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  Subjects -> EARTH SCIENCES (Total: 649 journals)
    - EARTH SCIENCES (469 journals)
    - GEOLOGY (70 journals)
    - GEOPHYSICS (27 journals)
    - HYDROLOGY (21 journals)
    - OCEANOGRAPHY (62 journals)

EARTH SCIENCES (469 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 371 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Geophysica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances In Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Algological Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Andean geology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Geographia, Geologia, Mineralogia et Petrographia     Open Access  
Annals of Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annals of GIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Annals of Glaciology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropocene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Ocean Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Petrochemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Remote Sensing Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Arctic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Artificial Satellites : The Journal of Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Asian Review of Environmental and Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atlantic Geology : Journal of the Atlantic Geoscience Society / Atlantic Geology : revue de la Société Géoscientifique de l'Atlantique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Australian Journal of Earth Sciences: An International Geoscience Journal of the Geological Society of Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas     Open Access  
Boreas: An International Journal of Quaternary Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bulletin of Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Bulletin of Volcanology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cadernos de Geociências     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Carbonates and Evaporites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
CATENA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese Geographical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ciencias Espaciales     Open Access  
Climate and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Cogent Geoscience     Open Access  
Comptes Rendus Geoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contemporary Trends in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Continental Shelf Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Contributions to Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Coral Reefs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cretaceous Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cybergeo : European Journal of Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Depositional Record     Open Access  
Developments in Geotectonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Developments in Quaternary Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Développement durable et territoires     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Diatom Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
E&S Engineering and Science     Open Access  
E3S Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Earth and Planetary Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 100)
Earth and Space Science     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Earth Interactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Earth Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Earth Surface Dynamics (ESurf)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Earth System Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Earth System Dynamics Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earth, Planets and Space     Open Access   (Followers: 64)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Earthquake Spectra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Ecohydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ecological Questions     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Electromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Energy Exploration & Exploitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Environmental Geosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal  
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Estudios Geográficos     Open Access  
European Journal of Mineralogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Exploration Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Facies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Fieldiana Life and Earth Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Física de la Tierra     Open Access  
Folia Musei rerum naturalium Bohemiae occidentalis. Geologica et Paleobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Quaternaria     Open Access  
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Frontiers in Earth Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers of Earth Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Fundamental and Applied Limnology / Archiv für Hydrobiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
GEM - International Journal on Geomathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geo-Marine Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Geoacta     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geocarto International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Geochemical Perspectives     Hybrid Journal  
Geochemistry : Exploration, Environment, Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Geochronometria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geoderma Regional : The International Journal for Regional Soil Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Geodinamica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geodynamics & Tectonophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geoenvironmental Disasters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geofluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geoforum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Géographie physique et Quaternaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Geography and Natural Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Geoheritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geoinformatica Polonica : The Journal of Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences     Open Access  
Geoinformatics & Geostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Geology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Geomagnetism and Aeronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription  
GEOmedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geomorphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Geophysical & Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geophysical Journal International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Geophysical Prospecting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
GeoResJ     Hybrid Journal  
Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geoscience Canada : Journal of the Geological Association of Canada / Geoscience Canada : journal de l'Association Géologique du Canada     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Geoscience Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geoscience Frontiers     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Geoscience Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geoscience Records     Open Access  
Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geosciences Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geoscientific Model Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotectonic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Geotectonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
GISAP : Earth and Space Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Glass Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Global and Planetary Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Global Biogeochemical Cycles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Gondwana Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Grassland Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ground Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Groundwater for Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription  
GSA Today     Partially Free  
Helgoland Marine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
History of Geo- and Space Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Hydrobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Hydrogeology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Hydrological Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Indian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Indonesian Journal on Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Geology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Advanced Geosciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Advanced Remote Sensing and GIS     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
International Journal of Advancement in Earth and Enviromental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advancement in Remote Sensing, GIS, and Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
International Journal of Coal Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Earthquake and Impact Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Annals of Geophysics
  [SJR: 0.624]   [H-I: 35]   [12 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal  (Not entitled to full-text)
   ISSN (Print) 1593-5213 - ISSN (Online) 2037416X
   Published by INGV, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia Homepage  [1 journal]
  • The role of INGVterremoti blog in information management during the
           earthquake sequence in central Italy
    • Authors: Maurizio Pignone, Concetta Nostro, Alessandro Amato, Carlo Meletti
      Abstract: In this paper, we describe the role the INGVterremoti blog in information management during the first part of the earthquake sequence in central Italy (August 24 to September 30). In the last four years, we have been working on the INGVterremoti blog in order to provide quick updates on the ongoing seismic activity in Italy and in-depth scientific information. These include articles on specific historical earthquakes, seismic hazard, geological interpretations, source models from different type of data, effects at the surface, and so on. We have delivered information in quasi-real-time also about all the recent magnitude M≥4.0 earthquakes in Italy, the strongest events in the Mediterranean and in the world. During the 2016 central Italy, the INGVterremoti blog has continuously released information about seismic sequences with three types of posts: i) updates on the ongoing seismic activity; ii) reports on the activities carried out by the INGV teams in the field and any other working groups; iii) in-depth scientific articles describing some specific analysis and results. All the blog posts have been shared automatically and in real time on the other social media of the INGVterremoti platform, also to counter the bad information and to fight rumors. These include Facebook, Twitter and INGVterremoti App on IOS and Android. As well, both the main INGV home page (http://www.ingv.it) and the INGV earthquake portal (http://terremoti.ingv.it) have published the contents of the blog on dedicated pages that were fed automatically. The work done day by day on the INGVterremoti blog has been coordinated with the INGV Press Office that has written several press releases based on the contents of the blog. Since August 24, 53 articles were published on the blog they have had more than 1.9 million views and 1 million visitors. The peak in the number of views, which was more than 800,000 in a single day, was registered on August 24, 2016, following the M 6.0 earthquake.
      PubDate: 2017-01-04
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2017)
       
  • The development of a cloud-GIS platform for the management and sharing of
           geographic data during the central Italy seismic sequence
    • Authors: Maurizio Pignone, Rocco Cogliano, Raffaele Moschillo
      Abstract: For several years, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV, National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology) uses ArcGIS Online (www.arcgis.com), to share information about the real-time seismicity in Italy with other geographical data, geological and seismological, through the development of different WebGIS applications with various customized functionalities. During the earthquake emergency in Central Italy in August 2016,  WebGIS applications have been widely used. They derive from a common platform developed a few months earlier by the LABGIS of INGV-Irpinia. This platform has enabled the management and updating of the seismic data of the sequence in real time and their integration with the leading INGV databases seismological and seismotectonic and those of other Institutes. Moreover, these applications have permission to manage and share information and even data from the activities of the INGV Emergency Groups , such as the location and characteristics of seismic and  accelerometric temporary stations installed by the teams of SISMIKO and EMERSITO and the geological observations from the EMERGEO Group.
      PubDate: 2017-01-04
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2017)
       
  • Different damage observed in the villages of Pescara del Tronto and
           Vezzano after the M6.0 August 24, 2016 central Italy earthquake and site
           effects analysis
    • Authors: Angelo Masi, Giuseppe Santarsiero, Leonardo Chiauzzi, Maria Rosaria Gallipoli, Sabatino Piscitelli, Luigi Vignola, Jessica Bellanova, Giuseppe Calamita, Angela Perrone, Carmine Lizza, Stefano Grimaz
      Abstract: The authors have surveyed many damaged villages located at the epicentre of the ML=6.0 earthquake which occurred on August 24, 2016 in central Italy. Some unexpected anomalies were discovered such as very different levels of damage in Vezzano and Pescara del Tronto villages (Arquata del Tronto Municipality, Ascoli Piceno province). The two villages are situated just 1300 meters from each other. Pescara del Tronto suffered very heavy damage with many masonry building collapses and 48 fatalities, while Vezzano suffered only light damage to few buildings. This paper provides a preliminar analysis from an engineering and geophysics perspective. Particularly, rapid visual surveys were carried out in the two villages in order to detect possible significant differences in the vulnerability of their building stocks and site geophysical investigations were performed to detect possible local amplification effects.
      PubDate: 2017-01-03
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2017)
       
  • Rupture imaging for the 2016 August 24, Mw=6.0 central Italy earthquake,
           from back-projection of strong-motion array data
    • Authors: Gilberto Saccorotti, Davide Piccinini, Carlo Giunchi
      Abstract: By extending the conventional Beam-Forming frequency-wavenumber power spectral estimate to the case of arbitrarily-shaped wavefronts, we obtained images of rupture propagation during the 2016 August 24, Mw=6.0 central Italy earthquake. Using a set of strong-motion accelerometers, we evaluate the beam power along the travel time curves associated with synthetic sources spanning a model fault surface. This allows deriving time-dependent images of the distribution of energy radiation throughout the fault plane. Results indicate bi-lateral rupture propagation toward SE and NW, in rough agreement with surface co-seismic displacement and surface damage pattern. To a first order, our results are also consistent with those obtained from full-waveform inversion of strong-motion data.
