Advances in High Energy Physics
[SJR: 0.892] [H-I: 19] [21 followers] Follow
Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-7357 - ISSN (Online) 1687-7365
Published by Hindawi [334 journals]
- Universal Superspace Unitary Operator and Nilpotent (Anti-)Dual-BRST
Symmetries: Superfield Formalism
Abstract: We exploit the key concepts of the augmented version of superfield approach to Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism to derive the superspace (SUSP) dual unitary operator and its Hermitian conjugate and demonstrate their utility in the derivation of the nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting (anti-)dual-BRST symmetry transformations for a set of interesting models of the Abelian 1-form gauge theories. These models are the one ()-dimensional (1D) rigid rotor and modified versions of the two ()-dimensional (2D) Proca as well as anomalous gauge theories and 2D model of a self-dual bosonic field theory. We show the universality of the SUSP dual unitary operator and its Hermitian conjugate in the cases of all the Abelian models under consideration. These SUSP dual unitary operators, besides maintaining the explicit group structure, provide the alternatives to the dual horizontality condition (DHC) and dual gauge invariant restrictions (DGIRs) of the superfield formalism. The derivations of the dual unitary operators and corresponding (anti-)dual-BRST symmetries are completely novel results in our present investigation.
PubDate: Thu, 24 Nov 2016 13:18:51 +000
- Coupling -Deformed Dark Energy to Dark Matter
Abstract: We propose a novel coupled dark energy model which is assumed to occur as a -deformed scalar field and investigate whether it will provide an expanding universe phase. We consider the -deformed dark energy as coupled to dark matter inhomogeneities. We perform the phase-space analysis of the model by numerical methods and find the late-time accelerated attractor solutions. The attractor solutions imply that the coupled -deformed dark energy model is consistent with the conventional dark energy models satisfying an acceleration phase of universe. At the end, we compare the cosmological parameters of deformed and standard dark energy models and interpret the implications.
PubDate: Thu, 24 Nov 2016 11:48:39 +000
- Implications of and for Texture Specific Lepton Mass Matrices and Decay
Abstract: We study the phenomenological consequences of recent results from atmospheric and accelerator neutrino experiments, favoring normal neutrino mass ordering , a near maximal lepton Dirac CP phase along with , for possible realization of natural structure in the lepton mass matrices characterized by for . It is observed that deviations from parallel texture structures for and are essential for realizing such structures. In particular, such hierarchical neutrino mass matrices are not supportive for a vanishing neutrino mass characterized by and predict meV, , , , and , respectively, indicating that the task of observing a decay may be rather challenging for near future experiments.
PubDate: Tue, 22 Nov 2016 14:28:18 +000
- Beam Energy Dependence of Hanbury-Brown-Twiss Radii from a Blast-Wave
Abstract: The beam energy dependence of correlation lengths (the Hanbury-Brown-Twiss radii) is calculated by using a blast-wave model and the results are comparable with those from RHIC-STAR beam energy scan data as well as the LHC-ALICE measurements. A set of parameters for the blast-wave model as a function of beam energy under study are obtained by fit to the HBT radii at each energy point. The transverse momentum dependence of HBT radii is presented with the extracted parameters for Au+Au collision at = 200 GeV and for Pb+Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV. From our study one can learn that particle emission duration cannot be ignored while calculating the HBT radii with the same parameters. And tuning kinetic freeze-out temperature in a range will result in system lifetime changing in the reverse direction as it is found in RHIC-STAR experiment measurements.
PubDate: Tue, 22 Nov 2016 14:24:58 +000
- Axially Symmetric, Asymptotically Flat Vacuum Metric with a Naked
Singularity and Closed Timelike Curves
Abstract: We present an axially symmetric, asymptotically flat empty space solution of the Einstein field equations containing a naked singularity. The space-time is regular everywhere except on the symmetry axis where it possesses a true curvature singularity. The space-time is of type D in the Petrov classification scheme and is locally isometric to the metrics of case IV in the Kinnersley classification of type D vacuum metrics. Additionally, the space-time also shows the evolution of closed timelike curves (CTCs) from an initial hypersurface free from CTCs.
