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    - EARTH SCIENCES (470 journals)
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EARTH SCIENCES (470 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 371 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Geophysica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances In Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Algological Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Andean geology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Geographia, Geologia, Mineralogia et Petrographia     Open Access  
Annals of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Annals of GIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Annals of Glaciology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anthropocene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Ocean Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Petrochemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Remote Sensing Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Arctic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Artificial Satellites : The Journal of Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Asian Review of Environmental and Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atlantic Geology : Journal of the Atlantic Geoscience Society / Atlantic Geology : revue de la Société Géoscientifique de l'Atlantique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Australian Journal of Earth Sciences: An International Geoscience Journal of the Geological Society of Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas     Open Access  
Boreas: An International Journal of Quaternary Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bulletin of Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Bulletin of Volcanology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cadernos de Geociências     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Carbonates and Evaporites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
CATENA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese Geographical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ciencia del suelo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencias Espaciales     Open Access  
Climate and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Cogent Geoscience     Open Access  
Comptes Rendus Geoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contemporary Trends in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Continental Shelf Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Contributions to Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Coral Reefs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cretaceous Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cybergeo : European Journal of Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Depositional Record     Open Access  
Developments in Geotectonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Developments in Quaternary Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Développement durable et territoires     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Diatom Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
E&S Engineering and Science     Open Access  
E3S Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Earth and Planetary Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 109)
Earth and Space Science     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Earth Interactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Earth Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Earth Surface Dynamics (ESurf)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Earth System Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Earth System Dynamics Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earth, Planets and Space     Open Access   (Followers: 65)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Earthquake Spectra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Ecohydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ecological Questions     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Electromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Energy Exploration & Exploitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Environmental Geosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal  
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Estudios Geográficos     Open Access  
European Journal of Mineralogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Remote Sensing     Open Access  
Exploration Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Facies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Fieldiana Life and Earth Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Física de la Tierra     Open Access  
Folia Musei rerum naturalium Bohemiae occidentalis. Geologica et Paleobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Quaternaria     Open Access  
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Earth Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers of Earth Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Fundamental and Applied Limnology / Archiv für Hydrobiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
GEM - International Journal on Geomathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geo-Marine Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Geoacta     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geocarto International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Geochemical Perspectives     Hybrid Journal  
Geochemistry : Exploration, Environment, Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Geochronometria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geoderma Regional : The International Journal for Regional Soil Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Geodinamica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geodynamics & Tectonophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geoenvironmental Disasters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geofluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geoforum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Géographie physique et Quaternaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Geography and Natural Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Geoheritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geoinformatica Polonica : The Journal of Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences     Open Access  
Geoinformatics & Geostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Geology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Geology, Geophysics and Environment     Open Access  
Geomagnetism and Aeronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GEOmedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geomorphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Geophysical & Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geophysical Journal International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Geophysical Prospecting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
GeoResJ     Hybrid Journal  
Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geoscience Canada : Journal of the Geological Association of Canada / Geoscience Canada : journal de l'Association Géologique du Canada     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Geoscience Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geoscience Frontiers     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Geoscience Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geoscience Records     Open Access  
Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geosciences Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geoscientific Model Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotectonic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Geotectonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
GISAP : Earth and Space Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Glass Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Global and Planetary Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Global Biogeochemical Cycles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Gondwana Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Grassland Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ground Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Groundwater for Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription  
Helgoland Marine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
History of Geo- and Space Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Hydrobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Hydrogeology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Hydrological Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Indian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Indonesian Journal on Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Geology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Advanced Geosciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Advanced Remote Sensing and GIS     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
International Journal of Advancement in Earth and Enviromental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advancement in Remote Sensing, GIS, and Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
International Journal of Coal Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Annals of Geophysics
  [SJR: 0.624]   [H-I: 35]   [13 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1593-5213 - ISSN (Online) 2037-416X
   Published by INGV, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Alliance to penetrate mysteries of the Earth

    • Authors: Gianpaolo Bellini, Paolo Strolin, Hiroyuki K.M. Tanaka
      First page: 0102
      Abstract: Muography and geoneutrinos, as applied to the investigation of Earth science topics, have developed during nearly the same timeframe. The idea of muography was first proposed in 1955 by E.P. George, a physicist who attempted to measure the areal density of the rock overburden of a tunnel underneath the Snowy Mountain Hydro-Electric Scheme in Australia. Thirteen years later, L. Alvarez first performed mugraphy in order to map out the internal structure of the Chephren’s pyramid. With regard to geoneutrinos, George Gamow gave the first suggestion in a letter to F. Reines in 1953, two years prior to E.P. George’s experiment. Enthusiastic about the idea in this letter, thirteen years later G. Eder discussed the potential of the “remarkable abundance of radioactive elements within the Earth”. In the first decade of the 21st century, both the first muographic image of a volcano and the first measurement of geo-neutrinos respectively took place in 2006 and 2005. By encouraging the synergy of expertise in Earth science and particle physics, these new methods of studying previously invisible phenomenon within the Earth are continuing to improve as tools to solve Earth science challenges.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
  • The MURAVES muon telescope: technology and expected performances