      PubDate: 2016-12-28
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Instrumental seismicity of the Amatrice earthquake epicentral area: a
           review 
    • Authors: Maria Grazia Ciaccio
      Abstract: This study presents a review of the instrumental seismicity of the Norcia-Amatrice area (central Italy) where a still on-going seismic sequence started on August 24th 2016 with a Mw6.0 earthquake. The review is based on the analysis of the seismic catalogs 1981-2016, the CMT (Centroid Moment Tensor) solutions and the TDMT (Time Domain Moment Tensor) solutions, dividing the area into three regions based on the main seismic sequences preceding the Amatrice 2016 mainshock. The seismicity of this region is characterized by different types of activity: single events, minor sequences and swarms with hypocenters within the upper 15 km of the crust. Small-magnitude seismic sequences on March 2007 with maximum Mw3.9, and one earthquake on March 2012, Mw37, not followed by significant seismicity, affected the area east of the Norcia, close to the Mw 5.4 aftershock of the Amatrice 2016 sequence. In the central area, near Accumoli, and in the southern sector close to Amatrice, minor seismic sequences occurred on February 2014 Ml3.5 and on November 2013 Mw3.7 respectively. We integrated hypocentral locations and fault plane solutions to give a first look at the main features of the instrumental seismicity compared to the present seismic sequence in order to relate the seismicity patterns to seismogenic structures of this area of the central Italy.
      PubDate: 2016-12-27
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Coseismic displacement waveforms for the 2016 August 24 Mw 6.0 Amatrice
           earthquake (central Italy) carried out from High-Rate GPS data
    • Authors: Antonio Avallone, Diana Latorre, Enrico Serpelloni, Adriano Cavaliere, André Herrero, Giampaolo Cecere, Nicola D'Agostino, Ciriaco D'Ambrosio, Roberto Devoti, Roberta Giuliani, Maurizio Mattone, Stefano Calcaterra, Piera Gambino, Luigi Abruzzese, Vincenzo Cardinale, Angelo Castagnozzi, Giovanni De Luca, Luigi Falco, Antonino Memmolo, Franco Migliari, Felice Minichiello, Raffaele Moschillo, Luigi Zarrilli, Giulio Selvaggi
      Abstract: We used High-Rate sampling Global Positioning System (HRGPS) data from 52 permanent stations to retrieve the coseismic dynamic displacements related to the 2016 August 24 Mw 6.0 Amatrice earthquake. The HRGPS position time series (named hereinafter "GPSgrams") were obtained with two different analysis strategies of the raw GPS measurements (Precise Point Positioning [PPP] and Double-Difference [DD] positioning approaches using the Gipsy-Oasis II and the TRACK (GAMIT/GLOBK) software, respectively). These GPSgrams show RMS accuracies mostly within 0.3 cm and, for each site, an agreement within 0.5 cm between the two solutions. By using cross-correlation technique, the GPSgrams are also compared to the doubly-integrated strong motion data at sites where the different instrumentations are co-located in order to recognize in the GPSgrams the seismic waves movements. The high values (mostly greater than 0.6) of the cross-correlation functions between these differently-generated waveforms (GPSgrams and the SM displacement time-histories) at the co-located sites confirm the ability of GPS in providing reliable waveforms for seismological applications.
      PubDate: 2016-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Some reasoning on the improvement of the ETAS modeling at the occurrence
           of the 2016 Central Italy seismic sequence
    • Authors: Anna Maria Lombardi
      Abstract: This study presents an application of the ETAS model to the first 20 days of the 2016 Central Italy sequence. Despite of the provisional nature of data, the model is able to describe the occurrence rate, but for the first hours after the mainshock occurrence. A sensitivity analysis of the model to two uncertainty sources, the model parameters and the occurrence history, shows that the second has a main role in controlling the performance of the ETAS model, more than the uncertainty on parameters.
      Previous results, together with the clear inability of ETAS to forecast the occurrence of a sequence before its starting time, give important suggestions about possible improvements. Here, a very preliminary attempt in this sense is presented.
      PubDate: 2016-12-21
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • The INGV real time strong motion data sharing during the 2016 Amatrice
           (central Italy) seismic sequence
    • Authors: Marco Massa, Ezio D'Alema, Chiara Mascandola, Sara Lovati, Davide Scafidi, Gianlorenzo Franceschina, Antonio Gomez, Simona Carannante, Davide Piccaredda, Santi Mirenna, Paolo Augliera
      Abstract: ISMD is the real time INGV Strong Motion database. During the recent August-September 2016 Amatrice, Mw 6.0, seismic sequence, ISMD represented the main tool for the INGV real time strong motion data sharing.  Starting from August 24th,  the main task of the web portal was to archive, process and distribute the strong-motion waveforms recorded  by the permanent and temporary INGV accelerometric stations, in the case of earthquakes with magnitude ≥ 3.0, occurring  in the Amatrice area and surroundings.  At present (i.e. September 30th, 2016), ISMD provides more than 21.000 strong motion waveforms freely available to all users. In particular, about 2.200 strong motion waveforms were recorded by the temporary network installed for emergency in the epicentral area by SISMIKO and EMERSITO working groups. Moreover, for each permanent and temporary recording site, the web portal provide a complete description of the necessary information to properly use the strong motion data.
      PubDate: 2016-12-20
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Characteristics of the Strong Ground Motion from the 24th August 2016
           Amatrice Earthquake
    • Authors: Marta Pischiutta, Aybige Akinci, Luca Malagnini, André Herrero
      Abstract: The 2016 August 24 Amatrice earthquake occurred at 03:36 local time in Central Apennines Italy with an epicentre at 43.36°E, 38.76°N, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), few kilometers north of the city of Amatrice. The earthquake ruptured a North-West (NW)–South-East (SE) oriented normal fault dipping toward the South-West (SW) (Scognamiglio et al., 2016). High values of peak ground acceleration (~0.45 g) were observed close to Amatrice (3 stations being few kilometer distances from the fault). The present study presents an overview of the main features of the seismic ground shaking during the Amatrice earthquake. We analyze the ground motion characteristics of the main shock in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV) and spectral accelerations (SA, 5 per cent of critical damping). In order to understand the characteristics of the ground motions induced by Amatrice earthquake, we also study the source-related effects relative to the fault rupture directivity.
      PubDate: 2016-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Seismic hazard in Central Italy and the 2016 Amatrice earthquake
    • Authors: Carlo Meletti, Francesco Visini, Vera D'Amico, Andrea Rovida
      Abstract: The Amatrice earthquake of August 24th, 2016 (Mw 6.0) struck an area that in the national reference seismic hazard model (MPS04) is characterized by expected horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA) with 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years higher than 0.25 g. After the occurrence of moderate-to-large magnitude earthquakes with a strong impact on the population, such as the L’Aquila 2009 and Emilia 2012 ones (Mw 6.1 and 5.9, respectively), possible underestimations of the seismic hazard by MPS04 were investigated, in order to analyze and evaluate the possible need for its update. One of the most common misunderstanding is to compare recorded PGA only with PGA with 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. Moreover, by definition, probabilistic models cannot be validated (or rejected) on the basis of a single event. However, comparisons of forecasted shakings with observed data are useful for understating the consistency of the model. It is then worth highlighting the importance of these comparisons. In fact, MPS04 is the basis for the current Italian building code to provide the effective design procedures and, thus, any modification to the seismic hazard would also affect the building code.In this paper, comparisons between recorded ground motion during the Amatrice earthquake and seismic hazard estimates are performed, showing that the observed accelerations are consistent with the values expected by the MPS04 model.
      PubDate: 2016-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Preliminary remarks on the earthquake focal mechanism forecasts applied in
           the Amatrice sequence (central Italy)
    • Authors: Pamela Roselli, Maria Teresa Mariucci
      Abstract: We place the Amatrice (central Italy) seismic sequence and the related epicentral area in a contest of Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA). We apply a procedure to compute the probability to observe in the future a normal, reverse or strike-slip event and the average distribution of the P, T and N axes. This is a fundamental step to reduce the uncertainty connected to the Ground Motion Prediction Equation models, part of PSHA. For this purpose we use a significant focal mechanism catalogue and the latest present-day stress field data release for Italy to produce forecasted information that we compare with the equivalent data observed during the sequence.
      PubDate: 2016-12-15
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Estimation of the ground shaking from the response of rigid bodies
    • Authors: Filomena de Silva, Stefania Sica, Francesco Silvestri, Stefano Aversa
      Abstract: The paper illustrates and compares simplified approaches to interpret the mechanisms of damage observed on rigid bodies in the cemetery of Amatrice, after the main shock (August 24, 2016, MW=6.0) of the Central Italy earthquake. The final goal of the work is to link the observed movements of the fallen objects to specific characteristics of the ground motion occurred at the specific site.
      PubDate: 2016-12-14
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Signals from groundwater in Gran Sasso underground laboratory during
           Amatrice earthquake of August 24th, 2016
    • Authors: Gaetano De Luca, Giuseppe Di Carlo, Marco Tallini
      Abstract: Since May 2015, hydraulic pressure, temperature and electrical conductivity of groundwater are in continuos recording near the deep underground laboratories of Gran Sasso of INFN. We used the S13 borehole that have pressure varying in the range of 24-28 bar during the year; these values mean that we have at least 300 m of water table above. The sampling of these parameters was brought until to 50 Hz using a 3 channels 24-bit ADC. During the period May 2015 – September 2016 (17 months) we detected hydraulic pressure signals from 12 earthquakes at different surface distances (from 12.000 to 30 km) and different magnitudes (from 8.3 to 4.3 Mw). For the Amatrice mainshock, we present, as first results, the hydroseismograph recorded at the S13 hydraulic pressure device compared to the time history recorded at GIGS station located both in the deep core of the Gran Sasso chain. 