PubDate: Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:33:21 +000
- The Effect of Chirped Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses on the Argon
Abstract: The interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with atomic Argon clusters has been investigated by using nanoplasma model. Based on the dynamic simulations, ionization process, heating, and expansion of a cluster after irradiation by femtosecond laser pulses at intensities up to 2 1017 Wcm−2 are studied. The analytical calculation provides ionization rate for different mechanisms and time evolution of the density of electrons for different pulse shapes. In this approach, the strong dependence of laser intensity, pulse duration, and laser shape on the electron energy, the electron density, and the cluster size is presented using the intense chirped laser pulses. Based on the presented theoretical modifications, the effect of chirped laser pulse on the complex dynamical process of the interaction is studied. It is found that the energy of electrons and the radius of cluster for the negatively chirped pulses are improved up to 20% in comparison to the unchirped and positively chirped pulses.
PubDate: Mon, 21 Nov 2016 14:30:19 +000
- Indication of a Differential Freeze-Out in Proton-Proton and Heavy-Ion
Collisions at RHIC and LHC Energies
Abstract: The experimental data from the RHIC and LHC experiments of invariant spectra for most peripheral and collisions are analyzed with Tsallis distributions in different approaches. The information about the freeze-out surface in terms of freeze-out volume, temperature, chemical potential, and radial flow velocity for , , and and their antiparticles is obtained. Furthermore, these parameters are studied as a function of the mass of the particles. A mass dependent differential freeze-out is observed which does not seem to distinguish between particles and their antiparticles. Furthermore, a mass-hierarchy in the radial flow is observed, meaning heavier particles suffer lower radial flow. Tsallis distribution function at finite chemical potential is used to study the mass dependence of chemical potential. The peripheral heavy-ion and proton-proton collisions at the same energies seem to be equivalent in terms of the extracted thermodynamic parameters.
PubDate: Tue, 15 Nov 2016 12:25:57 +000
- Search for Anomalous Quartic Couplings in Photon-Photon Collisions
Abstract: The self-couplings of the electroweak gauge bosons are completely specified by the non-Abelian gauge nature of the Standard Model (SM). The direct study of these couplings provides a significant opportunity to test the validity of the SM and the existence of new physics beyond the SM up to the high energy scale. For this reason, we investigate the potential of the processes , , and to examine the anomalous quartic couplings of vertex at the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) with center-of-mass energy 3 TeV. We calculate confidence level sensitivities on the dimension-8 parameters with various values of the integrated luminosity. We show that the best bounds on the anomalous , , , and couplings arising from process among those three processes at center-of-mass energy of 3 TeV and integrated luminosity of fb−1 are found to be TeV−4, TeV−4, TeV−4, and TeV−4, respectively.
PubDate: Mon, 14 Nov 2016 12:31:35 +000
- Properties of Quasi-Oscillator in Position-Dependent Mass Formalism
Abstract: Schrödinger equation is considered within position-dependent mass formalism with a quasi-oscillator interaction term. Wave functions and energy spectra have been obtained analytically. Thermodynamic properties, information entropy, and uncertainty in coordinate and momentum spaces are calculated. To provide a better physical insight into the solutions, some figures are included.
PubDate: Sun, 13 Nov 2016 13:32:14 +000
- Collectivity in Small Collision Systems: An Initial-State Perspective
Abstract: Measurements of multiparticle correlations in the collisions of small systems such as p+p, p/d/3He+A show striking similarity to the observations in heavy-ion collisions. A number of observables measured in the high-multiplicity events of these systems resemble features that are attributed to collectivity driven by hydrodynamics. However, alternative explanations based on initial-state dynamics are able to describe many characteristic features of these measurements. In this brief review, we highlight some of the recent developments and outstanding issues in this direction.
PubDate: Mon, 07 Nov 2016 09:01:39 +000
- The First Moment of Azimuthal Anisotropy in Nuclear Collisions from AGS to
Abstract: We review topics related to the first moment of azimuthal anisotropy (), commonly known as directed flow, focusing on both charged particles and identified particles from heavy-ion collisions. Beam energies from the highest available, at the CERN LHC, down to projectile kinetic energies per nucleon of a few GeV per nucleon, as studied in experiments at the Brookhaven AGS, fall within our scope. We focus on experimental measurements and on theoretical work where direct comparisons with experiment have been emphasized. The physics addressed or potentially addressed by this review topic includes the study of Quark Gluon Plasma and, more generally, investigation of the Quantum Chromodynamics phase diagram and the equation of state describing the accessible phases.
