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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 110 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 47)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 49)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Change and Adaptation in Socio-Ecological Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Climate Change Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Climate law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access  
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Climate Summary of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 60)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Atmospheric Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access  
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 199)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Journal of Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Climatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mathematics of Climate and Weather Forecasting     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorological Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal  
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 125)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Nīvār     Open Access  
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access  
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal  
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
The Cryosphere Discussions (TCD)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Weather     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access  
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.8
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 21  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-0662 - ISSN (Online) 0167-7764
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Chemical composition and source attribution of PM 2.5 and PM 10 in
           Delhi-National Capital Region (NCR) of India: results from an extensive
           seasonal campaign
    • Abstract: Abstract Ambient particulate matter concentrations in Delhi and its peripheral towns has been a matter of serious concern in the last decade. Understanding the changing nature of the chemical composition of particulates, their spatial and seasonal variability can be utilized for identifying probable sources. This study presents an extensive dataset of the chemical composition of PM2.5 and PM10 collected using speciation samplers, from 19 locations representing different activities and spread across Delhi–NCR during summer and winter seasons in the year 2016–17. Identification of contributing sources using chemical ratios as source indicators is attempted. A distinct seasonal variability in both PM2.5 and PM10 was observed, with winter maxima and summer minima. The fine fraction i.e. PM2.5 was dominated by organic matter (OM) with mean concentrations of 40.96±25.74 μg/m3 followed by Sulfate-Nitrate-Ammonium (SNA) ions (31.44±20.69 μg/m3) and Elemental Carbon (EC) (19.56±12.57 μg/m3); while the coarse fraction i.e. PM10 was dominated by OM (73.03±40.55 μg/m3) and SNA (47.25±30.56 μg/m3) along with significant contributions from crustal materials (40.85±18.89 μg/m3). The chemical ratios suggested mixed sources of PM with major contributions from vehicular emissions, re-suspended and/or construction dust, and fossil fuel combustion along with intermittent contributions from biomass and open waste burning. This analysis provides useful insights into the sources and processes affecting the particulate formation and underlines the need to control primary emissions as well as secondary precursors for air quality improvements in the region. The data generated under this campaign can also serve as an essential input for further evaluation using receptor modeling.
      PubDate: 2021-01-09
  • Emission estimates of trace gases (VOCs and NO x ) and their reactivity
           during biomass burning period (2003–2017) over Northeast India
    • Abstract: Abstract The study analysed spatio-temporal distribution of fire radiative power (FRP) and estimates of trace gases [volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)] along with their reactivity during biomass burning period of March (2003–2017) over the northeast region (NER), India. Reanalysis data of FRP along with emission rates of trace gases have been retrieved from Global Fire Assimilation System. Results showed that average FRP was estimated to be 0.37 Wm−2 with the highest value in Mizoram (0.16 Wm−2) among 7-states of the study region. Temporally, relatively higher FRP occurred during the year of 2006 and 2010 while lowest in 2017. FRP-based VOCs and NOx emission estimates were 431 and 69.5 mg/m2/day, respectively which are consistent with observed FRP. Among different groups of VOCs, oxygenated species were the largest group (~56%) estimated followed by alkenes, alkanes, aromatics, and biogenic. Photochemical reactivities of VOCs were estimated using propylene-equivalent and maximum incremental reactivity methods which showed oxygenated species had the highest contributions in chemical reactivity. Based on the MIR scale, the top ten leading contributor species for ozone (O3) formation were in descending order of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, ethene, propene, toluene, butane, isoprene, methanol, pentene, and hexane which accounted for approximately 97% of total ozone formation. We also examined the ozone formation regime using VOCs/NOx ratios which indicated that O3 formation was likely to be VOC-sensitive over NER. Our results could be used for the understanding of FRP-based trace gas emissions during biomass burning and to establish effective preventive measures for reduction in O3 pollution.
