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  Subjects -> EARTH SCIENCES (Total: 653 journals)
    - EARTH SCIENCES (466 journals)
    - GEOLOGY (73 journals)
    - GEOPHYSICS (28 journals)
    - HYDROLOGY (22 journals)
    - OCEANOGRAPHY (64 journals)

EARTH SCIENCES (466 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 371 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Geophysica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances In Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Algological Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Andean geology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Geographia, Geologia, Mineralogia et Petrographia     Open Access  
Annals of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Annals of GIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anthropocene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Ocean Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Petrochemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Arctic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Artificial Satellites : The Journal of Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Asian Review of Environmental and Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atlantic Geology : Journal of the Atlantic Geoscience Society / Atlantic Geology : revue de la Société Géoscientifique de l'Atlantique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Australian Journal of Earth Sciences: An International Geoscience Journal of the Geological Society of Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas     Open Access  
Boreas: An International Journal of Quaternary Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bulletin of Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Bulletin of Volcanology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cadernos de Geociências     Open Access  
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Carbonates and Evaporites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
CATENA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese Geographical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ciencia del suelo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencias Espaciales     Open Access  
Climate and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Cogent Geoscience     Open Access  
Comptes Rendus Geoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Contemporary Trends in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Continental Shelf Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Contributions to Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Coral Reefs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cretaceous Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cybergeo : European Journal of Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Depositional Record     Open Access  
Developments in Geotectonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Developments in Quaternary Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Développement durable et territoires     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Diatom Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
E&S Engineering and Science     Open Access  
E3S Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Earth and Planetary Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 121)
Earth and Space Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Earth Interactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Earth Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Earth Surface Dynamics (ESurf)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Earth System Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Earth System Dynamics Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earth, Planets and Space     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Earthquake Spectra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Ecohydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ecological Questions     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Electromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Energy Exploration & Exploitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Environmental Geosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal  
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Estudios Geográficos     Open Access  
European Journal of Mineralogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Remote Sensing     Open Access  
Exploration Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Facies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Fieldiana Life and Earth Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Física de la Tierra     Open Access  
Folia Musei rerum naturalium Bohemiae occidentalis. Geologica et Paleobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Quaternaria     Open Access  
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Frontiers in Earth Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers of Earth Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Fundamental and Applied Limnology / Archiv für Hydrobiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
GEM - International Journal on Geomathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geo-Marine Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Geoacta     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geocarto International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Geochemical Perspectives     Hybrid Journal  
Geochemistry : Exploration, Environment, Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Geochronometria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geoderma Regional : The International Journal for Regional Soil Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Geodinamica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geodynamics & Tectonophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geoenvironmental Disasters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geoforum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Géographie physique et Quaternaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Geography and Natural Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Geoheritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geoinformatica Polonica : The Journal of Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences     Open Access  
Geoinformatics & Geostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Geological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Geology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Geology, Geophysics and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geomagnetism and Aeronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GEOmedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geomorphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Geophysical & Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geophysical Journal International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Geophysical Prospecting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
GeoResJ     Hybrid Journal  
Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geoscience Canada : Journal of the Geological Association of Canada / Geoscience Canada : journal de l'Association Géologique du Canada     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Geoscience Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geoscience Frontiers     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Geoscience Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geoscience Records     Open Access  
Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geosciences Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geoscientific Model Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotectonic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Geotectonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
GISAP : Earth and Space Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Glass Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Global and Planetary Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Global Biogeochemical Cycles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Gondwana Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
GPS Solutions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Grassland Science     Hybrid Journal  
Ground Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Groundwater for Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Helgoland Marine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
History of Geo- and Space Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Hydrobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Hydrogeology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Hydrological Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Indian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Indonesian Journal on Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Geology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Advanced Geosciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Advanced Remote Sensing and GIS     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
International Journal of Advancement in Earth and Enviromental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advancement in Remote Sensing, GIS, and Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
International Journal of Coal Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
International Journal of Earthquake and Impact Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Annals of Geophysics
  [SJR: 0.624]   [H-I: 35]   [13 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1593-5213 - ISSN (Online) 2037-416X
   Published by INGV, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Analysis of the Seismic Site Effects along the Ancient Via Laurentina
           (Rome)