PubDate: Sun, 06 Nov 2016 06:12:55 +000
- Black Hole Entropy from Indistinguishable Quantum Geometric Excitations
Abstract: In loop quantum gravity the quantum geometry of a black hole horizon consists of discrete nonperturbative quantum geometric excitations (or punctures) labeled by spins, which are responsible for the quantum area of the horizon. If these punctures are compared to a gas of particles, then the spins associated with the punctures can be viewed as single puncture area levels analogous to single particle energy levels. Consequently, if we assume these punctures to be indistinguishable, the microstate count for the horizon resembles that of Bose-Einstein counting formula for gas of particles. For the Bekenstein-Hawking area law to follow from the entropy calculation in the large area limit, the Barbero-Immirzi parameter () approximately takes a constant value. As a by-product, we are able to speculate the state counting formula for the SU(2) quantum Chern-Simons theory coupled to indistinguishable sources in the weak coupling limit.
PubDate: Thu, 03 Nov 2016 12:50:16 +000
- Event Patterns Extracted from Transverse Momentum and Rapidity Spectra of
Bosons and Quarkonium States Produced in pp and Pb-Pb Collisions at LHC
Abstract: Transverse momentum () and rapidity () spectra of bosons and quarkonium states (some charmonium mesons such as and and some bottomonium mesons such as , , and ) produced in proton-proton (pp) and lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions at the large hadron collider (LHC) are uniformly described by a hybrid model of two-component Erlang distribution for spectrum and two-component Gaussian distribution for spectrum. The former distribution results from a multisource thermal model, and the latter one results from the revised Landau hydrodynamic model. The modelling results are in agreement with the experimental data measured in pp collisions at center-of-mass energies and 7 TeV and in Pb-Pb collisions at center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair TeV. Based on the parameter values extracted from and spectra, the event patterns (particle scatter plots) in two-dimensional - space and in three-dimensional velocity space are obtained.
PubDate: Mon, 31 Oct 2016 11:21:48 +000
- New Phase Space Calculations for β-Decay Half-Lives
Abstract: We revisit the computation of the phase space factors (PSF) involved in the positron decay and EC processes for a large number of nuclei of experimental interest. To obtain the electron/positron wave functions, we develop a code for solving accurately the Dirac equation with a nuclear potential derived from a realistic proton density distribution in the nucleus. The finite nuclear size (FNS) and screening effects are included through recipes which differ from those used in previous calculations. Comparing our results with previous calculations, performed with the same -values, we find a close agreement for positron decays, while, for the EC process, there are relevant differences. For the EC process, we also find that the screening effect has a notable influence on the computed PSF values especially for light nuclei. Further, we recomputed the same PSF values but using the most recent -values reported in literature. In several cases, the new -values differ significantly from the older ones, leading to large differences in the PSF values as compared with previous results. Our new PSF values can contribute to more reliable calculations of the beta-decay rates, used in the study of nuclei far from the stability line and stellar evolution.
PubDate: Mon, 31 Oct 2016 11:03:43 +000
- Warm Dark Matter Sterile Neutrinos in Electron Capture and Beta Decay
Abstract: We briefly review the motivation to search for sterile neutrinos in the keV mass scale, as dark matter candidates, and the prospects to find them in beta decay or electron capture spectra, with a global perspective. We describe the fundamentals of the neutrino flavor-mass eigenstate mismatch that opens the possibility of detecting sterile neutrinos in such ordinary nuclear processes. Results are shown and discussed for the effect of heavy neutrino emission in electron capture in Holmium 163 and in two isotopes of Lead, 202 and 205, as well as in the beta decay of Tritium. We study the deexcitation spectrum in the considered cases of electron capture and the charged lepton spectrum in the case of Tritium beta decay. For each of these cases, we define ratios of integrated transition rates over different regions of the spectrum under study and give new results that may guide and facilitate the analysis of possible future measurements, paying particular attention to forbidden transitions in Lead isotopes.