      PubDate: 2016-12-14
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Soil gas geochemical behaviour across buried and exposed faults during the
           24 august 2016 central Italy earthquake
    • Authors: Giancarlo Ciotoli, Alessandra Sciarra, Livio Ruggiero, Aldo Annunziatellis, Sabina Bigi
      Abstract: Following the earthquake (ML=6.0) of 24 August 2016 that affected large part of the central Apennine between the municipalities of Norcia (PG) and Amatrice (RI) (central Italy), two soil gas profiles (i.e., 222Rn, 220Rn, CO2 and CO2 flux) were carried out across buried and exposed coseismic fault rupture of the Mt. Vettore fault during the seismic sequence. The objective of the survey was to explore the mechanisms of migration and the spatial behaviour of different gas species near still-degassing active fault. Results provide higher gas and CO2 flux values (about twice for 222Rn and CO2 flux) in correspondence of the buried sector of the fault than those measured across the exposed coseismic rupture. Anomalous peaks due to advective migration are clearly visible on both side of the buried fault (profile 1), whereas the lower soil gas concentrations measured across the exposed coseimic rupture (profile 2) are mainly caused by shallow and still acting diffusive degassing associated to faulting during the seismic sequence. These results confirm the usefulness of the soil gas survey to spatially recognise the shallow geometry of hidden faults, and to discriminate the geochemical migration mechanisms occurring at buried and exposed faults related to seismic activity.
      PubDate: 2016-12-14
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Preliminary engineering analysis of the August 24th 2016, ML 6.0 central
           Italy earthquake records
    • Authors: Iunio Iervolino, Georgios Baltzopoulos, Eugenio Chioccarelli
      Abstract: An earthquake of estimated local magnitude (ML) 6.0 struck central Italy on the 24th of August (01:36:32 UTC) in the vicinity of Accumoli (close to Rieti, central Italy) initiating a long-lasting seismic sequence that also featured events of larger magnitude within a few months. The earthquake caused widespread building damage and around three-hundred fatalities. Ground motion was recorded by hundreds of seis-mic stations. This work uses accelerometric records for a preliminary discussion, from the earthquake en-gineering perspective, of strong motion caused by the earthquake. Peak and integral ground motion inten-sity measures, are presented. The response spectra at some select stations are analysed with respect to the code-mandated design actions for various return periods at the recording sites. Hazard disaggregation for different return periods is discussed referring to the site of the epicentre of the earthquake. Finally, some preliminary considerations are made concerning the impact of rupture propagation on near-source ground motion; i.e., the records are scanned for traces of pulse-like forward-directivity effects.
      PubDate: 2016-12-13
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Fast 3D seismic wave simulations of 24 August 2016 Mw 6.0 central Italy
           earthquake for visual communication
    • Authors: Emanuele Casarotti, Federica Magnoni, Licia Faenza, Francesca Comunello, Piero Polidoro, Simone Mulargia
      Abstract: We present here the first application of the fast reacting framework for 3D simulations of seismic wave propagation generated by earthquakes in the Italian region with magnitude Mw 5. The driven motivation is to offer a visualization of the natural phenomenon to the general public but also to provide preliminary modeling to expert and civil protection operators. We report here a description of this framework during the emergency of 24 August 2016 Mw 6.0 central Italy Earthquake, a discussion on the accuracy of the simulation for this seismic event and a preliminary critical analysis of the visualization structure and of the reaction of the public.
      PubDate: 2016-12-09
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • SISMIKO: emergency network deployment and data sharing for the 2016
           central Italy seismic sequence
    • Authors: Milena Moretti, Silvia Pondrelli, Lucia Margheriti, Luigi Abruzzese, Mario Anselmi, Pierre Arroucau, Paola Baccheschi, Brian Baptie, Raffaele Bonadio, Andrea Bono, Augusto Bucci, Mauro Buttinelli, Marco Capello, Vincenzo Cardinale, Angelo Castagnozzi, Marco Cattaneo, Gianpaolo Cecere, Claudio Chiarabba, Lauro Chiaraluce, Giovanni Battista Cimini, Rocco Cogliano, Gianfranco Colasanti, Marco Colasanti, Fabio Criscuoli, Ezio D’Alema, Antonino D’Alessandro, Ciriaco D’Ambrosio, Peter Danecek, Mariagrazia De Caro, Pasquale De Gori, Alberto Delladio, Gaetano De Luca, Giovanni De Luca, Martina Demartin, Maria Di Nezza, Raffaele Di Stefano, Luigi Falco, Massimo Fares, Massimo Frapiccini, Alberto Frepoli, Danilo Galluzzo, Edoardo Giandomenico, Lucian Giovani, Carlo Giunchi, Aladino Govoni, David Hawthorn, Chiara Ladina, Valentino Lauciani, Anthony Lindsay, Simone Mancini, Alfonso Giovanni Mandiello, Simone Marzorati, Marco Massa, Antonino Memmolo, Franco Migliari, Felice Minichiello, Giancarlo Monachesi, Caterina Montuori, Raffaele Moschillo, Shane Murphy, Nicola Mauro Pagliuca, Marina Pastori, Davide Piccinini, Ulderico Piccolini, Stefano Pintore, Giulio Poggiali, Sandro Rao, Gilberto Saccorotti, Margarita Segou, Andrea Serratore, Marcello Silvestri, Stefano Silvestri, Massimiliano Vallocchia, Luisa Valoroso, Luciano Zuccarello, Alberto Michelini, Salvatore Mazza
      Abstract: At 01:36 UTC (03:36 local time) on August 24th 2016, an earthquake Mw 6.0 struck an extensive sector of the central Apennines (coordinates: latitude 42.70° N, longitude 13.23° E, 8.0 km depth). The earthquake caused about 300 casualties and severe damage to the historical buildings and economic activity in an area located near the borders of the Umbria, Lazio, Abruzzo and Marche regions. The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) located in few minutes the hypocenter near Accumoli, a small town in the province of Rieti. In the hours after the quake, dozens of events were recorded by the National Seismic Network (Rete Sismica Nazionale, RSN) of the INGV, many of which had a ML > 3.0. The density and coverage of the RSN in the epicentral area meant the epicenter and magnitude of the main event and subsequent shocks that followed it in the early hours of the seismic sequence were well constrained. However, in order to better constrain the localizations of the aftershock hypocenters, especially the depths, a denser seismic monitoring network was needed. Just after the mainshock, SISMIKO, the coordinating body of the emergency seismic network at INGV, was activated in order to install a temporary seismic network integrated with the existing permanent network in the epicentral area. From August the 24th to the 30th, SISMIKO deployed eighteen seismic stations, generally six components (equipped with both velocimeter and accelerometer), with thirteen of the seismic station transmitting in real-time to the INGV seismic monitoring room in Rome. The design and geometry of the temporary network was decided in consolation with other groups who were deploying seismic stations in the region, namely EMERSITO (a group studying site-effects), and the emergency Italian strong motion network (RAN) managed by the National Civil Protection Department (DPC). Further 25 BB temporary seismic stations were deployed by colleagues of the British Geological Survey (BGS) and the School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh in collaboration with INGV. All data acquired from SISMIKO stations, are quickly available at the European Integrated Data Archive (EIDA). The data acquired by the SISMIKO stations were included in the preliminary analysis that was performed by the Bollettino Sismico Italiano (BSI), the Centro Nazionale Terremoti (CNT) staff working in Ancona, and the INGV-MI, described below.
      PubDate: 2016-12-09
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Moment tensor solutions for the Amatrice 2016 seismic sequence
    • Authors: Silvia Pondrelli, Simone Salimbeni, Paolo Perfetti
      Abstract: On August 24, 2016 a ML 6.0 earthquake struck central Italy region, nearly completely destroying some small ancient towns as Amatrice, Accumoli, Arquata and Pescara del Tronto. In the following days thousands of aftershocks have been recorded by the INGV National Seismometric Network, 16 of them with a magnitude greater than 4.0. A Quick RCMT solution has been rapidly computed for all of them and made available on the web. Within a  few weeks a definitive RCMT solution is ready for all of them, plus one. For major events (and not only) of the Amatrice seismic sequence, several rapid moment tensor solutions have been produced by various groups, using different methods and dataset. Comparing QRCMTs with other similar products, it is evident a great similarity of focal mechanisms while on the contrary, the Mw have a clear variability.
