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EARTH SCIENCES (464 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Geophysica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances In Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Algological Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Andean geology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales UMCS, Geographia, Geologia, Mineralogia et Petrographia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Annals of GIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Annals of Glaciology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anthropocene     Hybrid Journal  
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Ocean Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Petrochemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Remote Sensing Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Arctic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Artificial Satellites : The Journal of Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Atlantic Geology : Journal of the Atlantic Geoscience Society / Atlantic Geology : revue de la Société Géoscientifique de l'Atlantique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Australian Journal of Earth Sciences: An International Geoscience Journal of the Geological Society of Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas     Open Access  
Boreas: An International Journal of Quaternary Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Bulletin of Volcanology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cadernos de Geociências     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Carbonates and Evaporites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
CATENA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese Geographical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chinese Journal of Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia del suelo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencias Espaciales     Open Access  
Climate and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cogent Geoscience     Open Access  
Comptes Rendus Geoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contemporary Trends in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Continental Shelf Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Coral Reefs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cretaceous Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cybergeo : European Journal of Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Depositional Record     Open Access  
Developments in Geotectonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Developments in Quaternary Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Développement durable et territoires     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Diatom Research     Hybrid Journal  
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
E&S Engineering and Science     Open Access  
E3S Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Earth and Planetary Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 106)
Earth and Space Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earth Interactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Earth Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Earth Surface Dynamics (ESurf)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Earth System Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Earth System Dynamics Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earth, Planets and Space     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Earthquake Spectra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ecohydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Electromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Energy Exploration & Exploitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Journal Cover   Annals of Geophysics
  [SJR: 0.886]   [H-I: 28]   [10 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1593-5213 - ISSN (Online) 2037416X
   Published by INGV, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Sensitivities of surface wave velocities to the medium parameters in a
           radially anisotropic spherical Earth and inversion strategies
    • Authors: Sankar N. Bhattacharya
      Abstract: Sensitivity kernels or partial derivatives of phase velocity (c) and group velocity (U) with respect to medium parameters are useful to interpret a given set of observed surface wave velocity data. In addition to phase velocities, group velocities are also being observed to find the radial anisotropy of the crust and mantle. However, sensitivities of group velocity for a radially anisotropic Earth have rarely been studied. Here we show sensitivities of group velocity along with those of phase velocity to the medium parameters VSV, VSH , VPV, VPH , h and density in a radially anisotropic spherical Earth. The peak sensitivities for U are generally twice of those for c; thus U is more efficient than c to explore anisotropic nature of the medium. Love waves mainly depends on VSH while Rayleigh waves is nearly independent of VSH . The sensitivities show that there are trade-offs among these parameters during inversion and there is a need to reduce the number of parameters to be evaluated independently. It is suggested to use a nonlinear inversion jointly for Rayleigh and Love waves; in such a nonlinear inversion best solutions are obtained among the model parameters within prescribed limits for each parameter. We first choose VSH, VSV and VPH within their corresponding limits; VPV and h can be evaluated from empirical relations among the parameters. The density has small effect on surface wave velocities and it can be considered from other studies or from empirical relation of density to average P-wave velocity.
      PubDate: 2015-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2015)
  • Seismic monitoring of Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius by stand-alone
    • Authors: Mario La Rocca, Danilo Galluzzo
      Abstract: A seismic network of more than 20 broad band stations and two arrays of 10 short period stations each, all working in local acquisition mode, are used to improve the seismic monitoring of Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius for research purposes. Data provided by stand-alone instruments are characterized by high quality and very continuous data streams, therefore they are appropriate to detect and analyze any seismic signals possibly related with the volcanic activity. Array data are particularly useful to discover and analyze seismic events characterized by low amplitude, low signal to noise ratio and emergent onset, but whose signals are more coherent among the array stations than the background noise. Since the background seismic signal is very high at both volcanoes, particularly at Campi Flegrei, seismic arrays and dense station networks are necessary to discriminate volcanic events from the many transient signals produced by artificial sources. In Campi Flegrei area the analysis with array methods of data recorded by ARF array permitted the discovery of low amplitude volcanic tremor of hydrothermal origin occurred in January 2015, a seismic signal never observed before in the area. At Mt. Vesuvius the analysis of VAS array data has shown the occasional occurrence of short bursts of low amplitude volcanic tremor. Small low-frequency earthquakes have also been revealed in the two volcanic areas.
