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  Subjects -> EARTH SCIENCES (Total: 654 journals)
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EARTH SCIENCES (468 journals)

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Journal Cover Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering
  [SJR: 1.516]   [H-I: 56]   [15 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0267-7261
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Full waveform tomography to resolve desert alluvium
    • Authors: Khiem T. Tran; Barbara Luke
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 99
      Author(s): Khiem T. Tran, Barbara Luke
      This paper presents shear wave velocity distribution developed from full waveform tomography on a seismic dataset recorded in the northwest Las Vegas Valley, Nevada. The setting is a deep and variable alluvial sequence, encompassing gravel, sand, silt and clay, with some carbonate cementation. Seismic data were collected along a ~144-m long array using 72 equally spaced geophones, with an accelerated drop-weight source applied at 6-m intervals. The dataset was interpreted using an advanced 2-D full waveform tomography method. The same dataset was also analyzed using Rayleigh wave dispersion, following the multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method, to develop a single, 1-D velocity profile. Results from the MASW method indicated a mild velocity inversion. The waveform tomography method was able to characterize vertical and lateral velocity variations along the array length to 25m depth. Results showed significantly contrasting high- and low-velocity layers. While depth-averaged shear wave velocities from the two methods were similar, the degree of variability indicated using FWI is supported by strong variation in Standard Penetration Test (SPT) blow counts from a nearby drillhole and by expectations from sediment lithology.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T15:31:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.04.018
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Seismic response of concrete-rockfill combination dam using large-scale
           shaking table tests
    • Authors: Jianxin Wang; Gui Yang; Hanlong Liu; Sanjay Shrawan Nimbalkar; Xinjun Tang; Yang Xiao
      Pages: 9 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 99
      Author(s): Jianxin Wang, Gui Yang, Hanlong Liu, Sanjay Shrawan Nimbalkar, Xinjun Tang, Yang Xiao
      Concrete-rockfill combination dam (CRCD), a new type of dam, is mainly composed of an upstream concrete wall and a downstream inclined rockfill body. It is not in direct contact with the bedrock foundation but a water stop, which is different from conventional concrete gravity dam. The dynamic characteristics of CRCD are not quite fully understood yet. In this paper, large-scale models of CRCD were constructed and key parameters, such as acceleration-time response, dynamic earth pressure, deformation and failure pattern of slope were monitored. Results showed that the amplification factors in the upper part (0.6H) increased with the height. The model dam showed obvious concentration and amplification effect on the low frequency component. The total earth pressure acting on the back face of the wall varied approximately nonlinear along the wall height when the PGA exceeded 0.4g. In addition, the CRCD model exhibited good seismic performance with small residual deformation under earthquake. A shallow sliding mode of failure at a height of 0.8H was measured from the base on the downstream slope. Therefore, it was prudent to undertake some aseismatic reinforcement measurements at the top 1/5 thickness zone of the slope. These model test results could provide a certain reference value for preliminary understanding and qualitative analysis of a prototype CRCD.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T15:31:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.04.015
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Seismic hazard analysis using simulated ground-motion time histories: The
           case of the Sefidrud dam, Iran
    • Authors: H. VahidiFard; H. Zafarani; S.R. Sabbagh-Yazdi; M.A. Hadian
      Pages: 20 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 99
      Author(s): H. VahidiFard, H. Zafarani, S.R. Sabbagh-Yazdi, M.A. Hadian
      This study aims at conducting probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for the Sefidrud dam located near Rudbar City. For this purpose, firstly, the characteristic earthquake recurrence model for major earthquakes on individual main faults have been combined with the smaller (smoothed) background seismicity of the region. Then, appropriate ground motion prediction equations were applied to estimate hazard values. Finally, in order to obtain reliable estimation of seismic hazard due to sources close to the dam site and to investigate near-field characteristics of motion, the Rudbar fault as the most prominent earthquake source in the immediate vicinity of the site is considered in seismic hazard computation using hybrid broadband simulation based ground motion parameters. The results of this method with different declustering schemes are reported for two level of seismic hazard analysis (i.e. return periods of 475 and 2475 years). Best estimate seismic hazard maps of PGA and PGV values obtained from the logic tree method is presented. By inclusion of simulation results for the Rudbar fault in the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), maximum PGA and PGV for 475 years return period obtained around 340cm/s/s and 25cm/s, respectively. For classic PSHA without including simulation the maximum PGA and PGV for 475 years return period obtained around 450cm/s/s and 32cm/s, respectively. With the simulation-based PSHA for a 2475 years return period a maximum PGA of 650cm/s/s and PGV of 50cm/s have been estimated. Classic PSHA (without simulation) for a 2475 years return period has resulted a maximum PGA of 850cm/s/s and PGV of 65cm/s.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T15:31:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.04.017
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Dynamic torsional response of an elastic pile in a radially inhomogeneous
           soil
    • Authors: Zhiqing Zhang; Ernian Pan
      Pages: 35 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 99
      Author(s): Zhiqing Zhang, Ernian Pan
      Surrounding soil may be weakened or strengthened due to construction disturbance of the pile, resulting in soil properties varying gradually in the radial direction. In this paper, an analytical solution is developed to investigate the torsional vibration of an elastic pile embedded in a radially inhomogeneous soil and subjected to a time-harmonic torsional loading. The radially inhomogeneous soil is subdivided into many thin concentric annular sub-zones, with each having constant complex shear modulus in radial direction. The dynamic equilibrium equation of each sub-zone of the soil is then solved and the circumferential displacement and shear stress along the pile-soil interface are obtained by a newly developed method that enforces the continuity conditions between the two adjacent sub-zones. By virtue of the boundary and continuity conditions of the pile-soil system, the torsional impedance at the pile head is derived in an exact closed form in the frequency domain. Some numerical results are presented to study the influence of the soil layer rigidities on the vibration characteristic of the pile-soil system.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T15:31:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.04.020
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Reciprocal absorbing boundary condition with perfectly matched discrete
           layers for the time-domain propagation of SH waves in a layered half-space
           
    • Authors: Cuong T. Nguyen; John L. Tassoulas
      Pages: 44 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 99
      Author(s): Cuong T. Nguyen, John L. Tassoulas
      In this paper, a reciprocal absorbing boundary condition (RABC) is combined with perfectly matched discrete layers (PMDLs) for the time-domain numerical analysis of SH-wave propagation in a layered half-space. The RABC is employed for representation of the layered stratum beyond the vertical consistent transmitting boundary while the PMDLs are applied in order to absorb waves into the underlying homogeneous half-space. The combination of RABC and PMDLs circumvents concerns with the treatment of layered media. The RABC handles layers without any approximation, other than discretization, while PMDLs are used exclusively for the simulation of the homogeneous medium underlying the layers. This combination leads to solution of the problem of anti-plane shear wave-propagation in a layered half-space directly in the time domain. Examples are presented demonstrating the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed combination.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T15:31:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.04.012
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Wavelet-based simulation of scenario-specific nonstationary accelerograms
           and their GMPE compatibility
    • Authors: V.L. Nithin; S. Das; H.B. Kaushik
      Pages: 56 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 99
      Author(s): V.L. Nithin, S. Das, H.B. Kaushik
      In seismic hazard analysis ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) plays a pivotal role because it provides the statistical distribution of hazard parameter for a chosen seismic scenario. However, GMPEs in general do not provide nonlinear response statistics, and the latter should be ideally obtained by time-history analyses of a scenario-specific suite of motions. In the present study a new wavelet-based method is proposed to simulate scenario-specific ensemble of accelerograms with realistic variability of time-frequency characteristics. Firstly, a methodology is proposed to stochastically characterize the nonstationarity of a recording process from the energy arrival curve of the wavelet coefficients of the recorded ground motion. Then a new empirical scaling model is developed to estimate the instantaneous energy arrival, with model uncertainty. Further, a reconstruction method is formulated to simulate the scenario-specific ensemble of accelerograms from the estimated scenario-specific energy arrival curves. It is found that the simulated ensemble exhibits realistic variation of time-frequency characteristics and hence, it naturally becomes comparable with GMPEs (in terms of median estimates for response spectrum and strong motion duration) developed using the same database. Finally, an algorithm is proposed to tune the estimated energy arrival such that the ensemble of simulated motions can be made compatible with the target GMPEs, both in terms of median estimates and standard deviations. It is found that the GMPE-compatible ensemble, obtained for 5% damping PSV spectra, shows good agreement with respect to PSV scaling models developed for a wide range of damping ratio.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T15:31:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.007