    • Authors: Francesca Bozzano, Anna Buccellato, Fulvio Coletti, Salvatore Martino, Fabrizio Marra, Stefano Rivellino, Chiara Varone
      First page: 0435
      Abstract: This paper presents an evaluation of the Local Seismic Response (LSR) along the route of the ancient Roman road Via Laurentina, which has been exposed in several areas of southwest Rome over the last decade during the construction of new buildings and infrastructures. It is an example of LSR analysis applied to ancient and archaeological sites located in alluvial valleys with some methodological inferences for the design of infrastructure and urban planning. Since the ancient road does not cross the alluvial valley (namely the Fosso di Vallerano Valley) normal to its sides, it was not possible to directly perform 2D numerical modelling to evaluate the LSR along the road route. Therefore, outputs of 2D numerical models obtained along three cross sections that were normal oriented respect to the valley were projected along the route of the Via Laurentina within a reliable buffer attributed according to an available high-resolution geological model of the local subsoil. The modelled amplification functions consider physical effects due to both the 2D shape of the valley and the heterogeneities of the alluvial deposits. The 1D and 2D amplification functions were compared to output that non-negligible effects are related to the narrow shape of the fluvial valley and the lateral contacts between the lithotecnical units composing the alluvial fill. The here experienced methodology is suitable for applications to the numerical modelling of seismic response in case of linear infrastructures (i.e., roads, bridges, railways) that do not cross the natural system along physically characteristic directions (i.e. longitudinally or transversally). 
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.4401/ag-7140
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Geometry and seismic characterization of the subsoil below the
           Amphitheatrum Flavium, Rome

    • Authors: Ettore Cardarelli, Michele Cercato, Luciana Orlando
      First page: 0436
      Abstract: The seismic-risk assessment of archeological and monumental sites is extraordinarily challenging from the earthquake engineer’s point of view: the monumental structures are generally unconventional and of great value, the geology and ground conditions are often poorly known and the presence of tourists in the area can be massive. In addition, the effects of anthropic and artificial deposits on seismic ground motion are particularly relevant within urban historicalsites and should be addressed thoroughly. Under these conditions, non-destructive geophysical methods can be successfully employed to identify key parameters for seismic verification.The main focus of this paper is the application of non-invasive geophysical methods to investigatea famous monumental structure: the Colosseum or Amphiteatrum Flavium (Rome, Italy).Because of the complexity of the subsoil under the Colosseum, a comprehensive 3D approach should be encompassed to fulfil the lack of information still pending on the complex subsoil geometry and characterization, as well on the shape of the monument’s foundations.Our investigations are mostly focused on the southern sector of the monument, basically for budget reasons. Despite these limitations our findings do however contribute to link the reference geologic model to the specific conditions of the anthropic layer and the seismic bedrock at this site, as well as the foundations and the buried parts of the monument below the former arena, providingkey input data for the assessment of the response of the Colosseum under dynamic loading.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.4401/ag-7124
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Investigating the Foundation of the Amphiteatrum Flavium through the
           Passage of Commodus

