, freezing height, total cloud liquid water content (TCLWC) and cloud attenuation data have been obtained for the six major climatic zones of Africa. The present results reveal a strong positive correlation between the monthly distribution of low cloud cover, cloud top height, cloud temperature, and frequency of precipitation in the six zones. The cumulative distribution of the TCLWC derived from radiosonde measurement in each climatic zone shows a departure from the TCLWC recommended by the ITU Study Group 3 data, with an exceedance percentage difference of 32% to 90% occurring 0.01% to 10% of the time. The underestimation of the TCLWC is greatest in the tropical rain forest. A comparison of the cloud attenuation cumulative distribution in the Ka and V bands reveals that the International Telecommunication Union – Region (ITU-R) is an intergovernmental organization that develops rain model based on collected data around the world. This model underestimates the cloud attenuation in all of the six climatic zones by 2.0 dB and 4.7 dB for the arid Sahara desert, 1.3 dB and 3.0 dB in semi-arid North Africa, 1.3 dB and 1.5 dB in savannah North Africa, 2.0 dB and 3.6 dB in the tropical rain forest, 1.3 dB and 2.9 dB in savannah South Africa and 0.9 dB and 2.6 dB in semi-arid South Africa, respectively, at 30 and 50 GHz. Overall, the cloud attenuation in the tropical rain-forest zone is very high because of the high annual total cloud cover (98%), high annual frequency of precipitation (4.5), low annual clear sky amount (8%), high cloud depth (10,937 m), high 0°C isotherm height (4.7 km), high TCLWC (4.0 kg/m2 at 0.01%) and low seasonal cloud base height (356 m).

      PubDate: 2014-01-13
      Issue No: Vol. 56 (2014)
  • The surface layer observed by a high-resolution sodar at DOME C,
    • Authors: Stefania Argentini, Igor Petenko, Angelo Viola, Giangiuseppe Mastrantonio, Ilaria Pietroni, Giampietro Casasanta, Eric Aristidi, Christophe Genthon
      Abstract: One year field experiment has started on December 2011 at the French - Italian station of Concordia at Dome C, East Antarctic Plateau. The objective of the experiment is the study of the surface layer turbulent processes under stable/very stable stratifications, and the mechanisms leading to the formation of the warming events. A sodar was improved to achieve the vertical/time resolution needed to study these processes. The system, named Surface Layer sodar (SL-sodar), may operate both in high vertical resolution (low range) and low vertical resolution (high range) modes. In situ turbulence and radiation measurements were also provided in the framework of this experiment. A few preliminary results, concerning the standard summer diurnal cycle, a summer warming event, and unusually high frequency boundary layer atmospheric gravity waves are presented.
      PubDate: 2014-01-13
      Issue No: Vol. 56 (2014)
  • Earthquake activity in Finland and the Russian North in December 1758:
           rare reports and their interpretation
    • Authors: Ruben E. Tatevossian, Tatiana N. Tatevossian, Päivi Mäntyniemi
      Abstract: This investigation focuses on two historical earthquakes that occurred in the border region between Finland and Russian North in December 1758. They were close together in time and their magnitudes are among the largest observed in the region. We thoroughly searched for contemporary Russian and Scandinavian documentation on earthquake activity in several libraries in Moscow, Helsinki, Stockholm and Copenhagen. We found two primary reports, one from the Russian North and the other from Finland. The context and content of the reports indicate that they are independent and related to the dates of December 17 and December 31, 1758. The first occurrence was reportedly observed in Kandalaksha, Knyazhnaya Guba, Kovda, Chernaya reka and krest Vzista, and the second in Inari, Utsjoki, and Karasjok. We compiled macroseismic maps for both earthquakes and sets of possible parametric solutions that fit the sparse information available. We identified two types of uncertainty in epicenter and magnitude determination: one that stems from the ambiguity of intensity assessment at localities and the other from the spatial distribution of the data points. If no single solution is the best, we propose that all possible solutions be included in earthquake catalogs.