      PubDate: 2015-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2015)
  • Relations between source parameters for large Persian earthquakes
    • Authors: Majid Nemati, Mohammad Tatar
      Abstract: Empirical relationships for magnitude scales and fault parameters were produced using 436 Iranian intraplate earthquakes of recently regional databases since the continental events represent a large portion of total seismicity of Iran. The relations between different source parameters of the earthquakes were derived using input information which has usefully been provided from the databases after 1900. Suggested equations for magnitude scales relate the body-wave, surface-wave as well as local magnitude scales to scalar moment of the earthquakes. Also, dependence of source parameters as surface and subsurface rupture length and maximum surface displacement on the moment magnitude for some well documented earthquakes was investigated. For meeting this aim, ordinary linear regression procedures were employed for all relations. Our evaluations reveal a fair agreement between obtained relations and equations described in other worldwide and regional works in literature. The M0-mb and M0-MS equations are correlated well to the worldwide relations. Also, both M0-MS and M0-ML relations have a good agreement with regional studies in Taiwan. The equations derived from this study mainly confirm the results of the global investigations about rupture length of historical and instrumental events. However, some relations like MW-MN and MN-ML which are remarkably unlike to available regional works (e.g., American and Canadian) were also found.
      PubDate: 2015-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2015)
  • New insight into the 2011-2012 unrest and eruption of El Hierro Island
           (Canary Islands) based on integrated geophysical, geodetical and
           petrological data
    • Abstract: A shallow water eruption started on October 10, 2011, ~2 km south off the coast of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain). The eruption lasted about five months and ended by early March 2012. Three months of unrest preceded this event with more than 10,000 localized earthquakes and up to 6 cm of vertical ground deformation. In the Canary Islands, this is the first eruption to be monitored by the network of Instituto Geográfico National (IGN) since the very beginning of the seismic unrest. This provided unprecedented time series that include geophysical (seismic and gravimetric), geodetic, geochemical and petrological data. In this work we discuss and interpret these data in order to describe the mechanisms of 2011-2012 El Hierro eruption, including ascent from magmatic source, a crustal storage, and the final intrusion in the South Rift before the eruption. Our research approach provides a multidisciplinary view of the dynamics of magma ascent and improves previous interpretations formulated during or shortly after the end of the eruption. According to our results, a major intrusion occurred beneath and around preexisting high-density magmatic bodies, localized at depth below the central part of the island. After a failed attempt to reach the surface through a low fractured zone located below the central-northern part of the island, the ascending magma finally found its way nearby the El Hierro South Rift Zone and erupted off the coast of La Restinga village, 350 m below sea level. The eruption was fed by the ascent of an important volume of material from the upper mantle that was emplaced near the crust-mantle boundary and progressively tapped during the eruption.
      PubDate: 2015-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2015)
  • DE-1 versus Cluster spectral density observations: the effect on ion
           outflow above the polar cap
    • Authors: Hamza A. Abudayyeh, Imad A. Barghouthi, Ghadeer Al-Sarsour, Husain Alsamamra
      Abstract: Wave-particle interaction is a very important mechanism in describing the outflow of ions at high latitudes and high altitudes. Quasi-linear perpendicular velocity diffusion coefficients are used to describe the effect of wave-particle interactions, therefore it is essential to determine the correct diffusion coefficients that must be used to model the outflow of ions. In this study a Monte Carlo method is used to assess the role of different diffusion coefficients for O+ and H+ ions at high altitudes above the polar cap. Two different sets of diffusion coefficients obtained from Barghouthi [1997]; Barghouthi et al. [1998] and Nilsson et al. [2013] are used. Barghouthi [1997]; Barghouthi et al. [1998] used spectral density measurements from Dynamic Explorer 1 spacecraft (DE-1) observations to calculate the diffusion coefficients, while Nilsson et al. [2013] used spectral density measurements from the Cluster spacecraft to obtain the diffusion coefficients. It was found that diffusion coefficients from Barghouthi [1997]; Barghouthi et al. [1998] in the cusp (aurora) and central polar cap (polar wind) respectively, describe well the observations of ion outflow at altitudes lower than 5 RE, but yield unreasonably high parallel velocities and temperatures at higher altitudes. Also diffusion coefficients from Cluster spectral density measurements produce reasonable results for high altitudes and unreasonably low parallel velocities and temperatures for the low altitude region. Therefore it is suggested that a combination of these diffusion coefficients is used where the diffusion coefficients given by Barghouthi [1997]; Barghouthi et al. [1998] are used at low altitudes and the diffusion coefficients obtained from Cluster measurements are used at high altitudes.