    • Authors: Luciana Orlando, Giorgio De Donno, Luca Di Giambattista, Lucia Palladini
      First page: 0437
      Abstract: In this work we present a non-invasive investigation of the Amphiteatrum Flavium, executed using the ground penetrating radar (GPR) technique, with the aim to improve the knowledge of the construction materials and techniques employed for building foundation. Therefore, the main goal of this work is to achieve quantitative and reliable information for assessing the seismic vulnerability of the structure. The GPR survey was performed through the Passage of Commodus, excavated within the foundation for a length of about 60 m. GPR data were acquired on the floor and on the lateral walls, using different antenna frequencies (80, 200, 600, 900 MHz) as they combine good resolution and depth of investigation.On the floor dataset, we detected three equally-spaced anomalies related to old utilities parallel to the passageway, whose roof is located at a depth of 1 m. In addition to this, the GPR radargrams clearly highlight horizontal layers within the foundation, related to the sequential development of works at the time of construction.GPR dataset acquired on the wall allowed us to detect the thickness of the concrete covering the foundation and to locate the extensions of the structural elements underground. Outside the foundation, the passage is built using bricks, with external walls about 1 m thick.Therefore, GPR dataset revealed that the foundation of the Colosseum is a heterogeneous multi-layer element, with the presence of cavity networks and buried elements related to the plinths of the load-bearing structures. This work confirmed that foundation was built over time by means of subdivisions into small sectors, probably both in the horizontal and vertical directions.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.4401/ag-7183
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Sub-surface characterization of the Anphiteatrum Flavium Area (Rome,
           Italy) through single-station ambient vibration measurements

    • Authors: Salomon Hailemikael, Giuliano Milana, Fabrizio Cara, Maurizio Vassallo, Marta Pischiutta, Sara Amoroso, Paola Bordoni, Laura Cantore, Giuseppe Di Giulio, Deborah Di Naccio, Daniela Famiani, Alessia Mercuri
      First page: 0438
      Abstract: The Amphiteatrum Flavium in Rome (Italy) is one of the most known monument in the world. With the aim of understand the seismic response of the area where the Amphiteatrum Flavium is build and investigate possible soil-structure interactions, we performed a seismic experiment in 2014, based on ambient vibration (AMV) recordings. The measurements were performed at the original ground level, on the foundation and at different floors of the monument. Data were analyzed in terms of standard Fourier analysis (FAS) and horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio technique (H/V). Moreover, we performed an active P-wave seismic tomography analysis of the foundation materials to better understand their influence on the recorded signals. Our results point out that there is a strong temporal and spatial stability of the H/V curves, suggesting a uniform seismic response at the monument site. Conversely, spectral amplitudes of AMV show relevant temporal and spatial variability at the investigated site, due to the daily variations of AMV levels and to the low-pass filtering effect of the stiff Amphiteatrum Flavium foundation that strongly attenuates the signals for frequencies above 4 Hz, i.e. those mostly originated by traffic vibrations. Moreover, we observe that the main vibration frequencies of the super-structure are not present as energetic peaks in the spectra of the ground-motion recorded at its base. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.4401/ag-7359
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Dynamic Characteristics of the Amphitheatrum Flavium northern wall from
           traffic-induced vibrations

    • Authors: Giovanni Bongiovanni, Giacomo Buffarini, Paolo Clemente, Dario Rinaldis, Fernando Saitta
      First page: 0439
      Abstract:  The effects of the traffic-induced vibrations on the external northern wall of the Amphitheatrum Flavium are studied with the two objectives of analyzing the amplitudes of such vibrations and extracting the dynamic characteristics of the structure as part of preservation effort. The results obtained in two experimental campaigns, carried out in 1985 and 2014, respectively, are analyzed also as a starting point for future extensive experimental measurements. Data processing consisted in the time domain and frequency domain analyses, in which Fourier transform, power spectral density and cross spectral density were used to extract resonance frequencies, modal shapes and damping. The not always significant values of phase factors and coherence functions pointed out the presence of complex modes and of the nonlinear behavior, which in conjunction with the complex geometry of the structure and its size make the interpretation of the experimental data quite difficult.  
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.4401/ag-7178
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Seismic Hazard Assessment for the protection of Cultural Heritage in
           Greece: Methodological approaches for National and Local Scale assessment
           (pilot areas of Aighio, Kalamata and Heraklion)