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Seismic displacement along a log-spiral failure surface with crack using
           rock Hoek–Brown failure criterion
    • Authors: Lian-heng Zhao; Xiao Cheng; Liang Li; Jia-qi Chen; Yingbin Zhang
      Pages: 74 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 99
      Author(s): Lian-heng Zhao, Xiao Cheng, Liang Li, Jia-qi Chen, Yingbin Zhang
      Earthquakes can trigger slope instability, especially in the case of slopes with cracks. The most commonly used method for analyzing seismic slope stability is the pseudo-static analysis technique. However, information about slope displacements is difficult to obtain. The purpose of this paper is to present a model for calculating the seismic displacements of rock slopes with cracks using the upper bound limit analysis and the rigid block displacement technique. The Hoek–Brown (H–B) failure criterion is employed in this model, and actual horizontal and vertical earthquake ground motion records are utilized. The equivalent Mohr–Coulomb (M–C) parameters including friction angle and cohesive strength are determined by fitting an average linear relationship to the curve of relationship between major and minor principle stresses for H–B failure criterion. A comparison of the seismic displacements obtained by using the equivalent M–C parameters and the H–B failure criterion is performed. The difference of the seismic displacements obtained by using the two methods is significantly larger than the difference of factor of safety for rock slopes with cracks under seismic action. The results indicate that the equivalent M–C parameters method may cause an overestimation of the stability of a slope. To understand the influence of rock strength parameters and crack depth, a detailed parametric study is carried out. These parameters can significantly influence seismic displacement, especially for large crack depths. For the numerical example considered in this study, the ratio of crack depth to slope height varied from 0 to 0.2, and the increase in seismic displacement can exceed 23%.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T15:38:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.04.019
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Assessment of earthquake damage considering the characteristics of past
           events in South America
    • Authors: Mabé Villar-Vega; Vitor Silva
      Pages: 86 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 99
      Author(s): Mabé Villar-Vega, Vitor Silva
      The evaluation of earthquake damage considering past events can be a useful tool to verify or calibrate damage and risk models, as well as to assess the possible consequences that future events may cause in a region. This study describes a process to estimate earthquake damage considering past events, and using the OpenQuake-engine, the open-source software for seismic hazard and risk analysis of the Global Earthquake Model Foundation. Exposure and fragility models from the recently completed South America Risk Assessment (SARA) project were combined with conditioned ground motion fields from past events to calculate structural damage in the affected region. These results can facilitate the creation of risk reduction measures, such as retrofitting campaigns, development of insurance mechanisms and enhancement of building codes. The challenges in assessing damage and losses from past events are thoroughly discussed, and several recommendations are proposed.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T15:38:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • A new ground motion intensity measure IB
    • Authors: Edén Bojórquez; Robespierre Chávez; Alfredo Reyes-Salazar; Sonia E. Ruiz; Juan Bojórquez
      Pages: 97 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 99
      Author(s): Edén Bojórquez, Robespierre Chávez, Alfredo Reyes-Salazar, Sonia E. Ruiz, Juan Bojórquez
      In this study, a new generalized ground motion intensity measure is proposed. The new intensity measure named I B is able to increase the efficiency in the prediction of nonlinear behavior and higher modes effects of structures subjected to earthquake ground motions with different characteristics. The intensity measure is based on a recently proposed proxy of the spectral shape named N p , which has been successfully used in ground motion record selection for nonlinear dynamic analysis. Although the N p parameter was proposed by using the spectral shape in term of pseudo-acceleration, it will be observed that N p can be defined through other types of spectral shapes such as those obtained with velocity, displacement, input energy, inelastic parameters and so on. In addition, it is illustrated that several ground motion intensity measures are particular cases of the new generalized ground motion intensity measure here proposed, which is able to predict both nonlinear structural demands and higher modes effects on buildings under earthquake ground motions.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T15:38:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.011
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Numerical modelling of micro-seismic and infrasound noise radiated by a
           wind turbine
    • Authors: Theodore V. Gortsas; Theodoros Triantafyllidis; Stylianos Chrisopoulos; Demosthenes Polyzos
      Pages: 108 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 99
      Author(s): Theodore V. Gortsas, Theodoros Triantafyllidis, Stylianos Chrisopoulos, Demosthenes Polyzos
      Infrasound, low frequency noise and soil vibrations produced by large wind turbines might disturb the comfort of nearby structures and residents. In addition repowering close to urban areas produces some fears to the nearby residents that the level of disturbance may increase. Due to wind loading, the foundation of a wind turbine interacts with the soil and creates micro-seismic surface waves that propagate for long distances and they are able to influence adversely sensitive measurements conducted by laboratories located far from the excitation point. A numerical study on the creation and propagation of those waves to the surrounding area is the subject of the present work. Besides, the contribution of those waves to airborne sound generated by the soil-air interaction is also investigated. All numerical simulations are performed with the aid of the Boundary Element Method (BEM), which is ideal for solving such problems since it takes automatically into account the radiation conditions of the waves and thus only the soil-foundation interface and the free surface of the surrounding soil are needed to be discretized. Foundation and soil are considered as linearly elastic materials with interfacial bonding. The frequency domain Helmholtz equation is employed for the simulation of acoustic waves. Numerical results dealing with the airborne and soil borne noise propagation and attenuation are presented and disturbances that might be caused to nearby and far-field structures are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T15:38:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Dynamic geotechnical properties evaluation of a candidate nuclear power
           plant site (NPP): P- and S-waves seismic refraction technique, North
           Western Coast, Egypt
    • Authors: A.M. Abudeif; A.E. Raef; A.A. Abdel Moneim; M.A. Mohammed; A.F. Farrag
      Pages: 124 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 99
      Author(s): A.M. Abudeif, A.E. Raef, A.A. Abdel Moneim, M.A. Mohammed, A.F. Farrag
      Determination of the dynamic geotechnical properties and Vs30 of soil and rocks from seismic wave velocities serves as essential inputs for a foundation design cognizant of seismic site response and rock strength. This study evaluates a site which was suggested for a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in El-Dabaa area, north western coast of Egypt. On the near subsurface geology is made up of a thick succession of limestone overlain by a thin layer of soft soil. Assessment of geotechnical materials and Vs30 of the near sub-surface lithological layers are required for design of the foundation of critical structures like turbo-generator and reactor buildings. Interpretation of ninety one shallow P-waves and S-waves seismic refraction profiles distributed within the study area in conjunction with data of 76 boreholes were undertaken to delineate the dynamic properties of shallow soil for construction NPP. The velocity of the P- and S-waves were acquired and interpreted using SeisImager Software Package, then the results were used to build a velocity-depth model to estimate the depth to the bedrock and the thicknesses of overburden layers. This model was verified using boreholes data dissected the seismic profiles to improve the final velocity depth model. The depth to bedrock was determined from both shallow seismic refraction profiles and boreholes. Vs30, elastic moduli and dynamic geotechnical parameters were calculated and the site was classified as a National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) class “B”. The values of seismic velocities, the engineering consolidations, and the strength parameters showed that the bedrock in the study area is characterized by more competent rock quality.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T15:38:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.006
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Earthquake responses of near-fault building clusters in mountain city
           considering viscoelasticity of earth medium and process of fault rupture
    • Authors: Tielin Liu; Wei Zhong
      Pages: 137 - 141
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 99
      Author(s): Tielin Liu, Wei Zhong
      A new algorithm is proposed to implement viscoelastic wave propagation in earth medium with surface topography by introducing history variables into integral type GZB constitutive equations and by using the recursive formulae of these history variables. Combining the proposed algorithm with the flexural wave algorithm for frame structure and the algorithm for bidirectional wave propagation, a new type of integrated method is developed for earthquake response analyses of near-fault building clusters in mountain city due to rupture of causative fault. The earthquake responses of building clusters of frame structures situated at different sites of a mountain in Chongqing city, China, are studied during a hypothetical M w 6.2 near-fault earthquake. The numerical results show that, for the multi-story buildings, the maximum peak value of beam-end bending moments appears in the building on the hill top and the earthquake risk positions are mainly at the bottom and/or the top of the buildings. For the high-rise buildings, the maximum peak value of beam-end bending moments appears in the building on the mountainside and the earthquake risk positions are mainly at the bottom and/or the middle of the buildings.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T15:38:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.012