PubDate: Thu, 27 Oct 2016 12:53:55 +000
- Relativistic Hydrodynamics in Heavy-Ion Collisions: General Aspects and
Abstract: Relativistic hydrodynamics has been quite successful in explaining the collective behaviour of the QCD matter produced in high energy heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. We briefly review the latest developments in the hydrodynamical modeling of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Essential ingredients of the model such as the hydrodynamic evolution equations, dissipation, initial conditions, equation of state, and freeze-out process are reviewed. We discuss observable quantities such as particle spectra and anisotropic flow and effect of viscosity on these observables. Recent developments such as event-by-event fluctuations, flow in small systems (proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions), flow in ultracentral collisions, longitudinal fluctuations, and correlations and flow in intense magnetic field are also discussed.
PubDate: Thu, 27 Oct 2016 08:19:57 +000
- Jacobi Stability Analysis of Scalar Field Models with Minimal Coupling to
Gravity in a Cosmological Background
Abstract: We study the stability of the cosmological scalar field models by using the Jacobi stability analysis, or the Kosambi-Cartan-Chern (KCC) theory. In this approach, we describe the time evolution of the scalar field cosmologies in geometric terms, by performing a “second geometrization” and considering them as paths of a semispray. By introducing a nonlinear connection and a Berwald-type connection associated with the Friedmann and Klein-Gordon equations, five geometrical invariants can be constructed, with the second invariant giving the Jacobi stability of the cosmological model. We obtain all the relevant geometric quantities, and we formulate the condition for Jacobi stability in scalar field cosmologies. We consider the Jacobi stability properties of the scalar fields with exponential and Higgs type potential. The Universe dominated by a scalar field exponential potential is in Jacobi unstable state, while the cosmological evolution in the presence of Higgs fields has alternating stable and unstable phases. We also investigate the stability of the phantom quintessence and tachyonic scalar field models, by lifting the first-order system to the tangent bundle. It turns out that in the presence of a power law potential both of these models are Jacobi unstable during the entire cosmological evolution.
PubDate: Wed, 26 Oct 2016 09:51:47 +000
- The Opportunity Offered by the ESSnuSB Project to Exploit the Larger
Leptonic CP Violation Signal at the Second Oscillation Maximum and the
Requirements of This Project on the ESS Accelerator Complex
Abstract: The European Spallation Source (ESS), currently under construction in Lund, Sweden, is a research center that will provide, by 2023, the world’s most powerful neutron source. The average power of the proton linac will be 5 MW. Pulsing this linac at higher frequency will make it possible to raise the average total beam power to 10 MW to produce, in parallel with the spallation neutron production, a very intense neutrino Super Beam of about 0.4 GeV mean neutrino energy. This will allow searching for leptonic CP violation at the second oscillation maximum where the sensitivity is about 3 times higher than at the first. The ESS neutrino Super Beam, ESSnuSB operated with a 2.0 GeV linac proton beam, together with a large underground Water Cherenkov detector located at 540 km from Lund, will make it possible to discover leptonic CP violation at 5σ significance level in 56% (65% for an upgrade to 2.5 GeV beam energy) of the leptonic CP-violating phase range after 10 years of data taking, assuming a 5% systematic error in the neutrino flux and 10% in the neutrino cross section. The paper presents the outstanding physics reach possible for CP violation with ESSnuSB obtainable under these assumptions for the systematic errors. It also describes the upgrade of the ESS accelerator complex required for ESSnuSB.
PubDate: Tue, 25 Oct 2016 14:32:03 +000
- On the Impact of Tsallis Statistics on Cosmic Ray Showers
Abstract: We investigate the impact of the Tsallis nonextensive statistics introduced by intrinsic temperature fluctuations in -Air ultrahigh energy interactions on observables of cosmic ray showers, such as the slant depth of the maximum and the muon number on the ground . The results show that these observables are significantly affected by temperature fluctuations and agree qualitatively with the predictions of Heitler model.
PubDate: Wed, 19 Oct 2016 14:13:58 +000
- Shell Model Studies of Competing Mechanisms to the Neutrinoless
Double-Beta Decay in 124Sn, 130Te, and 136Xe
Abstract: Neutrinoless double-beta decay is a predicted beyond Standard Model process that could clarify some of the not yet known neutrino properties, such as the mass scale, the mass hierarchy, and its nature as a Dirac or Majorana fermion. Should this transition be observed, there are still challenges in understanding the underlying contributing mechanisms. We perform a detailed shell model investigation of several beyond Standard Model mechanisms that consider the existence of right-handed currents. Our analysis presents different venues that can be used to identify the dominant mechanisms for nuclei of experimental interest in the mass region (124Sn, 130Te, and 136Xe). It requires accurate knowledge of nine nuclear matrix elements that we calculate in addition to the associated energy-dependent phase space factors.