      PubDate: 2015-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2015)
  • The Italian reference site for TEM methods
    • Authors: Vincenzo Sapia, Andrea Viezzoli, Antonio Menghini, Marco Marchetti, Massimo Chiappini
      Abstract: The success of a long term transient electromagnetic survey (TEM) rigorously calls for appropriate system calibration, in addition to advanced processing and inversion of the measured data. In fact, acquisition of TEM data can be affected by a variety of noise sources from both inside and outside the system, making it difficult, for example, to define an absolute turn off time and/or to synchronize transmitter and receiver. For these reasons, a reference site plays an important role. As first step, we performed the calibration of a Geonics 47 at the Lyngby reference site in Denmark. We then set up a new reference site using the same calibrated TEM instrument. The reference site was established in the San Rossore park area (Pisa), where we identified an area that matches the required conditions. Subsequently, a series of TEM measurements were collected in the selected area using two pre-calibrated TEM instruments: the Geonics 47 and the WalkTEM respectively. The reference responses were therefore jointly inverted, obtaining a 5 layers model that was appointed to be the TEM reference model for the site. Afterwards, based on that reference model, we calibrated the Geonics 47 and 57 instruments for a 100 x 100 m central loop configuration. A unique time-shift and a data level shift factor was calculated and applied to the TEM system as result of the calibration procedure. The San Rossore TEM reference site is now available for anyone interested in calibrating TEM systems.
      PubDate: 2015-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2015)
  • On polar daily geomagnetic variation
    • Authors: Paola De Michelis, Giuseppe Consolini
      Abstract: The aim of this work is to investigate the nature of the daily magnetic field perturbations produced by ionospheric and magnetospheric currents at high latitudes. We analyse the hourly means of the X and Y geomagnetic field components recorded by a meridian chain of permanent geomagnetic observatories in the polar region of the Northern Hemisphere during a period of four years (1995-1998) around the solar minimum. We apply a mathematical method, known as natural orthogonal component (NOC), which is capable of characterizing the dominant modes of the geomagnetic field daily variability through a set of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs). Using the first two modes we reconstruct a two-dimensional equivalent current representation of the ionospheric electric currents, which contribute substantially to the geomagnetic daily variations. The obtained current structures resemble the equivalent current patterns of DP2 and DP1. We characterize these currents by studying their evolution with the geomagnetic activity level and by analysing their dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field. The obtained results support the idea of a coexistence of two main processes during all analysed period although one of them, the directly driven process, represents the dominant component of the geomagnetic daily variation.
      PubDate: 2015-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2015)
  • Ionospheric parameter modelling and anomaly discovery by combining the
           wavelet transform with autoregressive models
    • Authors: Oksana V. Mandrikova, Nadezda V. Fetisova (Glushkova), Riad Taha Al-Kasasbeh, Dmitry M. Klionskiy, Vladimir V. Geppener, Maksim Y. Ilyash
      Abstract: The paper is devoted to new mathematical tools for ionospheric parameter analysis and anomaly discovery during ionospheric perturbations. The complex structure of processes under study, their a-priori uncertainty and therefore the complex structure of registered data require a set of techniques and technologies to perform mathematical modelling, data analysis, and to make final interpretations. We suggest a technique of ionospheric parameter modelling and analysis based on combining the wavelet transform with autoregressive integrated moving average models (ARIMA models). This technique makes it possible to study ionospheric parameter changes in the time domain, make predictions about variations, and discover anomalies caused by high solar activity and lithospheric processes prior to and during strong earthquakes. The technique was tested on critical frequency foF2 and total electron content (TEC) datasets from Kamchatka (a region in the Russian Far East) and Magadan (a town in the Russian Far East). The mathematical models introduced in the paper facilitated ionospheric dynamic mode analysis and proved to be efficient for making predictions with time advance equal to 5 hours. Ionospheric anomalies were found using model error estimates, those anomalies arising during increased solar activity and strong earthquakes in Kamchatka.