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Improving microseismic event and quarry blast classification using
           Artificial Neural Networks based on Principal Component Analysis
    • Authors: Xueyi Shang; Xibing Li; A. Morales-Esteban; Guanghui Chen
      Pages: 142 - 149
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 99
      Author(s): Xueyi Shang, Xibing Li, A. Morales-Esteban, Guanghui Chen
      The discrimination of microseismic events and quarry blasts has been examined in this paper. To do so, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have been used. The procedure proposed has been tested on 22 seismic parameters of 1600 events. In this work, the PCA has been used to transform the original dataset into a new dataset of uncorrelated variables. The new dataset generated has been used as input for ANN and compared to Logistic Regression (LR), Bayes and Fisher classifiers, which classify microseismic events and quarry blasts. The results have shown that PCA is effective for rating variables and reducing data dimension. Furthermore, the classification result based on PCA has been better than those based Ref. [22] and without PCA methods. Moreover, the ANN classifier has obtained the best classification result. The Matthew's Correlation Coefficient (MCC) results of the PCA, Ref. [22] and without PCA based methods have reached 89.00%, 73.68% and 82.04%, respectively, thus showing the reliability and potential of the PCA based method.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T15:38:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.008
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Earthquake probability in Taipei based on non-local model with limited
           local observation: Maximum likelihood estimation
    • Authors: J.P. Wang; Yun Xu; Yih-Min Wu
      Pages: 150 - 156
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 99
      Author(s): J.P. Wang, Yun Xu, Yih-Min Wu
      Many earthquake empirical models were developed based on the statistics in the past. However, it is commonly seen that a non-local model was applied to a local study without any adjustment. In this paper, a new algorithm using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) to adjust a non-local model for local applications was presented, including a case study assessing the probability of major earthquake occurrences in Taipei. Specifically, considering the fault length of 36km and slip rate of 2mm/yr, it suggests the Sanchiao (or Shanchiao) fault could induce a major earthquake with magnitude M w 7.14±0.17, based on a non-local model integrated with limited local data using the MLE algorithms.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T15:38:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.009
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of dynamic properties of sandy soil at high cyclic strains
    • Authors: Shiv Shankar Kumar; A. Murali Krishna; Arindam Dey
      Pages: 157 - 167
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 99
      Author(s): Shiv Shankar Kumar, A. Murali Krishna, Arindam Dey
      Dynamic loading conditions, such as earthquakes, may result in the generation of high shear strain (>5%) in the soil. Conventionally, dynamic properties of soils are estimated from the tests conducted up to a shear strain of 1% by considering Symmetrical Hysteresis Loop (SHL). However, it is commonly observed that the hysteresis loops become progressively asymmetric with increasing shear strain, which leads to the over- or under-estimation of the conventionally evaluated dynamic properties. Hence, it is necessary to adopt a modified methodology of evaluating the dynamic properties of saturated sands based on the actual Asymmetrical Hysteresis Loop (ASHL). Strain-controlled cyclic triaxial tests have been conducted, for a peak shear strain range of 0.015–4.5% at 1Hz loading frequency, on test specimens prepared at different relative density (30–90%) and confining stress (50–150kPa). Although, the shear modulus evaluated considering SHL and ASHL are on close agreement, the damping ratio evaluated considering SHL is approximately 40–70% lesser than that obtained by considering ASHL. Moreover, in contrast to the classical curves as largely applied in geotechnical engineering, a noticeable decrement of the damping ratio is observed beyond 0.75% shear strain.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T15:13:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.016
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • On seismic vulnerability of highway bridges in Nepal: 1988 Udaypur
           earthquake (MW 6.8) revisited
    • Authors: Dipendra Gautam
      Pages: 168 - 171
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 99
      Author(s): Dipendra Gautam
      Highway bridges are one of the most important components of transportation system thus continuous operability is expected even after strong to major earthquakes. Nepal is situated in one of the most active seismic regions in the world and devastating earthquakes are frequent, however, to the best knowledge of the author, fragility functions for Nepali highway bridges do not exist until now. This paper is a first attempt to depict the seismic vulnerability of highway bridges in Nepal. Observational data from 1988 Udaypur earthquake were adopted to construct fragility functions for minor damage state DS1. Comparison between the constructed fragility curve with other observational fragility curves for similar damage state highlighted that Nepali highway bridges can be affected minor damage even in very low peak ground acceleration.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T15:13:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.014
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Dynamic 2.5D Green's functions for moving distributed loads acting on an
           inclined line in a multi-layered TI half-space
    • Authors: B.A. Zhenning; W. Lee Vincent; Liang Jianwen; Yan Yang
      Pages: 172 - 188
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 99
      Author(s): B.A. Zhenning, W. Lee Vincent, Liang Jianwen, Yan Yang
      Dynamic two and a half dimensional (2.5D) Green's functions for a multi-layered transversely isotropic (TI) half-space are developed by using the dynamic stiffness method combining with the inverse Fourier transform. The 2.5D Green's functions correspond to solutions of uniformly distributed loads acting on part of a multi-layered TI half-space on a line which is inclined to the horizontal and moving along a horizontal straight line with a constant speed. Solutions in the frequency and wavenumber domains are first obtained, which are expressed as the summation of the responses restricted in the loaded layer and of the corresponding reaction forces. Results in the time and space domains are then recovered by Fourier synthesis of the frequency and wavenumber responses which in turn are obtained by numerical integration over on one horizontal wavenumber. The derived Green's functions are verified through comparison with the existing solutions for the isotropic medium that is a special case of the more general problem addressed. Parametric studies are performed in both the frequency and time domains, which show that dynamic responses are highly related to the TI parameters, the load frequency, the load speed and the TI layer. In addition, as an application example, these Green's functions combined with the indirect boundary element method (IBEM) are used to solve the 3D wave scattering of a 2D tunnel embedded in a multi-layered TI half-space. Comparison between the obtained surface displacement amplitudes with those of de Barros and Luco [12] for the isotropic case reinforces the validity and reliability of the presented formulations.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T15:13:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Nonlinear seismic behavior of pile groups in cement-improved soft clay
    • Authors: Amirata Taghavi; Kanthasamy K. Muraleetharan; Gerald A. Miller
      Pages: 189 - 202
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 99
      Author(s): Amirata Taghavi, Kanthasamy K. Muraleetharan, Gerald A. Miller
      Centrifuge tests were performed to investigate the effects of ground improvement on the seismic behavior of pile groups in soft clay. The soil profile consisted of four lightly overconsolidated clay layers overlying a dense layer of sand. The pile groups had a symmetrical layout consisting of 2×2 piles spaced at 3.0 pile diameters and were driven into both unimproved soft clay and soft clay improved by a simulated Cement Deep Soil Mixing (CDSM) method. The centrifuge model was subjected to seven different earthquake events with peak accelerations ranging from 0.03 to 0.66g. The foundation level motions of the improved pile groups were different than the surface free-field motion. The foundation level motion for the unimproved pile group was, however, identical to that in the free-field. Higher peak accelerations were observed in the pile cap of the group with smaller CDSM block (GIS) compared to the unimproved pile group (GU) and the group with the largest CDSM block (GIL). Higher pile cap to the soil surface spectral ratios were also obtained for the GIS group in both short and long periods. Cement-Deep-Soil-Mixing was effective in reducing the peak displacements of the GIL pile cap. The peak displacements of the GIS pile cap remained about the same as the GU pile cap. As the size of the ground improvement increased, the fundamental period of the pile groups reduced. The estimated fundamental periods of the GIS and GU pile groups were, however, close to each other. Acceleration and displacement response spectra of the foundation level motions in comparison to the fundamental periods of the pile groups provided insight into the observed acceleration and displacement responses. The adhesion between soft clay and CDSM blocks helped to reduce the soft clay settlement in the vicinity of CDSM blocks compared to the free-field and the vicinity of unimproved pile group. More residual excess pore water pressure was, however, generated in the vicinity of CDSM blocks compared to the free-field and the corresponding location in the unimproved pile group, likely due to vibrations of the CDSM blocks and the piles.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T15:27:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.019
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Development of a simple 2D model for railway track-bed mechanical
           behaviour based on field data