PubDate: Mon, 17 Oct 2016 11:05:28 +000
- On the Jeans Theorem and the “Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff Equation”
Abstract: Corda, Mosquera Cuesta, and Lorduy Gòmez have shown that spherically symmetric stationary states can be used as a model for galaxies in the framework of the linearized gravity. Those states could represent a partial solution to the Dark Matter Problem. Here, we discuss an improvement of this work. In fact, as the star density is a functional of the invariants of the associated Vlasov equation, we show that any of these invariants is in its turn a functional of the local energy and the angular momentum. As a consequence, the star density depends only on these two integrals of the Vlasov system. This result is known as the “Jeans theorem.” In addition, we find an analogy of the historical Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff equation for the system considered in this paper. For the sake of completeness, in the final section of the paper, we consider two additional models which argue that Dark Matter could not be an essential element.
PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2016 06:32:41 +000
- Predicting Planck Scale and Newtonian Constant from a Yang-Mills Gauge
Theory: 1- and 2-Loop Estimates
Abstract: Recently, a model for an emergent gravity based on Yang-Mills action in Euclidian 4-dimensional spacetime was proposed. In this work we provide some 1- and 2-loop computations and show that the model can accommodate suitable predicting values for the Newtonian constant. Moreover, it is shown that the typical scale of the expected transition between the quantum and the geometrodynamical theory is consistent with Planck scale. We also provide a discussion on the cosmological constant problem.
PubDate: Wed, 12 Oct 2016 08:40:53 +000
- Ultrarelativistic Spinning Particle and a Rotating Body in External Fields
Abstract: We use the vector model of spinning particle to analyze the influence of spin-field coupling on the particle’s trajectory in ultrarelativistic regime. The Lagrangian with minimal spin-gravity interaction yields the equations equivalent to the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Tulczyjew-Dixon (MPTD) equations of a rotating body. We show that they have unsatisfactory behavior in the ultrarelativistic limit. In particular, three-dimensional acceleration of the particle becomes infinite in the limit. Therefore, we examine the nonminimal interaction through the gravimagnetic moment and show that the theory with is free of the problems detected in MPTD equations. Hence, the nonminimally interacting theory seems a more promising candidate for description of a relativistic rotating body in general relativity. Vector model in an arbitrary electromagnetic field leads to generalized Frenkel and BMT equations. If we use the usual special-relativity notions for time and distance, the maximum speed of the particle with anomalous magnetic moment in an electromagnetic field is different from the speed of light. This can be corrected assuming that the three-dimensional geometry should be defined with respect to an effective metric induced by spin-field interaction.
PubDate: Tue, 11 Oct 2016 08:23:37 +000
- Thermodynamic Analysis of the Static Spherically Symmetric Field Equations
in Rastall Theory
Abstract: The restrictions on the Rastall theory due to application of the Newtonian limit to the theory are derived. In addition, we use the zero-zero component of the Rastall field equations as well as the unified first law of thermodynamics to find the Misner-Sharp mass content confined to the event horizon of the spherically symmetric static spacetimes in the Rastall framework. The obtained relation is calculated for the Schwarzschild and de-Sitter back holes as two examples. Bearing the obtained relation for the Misner-Sharp mass in mind together with recasting the one-one component of the Rastall field equations into the form of the first law of thermodynamics, we obtain expressions for the horizon entropy and the work term. Finally, we also compare the thermodynamic quantities of system, including energy, entropy, and work, with their counterparts in the Einstein framework to have a better view about the role of the Rastall hypothesis on the thermodynamics of system.
PubDate: Mon, 10 Oct 2016 06:02:09 +000
- Einstein and Møller Energy-Momentum Complexes for a New Regular Black
Hole Solution with a Nonlinear Electrodynamics Source
Abstract: A study about the energy and momentum distributions of a new charged regular black hole solution with a nonlinear electrodynamics source is presented. The energy and momentum are calculated using the Einstein and Møller energy-momentum complexes. The results show that in both pseudotensorial prescriptions the expressions for the energy of the gravitational background depend on the mass and the charge of the black hole, an additional factor coming from the spacetime metric considered, and the radial coordinate , while in both prescriptions all the momenta vanish. Further, it is pointed out that in some limiting and particular cases the two complexes yield the same expression for the energy distribution as that obtained in the relevant literature for the Schwarzschild black hole solution.
