Asian Journal of Earth Sciences
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1819-1886 - ISSN (Online) 2152-3509
Published by Science Alert [64 journals]
- Geoelectrical Characterization of Matured Petroleum
Soil in Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Abstract: Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and vertical electrical resistivity sounding (VES) surveys were jointly carried out to characterize a petroleum hydrocarbon impacted site. Both surveys were carried out after 14 months of spill and repeated after 28 months of the first survey (42 months of spill) using same traverse and electrode positions. The objective is to characterize the electrical structure and determine the lateral and depth extensions of the hydrocarbon contaminated horizons in soil and groundwater. Results revealed that the soil and groundwater in the investigated site have been contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbon, with a characteristic low resistivity anomaly associated with microbial degradation over time. The minimal depth of impact is approximately 13 m below the groundwater table, with a lateral spread in excess of 100 m on either side of the spill point parallel to the pipeline right of way. The contaminant strength is higher for season one than two, since it is a recent spill. Results also show that soil degradation arising from petroleum hydrocarbon contamination may result to changes in bulk density of the impacted soils. This may likely affect the compressibility and surface hydrogeology of the soils and therefore, alter the infiltration rate and direction of groundwater flow. This way, groundwater recharge from surface precipitation in the investigated site could be adversely affected.
PubDate: 21 April, 2016
- Impact of El-Niño on Agro-economics in Malaysia and the Surrounding
Regions: An Analysis of the Events from 1997-98
Abstract: This study explores the influence of El-Niño related climate change that impacts the development of agriculture sector in Malaysia. In order to identify the impacts, this study analyzes the information of El-Niño events from 1997-1998. This would offer of having a standpoint to formulate the future strategy with an understanding of the nature of El-Niño and its vulnerability which has been hit by the Pacific Rim region and the Southern oscillation, including in Malaysia. Since, the currently available researches are inadequate to observe the events of El-Niño, formulation of strategic planning is mainly based on assumption and hypothetical projection locally. Under such climate, this study proposes the Action plan for furthering the strength by chalking-out the prevailing weakness of adapting capacity of El-Niño and its adverse impact on agriculture. The proposed action plan ultimately offers the socio-economic wellbeing in Malaysia by significantly reducing the vulnerability of El-Niño and enhancing the performance.
PubDate: 21 April, 2016
- Assessment of Seasonal Disparity on Hydrogeochemical Facies Distribution
in Cooum River, India
Abstract: Objective: The environmental stress such as climatic conditions, anthropogenic activities on river water quality and its flow is of challenging interest. In the present study, evaluation of the surface water (in Cooum river, India) quality and the seasonal impact have been investigated. Methodology: Hydrogeochemical facies such as piper plots, chloroalkali indices, kelly index, sodium absorption ratio, magnesium hazard and rock water interaction have been considered to understand the ionic constituents, geochemistry of the river water and its influence on water quality. The water samples were collected seasonally during March, 2013-2014 and are categorized as pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon. Results: The investigation results reveal that the ionic concentration and organic loads exhibits for all three seasons indicating the anthropogenic activities. Conclusion: The rock water interaction shows that plagioklase weathering is mainly dominant in the sampling sites and the ionic constituents were due to seawater intrusion and gypsum dissolution in the water.
PubDate: 06 May, 2016
- Glacial Landforms in Border Mountainous Areas Between Iran and Iraq
Abstract: Background: Iran and Iraq political border in the West of Azrbaijangharbi province in Iran and Arbil and Soleymanieh provinces in Iraq coincide with a mountain region with North to South ridge that is named Ghandil mountain. Border area, insecurity and hard to access to mountain get landforms of this area in the unknown condition. Based on Pedrami research only one part of Gandil mountain that is contain Abkhoreh, Bikos and koper next to Zab-e-kouchak river is accessible and had a research. Materials and Methods: In this study topography map (1:25000), elevation data of Aster sensor, field study and sediment sampling were the main material of research. For determining of snow-line in the past period based on Wright method, 60% of cirques defend by field, elevation data and satellite image processing determined. Roundness and sphericity analysis used sediment samples of 40 cm depth. About 50 coarse grains of each sample have been prepared for roundness and sphericity analysis and also100 g of each sample based on sieve shaker until 0.63 microns analyzed for granolometry. Results: Snowline elevation in the study area found in the elevation of 3162.8 m a.s.l., based on differential equation of cirques elevation delta in combine with isoline that is merged with location of 60% of cirques quantity. Also, part of Gandil mountain that is located in Iran boundary we face lots of big glacier valleys. The biggest glacier valley named Seikh Aysh with West-east ridge. In the location of this valley that is conjunction location of West-east valleys, Chorrin and Drosepi valley found lots of signs that are related to glacier sediments in the elevation of 1740-220 m. In the lowest part of Badinawe, Pradanan and Abkhordeh rivers found 4 alluvial terrace that describe last period climate changes. Conclusion: The signs of glacier erosion and accumulation are the main cause for determining the area of glacier coverage areas. Meanwhile, the study in Iran glaciers barrier line are showed that elevation of 3162.8 m a.s.l., is the barrier elevation for determining glacier and pre glacier areas, while the result of this study that achieved based on sedimentology analyses of samples, surveying of cirques and other glacier signs in the field observation in combine with result of regression analyses between temperature and elevating showed that barrier line for determining glacier barrier line is different.
PubDate: 06 May, 2016