    • Authors: Sotiris Sboras, John Andrew Dourakopoulos, Evaggelos Mouzakiotis, Pavlos Dafnis, Theodoros Palantzas, Vassilios K. Karastathis, Nikos Voulgaris, Gerasimos-Akis Tselentis
      First page: 0440
      Abstract: The rich Greek cultural heritage has been always threatened by the intense seismic activity in the broader Aegean region. Τhe objective of the presented project is to develop an integrated tool for the engineers in order to protect the Greek monuments, museums and archaeological sites against strong earthquakes. In order to achieve this goal a GIS-based database was developed with a bidirectional purpose: to collect and combine all necessary data about the monuments and their regional geological and seismotectonic conditions and to assess seismic hazard for each and every monument using the most modern techniques. In this paper we present the structure and development of our database, we propose a methodological procedure for estimating seismic hazard in Greece which will be the basis for the structural assessment of historical structures. The preliminary results show that the estimated values of maximum ground acceleration, in several areas nearby large faults exceed those proposed by the earthquake protection code of Greece by a significant amount. Therefore an update of the protection code would be necessary. Subsequently the estimated values of maximum ground acceleration have been applied to three cases of monuments for the determination of the most vulnerable parts of the structure and the verification of the observed pathology.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.4401/ag-7154
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Ambient vibration recording on the Maddalena Bridge in Borgo a Mozzano
           (Italy): data analysis.

    • Authors: Riccardo Mario Azzara, Anna De Falco, Maria Girardi, Daniele Pellegrini
      First page: 0441
      Abstract: This paper reports on a vibration measurements campaign performed on the medieval Maddalena Bridge, also known as the "Devil's Bridge", in Borgo a Mozzano (Italy), one of the most fascinating in Italy. This 11th century masonry bridge, supported by four circular arcades, crosses the Serchio River for about one hundred meters. Information on the dynamic response of the structure have been obtained through a wholly nondestructive technique, by measuring the environmental vibrations affecting the structures.A monitoring system has been fitted on the external surface of the bridge in order to evaluate its dynamic response to vibrations originating in the adjacent railway and two nearby roads. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of the structure and the corresponding damping ratios have been obtained by analyzing the recorded data using different techniques of Operational Modal Analysis. Lastly, a finite-element model of the bridge has been calibrated to fit the experimental data.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.4401/ag-7159
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Damage Identification and Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of a Historic
           Masonry Chimney

    • Authors: Maria-Giovanna Masciotta, Luis F. Ramos, Paulo B. Lourenço, Marcello Vasta
      First page: 0442
      Abstract: The present paper deals with the dynamic characterisation of a historical masonry chimney aimed at identifying the structural damage and assessing its seismic performance. The structure was severely damaged by a lightning accident and in-depth repair works were executed to re-instate its sound configuration. The case study is fully detailed, including the aspects of survey, inspection, diagnosis, and evolution of the dynamic properties of the system throughout the structural intervention. Considering the explicit dependence of the power spectral densities of measured nodal processes on their frequency content, a spectrum-driven algorithm is used to detect and locate the damage. The paper shows that the eigenparameters obtained from the decomposition of the response power spectrum matrix are sensitive to system’s changes caused by evolutionary damage scenarios, thereby resulting excellent indicators for assessing both the presence and position of structural vulnerabilities. The results are compared with the ones from other modal-based damage identification methods and the strengths/limitations of the tools currently available in literature are extensively discussed. Finally, based on the crack pattern surveyed before the repair works, the weakest links of the chimney are identified and the most meaningful collapse mechanisms are analysed to verify the seismic capacity of the structure. According to the results of the kinematic analysis, the chimney does withstand the maximum site peak ground acceleration.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.4401/ag-7126
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Rectangular Blocks vs Polygonal Walls in Archaeoseismology