      PubDate: 2016-12-09
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • PSHA after a strong earthquake: hints for the recovery
    • Authors: L. Peruzza, R. Gee, B. Pace, G. Roberts, O. Scotti, F. Visini, L. Benedetti, M. Pagani
      Abstract: We perform aftershock probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (APSHA) of the ongoing aftershock sequence following the Amatrice August 24th, 2016 Central Italy earthquake. APSHA is a time-dependent PSHA calculation where earthquake occurrence rates decrease after the occurrence of a mainshock following an Omori-type decay. In this paper we propose a fault source model based on preliminary evidence of the complex fault geometry associated with the mainshock. We then explore the possibility that the aftershock seismicity is distributed either uniformly or non-uniformly across the fault source. The hazard results are then computed for short-intermediate exposure periods (1-3 months, 1 year). They are compared to the background hazard and intended to be useful for post-earthquake safety evaluation.
      PubDate: 2016-12-09
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • INGV data lifecycle management system performances during Mw 6.0 2016
           Amatrice earthquake sequence
    • Authors: Stefano Pintore, Fabrizio Bernardi, Andrea Bono, Peter Danecek, Licia Faenza, Massimo Fares, Valentino Lauciani, Francesco Pio Lucente, Carlo Marcocci, Donatella Pietrangeli, Matteo Quintiliani, Salvatore Mazza, Alberto Michelini
      Abstract: At 01:36:32 UTC on August 24, 2016 an earthquake of magnitude 6.0 occurred in Central Italy, affecting many small towns and municipalities in the Lazio, Umbria, Marche and Abruzzo regions. The event caused severe damages, many victims and 299 fatalities. Only 21 seconds after the beginning of the earthquake, the first automatic location of this earthquake was available and stored in our earthquakes database. The first magnitude estimate followed 68 seconds after the origin time. Few seconds later the INGV seismologists on duty in accordance to the agreed protocols provided the first alert to the Italian Civil Protection Department (Dipartimento di Protezione Civile, DPC) and thereby triggered the seismic emergency protocol. Subsequently, they elaborated the data in order to produce the first manually reviewed hypocenter, which was published on the Institute’s website at 01:53:18 UTC. The sequence following this mainshock generated thousands of earthquakes in the epicentral area, which the INGV automated localization system processed and detected along with the usual seismic activity in the rest of the Italian territory. In this paper we analyze the behavior of the automated system and of the data lifecycle management procedures in such extraordinary conditions. In particular we want to measure the capability of the system to manage the huge data flow, in terms of frequency and size of seismic events and its ability to remain fairly responsive and accurate in accomplishing its duty in the expected time. This will help us to identify potential problems and to suggest necessary improvements to better serve the INGV mission for Civil Protection.


      PubDate: 2016-12-09
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Local seismic response studies in the north-western portion of the August
           24th, 2016 Mw 6.0 earthquake affected area. The case of Visso village
           (central Apennines)
    • Authors: Iolanda Gaudiosi, Gianluca Vignaroli, Pietro Sirianni, Silvia Giallini, Federico Mori, Federica Polpetta, Roberto Razzano, Maurizio Simionato, Massimiliano Moscatelli
      Abstract: In this work, we investigate the possible causes of the differential damaging observed in Visso village (central Apennines, about 28 km north from the August 24th, 2016 Mw 6.0 earthquake epicenter). Following insights from the available geological cartography at 1:10.000 scale, a preliminary geophysical survey has been performed in the damaged area in order to constrain geometries and extent of the subsoil lithotypes. Then, these results have been used to retrieve a Vs profile close to the most heavily damaged buildings. This latter has been used as input for a numerical analysis aimed at deriving the motion at the ground level in the study area. In particular, a linear equivalent simulation has been performed by means of EERA code and the waveform has been obtained convolving the time history recorded during the August 24th, 2016 mainshock at Spoleto Monteluco (SPM) site. Our preliminary results indicate a possible correlation of damaging to the thickness and shape of the geological units. Nevertheless, further analyses are necessary to highlight any 2D basin and / non - linear soil behaviour effects in order to compare them to the intrinsic buildings vulnerability, according to the EMS98 guidelines.
      PubDate: 2016-12-09
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Kinematic finite fault and 3D seismic wave propagation of the 24 August,
           2016, Mw 6.0 central Italy earthquake
    • Authors: Federica Magnoni, Emanuele Casarotti
      Abstract: The magnitude Mw 6.0 earthquake of 24th August 2016 caused severe damages and nearly 300 fatalities in the central Italy region. Initial reports revealed an asymmetrical distribution of damage and coseismic effects, suggesting a major role of heterogeneities, both in the rupture history and in the geological structure of the region. Near realtime availability of seismological data afforded a timely determination of a finite fault model (Tinti et al., 2016). Here we test this source model by performing a 3D simulation of seismic wave propagation within a 3D structural model containing the major geological features of the region. Agreement between modeled seismograms and observed seismograms suggests that some complexities in the waveforms, such as high amplification in the region of the Mt. Vettore fault system, can be accounted for by complexities in the fault rupture and 3D structural models. Finally, the consistency of the hypothesis of two distinct events has been analyzed.
      PubDate: 2016-12-09
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Analysis of the 2016 Amatrice earthquake macroseismic data
    • Authors: Lorenzo Hofer, Mariano Angelo Zanini, Flora Faleschini
      Abstract: On August 24, 2016, a sudden MW 6.0 seismic event hit Central Italy, causing 298 victims and significant damage to residential buildings and cultural heritage. In the days following the mainshock, a macroseismic survey was conducted by teams of the University of Padova, according to the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS98). In this contribution, a critical analysis of the collected macroseismic data is presented and some comparisons were performed with the recent 2012 Emilia sequence.
      PubDate: 2016-12-07
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Site effect studies following the 2016 Mw 6.0 Amatrice earthquake (Italy):
           the Emersito Task Force activities
    • Authors: Giovanna Cultrera, Ezio D'Alema, Sara Amoroso, Barbara Angioni, Paola Bordoni, Luciana Cantore, Fabrizio Cara, Arrigo Caserta, Rocco Cogliano, Maria D'Amico, Giuseppe Di Giulio, Deborah Di Naccio, Daniela Famiani, Chiara Felicetta, Antonio Fodarella, Sara Lovati, Lucia Luzi, Marco Massa, Alessia Mercuri, Giuliano Milana, Francesca Pacor, Marta Pischiutta, Stefania Pucillo, Rodolfo Puglia, Gaetano Riccio, Gabriele Tarabusi, Maurizio Vassallo, Claudia Mascandola
      Abstract: On August 24, 2016, at 01:36 UTC a MW 6.0 earthquake struck an extensive area of the Central Apennines (Italy). It was followed by a large aftershock (MW 5.3, August 24, 02:33 UTC) and about 20 earthquakes with magnitude greater than 4.0, located between the towns of Norcia and Amatrice. Due to the mainshock magnitude and the widespread damaging level of buildings in the epicentral area, the Emersito task force has been mobilized by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV). The aim of Emersito is to carry out and coordinate the monitoring of local site effects, caused by geological and geomorphological settings. During the first days of the seismic emergency, Emersito installed a temporary seismic network for site effect studies at 4 municipalities close to the epicentral area (Amandola, Civitella del Tronto, Montereale and Capitignano), using 22 stations equipped with both velocimetric and accelerometric sensors. The selection of the sites where stations have been installed was mainly driven by the proximity to the epicentral area (without interfere with the rescue operation) and by peculiar geologic and geomorphologic settings (topographic irregularities, fault zones, alluvial plains).
      PubDate: 2016-12-07
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • The Italian Seismic Bulletin: strategies, revised pickings and locations
           of the central Italy seismic sequence
    • Authors: Alessandro Marchetti, Maria Grazia Ciaccio, Anna Nardi, Andrea Bono, Francesco Mariano Mele, Lucia Margheriti, Antonio Rossi, Patrizia Battelli, Cinzia Melorio, Barbara Castello, Valentino Lauciani, Michele Berardi, Corrado Castellano, Luca Arcoraci, Giulio Lozzi, Alexia Battelli, Corrado Thermes, Nicola Pagliuca, Giorgio Modica, Arianna Lisi, Luca Pizzino, Paola Baccheschi, Stefano Pintore, Matteo Quintiliani, Alfonso Mandiello, Carlo Marcocci, Massimo Fares, Daniele Cheloni, Alberto Frepoli, Diana Latorre, Anna Maria Lombardi, Milena Moretti, Marina Pastori, Massimiliano Vallocchia, Aladino Govoni, Laura Scognamiglio, Alberto Basili, Alberto Michelini, Salvatore Mazza
      Abstract: The central Italy seismic sequence, started with the Mw = 6.0 Amatrice earthquake on August 24th 2016, is the first significant one after the Italian Seismic Bulletin (BSI) changed its analysis strategies in 2015. These new strategies consist on the release of the BSI every four months, the review of the events with ML ≥ 1.5 and the priority on the review of events with ML ≥ 3.5. Furthermore, in the last year we improved the bulletin tools and made possible the analysis of all the stations whose data are stored in the European Integrated Data Archive (EIDA). The new procedures and software utilities allowed, during the first month of 2016 emergency, to integrate, in the Bulletin, the temporary stations installed by the emergency group SISMIKO, both in real–time transmission and in stand-alone recording. In the early days of the sequence many of the BSI analysts were engaged in the monitoring room shifts, nevertheless at the end of August all events occurred in those days with ML ≥ 4 were analyzed; the largest event recovered and localized is a ML = 4.5 event immediately following the main shock. In September 2016, 83 events with ML ≥ 3.5 were analyzed and re-checked, the number of pickings greatly improved. The focal mechanism of the main shock was evaluated using first motion polarities, and compared with the available Time Domain Moment Tensors and Regional Centroid Moment Tensor. The first eight hours of the day on August 24th, the most critical for the INGV surveillance room, were carefully analyzed: the number of located events increased from 133 to 408. The magnitude of completeness, after the analysis of the BSI, has dropped significantly from about 3.5 to 2.7. The mainshock focal mechanism and the relative locations of the first 8 hours’ aftershocks give clues on the initial fault activation. The seismic sequence in November 2016 is still ongoing; it included a mainshock of Mw = 6.5 on October 30th and 3 events of magnitude greater than 5.0 one on August 24th and two on October 26th.