    • Authors: Tong-Wei Zhang; Francisco Lamas-Lopez; Yu-Jun Cui; Nicolas Calon; Sofia Costa D'Aguiar
      Pages: 203 - 212
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 99
      Author(s): Tong-Wei Zhang, Francisco Lamas-Lopez, Yu-Jun Cui, Nicolas Calon, Sofia Costa D'Aguiar
      From a practical point of view, it is important to empirically predict the mechanical behaviour of railway track-bed of multi-layers using simple models. In this study, Field monitoring was performed using several accelerometers installed in different layers along a conventional railway track. The accelerometer signals were recorded during the passages of train at 6 different speeds from 60 to 200km/h. The particle displacements were estimated by integrating the acceleration data. Emphasis was put on the dynamic amplification with speed, the attenuation of vibration over depth and the wave propagation along longitudinal direction in a given layer. The obtained results showed that the measured dynamic amplification with train speed depends on the relationship between the train speed and the surface wave velocity. The amplitude attenuation over depth can be represented by an exponential expression. In addition, it was found that the propagation of vibrations along the longitudinal direction had a sinusoidal shape, exponentially attenuated in distance, similar to the displacements calculated by the Winkler beam model. Based on these three mechanisms identified as well as the field data, a 2D analytical model was developed, allowing the prediction of conventional railway track-bed deflections with the axle loads and train speeds. Comparisons between prediction and measurement showed the relevance of the proposed model.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T15:27:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.005
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Experimental assessment of cyclic behavior of sand-fouled ballast mixed
           with tire derived aggregates
    • Authors: M. Esmaeili; P. Aela; A. Hosseini
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 98
      Author(s): M. Esmaeili, P. Aela, A. Hosseini
      This study deals with the application of tire derived aggregate (TDA) mixed with ballast material as an approach for enhancing the ballasted track performance in the presence of sand fouling. In order to assess the TDA influence on sand-fouled ballast, a series of ballast box tests was conducted on various mixtures of TDA, ballast material with AREMA 4A gradation and the Tabas desert windy sand with particle size range of 0.075–4.75mm. A total number of 36 cyclic uniaxial tests were performed by considering four TDA weight percentages of 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% as well as three weight percentages of 0%, 50% and 100% for windy sand as the contaminant. The gradation of TDAs was similar to that of ballast particles so as not to disturb the ballast layer drainage. On the basis of the laboratory outputs, the settlement, ballast breakage and damping ratio of samples were discussed. The experimental results indicate that increasing the sand percentage decreases the damping ratio, while leading to an increase in the settlement and ballast breakage of samples. Alternatively, these parameters escalated with the increase of TDA percentage. Overall, the 5%-TDA sample was determined as the most suitable mixture in terms of breakage and stiffness, whereas the more TDAs continuously increased the damping ratio of samples. Three regression equations were also derived to evaluate these parameters as functions of the number of loading cycles, TDA and sand percentages.

      PubDate: 2017-04-10T23:14:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.03.033
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • Vulnerability and recovery time evaluation of an enhanced urban overpass
           foundation
    • Authors: Juan M. Mayoral; Adriana Badillo; Mauricio Alcaraz
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 100
      Author(s): Juan M. Mayoral, Adriana Badillo, Mauricio Alcaraz
      This paper presents a vulnerability assessment and recovery time evaluation of two critical supports of a 23.5km long urban overpass built in stiff soil, in the northeast Mexico City area. The evaluations were carried out considering both normal and subduction fault events expressed in terms of uniform hazard spectra for several return periods. Probabilistic site response analyses, and site specific numerically-derived fragility curves were used to assess the critical supports probability of reaching or exceeding a given damage state, considering two foundation types: a conventional raft foundation structurally connected to four precast-end bearing concrete piles, and a so-called enhanced massive foundation. The seismic response of each foundation system was characterized using series of 3-D finite elements models developed with the program SASSI2000 for increasing seismic intensity levels. The effect of both soil conditions and ground motion characteristics on the soil-structure system response was accounted for in the analyses. The damage index was defined in terms of earthquake induced transversal and longitudinal pier displacements, which was associated with column cracking, and potential loss of support of the upper deck. The vulnerability and reduction on recovery times for the foundation alternative was established.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T15:27:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.023
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Seismic demand and experimental evaluation of the nonstructural building
           curtain wall: A review
    • Authors: Baofeng Huang; Shiming Chen; Wensheng Lu; Khalid M. Mosalam
      Pages: 16 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 100
      Author(s): Baofeng Huang, Shiming Chen, Wensheng Lu, Khalid M. Mosalam
      This paper reviews the existing studies related to seismic demand and experimental investigation of the nonstructural building curtain wall (CW). Being treated as a nonstructural component, seismic performance of the building CW relates to its seismic demand parameters, i.e., acceleration and drift demands. In current code provisions, the acceleration demand consists of the floor acceleration amplification factor, component acceleration amplification factor, component importance factor, and component response modification factor, which are all based on or induced by the floor response and dynamic response of the CW itself. For the CW which is attached to the main structure, drift demand is an indication of the interstory drift ratio. The in-plane seismic drift mechanism of the framed glass CW was fully developed, and the corresponding static testing protocols were implemented in codes based on several past experimental studies. Shaking table testing of the CW was conducted as well, where the input motions need specific floor response analysis of the main structure. The relevant damage state definition and fragility curve development are important to represent the performance and damage level of the CW system. The philosophy of the performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) and its application to CW are elaborated, and possible challenges related to the seismic demand, experimental studies, and PBEE of the CW are addressed as well.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T15:27:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.025
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Ferrous SMA (FNCATB) based Superelastic Friction Bearing Isolator (S-FBI)
           subjected to pulse type ground motions
    • Authors: Sutanu Bhowmick; Sudib Kumar Mishra
      Pages: 34 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 100
      Author(s): Sutanu Bhowmick, Sudib Kumar Mishra
      A new variant of ferrous Shape Memory Alloy with Fe-Ni-Co-Al-Ta-B (FNCATB) composition have been proposed that shows huge superelasticity under a wide temperature range. This shows the potential as a much superior and economic alternative for seismic applications. With this as the eventual goal, the FNCATB wires are employed as restrainers in conjunction with the pure-friction bearing, referred as super-elastic Friction Base Isolator (S-FBI). The FNCATB based S-FBI shows superior performance over the conventional Frictional Pendulum System (FPS) and the Nitinol based S-FBI, with a much less (1/17-th) volume requirement, estimated from the pertinent isolator parameters, the optimal choice of which are obtained through ad hoc optimization. The performance assessment is based on nonlinear dynamic analysis under a suite of recorded near-fault ground motions. An experimental force-deformation dataset for the FNCATB are fitted in the existing Wilde's model to describe the super-elasticity. The FNCATB S-FBI offers considerable improvement, either in the isolation efficiency or reducing the base displacement with slight or no compromise in the other. The performances are also supported by a set of performance indices adopted from benchmark seismic control problem. An energetic assessment also corroborate to these findings. A Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) based analysis of floor accelerations demonstrate the superior high frequency suppression characteristics of the FNCATB over the Friction Pendulum System (FPS) and Nitinol based S-FBI. The ferrous composition while coupled with less volume requirement implies to superior economic viability that can be studied through detailed cost-benefit analysis.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T15:27:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.03.037
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • On the accuracy of the N2 inelastic spectrum for timber structures
    • Authors: Giovanni Rinaldin; Massimo Fragiacomo; Claudio Amadio
      Pages: 49 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 100
      Author(s): Giovanni Rinaldin, Massimo Fragiacomo, Claudio Amadio