PubDate: Sun, 09 Oct 2016 06:38:35 +000
- Dark Matter and Dark Energy Induced by Condensates
Abstract: It is shown that the vacuum condensate induced by many phenomena behaves as a perfect fluid which, under particular conditions, has zero or negative pressure. In particular, the condensates of thermal states of fields in curved space and of mixed particles have been analyzed. It is shown that the thermal states with the cosmic microwave radiation temperature and the Unruh and the Hawking radiations give negligible contributions to the critical energy density of the universe, while the thermal vacuum of the intercluster medium could contribute to the dark matter, together with the vacuum energy of fields in curved space-time and of mixed neutrinos. Moreover, a component of the dark energy can be represented by the vacuum of axion-like particles mixed with photons and superpartners of neutrinos. The formal analogy among the systems characterized by the condensates can open new scenarios in the possibility of detecting the dark components of the universe in table top experiments.
PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2016 13:38:19 +000
- T2K and Beyond
Abstract: This paper presents the state of the art of the T2K experiment and the measurements prospects for the incoming years. After a brief description of the experiment, the most recent results will be illustrated. The observation of the electron neutrino appearance in a muon neutrino beam and the new high-precision measurements of the mixing angle by the reactor experiments have led to a reevaluation of the expected sensitivity to the oscillation parameters, relative to what was given in the original T2K proposal. For this reason the new physics potential of T2K for p.o.t. and for data exposure 3 times larger than that expected to be reachable with accelerator and beam line upgrades in 2026 before the start of operation of the next generation of long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments will also be described in the text. In particular the last challenging scenario opens the door to the possibility of obtaining, under some conditions, a 3 measurement excluding .
PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2016 12:46:39 +000
- Soft Gluon Radiation off Heavy Quarks beyond Eikonal Approximation
Abstract: We calculate the soft gluon radiation spectrum off heavy quarks (HQs) interacting with light quarks (LQs) beyond small angle scattering (eikonality) approximation and thus generalize the dead-cone formula of heavy quarks extensively used in the literatures of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) phenomenology to the large scattering angle regime which may be important in the energy loss of energetic heavy quarks in the deconfined Quark-Gluon Plasma medium. In the proper limits, we reproduce all the relevant existing formulae for the gluon radiation distribution off energetic quarks, heavy or light, used in the QGP phenomenology.
PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2016 09:55:00 +000
- Semileptonic Decays of to Light Tensor Mesons
Abstract: The semileptonic , , transitions are investigated in the frame work of the three-point QCD sum rules. Considering the quark condensate contributions, the relevant form factors of these transitions are estimated. The branching ratios of these channel modes are also calculated at different values of the continuum thresholds of the tensor mesons and compared with the obtained data for other approaches.
PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2016 06:58:10 +000
- An Experimental Review on Heavy-Flavor in Heavy-Ion Collision
Abstract: For over a decade now, the primary purpose of relativistic heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been to study the properties of QCD matter under extreme conditions—high temperature and high density. The heavy-ion experiments at both RHIC and LHC have recorded a wealth of data in p+p, p+Pb, d+Au, Cu+Cu, Cu+Au, Au+Au, Pb+Pb, and U+U collisions at energies ranging from GeV to 7 TeV. Heavy quarks are considered good probe to study the QCD matter created in relativistic collisions due to their very large mass and other unique properties. A precise measurement of various properties of heavy-flavor hadrons provides an insight into the fundamental properties of the hot and dense medium created in these nucleus-nucleus collisions, such as transport coefficient and thermalization and hadronization mechanisms. The main focus of this paper is to present a review on the measurements of azimuthal anisotropy of heavy-flavor hadrons and to outline the scientific opportunities in this sector due to future detector upgrade. We will mainly discuss the elliptic flow of open charmed meson (-meson), , and leptons from heavy-flavor decay at RHIC and LHC energy.
PubDate: Mon, 03 Oct 2016 13:52:34 +000