      PubDate: 2016-12-07
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Investigating the effectiveness of rupture directivity during the August
           24, 2016 Mw 6.0 central Italy earthquake
    • Authors: Elena Spagnuolo, Antonella Cirella, Aybige Akinci
      Abstract: In this study we investigate directivity effects associated to the Mw6.0 Amatrice earthquake taking into account the source rupture heterogeneities. We use the directivity predictor proposed by Spudich et al. (2004) which is derived from the isochrones theory. The directivity is computed using a source to site geometry and a focal mechanism. For its simplicity it can be computed once that a moment tensor solution is available. We use this technique to validate the real time solutions. Moreover, because the directivity predictor depends on the rupture velocity it can be used as a proxy to validate the possible rupture history. For the aforementioned reasons our method revealed fruitful for real time applications and helpful to constrain a few main rupture features for further analysis.
      PubDate: 2016-12-06
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • The 2016 Amatrice seismic sequence in the Media
    • Authors: Gemma Musacchio, Giovanna Piangiamore
      Abstract: Media's power in setting the public’s agenda for discussion can affect perception and debate upon disasters. In the frame of a dialogical approach to science communication, we challenge here the paradigm for which issues that experts considered valuable are not in the Media's agenda. We studied the way Media addressed the Amatrice 2016 sequence and discuss story-telling. Specific indicators were analyzed to assess to what extent the scientific coverage, risk reduction and damage issues are covered. First results show that Media do think valuable to provide public with an in-depth scientific coverage and refers to authoritative sources. As time goes by and aftershocks Magnitude decreases a more reflexive thinking is triggered; news stories include more risk reduction indicators than damage. Although memory of past earthquakes is always part of the story one month after the main shock risk reduction disappear from the media agenda. We also explored the level of public engagement in risk reduction and found out that Media still seem not believe that citizens should be active part of the debate upon their own safety.
      PubDate: 2016-12-06
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Students, earthquakes, media: does a seismic crisis make a difference?
    • Authors: Gemma Musacchio, Stefano Solarino, Elena Eva, Giovanna Piangiamore
      Abstract: How do students use the big data flow of information form the Internet? What is their opinion and trust of scientists? How far is the influence of catastrophic earthquakes and environmental disasters on their opinion? In this study we present the results of a poll conducted on high school students (age 13-20) to assess young Italian citizens trust on geoscientists and theirs science. The sample of about 700 students is collected in areas prone to natural hazards from low to moderate intensity. The poll included only a very few questions to allow a fast compilation that could be held directly at school. Questions assessed the source from which information on catastrophes and natural phenomena is usually retrieved by the students, the role of scientists in everyday life and scientists ethical integrity. Although limited, this is the first poll of this kind and the collected up to now can be used for a rough picture of the present situation, compare results with recent disasters and project future results of on-going analysis. All information will also help us in a future analysis to understand if and how much a recent earthquake or environmental local crisis can affect the perception. Students do not completely trust that scientists are independent from outer urges. They also believe that media manipulate information with willful misconduct, to hide inconvenient realities or to get economic advantages.   Answers from our Emilia sample of students were unexpected: they did not show any specific bias after the 2012 seismic sequence. They show less skepticism towards scientists and scientific integrity in comparison to students from other regions. This suggests that the perception towards science and scientists might be driven by cultural and social background and not necessarily affected by recent seismic crisis. In this perspective this on-going study will be challenged as soon as poll after the Amatrice 2016 seismic sequence will be awailable.
      PubDate: 2016-12-05
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Recent seismicity before the 24 August 2016 Mw 6.0 central Italy
           earthquake as recorded by the ReSIICO seismic network
    • Authors: Simone Marzorati, Marco Cattaneo, Massimo Frapiccini, Giancarlo Monachesi, Chiara Ladina
      Abstract: The seismicity of the last four years before the August 24 2016 01:36 UTC MW 6.0 earthquake that struck central Italy is presented with the aim to understand the preparatory phase of the event. In contrast with the 2009 L’Aquila earthquake that was preceded by a seismic sequence and the 2013-2015 Gubbio seismic swarm that, to date, is ended without any strong event, our preliminary results don’t show seismic sequences in the last months previous the mainshock of the August 24 2016 and a low similarity between seismicity clusters in the last four years and the foreshocks.
      PubDate: 2016-12-05
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Assessing soil-structure interaction during the 2016 central Italy seismic
           sequence (Italy): preliminary results
    • Authors: Arrigo Caserta, Fawzi Doumaz, Antonio Costanzo, Anna Gervasi, William Thorossian, Sergio Falcone, Carmelo La Piana, Mario Minasi, Maria Fabrizia Buongiorno
      Abstract: We used the moderate-magnitude aftershocks succeeding to the 2016 August 24th, Mw = 6.0, Amatrice (Italy) mainshok to asses, specially during an ongoing seismic sequence, the soil-structure interaction where cultural Heritage is involved. We have chosen as case study the San Giovanni Battista church (A.D. 1039)  in Acquasanta Terme town, about 20 Km northeast of Amatrice. First of all we studied the soil shaking features in order to characterize the input to the monument. Then, using the recordings in the church, we tried to figure out  how the input seismic energy is distributed over the different monument parts. Some preliminary results are shown and discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-12-05
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Source identification for situational awareness of August 24th 2016
           central Italy event
    • Authors: Christian Bignami, Cristiano Tomolei, Giuseppe Pezzo, Francesco Guglielmino, Simone Atzori, Elisa Trasatti, Andrea Antonioli, Salvatore Stramondo, Stefano Salvi
      Abstract: On August 24, 2016, at 01:36 UTC a ML 6.0 earthquake struck a portion of the Central Apennines between the towns of Norcia and Amatrice. The epicentre was located near the town of Accumoli. Prompt Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) acquisitions and the available scientific knowledge of the area allowed to elaborate a first interpretative framework of the ongoing seismic sequence only 30 hours after the mainshock (doi: 10.5281/zenodo.60938) and a second analysis, complete of several Interferometric SAR (InSAR) data within two weeks (doi: 10.5281/zenodo.61682). Through the inversion of InSAR data, we found that the seismogenic structure is oriented NNW-SSE and extends about 20 km between the towns of Norcia and Amatrice with a width of about 10 km. The retrieved slip reaches a maximum value of more than 1.2 m, and stops at a depth of about 4 km. Preliminary fault slip inversions suggest two main patches of co-seismic deformation located NW and SE of the hypocenter. As a final result, we highlight the double fold achievements obtained: a rapid fault identification, and no disadvantage in terms of reliability of the retrieved parameters.
      PubDate: 2016-12-05
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • The first month of the 2016 central Italy seismic sequence: fast
           determination of time domain moment tensors and finite fault model
           analysis of the ML 5.4 aftershock
    • Authors: Laura Scognamiglio, Elisa Tinti, Matteo Quintiliani
      Abstract: We present the revised Time Domain Moment Tensor (TDMT) catalogue for earthquakes with M_L larger than 3.6 of the first month of the ongoing Amatrice seismic sequence (August 24th - September 25th). Most of the retrieved focal mechanisms show NNW–SSE striking normal faults in agreement with the main NE-SW extensional deformation of Central Apennines. We also report a preliminary finite fault model analysis performed on the larger aftershock of this period of the sequence (M_w 5.4) and discuss the obtained results in the framework of aftershocks distribution.
      PubDate: 2016-12-02
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Fossil landscapes and youthful seismogenic sources in the central
           Apennines: excerpts from the 24 August 2016, Amatrice earthquake and
           seismic hazard implications
    • Authors: Gianluca Valensise, Paola Vannoli, Roberto Basili, Lorenzo Bonini, Pierfrancesco Burrato, Michele Matteo Cosimo Carafa, Umberto Fracassi, Vanja Kastelic, Francesco Emanuele Maesano, Mara Monica Tiberti, Gabriele Tarabusi
      Abstract: We show and discuss the similarities among the 2016 Amatrice (Mw 6.0), 1997 Colfiorito-Sellano (Mw 6.0-5.6) and 2009 L’Aquila (Mw 6.3) earthquakes. They all occurred along the crest of the central Apennines and were caused by shallow dipping faults between 3 and 10 km depth, as shown by their characteristic InSAR signature. We contend that these earthquakes delineate a seismogenic style that is characteristic of this portion of the central Apennines, where the upward propagation of seismogenic faults is hindered by the presence of pre-existing regional thrusts. This leads to an effective decoupling between the deeper seismogenic portion of the upper crust and its uppermost 3 km.The decoupling implies that active faults mapped at the surface do not connect with the seismogenic sources, and that their evolution may be controlled by passive readjustments to coseismic strains or even by purely gravitational motions. Seismic hazard analyses and estimates based on such faults should hence be considered with great caution as they may be all but representative of the true seismogenic potential.