      Timber buildings in earthquake prone regions must be designed to withstand the seismic actions. The N2 method, already employed in the Eurocode 8 to check the seismic resistance of a building employing its capacity curve, uses inelastic spectra calculated on the basis of the system ductility. Such a procedure was extensively used for the design of steel and reinforced concrete structures. Timber structures, however, have a different and more complex hysteretic behaviour characterized by significant pinching, strength degradation and softening. Consequently, the current version of the N2 proposed spectrum may be inadequate for the design of timber systems. This paper investigates the accuracy of the N2 spectrum for timber structures by calculating the ‘rigorous’ inelastic spectra for natural seismic records selected to match, with their average, a chosen design elastic spectrum. A purposely developed software has been used to obtain the inelastic spectra for a Single Degree of Freedom (SDOF) system characterized by a slip-type hysteretic relationship with pinching typical of timber structures. Two different sets of records have been considered: the former is consistent, on average, with a given design spectrum from Eurocode 8, the latter is taken from a strong motion database by selecting the records having soil class A and PGA within a chosen range. Non-linear dynamic analyses have been carried out by varying the level of ductility and the natural vibration period of the SDOF systems. The effects of hardening or softening of the system behaviour have also been analysed. Two analysis procedures have been used with the aim to have a further confirmation of the achieved results. The comparisons between the rigorous and the approximated N2 spectrum demonstrate that, in general, the N2 method always give fairly good results in estimating the inelastic spectra even for timber structures.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T15:27:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.026
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Dynamic lateral response of suction caissons
    • Authors: C. Latini; V. Zania
      Pages: 59 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 100
      Author(s): C. Latini, V. Zania
      Deeper water installations of offshore wind turbines may be supported by jacket structures. This study investigates the dynamic response of suction caissons for jackets by analysing 3D finite element models in the frequency domain. The numerical modelling was firstly validated by analytical solutions for pile foundations. Groups of crucial dimensionless parameters related to the soil profile and the foundation geometry are identified and their effects on the response of suction caissons are studied. Static stiffness coefficients are presented in a form of mathematical formulas obtained by fitting the numerical results, pertaining foundations with different slenderness ratios and embedded in different soil profiles. Sensitivity of the dynamic impedances of suction caissons on the skirt length was showed in this study. Moreover, the results for the suction caissons indicated that the overall dynamic response is profoundly affected by the relative thickness of the soil layer and by the variation of soil stiffness with depth.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T15:27:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.020
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Impact of ground motion duration and soil non-linearity on the seismic
           performance of single piles
    • Authors: Alessandro Tombari; M. Hesham El Naggar; Francesca Dezi
      Pages: 72 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 100
      Author(s): Alessandro Tombari, M. Hesham El Naggar, Francesca Dezi
      Pile foundations strongly influence the performance of supported structures and bridges during an earthquake. In case of strong earthquake ground motion, soft soils may be subjected to large deformation manifesting aspects typical of the non-linear behaviour such as material yielding, gapping and cyclic degradation. Therefore, nonlinear soil-pile interaction models should be able to capture these effects and improve the prediction of the actual seismic loading transferred from the foundation to the superstructure. In this paper, a beam on nonlinear Winkler foundation (BNWF) model is used, which can simulate cyclic soil degradation/hardening, soil and structural yielding, slack zone development and radiation damping. Incremental Dynamic Analyses (IDAs) are performed to evaluate the effects of Ground Motion Duration (GMD) and soil non-linearity on the performance of single fixed-head floating piles. Various homogeneous and bilayer soil profiles are considered, including saturated clay and sand in either fully dry or saturated state and with different levels of compaction. In order to evaluate the effect of nonlinearity on the response, the results of the nonlinear analyses are compared with those obtained from linear soil-pile analysis in terms of bending moment envelope. Results show the relevance of considering the GMD on the performance of the single pile especially when founded on saturated soils. For low intensities and dry sandy soils, the linear soil-pile interaction model can be used for obtaining reliable results.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T15:27:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.022
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Strength and stiffness assessment of railway track substructures using
           crosshole-type dynamic cone penetrometer
    • Authors: Won Taek Hong; Sang Yeob Kim; Sung Jin Lee; Jong Sub Lee
      Pages: 88 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 100
      Author(s): Won Taek Hong, Sang Yeob Kim, Sung Jin Lee, Jong Sub Lee
      To ensure safe train services, an effective method is required for the characterization of the strength and stiffness of railway track substructures. In this study, a crosshole-type dynamic cone penetrometer (CDP) is developed to characterize the strength by the crosshole-type dynamic cone penetration index (CDPI) and stiffness by the shear wave velocity (Vs). To verify the Vs obtained using the CDP test, the Vs obtained by both CDP and bender elements are compared in a chamber test. In addition, for the characterization of the railway track substructures, field tests are conducted. The chamber test shows that the Vs obtained using the CDP are almost the same as those obtained by bender elements. In field tests, the CDPI and the Vs are profiled along the depth, the including ballast, sub-ballast, and subgrade layers, which are identified by ground penetrating radar surveys. As the CDPI is highly correlated to the Vs, the stiffness characteristics are considered to be reasonable and can be simply estimated using the CDPI. This study demonstrates that the CDP test can be used for the evaluation of the strength characteristics and small strain elastic properties of the track substructures.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T15:27:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.021
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Influence of column shear failure on pushover based assessment of masonry
           infilled reinforced concrete framed structures: A case study
    • Authors: Liborio Cavaleri; Fabio Di Trapani; Panagiotis G. Asteris; Vasilis Sarhosis
      Pages: 98 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 100
      Author(s): Liborio Cavaleri, Fabio Di Trapani, Panagiotis G. Asteris, Vasilis Sarhosis
      Structural frames, constructed either of steel or reinforced concrete (RC), are often infilled with masonry panels. However, during the analysis of the structural frames, it has become common practice to disregard the existence of infills because of the complexity in modeling. This omission should not be allowed because the two contributions (of infills and of frames) complement each other in providing a so different structural system. The use of different modeling assumptions significantly affects the capacity as well as the inelastic demand and safety assessment. In specific, the adoption of equivalent diagonal pin-jointed struts leaves open the problem of the evaluation of the additional shear on columns and consequently of the choice of a proper eccentricity for the diagonal struts. In this context, this paper presents the results of a real case study. The seismic performance of the RC structure of a school is evaluated by using concentric equivalent struts for modeling infills and the level of the additional shear on the columns is fixed as a rate of the axial force on them in agreement to a strong correlation obtained after a numerical experimentation. Hence, the applicability of the correlation mentioned before is shown and the form in which the results can be provided is presented. The characteristics of the new approach, first time applied to a real case, are highlighted by a comparison between the performance obtainable with different modeling detail levels of the infills. Through the paper, it is proved that the simplified evaluation of the additional shear demand produced by infills just for the base columns is sufficient to warn that a simplified model disregarding infills or based on the use of concentric struts for the infills may considerably overestimate the structural capacity. Further, by the study of a real case, the paper provides an overview of the models developed by the authors to obtain the capacity of reinforced concrete framed structure for the practical applications.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T11:48:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.032
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Experimental validation of a model for seismic simulation and interaction
           analysis of buried pipe networks
    • Authors: Wei Liu; Huiquan Miao; Chuang Wang; Jie Li
      Pages: 113 - 130
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 100
      Author(s): Wei Liu, Huiquan Miao, Chuang Wang, Jie Li
      A finite-element model is established to evaluate the seismic responses of buried pipe networks. In the model, pipes are simulated as beams on elastic foundation, the joints of the segmented pipes are modeled by axial and rotational springs, and the pipe–soil interactions are simulated by springs. The seismic wave acts on one end of the soil springs to induce the seismic responses of the pipe networks. The test results of a buried pipe network subjected to an artificial earthquake is adopted as benchmark to validate the model. The tested pipe network has a size of 24m×24m and consists of ductile cast iron and welded steel pipes. The artificial earthquake is produced by 30kg of TNT explosives. Two important responses are compared, i.e., the joint deformations of the ductile cast iron pipes and the strains of the welded steel pipes. Results indicate that the model can evaluate the seismic responses of the buried pipe networks well. The pipe interactions are analyzed using the model by comparing the seismic responses of the single pipe and its counterpart in the pipe network.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T11:48:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.024
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Influence of presence of adjacent surface structure on seismic response of
           underground structure
    • Authors: Huai-feng Wang; Meng-lin Lou; Ru-lin Zhang
      Pages: 131 - 143
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 100
      Author(s): Huai-feng Wang, Meng-lin Lou, Ru-lin Zhang