    • Authors: Giulio Saracino, Fabio Ambrosino, Lorenzo Bonechi, Alan Bross, Luigi Cimmino, Roberto Ciaranfi, Raffaello D’Alessandro, Flora Giudicepietro, Giovanni Macedonio, Marcello Martini, Vincenzo Masone, Nicola Mori, Pasquale Noli, Massimo Orazi, Giuseppe Passeggio, Anna Pla-Dalmau, Lorenzo Roscilli, Paolo Strolin
      First page: 0103
      Abstract: The MURAVES project aims to study the inner structure of the upper part of the Mt. Vesuvius volcano by muon radiography (muography) technique. Very high energy muons, produced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere, can penetrate large thickness of rocks. By measuring the attenuation of the muons flux trough the volcano cone is possible to obtain a 2D image of the density structure. Internal discontinuities, with a spatial resolution of about 10 m, can be, in principle, resolved. An absolute average density measurement can be provided too. The project, funded by the Italian Ministry of University, Research and Education (MIUR), is led by INGV and INFN. In this article the mechanical structure of the detectors and background suppression techniques are reported.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
  • The MURAVES telescope front-end electronics and data acquisition

    • Authors: Luigi Cimmino, Fabio Ambrosino, Lorenzo Bonechi, Roberto Ciaranfi, Raffaello D’Alessandro, Vincenzo Masone, Nicola Mori, Pasquale Noli, Giulio Saracino, Paolo Strolin
      First page: 0104
      Abstract: The MURAVES detector is a 4 m2 muon tracker equipped with a low power consumption electronic and designed to work in volcanic areas. Due to the great amount of channels (~1500) the detector is equipped with a multilayer electronic for data acquisition. It consists of 12 slave boards and 1 master board per square meter of detector and a single Raspberry Pi board that rules the whole set of one-square-meter detectors. Because of this modularity, we can enlarge in principle the detector surface by adding more one-square-meter elements. In the present work, we resume the main features of the MURAVES detector designed for the muography of volcanoes and, more generally, for the imaging of the underground. We focus on the capability to fine tune every single channel of the detector and the precise measure of the time of flight of the muons. The latter uses a time expansion technique and it should allow us to make a background rejection never obtained until now.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
  • Muography of the Puy de Dôme

    • Authors: Pasquale Noli, Fabio Ambrosino, Lorenzo Bonechi, Alan Bross, Luigi Cimmino, Raffaello D’Alessandro, Vincenzo Masone, Nicola Mori, Giuseppe Passeggio, Anna Pla-Dalmau, Giulio Saracino, Enrico Scarlini, Paolo Strolin
      First page: 0105
      Abstract: Muon radiography is an imaging technique that relies on the transmission of cosmic muons through matter. It allows the measurement of density maps of large structures such as volcanoes. During the second half of 2013 the MURAY detector prototype it carried out a data taking the Puy de Dôme in the framework of the scientific collaboration with the experiment TOMUVOL in order to compare the results and performance of the two different detectors. Both experimental apparatuses measure a transmission of some orders of magnitude higher than that expected highlighting a background that perturbs these measures.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
  • Muography applied to nuclear waste storage sites

    • Authors: Raffaello D’Alessandro, Fabio Ambrosino, Lorenzo Bonechi, Luigi Cimmino, David G. Ireland, Ralf Kaiser, David F. Mahon, Nicola Mori, Pasquale Noli, Giulio Saracino, Craig Shearer, Lorenzo Viliani, Guangliang Yang
      First page: 0106
      Abstract: Legacy storage sites for nuclear waste can pose a serious environmental problem. In fact, since certain sites date from the middle of the last century when safety protocols had not been properly established and strict bookkeeping was not enforced, a situation has evolved where the content of storage silos is basically known only with a large uncertainty both on quantity and quality. At the same time maintenance work on old storage structures is becoming ever more urgent and yet this work requires exactly that information which is now lacking on the type of waste that was stored inside. Because of the difficulty in accessing the storage silos and the near impossibility of making visual inspections inside, techniques have to be developed which can determine the presence or absence of heavy elements (i.e. uranium) within the structures. Muography is a very promising technique which could allow the survey of previously inaccessible structures. We have begun an evaluation performing feasibility studies using simulations based on real case scenarios. This paper will outline the storage site scenarios and then present some of the results obtained from the Monte Carlo simulations.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
  • A possible point of contact between cosmic ray physics and archaeology:
           muon absorption radiography at the Tharros Phoenician-Roman site