      PubDate: 2016-11-30
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Strong-motion observations recorded in Strategic Public Buildings during
           the 24 August 2016 Mw 6.0 Amatrice (Central Italy) Earthquake
    • Authors: Chiara Ladina, Simone Marzorati, Giancarlo Monachesi, Marco Cattaneo, Massimo Frapiccini, Viviana Castelli
      Abstract: The Marche Region, in collaboration with INGV, has promoted a project to monitoring public strategic buildings with permanent accelerometer installed at the base of the structures. Public structures play a primary role to maintain the functionality of a local community. Information about vibratory characteristics of the building and subsoil, in addition to the seismic instrumental history that describe the seismic shaking at the base of the structure are collected for each buildings. The real-time acquisition of seismic data allows to obtain accelerometric time history soon after the occurrence of an earthquake. The event of 24 August 2016 in Central Italy was an opportunity to test the functionality of this implemented system. In this work the parameters obtained from strong motion data recorded at the base of the structures were analyzed and the values obtained were inserted with some empirical relationships used to provide intensity microseismic values and damage indices.
      PubDate: 2016-11-30
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • The ShakeMaps of the Amatrice, M6, earthquake
    • Authors: Licia Faenza, Valentino Lauciani, Alberto Michelini
      Abstract: In this paper we describe the performance of the ShakeMap software package and the fully automatic procedure, based on manually revised location and magnitude, during the main event of the Amatrice sequence with special emphasis to the M6 main shock, that struck central Italy on the 24th August 2016 at 1:36:32 UTC. Our results show that the procedure we developed in the last years, with real-time data exchange among those institutions acquiring strong motion data, allows to provide a faithful description of the ground motion experienced throughout a large region in and around the epicentral  area. The prompt availability of the rupture fault model, within three hours after the earthquake occurrence, provided a better descriptions of the level of strong ground motion throughout the affected area.  Progressive addition of  station data and  manual verification of the data insures improvements in the description of the experienced ground motions.  In particular, comparison between the MCS intensity shakemaps and preliminary field macroseismic reports show favourable similarities.  Finally the overall  spatial pattern of the ground motion of the main shock is consistent with reported rupture directivity toward NW and reduced levels of ground shaking toward SW probably linked to the peculiar source effects of the earthquake.
      PubDate: 2016-11-30
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • New insights in the seismic history of Monti della Laga area
    • Authors: Viviana Castelli, Romano Camassi, Carlos H. Caracciolo, Mario Locati, Carlo Meletti, Andrea Rovida
      Abstract: The earthquake of August 24, 2016 hit an Apenninic "border” area, now at the crossroads of four regions, but for many past centuries on the edge of two independent Italian states. The geographic, cultural and historical marginality of this area did certainly affect the level of knowledge available on its historical seismicity. However, the recent publication of the new Italian Macroseismic Database and Parametric Catalogue produces a significant improvement of knowledge, based on the analysis of new sources on two major seismic clusters that characterize the seismic history of the area. Further improvements are possible, but these new data define what are the key issues that research is now facing. 
      PubDate: 2016-11-29
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • GPS observations of coseismic deformation following the 2016, August 24,
           Mw 6 Amatrice earthquake (central Italy): data, analysis and preliminary
           fault model
    • Authors: Daniele Cheloni, Enrico Serpelloni, Roberto Devoti, Nicola D'Agostino, Grazia Pietrantonio, Federica Riguzzi, Marco Anzidei, Antonio Avallone, Adriano Cavaliere, Gianpaolo Cecere, Ciriaco D'Ambrosio, Alessandra Esposito, Luigi Falco, Alessandro Galvani, Giulio Selvaggi, Vincenzo Sepe, Stefano Calcaterra, Roberta Giuliani, Maurizio Mattone, Piera Gambino, Luigi Abruzzese, Vincenzo Cardinale, Angelo Castagnozzi, Giovanni De Luca, Angelo Massucci, Antonio Memmolo, Franco Migliari, Felice Minichiello, Luigi Zarrilli
      Abstract: We used continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements to infer the fault geometry and the amount of coseismic slip associated to the August 24, 2016 Mw 6 Amatrice earthquake. We realized a three dimensional coseismic displacement field by combining different geodetic solutions generated by three independent analyses of the raw GPS observations. The coseismic deformation field described in this work aims at representing a consensus solution that minimizes the systematic biases potentially present in the individual geodetic solutions. Because of the limited number of stations available we modeled the measured coseismic displacements using a uniform slip model, deriving the geometry and kinematics of the causative fault, finding good agreement between our geodetically derived fault plane and other seismological and geological observations. 
      PubDate: 2016-11-28
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • The Amatrice 2016 seismic sequence: a preliminary look at the mainshock
           and aftershocks distribution
    • Authors: Maddalena Michele, Raffaele Di Stefano, Lauro Chiaraluce, Marco Cattaneo, Pasquale De Gori, Giancarlo Monachesi, Diana Latorre, Simone Marzorati, Luisa Valoroso, Chiara Ladina, Claudio Chiarabba, Valentino Lauciani, Massimo Fares
      Abstract: We relocated the aftershocks of the MW 6.0 Amatrice 2016 mainshock by inverting with a non-linear probabilitstic method P- and S-arrival time readings produced and released in near realtime by the analyst seismologists of IGNV on duty in the seismic monitoring room. Earthquakes distribution shows the activation of a normal fault system with a main SW-dipping fault extending from Amatrice to NW of Accumoli village for a total length of 40 km. On the northern portion of the main fault hanging-wall volume, the structure become more complex activating an antithetic fault below the Norcia basin. It is worth nothing that below 8-9 km of depth, the whole fault system has an almost continuous sub-horizontal layer interested by an intense seismic activity, about 2 km thick.
      PubDate: 2016-11-25
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Surface faulting during the August 24, 2016, Central Italy earthquake (Mw
           6.0): preliminary results
    • Authors: Franz A. Livio, A. M. Michetti, E. Vittori, L. Gregory, L. Wedmore, L. Piccardi, E. Tondi, G. Roberts, CENTRAL ITALY EARTHQUAKE W.G., A. M. Blumetti, L. Bonadeo, F. Brunamonte, V. Comerci, P. Dimanna, M. F. Ferrario, J. Faure Walker, C. Frigerio, F. Fumanti, L. Guerrieri, F. Iezzi, G. Leoni, K. McCaffrey, Z. Mildon, R. Phillips, E. Rhodes, R. J. Walters, M. Wilkinson
      Abstract: We present some preliminary results on the mapping of coseismically-induced ground ruptures following the Aug. 24, 2016, Central Italy earthquake (Mw 6.0). The seismogenic source, as highlighted by InSAR and seismological data, ruptured across two adjacent structures: the Vettore and Laga faults. We collected field data on ground breaks along the whole deformed area and two different scenarios of on-fault coseismic displacement arise from these observations. To the north, along the Vettore fault, surface faulting can be mapped quite continuously along a well-defined fault strand while such features are almost absent to the south, along the Laga fault, where flysch-like marly units are present. A major lithological control, affects the surface expression of faulting, resulting in a complex deformation pattern.
      PubDate: 2016-11-24
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • A multisensor approach for the 2016 Amatrice earthquake damage assessment
    • Authors: Vito Romaniello, Alessandro Piscini, Christian Bignami, Roberta Anniballe, Salvatore Stramondo
      Abstract: This work proposes methodologies aimed at evaluating the damage occurred in the Amatrice town by using optical and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) change features obtained from satellite images. The objective is to achieve a damage map employing the satellite change features in a classifier algorithm, namely the Features Stepwise Thresholding (FST) method. The main novelties of the proposed analysis concern the estimation of derived features at object scale and the exploitation of the unsupervised FST algorithm. A segmentation of the study area into several buildings blocks has been done by considering a set of polygons, over the Amatrice town, extracted from the open source Open Street Map (OSM) geo-database. The available satellite dataset is composed of several optical and SAR images, collected before and after the seismic event. Regarding the optical data, we selected the Normalised Difference Index (NDI), and two quantities coming from the Information Theory, namely the Kullback-Libler Divergence (KLD) and the Mutual Information (MI). In addition, for the SAR data we picked out the Intensity Correlation Difference (ICD) and the KLD parameter. The exploitation of these features in the FST algorithm permits to obtain a plausible damage map that is able to indicate the most affected areas.