      PubDate: 2015-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2015)
  • Evaluation of a global model of ionospheric slab thickness for foF2
           estimation during geomagnetic storm
    • Authors: Buldan Muslim, Haris Haralambous, Christina Oikonomou, Sefria Anggarani
      Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the performance of the global model of ionospheric slab thickness (GMIST) in terms of F2 layer critical frequency (foF2) estimation during geomagnetic disturbed conditions. Hourly values of foF2 as obtained from ionosonde stations located at equatorial, low- and mid-latitude regions are compared with the corresponding GMIST and IRI-STORM modeled values. For this purpose, the correlation coefficient, daily mean, root mean square error and improvement percentage are calculated at different regions and geomagnetic disturbance levels. The results show that GMIST is more accurate than IRI-STORM model in terms of foF2 estimation at low- and mid-latitude regions, while at equatorial areas GMIST is less accurate during geomagnetically disturbed and quiet conditions.
      PubDate: 2015-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2015)
  • Ionospheric perturbations related to the earthquake in Vrancea area on
           November 22, 2014, as detected by electromagnetic VLF/LF frequency signals
    • Authors: Maria Solovieva, Alexander Rozhnoi, Viktor Fedun, Konrad Schwingenschuh, Masashi Hayakawa
      Abstract: Data from the European network of very low/ low frequency (VLF/LF) receivers has been used to study the response of the lower ionosphere to the earthquake of magnitude 5.5 in Vrancea area on November 22, 2014. Negative amplitude anomalies have been observed during 3 days before the earthquake and two days after, on the LF (45.9 kHz) signal passed above the seismic area. No perturbations have been found for the same signal in control paths during this period. Other possible influences both from above and below which can produce perturbations in the ionosphere have been taken into consideration.
      PubDate: 2015-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2015)
  • Characterization of GPS-TEC in a low-latitude region over Thailand during
    • Authors: V. Rajesh Chowdhary, Nitin K. Tripathi, Sanit Arunpold, Durairaju Kumaran Raju
      Abstract: This paper presents the first results of vertical total electron content (VTEC) data from (1) a dual-frequency GPS receiver installed at the Chiang Mai University in Chiang Mai (CHGM, 18.480 N, 98.570 E) as part of SCINDA (Scintillation Network and Decision Aid) and (2) the International GNSS Service (IGS) station Pathum Wan (CUSV, 13.735 N, 100.533 E) with magnetic latitude of 8.69°N and 3.92°N respectively in Thailand, from August 2010 to July 2012. In the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) region, these two stations are separated at a distance of 668 km. Observed GPS-TEC values were found to be the highest between 1500 and 1900 Local Time (LT) throughout the study period at both the stations. The GPS-TEC data from both the stations was plotted diurnal, monthly and seasonal analyses were performed. The equinox (March, April, September, and October) and solstice (January, February, June, July, and December) periods had maximum and minimum diurnal peak variations, respectively, of the GPS-TEC. High TEC values are attributed to extreme solar ultra-violet ionization coupled with upward vertical E×B drift. A comparison of the GPS-TEC data from both the stations for the study period shows that the CHGM station recorded higher values of TEC than the CUSV station because of the formation of an ionization crest over the CHGM station. The GPS-TEC values also exhibited an increasing trend-because of the approach of solar cycle 24. For data validation, the diurnal, monthly, and seasonal variations in the measured TEC were compared with the TEC modelled in the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) models (IRI-2007 and the recently released IRI-2012 model). The IRI-2007 shows good agreement with the data from 2010 to 2011 from both stations and IRI-2012 agrees well with the data from 2012 onwards compared to IRI-2007.
      PubDate: 2015-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2015)
  • Pre-seismic variations of atmospheric radon activity as a possible reason
           for abnormal atmospheric effects
    • Authors: Vadim V. Surkov
      Abstract: Possible atmospheric effects associated with pre-seismic variations of atmospheric radon concentration occasionally observed prior to earthquake occurrence are subjected to theoretical study in order to assess their potential effectiveness. Altitude distribution of atmospheric conductivity is examined as a function of radon and aerosol concentrations. Horizontal components of atmospheric electric fields and currents, which can arise near a boundary of seismo-active region, are estimated. We speculated that changes in radon-induced air ionization can have an impact on fair-weather spectra of ULF electric pulsations. Particular emphasis has been placed on hypothesis for correlation between variations of pre-seismic radon activity and upward thermal radiation measured by satellite over the high seismicity regions. This hypothesis is based on assumption that the radon-induced ionization of atmospheric surface layer can trigger water vapor condensation which in turn results in release of the vaporization heat. Our analysis has shown that the upward thermal flux has to be many orders of magnitude lower than that predicted on the basis of this hypothesis.
      PubDate: 2015-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2015)
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