      A numerical study is made on the dynamic through-soil interaction between underground station and nearby pile supported surface structure on viscous-elastic soil layer, under vertically incident S wave. This paper, as a companion of another paper written by the authors [1], focuses on the influence of presence of adjacent surface structure on seismic response of underground structure, while the reference [1] centers on the influence of presence of adjacent underground structure on seismic response of surface structure. To this end, a commercial software product for finite element analysis, ANSYS, has been further developed and enhanced for calculation in frequency domain, in which hysteretic damping can be considered for both the soil and the structures, so that structure-soil-structure interaction (SSSI) can be investigated by via a direct methodology. A discussion is made on the influence of arrangement of structures, distances between structures, shaking direction of seismic wave, shear wave velocity and damping of soil, scale and burial depth of underground structure, storey number, stiffness, style and pile length of surface structure on SSSI, in terms of horizontal relative displacement of underground structure. Maximum relative displacement responses are also presented for 12 seismic inputs. Arrangement and shaking direction are two of the most important factors. The system response can be either amplified or attenuated according to the distance between adjacent structures, related to dynamic properties of the overall system. Those underground structures, surrounded by buildings with the fundamental frequency approximate to that of free field, are heavily affected.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T11:48:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.031
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Sensitivity to modelling and design of curved surface sliding bearings in
           the nonlinear seismic analysis of base-isolated r.c. framed buildings
    • Authors: Fabio Mazza; Mirko Mazza
      Pages: 144 - 158
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 100
      Author(s): Fabio Mazza, Mirko Mazza
      The main object of this study is to investigate the influence that different modelling assumptions of the curved surface sliding (CSS) bearings may have on the lateral-torsional response of irregular base-isolated structures located in near-fault area, characterized by fling-step and directivity effects with large amplitudes and long period horizontal velocity pulses. The second aim is to evaluate the effects of different design assumptions of the CSS system. To this end, a six-storey base-isolated reinforced concrete (r.c.) framed building, with an L-shaped plan and setbacks in elevation, is designed assuming low- and medium-type friction properties, both with two in-plan distributions of the dynamic-fast friction coefficient, corresponding to: (i) the same value for all isolators; (ii) a different value for each isolator. Four additional cases are compared reducing the friction coefficient in accordance with a temperature increase up to 250°C during ground motions. A computer code for the nonlinear dynamic analysis is developed, in order to compare five models of the CSS bearings that consider constant and variable axial loads combined with constant and variable friction coefficients as function of sliding velocity, axial pressure and stick-slip effect. A lumped plasticity model is used to describe the inelastic behaviour of the superstructure, including a 26-flat surface modelling of the axial load-biaxial bending moment elastic domain at the end sections of r.c. frame members. Near-fault ground motions with significant horizontal components are selected and scaled in line with the design hypotheses adopted for the test structure.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T11:48:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.028
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Seismic responses of base-isolated flexible rectangular fluid containers
           under horizontal ground motion
    • Authors: S. Hashemi; M.H. Aghashiri
      Pages: 159 - 168
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 100
      Author(s): S. Hashemi, M.H. Aghashiri
      This paper focuses on analyzing, the results and arguments about the analysis of seismic base-isolated flexible rectangular containers. An equivalent mechanical model of rectangular containers with three lumped masses and six degrees of freedom is used. Lead rubber bearing (LRB) and friction pendulum system (FPS) are two types of seismic isolators, used to isolate the storage tank base. Results show that seismic base isolation can be an efficient way to reduce seismic responses such as base shear, wall deflection and hydrodynamic pressure, but it can adversely affect the free surface sloshing height. The seismic responses of isolated tanks under unidirectional excitation (No interaction) and bidirectional excitation (Interaction) are not considerably different and the results are not very sensitive to the interaction effect of the bearing forces. In any case, the careful choice of the number and the mechanical characteristics of seismic base isolation systems is suggested to achieve good responses.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T11:48:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.010
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Feasibility analysis of using MetaSoil scatterers on the attenuation of
           seismic amplification in a site with triangular hill due to SV-waves
    • Authors: M. Maleki; M.I. Khodakarami
      Pages: 169 - 182
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 100
      Author(s): M. Maleki, M.I. Khodakarami
      Experimental and theoretical studies show an extra amplification in the site response near topographic irregularities due to seismic waves. The aim of this paper is to assess the implementation of a mass-in-mass periodic external isolator framework based on the concept of metamaterials, termed MetaSoil (MS) in order to reduce the seismic amplification on hills subjected to in-plane waves. A MS prepares a blind frequency zone, where the propagation of waves with this frequency content is excluded. The feasibility of using such systems considering various soil types, aspect ratio of the hill shapes, geometry of MS and excitation frequencies is investigated. In achieving this end, several two-dimensional models by adopting the finite element method and the wave propagation theory are analyzed using a time-history approach. The efficiency of this system is evaluated for each model, with results demonstrating up to 40% attenuation in the strong ground motions on the hills via the use of the proposed lattice.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T11:48:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.036
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of soil-structure interaction effects on the damping ratios of
           buildings subjected to earthquakes
    • Authors: Cristian Cruz; Eduardo Miranda
      Pages: 183 - 195
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 100
      Author(s): Cristian Cruz, Eduardo Miranda
      This paper evaluates the effects of soil-structure interaction on damping ratios of buildings subjected to earthquake ground motions. Explicit expressions of transfer functions of absolute horizontal accelerations of multi-story buildings on an elastic half-space subjected to horizontal ground motions are developed. An optimization procedure is then used to obtain the effective modal properties of a replacement or “equivalent” fixed-based multi-story building that minimize the difference in the ordinates of the absolute acceleration transfer functions in the building on flexible-base relative to those in the replacement fixed-base building. A parametric study was conducted to study the variation of effective modal damping ratios of the fundamental mode and of higher modes of vibration with changes on the wave parameter. Results indicate soil-structure interaction effects may either increase or reduce the effective modal damping ratio of the fundamental period. Typically, it reduces the effective damping ratios of slender long period structures such as tall buildings and increases the damping ratio of short and medium period structures. It is shown that the reduction of effective modal damping ratio of the fundamental mode with increasing height computed in this study follows a similar trend to that observed in instrumented buildings, indicating that the reduction in damping ratio observed in buildings as their height increases is primarily due to soil-structure interaction effects. Furthermore, it is shown that soil-structure interaction effects lead to an approximately linear trend in effective modal damping ratios with increasing modal frequency.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T11:48:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.034
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Sensitivity of ground motion parameters to local shear-wave velocity
           models: The case of buried low-velocity layers
    • Authors: Daniela Farrugia; Pauline Galea; Sebastiano D’Amico; Enrico Paolucci
      Pages: 196 - 205
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 100
      Author(s): Daniela Farrugia, Pauline Galea, Sebastiano D’Amico, Enrico Paolucci
      Seismic site response analysis is an important procedure used to obtain parameters such as peak ground motion values. These are needed by the engineering community for reliable seismic design, analysis and retrofitting of structures. One of the inputs for such analysis is the shear-wave velocity profile (V S) of the site. Surface wave methods are increasingly being used to obtain these profiles. However, these are characterised by uncertainties related to the measurements and the model used for interpretation (e.g. the inadequacy of 1D assumption). Moreover, the inversion procedure is also highly non-unique because numerous profiles are able to fit the experimental dispersion curve/s. Even though the uncertainties are not commonly included in site response analysis, their propagation from the dispersion curves to the inversion procedure can lead to significant differences in the site response analysis results. In a previous study, V S profiles were obtained at 20 sites on the Maltese islands (Central Mediterranean) using the Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (H/V), the Extended Spatial Auto-Correlation (ESAC) technique and the Genetic Algorithm. The geology of all the sites is characterised by a layer of clay, which can be up to 75m thick, buried under the Upper Coralline Limestone, a fossiliferous coarse grained limestone. The effect of a thick buried low V S layer, which gives rise to a velocity inversion, in ground response is not well understood and/or documented. The above concerns raised the need for carrying out tests with the aim of better clarifying and understanding which parameters have the most influence on site response analysis and to assess the consequences of inversion non-uniqueness on ground motion amplification and response. From the first part of the study, it was observed that the thickness of the clay layer has the greatest effect on the ground response results. By obtaining ground motion parameters from equivalent profiles, the consequences of the uncertainty in the inversion process, which can be serious at times, are revealed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T11:48:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.033