      PubDate: 2016-11-23
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • The August 24th 2016 Accumoli earthquake: surface faulting and Deep-Seated
           Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD) in the Monte Vettore area
    • Authors: Domenico Aringoli, Piero Farabollini, Marco Giacopetti, Marco Materazzi, Silvia Paggi, Gilberto Pambianchi, Pietro Paolo Pierantoni, Eugenio Pistolesi, Alan Pitts, Emanuele Tondi
      Abstract: On August 24th 2016 a Mw=6.0 earthquake hit central Italy, with the epicenter located at the boundaries between Lazio, Marche, Abruzzi and Umbria regions, near the village of Accumoli (Rieti, Lazio). Immediately after the mainshock, this geological survey has been focused on the earthquake environmental effects related to the tectonic reactivation of the previously mapped active fault (i.e. primary), as well as secondary effects mostly related to the seismic shaking (e.g. landslides and fracturing in soil and rock).This paper brings data on superficial effects and some preliminary considerations about the interaction and possible relationship between surface faulting and the occurrence of Deep-Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD) along the southern and western slope of Monte Vettore.
      PubDate: 2016-11-23
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Regional macroseismic field and intensity residuals of the August 24,
           2016, Mw=6.0 central Italy earthquake
    • Authors: Valerio De Rubeis, Paola Sbarra, Patrizia Tosi
      Abstract: A macroseismic investigation of the August 24, 2016, Mw=6.0 Central Italy earthquake, was carried out through an online web survey. Data were collected through a macroseismic questionnaire available at the website www.haisentitoilterremoto.it, managed by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV). Over 12000 questionnaires were compiled soon after the seismic occurrence, coming from over 2600 municipalities. A statistical analysis was applied to the data collected in order to investigate the spatial distribution of intensity of the earthquake. The macroseismic intensity field (I) was described by identifying three main components: an isotropic component (II), a regional anisotropic component (IA) and a local random variations parameter (). The anisotropic component highlighted specific and well-defined geographical areas of amplification and attenuation. In general, the area between the Adriatic coast and Apennines Chain was characterized by an amplification of intensity, while the West side of the Apennines showed attenuation, in agreement with the domains found by other works focused on the analysis of instrumental data. Moreover, the regional macroseismic field showed similarities with instrumental PGA data. The results of our analysis confirm the reliability of web questionnaire data.
      PubDate: 2016-11-22
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • The 24 August 2016 Amatrice earthquake: macroseismic survey in the damage
           area and EMS intensity assessment
    • Authors: QUEST W.G. :, Raffaele Azzaro, Andrea Tertulliani, Filippo Bernardini, Romano Camassi, Sergio Del Mese, Emanuela Ercolani, Laura Graziani, Mario Locati, Alessandra Maramai, Vera Pessina, Antonio Rossi, Andrea Rovida, Paola Albini, Luca Arcoraci, Michele Berardi, Christian Bignami, Beatriz Brizuela, Corrado Castellano, Viviana Castelli, Salvatore D'Amico, Vera D'Amico, Antonio Fodarella, Ilaria Leschiutta, Alessandro Piscini, Manuela Sbarra
      Abstract: The 24 August 2016 earthquake very heavily struck the central sector of the Apennines among the Lazio,Umbria, Marche and Abruzzi regions, devastating the town of Amatrice, the nearby villages and other localities along the Tronto valley. In this paper we present the results of the macroseismic field survey carried out using the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS) to take the heterogeneity of the building stock into account. We focused on the epicentral area, where geological conditions may also have contributed to the severity of damage. On the whole, we investigated 143 localities; the maximum intensity 10 EMS has been estimated for Amatrice, Pescara del Tronto and some villages in between. The severely damaged area (8-9 EMS) covers a strip trending broadly N-S and extending 15 km in length and 5 km in width; minor damage occurred over an area up to 35 km northward from the epicenter.
      PubDate: 2016-11-22
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Spatial variation in b-values before and after the 24 August 2016, ML 6.0
           Amatrice earthquake (Central Italy)
    • Authors: Caterina Montuori, Maura Murru, Giuseppe Falcone
      Abstract: This paper deals with a preliminary spatial and temporal analysis of the b-value variability, observed in the ar-ea where the August 2016 Amatrice earthquake (M_L 6.0) occurred. With comparison of the pre-and post-periods of the mainshock, an investigation of anomalous zone of b-values was performed aiming to find possi-ble links with barriers and/or asperities in the crustal volume where seismic sequence was developed. Prelimi-nary results show an area with high b-value (b=1.6) where the mainshock originated. Conversely, two low b-value (b=0.8) volumes are located at the border of the seismogenic structure. The location of these two areas is consistent with a preliminary fault slip inversion, suggesting the presence of two highly stressed patches of co-seismic deformation located NW and SE of the mainshock, with a high potentiality to rupture causing a possible moderate or larger event: the first one in the North (Norcia), the second one in South, next to the area of Amatrice and Campotosto.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • New paleoseismic data across the Mt. Marine Fault between the 2016
           Amatrice and 2009 L’Aquila seismic sequences (central Apennines)
    • Authors: Marco Moro, Emanuela Falcucci, Stefano Gori, Michele Saroli, Fabrizio Galadini
      Abstract: Paleoseismological investigations have been carried out along the Mt. Marine normal fault, a probable source of the February 2, 1703 (Me=6.7) earthquake. The fault affects the area between the 2016 Amatrice and 2009 L’Aquila seismic sequences. Paleoseismological analysis provides data which corroborate previous studies, highlighting the occurrence of 5 events of surface faulting after the 6th–5th millenium B.C., the most recent of which is probably the 2 February 1703 earthquake. A minimum displacement per event of about 0.35 m has been measured. The occurrence of a minimum four faulting events within the last 7,000 years suggests a maximum 1,700 years recurrence interval.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • The MCS intensity distribution of the devastating 24 August 2016
           earthquake in central Italy (MW 6.2)
    • Authors: P. Galli, E. Peronace, F. Bramerini, S. Castenetto, G. Naso, F. Cassone, F. Pallone
      Abstract: Here we describe the macroseismic survey of the 24 August 2016 earthquake in central Italy (M_W 6.2). By applying a revised version of the Mercalli-Cancani-Sieberg scale, we estimated the site intensity in more than 300 localities of Lazio, Abruzzi, Umbria and Marche regions, providing the Civil Protection with a quick and robust snapshot of the earthquake. The most severe effects are focused south of the instrumental epicenter, in the Amatrice intermountain basin, where intensity reached 10-11 MCS. Highest damage (area inside 9 MCS isoseismal) is focused in a NNW-SSE belt of the hangingwall of the causative faults, i.e. the southern segment of the Mount Vettore fault system and the northern segment of the Laga Mounts fault system, with northward damage propagation in the far-field. The intensity dataset allows to evaluate a M_W 6.16±0.5, which is very close to the instrumental magnitude, with a seismogenic box striking N161°, mimicking the geological active faults. Epicentral intensity is I_0 10 MCS, I_MAX 10-11. The elevated level of destruction is mainly due to the high vulnerability of buildings, mostly made by cobblestone masonry. Integrating the macroseismic information with the geological, geodetical and geophysical data it is possible to hypothesize a bidirectional rupture propagation (toward NNW and SSE) along the two different faults. It is also possible to attribute the 1639, M_W 6.0 earthquake to the same source of the southern 2016 rupture (northernmost Laga Mounts faults).
      PubDate: 2016-11-18
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Contemporary stress field in the area of the 2016 Amatrice seismic
           sequence (central Italy)
    • Authors: Maria Teresa Mariucci, Paola Montone
      Abstract: We update the last present-day stress map for Italy relatively to the area of 2016 Amatrice seismic sequence (central Italy) taking into account a large number of earthquakes occurred from August 24 to October 3, 2016. In particular in this paper, we discuss the new stress data from crustal earthquake focal mechanisms selecting those with Magnitude ≥ 4.0; at the same time, we revise the borehole data, analyze the stratigraphic profiles and the relative sonic logs in 4 deep wells located close to the Amatrice sequence along the Apennine belt and toward east along the Adriatic foredeep. From these data we consider the P-wave velocity trend with depth and estimate rock density following an empirical relationship. Then we calculate the overburden stress magnitude for each well. The new present-day stress indicators confirm the presence of prevalent normal faulting regime and better define the local stress field in the area, highlighting a slight rotation from NE-SW to ENE-WSW of extension. The analysis evidences that the lithostatic gradient gradually changes from ~26 MPa/km in the belt to less than 23 MPa/km along the Adriatic foredeep. Finally, at a depth of 5 km we estimate the vertical stress magnitude varying from 130 MPa to 114 moving from the Apennine belt to the Adriatic foredeep. Although the wells are very close each other they show different P wave velocities from the belt to the foredeep with values ~7km/s and ~4 km/s at 5 km depth, respectively.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Preliminary macroseismic survey of the 2016 Amatrice seismic sequence
    • Authors: Mariano Angelo Zanini, Lorenzo Hofer, Flora Faleschini, Paolo Zampieri, Nicola Fabris, Carlo Pellegrino
      Abstract: After the recent destructive L’Aquila 2009 and Emilia-Romagna 2012 earthquakes, a sudden Mw 6.0 seismic event hit Central Italy on August 24, 2016. A low population density characterizes the area but, due to its nighttime occurrence, about 300 victims were registered. This work presents the first preliminary results of a macroseismic survey conducted by two teams of the University of Padova in the territories that suffered major damages. Macroseismic intensities were assessed according to the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS98) for 180 sites.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Preliminary analysis of the accelerometric recordings of the August 24th,
           2016 MW 6.0 Amatrice earthquake
    • Authors: Giovanni Lanzano, Lucia Luzi, Francesca Pacor, Rodolfo Puglia, Maria D'Amico, Chiara Felicetta, Emiliano Russo
      Abstract: On 24 August 2016, at 1.36:32 GMT, a MW 6.0 earthquake with epicenter located below the village of Accumoli, struck a wide area among the boundaries of Lazio, Abruzzo, Umbria and Marche regions (Central Italy): the main event caused the collapse of several buildings and about 300 fatalities, mainly in the towns of Amatrice, Arquata del Tronto and Accumoli. The main event was recorded by about 350 sensors, belonging to Italian Accelerometric Network (Rete Accelerometrica Nazionale, RAN), operated by the Department of Civil Protection (DPC), to the Italian Seismic Network (Rete Sismica Nazionale, RSN), managed by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) and to other local networks. All the corrected data are available at the Engineering Strong Motion Database (esm.mi.ingv.it). This paper reports the preliminary results of the analysis of the strong-motion recordings.