    • Authors: Lorenzo Bonechi, Fabio Ambrosino, Luigi Cimmino, Raffaello D’Alessandro, Nicola Mori, Pasquale Noli, Giulio Saracino, Paolo Strolin, Lorenzo Viliani
      First page: 0107
      Abstract: Several on-going activities exploiting the potential of the muon-absorption radiography technique are focusing on the study of large volcanic structures located in different geographical regions. Nonetheless, the possible application of this non-destructive surveying method to other fields is also under consideration by different groups. Looking backward to the history of muon radiography, we can learn how the first important success of this technique was achieved in the archaeological field by the physicist Luis W. Alvarez in the 1960s. Further examples of possible applications can be found concerning geological and mining applications. In this paper a possible application of muon absorption radiography in the context of the archaeological research is proposed. Results of a simulation of a simplified case study are presented.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
  • A Geant4 framework for generic simulations of atmospheric muon detection

    • Authors: Nicola Mori, Fabio Ambrosino, Lorenzo Bonechi, Luigi Cimmino, Raffaello D’Alessandro, Pasquale Noli, Giulio Saracino, Paolo Strolin, Lorenzo Viliani
      First page: 0108
      Abstract: A flexible and adaptive simulation framework based on Geant4 is presented. The framework has been developed in order to speed up the deployment of full-featured Monte Carlo simulation codes for small/medium sized particle detection experiments with generic geometries. Specific components related to atmospheric muon experiments have been developed and are presented as well.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
  • Nuclear emulsion techniques for muography

    • Authors: Cristiano Bozza, Lucia Consiglio, Nicola D’Ambrosio, Giovanni De Lellis, Chiara De Sio, Seigo Miyamoto, Ryuichi Nishiyama, Chiara Sirignano, Simona Maria Stellacci, Paolo Strolin, Hiroyuki K.M. Tanaka, Valeri Tioukov
      First page: 0109
      Abstract: Nuclear emulsions are currently being used in the field of muography, more specifically muon radiography of volcanic edifices and fault regions. The peculiar features of such detector for cosmic muons demand appropriate data processing and analysis techniques. The paper shows the current development status of readout devices and analysis techniques developed by some research groups that established a collaborative network in Italy and Japan. An overview is given of nuclear emulsion-based detectors, from the detection principles to detector operation and set-up techniques, in connection with the expectations in terms of geophysics information. Two systems for readout are presented, one developed in the first decade of the 21st century and one that is entering duty now. The evolution in terms of data quality and speed is discussed. Finally, the most relevant data processing steps that allow working out muon absorption maps from nuclear emulsion data are described.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
  • Muography of 1949 fault in La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain

    • Authors: Seigo Miyamoto, José Barrancos, Cristiano Bozza, Lucia Consiglio, Chiara De Sio, Pedro Hernández, Ryuichi Nishiyama, Germán Padilla, Eleazar Padrón, Chiara Sirignano, Simona Maria Stellacci, Hiroyuki K.M. Tanaka, Valeri Tioukov
      First page: 0110
      Abstract: Muography (muon radiography) is a new geophysical technique that allows investigation of inner structures of an edifice with a very detailed spatial resolution. It has been recently used for several volcanoes and different geoscientific targets. In 2011 Tanaka et al. succeeded to find hidden ancient seismic faults. In 1949 there was a volcanic activity of the Cumbre Vieja, La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain and a 1km long fault suddenly appeared during the active period. The fault might be the sign of a large scale land collapse. In order to get additional information, investigations by several geophysical exploration techniques are needed. We consider that muography can be applied to study the shallow part of the fault and it can clarify some important parameters: the bulk density, the width of the low density zone, and the depth. Previous investigations allowed detecting two ancient seismic faults that have 20m-wide mechanically fractured zone consisting of highly damaged rocks. The 1949 fault might be the result of large scale land slide and the slide length might be just a few meter. Therefore the expected width of the fault is only a few meter. In order to detect such narrow fault, the muon detector should have as high spatial resolution as possible. In addition, it is difficult to get continuous power supply near the fault. Nuclear emulsions are a kind of photographic films that have high sensitivity for high energy charged particles. They also have high spatial resolution for high energy muon paths and do not need any power supply to be operated. We placed an emulsion detector having 0.19 m2 effective area near the 1949 fault. The exposure started on January 2014 and lasted 106 days. All the emulsion films were developed and they are under analysis. We also estimated the expected performance of this test exposure. Assuming a very simple model, we evaluated the detectable region as a function of the low density zone width and of the depth from the ground surface as well.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
  • Muography with nuclear emulsions - Stromboli and other projects