    • Authors: Klaus-G. Hinzen, Arnaud Montabert
      First page: 0443
      Abstract: Collapsed or deformed walls in ancient structures constitute important evidence in archaeoseismology, where damage is interpreted in terms of earthquake ground motion. A large variety of wall types have been developed during the millennia in different cultural backgrounds. Often walls with polygonal-shaped building blocks are regarded as more earthquake-resistant than a wall consisting of rectangular elements and, as is sometimes speculated, that the irregular wall types were intentionally developed for that purpose. We use simply structured discrete element models of four walls with different block geometries, perfect rectangular, an Inka-type structure and two polygonal designs, to test their dynamic behavior. In addition to an analytic calculation of ground motion, we use measured strong motion signals as boundary conditions for the 3D wall models with varying height to width ratios. At peak ground accelerations between 1.0 and 9.0 m/s2 and major frequencies of 0.5 to 3 Hz, numeric experiments with the horizontally applied analytic ground motions result in clear differences in the resistance of the four wall types with the rectangular block wall being most vulnerable. For more complex measured 3D motions the Inka-type wall proves more stable than the rectangular block wall; however, height to width ratio still has equally strong influence on the stability. Internal deformation of non-collapsed walls shows some correlation with the parameters of the driving motion. For simple impulsive ground motions, a peak ground displacement threshold exists between toppling and remaining upright for all four models but peak acceleration cannot be reliably back calculated.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.4401/ag-7127
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • The Ruin of the Roman Temple of Kedesh, Israel; Example of a Precariously
           Balanced Archaeological Structure Used as a Seismoscope

    • Authors: Gregor Schweppe, Klaus-G. Hinzen, Sharon K. Reamer, Moshe Fischer, Shmuel Marco
      First page: 0444
      Abstract: In certain regions and under favorable geologic conditions, precariously balanced rocks may form. These types of unusual formations have been used to estimate yield ground motions. Because such balanced rocks have not been ‘unbalanced’, they can be used as a rough estimate for ground motions which have not been reached or exceeded since the balanced formation achieved its contemporary state. We hypothesize that other ancient manmade structures, delicate in terms of stability and particularly those that have survived earthquake ground motions intact, can be used in the same manner. We therefore suggest that these structures act as a highly local seismoscope for determining maximum upper ground motion bounds. We apply the concept of the study of precariously balanced rocks to the ruin of the Roman temple of Kedesh, located in close proximity to a branch of the Dead Sea Transform Fault. The delicate-looking ruin was surveyed with a 3D laser scanner. Based on the point cloud from that survey, a discrete element model of the remaining temple wall was constructed.  To test the stability of the model we used 54 analytical ground motion signals with frequencies ranging from 0.3 to 2 Hz and PGAs between 1 and 9 m/s2 and simulated and measured strong ground motions of eight earthquakes. Two hypothetical local earthquake scenarios, five of which are historical earthquakes of the region and one is a strong motion record of the 1999 Taiwan Chi Chi earthquake were also used to test the hypothesis. None of the simulated earthquakes (historical or assumed) toppled the ruin; only the strong motion record collapsed the structure. The simulations reveal a surprisingly high stability of the ruin of the Roman temple of Kedesh mainly due to the small height to width ratio of the remaining walls. However, ground motion with large PGAs at a low frequency range in EW direction does collapse the remains of the temple.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.4401/ag-7152
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Vulnerability assessment of archaeological sites to earthquake hazard: An
           indicator based method integrating spatial and temporal aspects

    • Authors: Despina Minos-Minopoulos, Dale Dominey-Howes, Kosmas Pavlopoulos
      First page: 0445
      Abstract: Across the world, numerous sites of cultural heritage value are at risk from a variety of human-induced and natural hazards such as war and earthquakes. Here we present and test a novel indicator-based method for assessing the vulnerability of archaeological sites to earthquakes. Vulnerability is approached as a dynamic element assessed through a combination of spatial and temporal parameters. The spatial parameters examine the susceptibility of the sites to the secondary Earthquake Environmental Effects of ground liquefaction, landslides and tsunami and are expressed through the Spatial Susceptibility Index (SSi). Parameters of physical vulnerability, economic importance and visitors density examine the temporal vulnerability of the sites expressed through the Temporal Vulnerability Index (TVi). The equally weighted sum of the spatial and temporal indexes represents the total Archaeological Site Vulnerability Index (A.S.V.I.). The A.S.V.I method is applied at 16 archaeological sites across Greece, allowing an assessment of their vulnerability. This then allows the establishment of a regional and national priority list for considering future risk mitigation. Results indicate that i) the majority of the sites have low to moderate vulnerability to earthquake hazard, ii) Neratzia Fortress on Kos and Heraion on Samos are characterised as highly vulnerable and should be prioritised for further studies and mitigation measures, and iii) the majority of the sites are susceptible to at least one Earthquake Environmental Effect and present relatively high physical vulnerability attributed to the existing limited conservation works. This approach highlights the necessity for an effective vulnerability assessment methodology within the existing framework of disaster risk management for cultural heritage. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.4401/ag-7157
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • A study of building vibrations induced by weak motions: effects of
           earthquake excitation, ambient noise and wind speed