      PubDate: 2016-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Imaging the tectonic framework of the 24 August 2016, Amatrice (central
           Italy) earthquake sequence: new roles for old players?
    • Authors: Lorenzo Bonini, Francesco Emanuele Maesano, Roberto Basili, Pierfrancesco Burrato, Michele Matteo Cosimo Carafa, Umberto Fracassi, Vanja Kastelic, Gabriele Tarabusi, Mara Monica Tiberti, Paola Vannoli, Gianluca Valensise
      Abstract: We reconstruct the tectonic framework of the 24 August 2016, Amatrice earthquake. At least three main faults, including an older thrust fault (Sibillini Thrust), played an active role in the sequence. The mainshock nucleated and propagated along an extensional fault located in the footwall of the Sibillini Thrust, but due to the preliminary nature of the data the role of this thrust is still unclear. We illustrate two competing solutions: 1) the coseismic rupture started along an extensional fault and then partially used the thrust plane in extensional motion; 2) the thrust fault acted as an upper barrier to the propagation of the mainshock rupture, but was partially reactivated during the aftershock sequence. In both cases our tectonic reconstruction suggests an active role of the thrust fault, providing yet another example of how structures inherited from older tectonic phases may control the mainshock ruptures and the long-term evolution of younger seismogenic faults.
      PubDate: 2016-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Active faults in the epicentral and mesoseismal Ml 6.0 24, 2016 Amatrice
           earthquake region, central Italy. Methodological and seismotectonic issues
           
    • Authors: Emanuela Falcucci, Stefano Gori, Fabrizio Galadini, Giandomenico Fubelli, Marco Moro, Michele Saroli
      Abstract: The August 24, 2016 Amatrice earthquake (Ml 6.0) struck a region of the central Apennines (Italy) where several active faults were known since decades, most of which are considered the surface expression of seismogenic sources potentially able to rupture during earthquakes with M of up to 6.5-7. The current debate on which structure/s activated during the mainshock and the possibility that conterminous faults may activate in a near future urged us gathering all the data on surface geological evidence of fault activity we collected over the past 15-20 years in the area. We then map the main tectonic structures of the 2016 earthquake epicentral and mesoseismal region. Our aim is to provide hints on their seismogenic potential, as possible contribution to the national Database of Individual Seismogenic Source (DISS) and to the Database of the active and capable fault ITaly HAzard from CApable faults (ITHACA).
      PubDate: 2016-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Preliminary analysis of radon time series before the Ml=6 Amatrice
           earthquake: possible implications for fluid migration
    • Authors: Valentina Cannelli, Antonio Piersanti, Elena Spagnuolo, Gianfranco Galli
      Abstract: On August 24, 2016, a Ml=6.0 earthquake occurred in Central Apennines, Italy, between the towns of Norcia and Amatrice, causing severe destruction and casualties in a wide area around the epicenter. We present a preliminary analysis of continuous radon concentration data collected from the second half of 2012 to the day after the earthquake by a long term radon monitoring station, installed at Cittareale (Rieti, Italy), about 11 km south-west of the epicenter. We combine the field data analysis with the outcome of dedicated laboratory experiments, aimed to study real time radon emission dynamics from rock samples subject to normal and shear stress loads in absence of fluid transport and migration phenomena. Our results suggest the possibility of a minor role played by phenomena related to fluid migration for the Amatrice seismic event with respect to other recent Apennine earthquakes.
      PubDate: 2016-11-09
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • What is the impact of the August 24, 2016 Amatrice earthquake on the
           seismic hazard assessment in central Italy?
    • Authors: Maura Murru, Matteo Taroni, Aybige Akinci, Giuseppe Falcone
      Abstract: The recent Amatrice strong event (Mw6.0) occurred on August 24, 2016 in Central Apennines (Italy) in a seismic gap zone, motivated us to study and provide better understanding of the seismic hazard assessment in the macro area defined as “Central Italy”. The area affected by the sequence is placed between the Mw6.0 1997 Colfiorito sequence to the north (Umbria-Marche region) the Campotosto area hit by the 2009 L’Aquila sequence Mw6.3 (Abruzzo region) to the south. The Amatrice earthquake occurred while there was an ongoing effort to update the 2004 seismic hazard map (MPS04) for the Italian territory, requested in 2015 by the Italian Civil Protection Agency to the Center for Seismic Hazard (CPS) of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia INGV. Therefore, in this study we brought to our attention new earthquake source data and recently developed ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs). Our aim was to validate whether the seismic hazard assessment in this area has changed with respect to 2004, year in which the MPS04 map was released. In order to understand the impact of the recent earthquakes on the seismic hazard assessment in central Italy we compared the annual seismic rates calculated using a smoothed seismicity approach over two different periods; the Parametric Catalog of the Historical Italian earthquakes (CPTI15) from 1871 to 2003 and the historical and instrumental catalogs from 1871 up to 31 August 2016. Results are presented also in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA), using the recent ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) at Amatrice, interested by the 2016 sequence.
      PubDate: 2016-11-09
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Minor shallow gravitational component on the Mt. Vettore surface ruptures
           related to MW 6, 2016 Amatrice earthquake
    • Authors: Matteo Albano, Michele Saroli, Marco Moro, Emanuela Falcucci, Stefano Gori, Salvatore Stramondo, Fabrizio Galadini, Salvatore Barba
      Abstract: On 24th August 2016 a ML 6.0 earthquake occurred near Amatrice (central Italy) causing nearly 300 fatalities. The mainshock ruptured a NNW-SSE striking, WSW dipping normal fault. The earthquake produced several coseismic effects at ground, including landslides and ground ruptures. In particular, ground surveys identified a 5.2 km long continuous fracture along the Mt. Vettore flank, both on rock and slope deposits, along one of the active normal fault segments bounding the relief to the west. In this work, we evaluated the contribution of seismically-induced surface instabilities to the observed ground fractures by means of a permanent-displacement approach. The results of a parametric analysis show that the computed seismically-induced gravitational displacements (about 2-10 cm) are not enough to explain field observations, testifying to a mean 20-25cm vertical offset. Thus, the observed ground fractures are the result of primary faulting related to tectonics, combined with gravitational phenomena.
      PubDate: 2016-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
  • Coseismic effects of the 2016 Amatrice seismic sequence: first geological
           results
    • Authors: EMERGEO W.G. :, S. Pucci, P.M. De Martini, R. Civico, R. Nappi, T. Ricci, F. Villani, C.A. Brunori, M. Caciagli, V. Sapia, F.R. Cinti, M. Moro, D. Di Naccio, S. Gori, E. Falcucci, R. Vallone, F. Mazzarini, S. Tarquini, P. Del Carlo, V. Kastelic, M. Carafa, R. De Ritis, G. Gaudiosi, R. Nave, G. Alessio, P. Burrato, A. Smedile, L. Alfonsi, P. Vannoli, M. Pignone, S. Pinzi, U. Fracassi, L. Pizzimenti, M.T. Mariucci, N. Pagliuca, A. Sciarra, R. Carluccio, I. Nicolosi, M. Chiappini, F. D’Ajello Caracciolo, G. Pezzo, A. Patera, R. Azzaro, D. Pantosti, P. Montone, M. Saroli, L. Lo Sardo, M. Lancia
      Abstract: Since the beginning of the ongoing Amatrice seismic sequence on August 24, 2016, initiated by a Mw 6.0 normal faulting earthquake, the EMERGEO Working Group (an INGV team devoted to earthquake aftermath geological survey) set off to investigate any coseismic effects on the natural environment. Up to now, we surveyed about 750 km2 and collected more than 3200 geological observations as differently oriented tectonic fractures together with intermediate- to small- sized landslides, that were mapped in the whole area. The most impressive coseismic evidence was found along the known active Mt. Vettore fault system, where surface ruptures with clear vertical/horizontal offset were observed for more than 5 km, while unclear and discontinuous coseismic features were recorded along the Laga Mts. Fault systems.
      PubDate: 2016-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2016)
       
 
 
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