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • A new method for mapping liquefaction-induced lateral spread level
    • Authors: Chengcheng Li; Xiaoming Yuan
      Pages: 206 - 223
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 100
      Author(s): Chengcheng Li, Xiaoming Yuan
      To meet the objective requirements of civil engineering construction and mitigation of earthquake disasters, and achieve the goal of economic rationality, we propose a new method for liquefaction-induced lateral spread zonation that is adapted to regionalization and modern technology. To overcome the disadvantage of the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) method that depends on high-density boreholes to complete zoning work, two key technologies of the new method are proposed in this paper, including liquefaction lateral spread level (LLSL) criteria and an extraction technique of polygon features to match the LLSL criteria, detailed as follows. (1) LLSL criteria are used to directly determine the lateral spread level within a certain range of each influence factor. (2) The extraction of polygon features for the influence factors. The geologic and soil condition factors are extracted by combining 3-D geographic information systems and a mining visualization system with geologic interpretation and fewer boreholes. The proposed method is used for the liquefaction-induced lateral spread distribution of a 7.8-magnitude earthquake south of Tangshan, China in 1976. The result is consistent with measurements just after that earthquake. This proves that the new method for liquefaction-induced lateral spread zonation is basically reasonable and feasible. The disadvantage of the NEHRP method, which depends on high-density boreholes, is thereby overcome. This can effectively cut economic costs and still keep the necessary accuracy in the sense of regionalization.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T11:48:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.030
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Dynamic properties of polypropylene fibre-reinforced silica quarry sand
    • Authors: Haiwen Li; Kostas Senetakis
      Pages: 224 - 232
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 100
      Author(s): Haiwen Li, Kostas Senetakis
      The study reports on the dynamic behavior of fibre-reinforced sand with a focus on the shear modulus at very small strains. A set of twenty four specimens composed of a silica quarry sand reinforced with different percentages of polypropylene fibres was constructed in the laboratory using two different resonant columns embedded with bender element inserts. One resonant column is of the fixed-free type and the second apparatus is of the fixed-partly fixed type. The percentages of fibre ranged from 0% to 2% and the specimens were tested in a fully saturated state following an isotropic stress path. The shear modulus of the specimens obtained from the bender element tests was computed based on the measured shear wave velocities considering an equivalent density instead of the bulk density. This is because the bender element test method corresponds to a high-frequency technique and adjustment of soil density should take place to account for the relative movement between the solid skeleton and the water that fills the pores. This adjustment provided a better comparison between the obtained moduli from resonant column and bender element tests. Based on the set of experiments, it was found that the small strain shear modulus of the specimens reduced with an increase of the fibre content, which trend was more pronounced for fibre contents greater than 0.5%. The use of a granular void ratio in typical power-law type formulae for the expression of soil modulus could not work effectively, as for example it happens in granular binary mixtures. Based on the experiments, a formula was developed that correlates stiffness to pressure. In this regard, an additional set of dynamic tests was conducted including twenty newly created specimens in order to further validate the new expression, which is more applicable for a well-graded quarry sand as physical portion and for contents of polypropylene fibre from 0% to 2%.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T11:48:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.035
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Influence of pore water in the seabed on dynamic response of offshore wind
           turbines on monopiles
    • Authors: M. Bayat; L.V. Andersen; L.B. Ibsen; J. Clausen
      Pages: 233 - 248
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 100
      Author(s): M. Bayat, L.V. Andersen, L.B. Ibsen, J. Clausen
      The well-known p - y curve method provides soil-structure interaction that does not account for the pore pressure effect for dynamic analysis of offshore wind turbines (OWTs). In order to avoid overly conservative designs, reliable estimates of the dynamic response should be taken into account. The turbine is introduced using a simplified model to assess the eigenfrequencies and modal damping, accounting for pore water flow and excess pore pressure around the monopile. Thus the effect of pore pressure and load frequency are illustrated by implementing a poroelastic model to present more realistic dynamic properties and compare them with results obtained by the p - y curve method. A cyclic loading is considered and the soil stiffness based on the Winkler and Kelvin models is calculated and compared while the soil damping for the Kelvin model is computed. Developed finite element programs are employed to present the results for a two-phase system consisting of a solid skeleton and pore fluid, based on the u - P formulation. Here, u is grain displacement and P is pore water pressure. The developed codes have been validated with commercial software and are implemented to perform free vibration tests to evaluate the eigenfrequencies. A linear poroelastic material model is utilized. An equivalent masses-dashpots-springs system at the pile-cap level is calculated and compared by using Winkler and Kelvin models to highlight the effect of pore pressure and load seepage damping.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T11:48:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Laboratory tests for permeability of sand during liquefaction
    • Authors: Tzou-Shin Ueng; Zih-Fang Wang; Min-Chien Chu; Louis Ge
      Pages: 249 - 256
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 100
      Author(s): Tzou-Shin Ueng, Zih-Fang Wang, Min-Chien Chu, Louis Ge
      The permeability is a very important property affecting drainage, pore pressure buildup and dissipation, and ground settlement for saturated sand during and after seismically induced liquefaction. A laboratory experiment was developed to conduct tests for evaluating the water movements and permeability in a sand column before, during and after liquefaction. The excess pore water pressures at various depths within the sand specimen, hydraulic gradients, and water flow rates were recorded continuously throughout the tests. The permeability of the sand specimen during the process of liquefaction was calculated from these measurements. Results showed that the permeability of fine Vietnam sand during liquefaction was about 4–5 times the initial value before liquefaction, while it reduced to 0.9–0.97 times the initial value after complete dissipation of the excess pore pressures depending on the density of sand. The permeability of sand during excess pore pressure dissipation after liquefaction was also evaluated.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T12:09:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.037
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Optimal design of nonlinear viscous dampers for frame structures
    • Authors: Enrico Parcianello; Corrado Chisari; Claudio Amadio
      Pages: 257 - 260
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 100
      Author(s): Enrico Parcianello, Corrado Chisari, Claudio Amadio
      It is well-known that in order to decrease displacements and accelerations in a frame structure during earthquakes, purely viscous dampers can be effectively employed, allowing for a remarkable dissipation of seismic input energy. The design of such devices, however, is still an open issue, since it is often carried out by means of inefficient trial-and-error procedures, or simplified analytical approaches which do not guarantee the optimal exploitation of the dampers. This work investigates the use of an optimisation-based approach for the design of nonlinear purely viscous dampers, aimed at improving the seismic behaviour of frame structures. The potential and the flexibility of the method are shown through an illustrative example displaying how different structural requirements (limitation or minimisation of inter-storey drifts and/or forces transferred by the devices) can be easily taken into account by means of a suitable formulation of a constrained optimisation problem.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T12:09:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.06.006
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Dynamic response and failure mechanism of Brazilian disk specimens at high
           strain rate
    • Authors: Mehrdad Imani; Hamid Reza Nejati; Kamran Goshtasbi
      Pages: 261 - 269
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 100
      Author(s): Mehrdad Imani, Hamid Reza Nejati, Kamran Goshtasbi
      The effect of strain rate on the failure mechanism of rocks is one of the most important aspects in the field of rock dynamics and has been considered in many research works due to its extensive application. This study focuses on dynamic features and failure mechanism of Brazilian disk specimens under high-rate loading. For this purpose, particle flow code 2-dimensional (PFC2D) was used for simulation of Brazilian disk samples. The numerical models were validated by comparing with results of uniaxial compression, Brazilian and Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) laboratory tests and it is demonstrated that the result of numerical modeling has a good agreement with those of the experimental measurements. The validated numerical model was used for further study of the mechanical behavior of rock specimen at high strain rate. The results of numerical models revealed that there are three different of failure modes for Brazilian disk specimens at different strain rate: (1) tensile splitting failure mode for specimen at strain rate smaller than 150 (1/s), (2) branching failure mode when strain rate varies in range of 150–600 (1/s) and (3) crushing failure mode when the strain rate increases to more than 600 (1/s).