    • Authors: Gaetano Riccio, Rocco Cogliano, Giuseppe Di Giulio, Antonio Fodarella, Stefania Pucillo, Antonio Rovelli
      First page: 0446
      Abstract: We carried out a vibration study experiment on a masonry building in the town of Ariano Irpino,
      southern Italy, using six-channel stations equipped with three-component velocity-transducers and
      accelerometers and running in continuous modality from January 2006 to December 2007. The
      analysis of weak motions from several local earthquakes, together with the 3D numerical modelling
      of the structure, allowed us to identify the first three vibration modes of the target building.
      Therefore, we checked the validity of ambient noise data to determine the vibration frequencies of
      buildings.
      The analysis tools based on earthquake and ambient noise data were conventional, i.e. spectral
      ratios between homologous components of stations at high floors in the building with respect to a
      station installed at the basement, and single-station spectral ratios between horizontal and vertical
      components.
      The indications derived from earthquakes and ambient noise result in a satisfactory agreement for
      frequencies between 1 and 20 Hz when using recordings characterized by low levels of amplitude,
      both for cultural and meteorological noise. In contrast, when the wind speed increases (above 20
      km/h, approximately) seismic noise shows an excess of horizontal vibrations at low frequencies
      (below 2 Hz). These extra-amplitudes are not related to the seismic input vertically incident to the
      basement, but are probably due to the lateral action of the wind on the building. In contrast anthropic activities
      do not affect considerably the trend of spectral ratios in the range of frequencies that include
      the first modes of vibration of the building, even at high noise level.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.4401/ag-7149
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Preface Special issue: Monitoring and Seismic Characterization of
           Archaeological Sites and Structures

    • Authors: Paolo Clemente, Salomon Hailemikael, Giuliano Milana, Luciana Orlando
      First page: 0447
      Abstract:  The preservation of cultural heritage is a crucial issue in areas prone to seismic and other natural hazards. The major challenge in pursuing such an important objective is related to the extreme fragility of ancient monuments and buildings exposed for centuries to the ravages of time.A suitable way to successfully proceed in the preservation effort of monumental structures should be based on then integrated use of different non-invasive diagnostic techniques, aimed at understanding the geological and geotechnical features of the areas where monuments are founded and the structural characteristic of the construction itself.In this perspective a team composed by researchers of ENEA, INGV and Sapienza University of Rome has recently carried out geophysical and structural investigations on the Amphiteatrum Flavium in Rome, better known as Colosseum, which is the symbol of monumental heritage in Italy and well-known all over the world. The experimental campaign was only a preliminary analysis of the very famous archaeological site that allowed outlining the state of knowledge about the characteristics of the site and the structure and should be considered as a starting point for an in-depth investigation of the monument vulnerability. In our opinion, the benefits of such an integrated approach can steer the political and social choices related with the preservation of the cultural heritage at National or European level.  
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.4401/ag-7480
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Monitoring and Seismic Characterization of Archaeological Sites and
           Structures

    • Authors: Paolo Clemente, Salomon Hailemikael, Giuliano Milana, Luciana Orlando
      First page: 0448
      Abstract: Cover Page Special Issue and Index
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.4401/ag-7487
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 4 (2017)
       
 
 
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