      PubDate: 2014-01-13
      Issue No: Vol. 56 (2014)
  • A method for separating O-wave and X-wave and its application in digital
    • Authors: Wang Shun, Chen Ziwei, Zhang Feng, Gong Zhaoqian, Li Jutao, Fang Guangyou
      Abstract: Separation for O wave and X wave is a very important job in interpretation of ionograms, which is premise for automatic scaling. In this paper, a new digital method for separating O wave and X wave is presented, based on a numerical synthesizing technique, which is different from using image recognition to separate trace O and trace X in the ionograms, and from using the electrical method to synthesize and detect circularly polarized waves. By replacing analog phase shifters and switches in existing ionosonde with digital phase shifters with different initial phase, 0°, +90°, −90°, circularly polarized waves are synthesized digitally within the range of 1-30 MHz, which eliminates the nonlinearity and expands the bandwidth of the ionosonde, and there is no need to switch the analog switches continuously. The new method has been successfully applied to CAS-DIS ionosonde and testing results show that the new digital method is capable of separating O wave and X wave well.
      PubDate: 2014-01-13
      Issue No: Vol. 56 (2014)
  • Influences of the state of ionospheric background on ionospheric heating
    • Authors: Shuji Hao, Li Qingliang, Che haiqin, Yang Jutao, Yan Yubo, Wu Zhensen, Xu Zhenwen
      Abstract: According to the well-performed ionospheric heating experiments at Arecibo in the low latitudes as well as at Tromsø in the high latitudes, the large-scale modification effects are simulated under an assumption of equivalent conditions, i.e., with the same effective radiative power and the same ratio of the heating frequency fHF to the critical frequency of ionospheric F region foF2. The findings are extensively exploited to verify the validation of our model by comparison to the experimental results. Further, a detailed study is carried out on the influences of the background electron density gradient as well as the ratio of fHF to foF2 on heating effects. Conclusions are drawn as follows: under certain conditions, a smaller electron density gradient of background ionospheric F region leads to a better ionospheric heating effect; during over-dense heating, the heating effects are enhanced if the ratio of fHF to foF2 increases, which is slightly limited by the resultant elevation of the reflection height. However, there might be a better ratio range with small values of the ratio of fHF to foF2, e.g., [0.5, 0.7] in the current study. Finally, we analyzed how to select heating parameters efficiently under adverse conditions so to obtain relatively effective results.
      PubDate: 2014-01-13
      Issue No: Vol. 56 (2014)
  • Earth electricity: a review of mechanisms which cause telluric currents in
           the lithosphere
    • Authors: Daniel S. Helman
      Abstract: Telluric currents are natural electrical phenomena in the Earth or its bodies of water. The strongest electric currents are related to lightning phenomena or space weather. Earth electricity can cause damage to structures, and may be useful for earthquake forecasting and other applications. Thirty-two distinct mechanisms that cause Earth electricity are described, and a broad selection of current research is highlighted.
      PubDate: 2014-01-13
      Issue No: Vol. 56 (2014)
  • Magnetic storm effect on the occurrence of ionospheric irregularities at
           an equatorial station in the African sector
    • Authors: Olushola Abel Oladipo, Torben Schüler
      Abstract: Large-scale ionospheric irregularities usually measured by GPS TEC fluctuation indices are regular occurrence at the equatorial region shortly after sunset around solar maximum. Magnetic storm can trigger or inhibit the generation of these irregularities depending on the local time the main phase of a particular storm occurs. We studied the effect of nine (9) distinct storms on the occurrence of ionospheric irregularities at Fraceville in Gabon (Lat = −1.63˚, Long = 13.55˚, dip lat. = −15.94˚), an equatorial station in the African sector. These storms occurred between November 2001 and September 2002. We used TEC fluctuation indices (i.e. ROTI and ROTIAVE) estimated from 30 s interval Rinex data and also we used the storm indices (i.e. Dst, dDst/dt, and IMF BZ) to predict the likely effect of each storm on the irregularities occurrence at this station. The results obtained showed that most of the storms studied inhibited ionospheric irregularities. Only one out of all the storms studied (i.e. September 4, 2002 storms with the main phase on the night of September 7-8) triggered post-midnight ionospheric irregularities. There are two of the storms during which ionospheric irregularities were observed. However, these may not be solely attributed to the storms event because the level of irregularities observed during these two storms is comparable to that observed during previous days before the storms. For this station and for the storms investigated, it seems like a little modification to the use of Aarons categories in terms of the local time the maximum negative Dst occurs could lead to a better prediction. However, it would require investigating many storms during different level of solar activities and at different latitudes to generalize this modification.