    • Authors: Valeri Tioukov, Giovanni De Lellis, Paolo Strolin, Lucia Consiglio, Andrey Sheshukov, Massimo Orazi, Rosario Peluso, Cristiano Bozza, Chiara De Sio, Simona Maria Stellacci, Chiara Sirignano, Nicola D’Ambrosio, Seigo Miyamoto, Ryuichi Nishiyama, Hiroyuki K.M. Tanaka
      First page: 0111
      Abstract: The muon radiography is a novel imaging technique to probe the volcanoes interior, using the capability of high energy cosmic ray muons to penetrate large thicknesses of rock. In this way it is possible to derive a 2D density map along the muon trajectory of volcanic edifices and deduce information on the variations in the rock density distribution, like those expected from dense lava conduits, or low density magma supply paths. This method is applicable also to study geological objects as glaciers, faults, oil underground reservoirs, engineering constructions, where a density contrast is present. Nuclear emulsions are well suited to be employed in this context for their excellent angular resolution; they are compact and robust detectors, able to work in harsh environments without need of power supply. On the other side, a long exposure time is required for a reasonable detector surface (~10 m2) in order to collect a sufficient statistics of muons, and a quasi-real time analysis of the emulsion data is rather difficult due to the scanning time needed by the optical microscopes. Such drawback is on the way to be overcome thanks to a recent R&D program on ultra-fast scanning systems. Muon radiography technique, even if limited to the summit part of the volcano edifice, represents an important tool of investigation, at higher spatial resolution, complementary to the conventional geophysics techniques. The first successful result in this field was obtained by a Japanese group that observed in 2007 the conduit structure of Mt. Asama. Since 2010, other interesting volcanoes have been probed with the same method: Stromboli in 2011, Mt. Teide in 2012 and La Palma in 2014. Here we discuss the muon imaging technique reporting the nuclear emulsion detector design exposed at Stromboli and results of the data analysis.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
  • Development of nuclear emulsion for muography

    • Authors: Kunihiro Morishima, Akira Nishio, Masaki Moto, Toshiyuki Nakano, Mitsuhiro Nakamura
      First page: 0112
      Abstract: Muography (cosmic-ray muon radiography) is the non-destructive inspection by using muons produced by interactions between primary cosmic-rays and the Earth’s atmosphere. The principle of this technology is the measurement of absorption of incoming cosmic-ray muons, just like x-ray imaging technology. A nuclear emulsion is the high sensitive photographic film used for detection of three-dimensional trajectory of charged particles such as muons with the position resolution of sub-micron. A nuclear emulsion has following properties: high spatial resolution with thin detector structure, lightweight, flexibility of detector size and no requirement of electric power supply. These properties of a nuclear emulsion are suitable for a detector of muography. We are developing the nuclear emulsion at Nagoya University. In this paper, the current performances of the nuclear emulsion and the fully self-production techniques developed at Nagoya University are described.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
  • KamLAND: geo-neutrino measurement in Japan

    • Authors: Itaru Shimizu
      First page: 0113
      Abstract: Geoneutrinos are antineutrinos produced in radioactive isotope decays inside the Earth. Those antineutrinos are neutral particle and can be detected by weak interaction, however, due to extremely small cross section, there were no feasible experiments for a long time. The observation of geoneutrinos has been finally made using large-size liquid scintillator detectors, KamLAND and Borexino. In this article, the latest result of KamLAND and future prospects of geo νe measurements are reviewed.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
  • Borexino: geo-neutrino measurement at Gran Sasso, Italy

    • Authors: Borexino collaboration: Agostini et al.
      First page: 0114
      Abstract: Geo-neutrinos, electron anti-neutrinos produced in β-decays of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes in the Earth, are a unique direct probe of our planet’s interior. After a brief introduction of the geo-neutrinos’ properties and of the main aims of their study, we discuss the features of a detector which has recently provided breakthrough achievements in the field, Borexino, a massive, calorimetric liquid scintillator detector installed at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory. With its unprecedented radiopurity levels achieved in the core of the detection medium, it is the only experiment in operation able to study in real time solar neutrino interactions in the challenging sub-MeV energy region. Its superior technical properties allowed Borexino also to provide a clean detection of terrestrial neutrinos. Therefore, the description of the characteristics of the detected geo-neutrino signal and of the corresponding geological implications are the main core of the discussion contained in this work.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
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