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T12:09:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.06.007
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Scenario based seismic re-qualification of caisson supported major bridges
           – A case study of Saraighat Bridge
    • Authors: Pradeep Kumar Dammala; Subhamoy Bhattacharya; Adapa Murali Krishna; Shiv Shankar Kumar; Kaustubh Dasgupta
      Pages: 270 - 275
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 100
      Author(s): Pradeep Kumar Dammala, Subhamoy Bhattacharya, Adapa Murali Krishna, Shiv Shankar Kumar, Kaustubh Dasgupta
      Many major river bridges were constructed in highly active seismic areas of India much before the seismic code development. Bridges are lifelines infrastructure and as a result, it is necessary to requalify/reasses these structures in the light of the new and improved understanding of seismic resistant design philosophies. The aim of the paper is to develop a simplified methodology to carry out scenario based seismic requalification of major river bridges supported on caisson foundations (also known as Well Foundation). An example problem of Saraighat Bridge located in highly active Himalayan seismic zone is considered to demonstrate the application of the methodology. Field investigation and advanced laboratory tests on soil samples from the bridge site were carried out. The test results reveal that the soil is susceptible to liquefaction and as a result, soil structure interaction analyses are carried out. It is shown that good performance of these type of bridges depend on the displacement response of the pier head so as not to cause unseating of the decks. It is concluded, owing to the large stiffness of the foundations, bridges supported on caisson foundations may not be adversely affected by liquefaction induced effects.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T16:17:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.06.005
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of seismic passive earth pressure of inclined rigid retaining
           wall considering soil arching effect
    • Authors: Anindya Pain; Qingsheng Chen; Sanjay Nimbalkar; Yitao Zhou
      Pages: 286 - 295
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 100
      Author(s): Anindya Pain, Qingsheng Chen, Sanjay Nimbalkar, Yitao Zhou
      Evaluation of seismic passive earth pressure is an important topic of research in geotechnical engineering. In this study seismic passive pressure on an inclined rigid retaining wall supporting horizontal cohesionless backfill is estimated considering arching effect. A planar failure surface is considered in the present analysis. Seismic forces are considered to be pseudo-static in nature. The effect of different parameters on the seismic passive earth pressure is studied in details. The normal stress distribution along the depth of the backfill is found to be nonlinear in nature. Friction angle between wall and the backfill soil has the most significant effect on the distribution of normal stress along the depth of the backfill. The point of application of seismic passive pressure shifts gradually downward for higher seismic forces. Present method is validated with the experimental results available in the literature for static conditions. Comparison of present method with other theories is also presented showing the merit of the present study. Arching effect in the backfill should be considered for high values of wall inclination angle as the present seismic passive resistance is found to be the lowest as compared to other theoretical solutions.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T16:17:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.06.011
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Structure-soil-structure interaction effects on structures retrofitted
           with tuned mass dampers
    • Authors: R.N. Jabary; S.P.G. Madabhushi
      Pages: 301 - 315
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 100
      Author(s): R.N. Jabary, S.P.G. Madabhushi
      This paper investigates the dynamic structure-soil-structure interaction (SSSI) between two adjacent sway frames, replicating closely spaced residential buildings in an urban setting subjected to seismic input motions. The structures are considered with and without external damping mechanisms by means of tuned mass damper (TMD) configurations. Geotechnical centrifuge tests were conducted to address the current lack of experimental case studies into SSSI and uniquely explore the influences from the presence of TMDs and variations in their configurations on SSSI. SSSI was found to significantly alter the response of proximally located urban structures, as was evident from significantly larger rocking amplitudes and changes in frequency response spectra. TMD effects under SSSI were mostly found to amplify an adjacent structure's peak roof acceleration response and inter-storey drift – this was most aggravated when the damper was de-tuned. TMD effects were found to be relatively more pronounced under smaller earthquakes and could certainly cause occupational inconvenience or even damage in adjacent buildings.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T16:17:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.017
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Comparison of shear wave velocities evaluated in the core zone of an
           existing fill dam by field and laboratory tests
    • Authors: Ik-Soo
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 100
      Author(s): Ik-Soo Ha
      The objective of this study is to compare shear wave velocities evaluated by laboratory and field tests in the core zone of an existing fill dam, and to verify the applicability of empirical methods by comparing the shear wave velocities evaluated by empirical methods with those evaluated by experimental methods. In this study, boring and sampling were conducted at the Yeongcheon dam in Korea. Laboratory tests on the core samples were carried out and field tests such as borehole surveys and seismic methods were conducted to evaluate the shear wave velocity. The results obtained by laboratory and field tests were compared. Furthermore, the results obtained by these experimental methods were compared with those obtained by empirical methods. The shear wave velocity determined by the seismic methods was, to a limited extent, lower than that determined by the borehole surveys at shallow depths of less than 15m, but was predicted to be similar at depths deeper than 15m. The results of the two kinds of laboratory tests were almost similar to each other but both the results were 10–20% lower than those obtained by the seismic methods. The results obtained by the empirical method based on the field tests and the measured in-situ records were similar to the field test results. On the other hand, the results obtained by the empirical method using the basic properties of sample cores were similar to the laboratory test results.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T16:17:39Z
       
  • Three-dimensional shakedown analysis of ballasted railway structures under
           moving surface loads with different load distributions
    • Authors: Yan Zhuang; Kangyu Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 100
      Author(s): Yan Zhuang, Kangyu Wang
      Shakedown of ballasted railway structures was analyzed based on Melan's shakedown theorem, in which the wheel/rail contact was approximated by Hertz (circular and elliptical contact areas), uniform and trapezoidal load distributions, separately. The shakedown solutions incorporating to the three-dimensional finite element model calculated shakedown multiplier by means of a self-equilibrated critical residual stress field. The shakedown multiplier for multi-layered ballasted railway structure was determined as the minimum one among all layers. The results showed that elliptical Hertz and uniform load yielded the largest and smallest shakedown limits, respectively, with the maximum difference of approximately 64%. The shakedown limits always occurred at ballast layer for relatively small frictional coefficient, whilst occurred at rail for low rail's yield stress with large frictional coefficient. As expected, the shakedown limits decreased as the ballast stiffness and thickness increased, especially for relatively small frictional coefficient; while increased with raising rail's yield stress. The material properties and thickness should therefore be optimally designed so as to provide a maximum resistance to the structure failure and reduce the material costs.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T16:17:39Z
       
  • Editorial Board / Aims and Scope
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 99


      PubDate: 2017-06-02T15:38:11Z
       
  • Editorial Board / Aims and Scope
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 98


      PubDate: 2017-05-17T15:38:20Z
       
 
 
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