      PubDate: 2014-01-13
      Issue No: Vol. 56 (2014)
  • Determination of the complex frequencies for the normal modes below 1mHz
           after the 2010 Maule and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes
    • Authors: Hao Ding, Wen-Bin Shen
      Abstract: Based upon SG (superconducting gravimeter) records, the autoregressive method proposed by Chao and Gilbert [1980] is used to determine the frequencies of the singlets of seven spheroidal modes (0S2, 2S1, 0S3, 0S4, 1S2, 0S0, and 3S1) and the degenerate frequencies of three toroidal modes (0T2, 0T3, and 0T4) below 1 mHz after two recent huge earthquakes, the 2010 Mw8.8 Maule earthquake and the 2011 Mw9.1 Tohoku earthquake. The corresponding quality factor Qs are also determined for those modes, of which the Qs of the five singlets of 1S2 and the five singlets (m=0, m=±2, and m=±3) of 0S4 are estimated for the first time using the SG observations. The singlet m=0 of 3S1 is clearly observed from the power spectra of the SG time series without using other special spectral analysis methods or special time series from pole station records. In addition, the splitting width ratio R of 3S1 is 0.99, and consequently we conclude that 3S1 is normally split. The frequencies and Qs of the modes below 1mHz may contribute to refining the 3D density and attenuation models of the Earth.
      PubDate: 2014-01-13
      Issue No: Vol. 56 (2014)
  • Evidence of active tectonics in the Augusta Basin (eastern Sicily, Italy)
           by Chirp sub-bottom sonar investigation
    • Authors: Claudia Pirrotta, Maria Serafina Barbano, Daniela Pantosti, Paolo Marco De Martini
      Abstract: A Chirp sub-bottom sonar investigation was performed in the 150 km2 wideAugustaBasin, located in the eastern Sicily Ionian coast, a region repeatedly hit by strong earthquakes in historical time, with the end of identifying possible evidence of active tectonics. Seismostratigraphy shows two main reflectors: R1, formed between 60 ka and 19 ka BP, and R2 that is the top of the Holocene deposits. Morphobathymetry reveals two marine abrasion surfaces, Ms1 and Ms2 that are related to the 35 ka and 25 ka BP marine high stills, respectively. This study highlights that R1 and the onlapping Holocene sediments are affected by normal and probably strike-slip faulting. A set of NE-SW striking normal faults represents the oldest system, because they dislocate R1 but not the Holocene deposit. NNW-SSE striking extensional faults show more recent activity since they displace Ms2, the Holocene sequence and cause seafloor up-warping. NE-SW normal faults produce asymmetric basins where the Holocene deposits form wedged bodies. ENE-WSW left-lateral faults dissect a paleo-island, Ms2 and the NNW-SSE fault system. Moreover, seismically induced  slumps involving the Holocene sediments, are found at the foot of some fault scarps. The presence of slumped bodies and active faults indicates ongoing deformation in the basin. Identified active faults are consistent with the main regional Malta Escarpment fault system, of which they can be considered as the incipient westernmost extension. This study supports the hypothesis that the Malta Escarpment is active and can be responsible for the regional seismicity.
      PubDate: 2014-01-13
      Issue No: Vol. 56 (2014)
  • Disaggregation of probabilistic ground motions in two cities of Western
           Iran, Kermanshah and Sanandaj
    • Authors: Elham Shabani, Noorbakhsh Mirzaei, Mehrdad Pakzad
      Abstract: This article presents the results of disaggregation of ground motion hazard obtained for two of Iran’s urban centers, Kermanshah and Sanandaj. Disaggregation of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration hazard corresponding to mean return periods of 475 and 50 years is performed. 12 area seismic sources in the study region as well as 15 area seismic sources in a 150-km distance from the region are delineated. The scenario earthquakes are characterized by bins of magnitude, M, source-to-site distance, R, and number of standard deviations, ε, that the ground-motion parameter is away from its median value for that M-R pair as estimated by a prediction equation. In most cases, the sources closer to the site dominate. Larger, more distant earthquakes contribute more significantly to hazard for longer periods than for shorter periods. Disaggregation plots can provide useful information on the distance and magnitude of predominant sources, which can be used to generate scenario earthquakes and select corresponding time histories for seismic design.
      PubDate: 2014-01-13
      Issue No: Vol. 56 (2014)
  • Calculation of the local rupture speed of dynamically propagating
    • Authors: Andrea Bizzarri
      Abstract: The velocity at which a propagating earthquake advances on the fault surface is of pivotal importance in the contest of the source dynamics and in the modeling of the ground motions generation. In this paper the problem of the determination of the rupture speed (v_r) is considered. The comparison of different numerical schemes to compute vr from the rupture time (t_r) shows that, in general, central finite differences schemes are more accurate than forward or backward schemes, regardless the order of accuracy. Overall, the most efficient and accurate algorithm is the five–points stencil method at the second–order of accuracy. It is also shown how the determination of t_r can affect v_r ; numerical results indicate that if the fault slip velocity threshold (v_l) used to define t_r is too high (v_l ≥ 0.1 m/s) the details of the rupture are missed, for instance the rupture tip bifurcation occurring for 2–D supershear rupture. On the other hand, for v_l ≤ 0.01 m/s the results appear to be stable and independent on the choice of v_l . Finally, it is demonstrated that in the special case of the linear slip–weakening friction law the definitions of t_r from the threshold criterion on the fault slip velocity and from the achievement of the maximum yield stress are practically equivalent.
      PubDate: 2014-01-13
      Issue No: Vol. 56 (2014)
  • First Multi-GAS based characterisation of the Boiling Lake volcanic gas
           (Dominica, Lesser Antilles)
    • Authors: Rossella Di Napoli, Alessandro Aiuppa, Patrick Allard
      Abstract: We used a Multi-component Gas Analyser System (Multi-GAS) to measure, for the very first time, the composition (H2O, CO2, H2S, SO2) of the volcanic gas plume issuing from the Boiling Lake, a vigorously degassing, hot (T ~ 80-90°C) volcanic lake in Dominica, West Indies. The Multi-GAS captured in-plume concentrations of H2O, CO2 and H2S were well above those typical of ambient atmosphere, while no volcanic SO2 was detected (<0.05 ppm). These were used to derive the Boiling Lake plume characteristic ratios of CO2/H2S (5.2±0.4) and H2O/CO2 (31.4±6). Assuming that other volcanic gas species (e.g., HCl, CO, H2, N2, etc.) are absent in the plume, we recalculated a (air-free) composition for the sourcing volcanic gases of ~ 96.3% H2O, 3.1% CO2 and 0.6% H2S. This hydrous gas composition is within the range of published gas compositions in the Lesser Antilles region, and slightly more H2O-rich than obtained for the fumaroles of the nearby Valley of Desolation (~94.4% H2O, 4.7% CO2 and 0.8% H2S; CO2/H2S of ~5.7). We use our results, in tandem with the output of numerical simulations of gas scrubbing in the lake-water (performed via the EQ3/6 software), to derive new constraints on the degassing mechanisms at this poorly studied (but potentially hazardous) volcanic lake.
      PubDate: 2014-01-13
      Issue No: Vol. 56 (2014)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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