      PubDate: 2021-01-05
  • Characterization of Rome’s rainwater in the early of 2018 aiming to find
           correlations between chemical-physical parameters and sources of
           pollution: a statistical study
    • Abstract: Analysis of rainwater in historical cities plays a key role to save ancient monuments from atmospheric agents. In this study we sampled the Rome’s rainwater from February to July of 2018 and we analysed them to determine their chemical and physical parameters: pH, redox potential, conductivity, temperature, and the concentration of the main inorganic ions (Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++, F−, Cl−, NO3−, SO4−−). The volume of the daily fallen rainwater, the speed and direction of the wind in the sampling site were also collected. In order to find a correlation between all the above data we used the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Results evidenced that there aren’t authentic “acid rains” as the minimum pH value that we found is 5.2. In some cases high concentrations of nitrates and sulphates were found with maximum values of 12.4 ppm and 18.7 ppm respectively. We also found no correlation between the rainwater’s composition and the seasonal period; on the contrary, the speed and direction of the wind, especially when coming from the sea or industrial country near Rome, play a noticeable role on the rainwater composition. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2020-11-26
  • Model for estimating activity coefficients in binary and ternary ionic
           surfactant solutions
    • Abstract: Abstract We introduce the CMC based Ionic Surfactant Activity model (CISA) to calculate activity coefficients in ternary aqueous solutions of an ionic surfactant and an inorganic salt. The surfactant can be either anionic or cationic and in the present development, the surfactant and inorganic salts share a common counterion. CISA incorporates micellization into the Pitzer–Debye–Hückel (PDH) framework for activities of mixed electrolyte solutions. To reduce computing requirements, a parametrization of the critical micelle concentration (CMC) is used to estimate the degree of micellization instead of explicit equilibrium calculations. For both binary and ternary systems, CISA only requires binary experimentally-based parameters to describe water–ion interactions and temperature–composition dependency of the CMC. The CISA model is intended in particular for atmospheric applications, where higher-order solution interaction parameters are typically not constrained by experiments and the description must be reliable across a wide range of compositions. We evaluate the model against experimental activity data for binary aqueous solutions of ionic surfactants sodium octanoate and sodium decanoate, as common components of atmospheric aerosols, and sodium dodecylsulfate, the most commonly used model compound for atmospheric surfactants. Capabilities of the CISA model to describe ternary systems are tested for the water–sodium decanoate–sodium chloride system, a common surrogate for marine background cloud condensation nuclei and to our knowledge the only atmospherically relevant system for which ternary activity data is available. For these systems, CISA is able to provide continuous predictions of activity coefficients both below and above CMC and in all cases gives an improved description of the water activity above the CMC, compared to the alternative model of Burchfield and Wolley [J. Phys. Chem., 88(10), 2149–2155 (1984)]. The water activity is a key parameter governing the formation and equilibrium growth of cloud droplets. The CISA model can be extended from the current form to include the effect of other inorganic salts with the existing database of binary PDH parameters and using appropriate mixing rules to account for ion specificity in the micellization process.
      PubDate: 2020-11-07
  • Comparison of chemical characteristics of PM 2.5 during two winters in
           Xiangtan City in south central China
    • Abstract: Abstract To assess the efficacy of the “Implementation Details of Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan”, the chemical composition of PM2.5 and other pollutants was determined during the winters of 2013–2014 and 2016–2017 at two urban sites in Xiangtan City, Hunan. The concentrations of PM2.5, SO2, and NO2 decreased from 146.0 to 94.5 μg/m3, 75.9 to 33.5 μg/m3, and 80.6 to 55.8 μg/m3, respectively, from winter 2013–2014 to winter 2016–2017. The concentrations of almost all the major chemical components of PM2.5 decreased as well, particularly secondary inorganic aerosols (SIAs). These results indicate that the implementation of the air quality control plan was very effective in improving air quality. Analysis of the data also suggests that SIA formation is likely responsible for high winter PM2.5 pollution and that high relative humidity levels and low wind speed can promote the formation of SIA. A 72-h back trajectory analysis shows that both regional transport and the accumulation of local pollutants under stagnant meteorological conditions promote the occurrence of episodes of high wintertime pollution levels.
      PubDate: 2020-10-23
  • Vertical distributions of the microscopic morphological characteristics
           and elemental composition of aerosols over India
    • Abstract: Abstract Particle morphology and elemental compositions are among the crucial parameters of aerosols required for accurate understanding of the climatic effect of aerosols in the earth-atmosphere system; yet their vertical distributions and region specific properties are poorly characterised due to sparse in-situ measurements. This is the first study to classify and quantify the vertical distributions of the morphological characteristics and elemental composition of aerosols based on single particle as well as bulk chemical analysis over seven geographically diverse regions of northern and central parts of India during spring (April–May, 2013), carried out as a part of Regional Aerosol Warming Experiment (RAWEX). Significant regional distinctiveness in shapes (non-sphericity), sizes and elemental compositions of the airborne particles were conspicuous, having dominance of highly irregular granular aggregates over the north Indian sites. The non-spherical coarse mode particles dominated the lower free tropospheric regions (> 2 km) of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). These particles could be responsible for enhanced spring time aerosol absorption in the elevated region of the atmosphere. Elemental compositions of the single particle analysis indicate that the free tropospheric layer over the IGP and central India is enriched with Na and Ca compounds mixed with Fe or Al (soil particles), indicating long range transport of crustal aerosols. This finding is very well supported by the bulk particle analysis indicating abundance of Ca2+ in the free troposphere with low contribution of ssNa+. Particles with irregular rough surfaces having dominance of SiO2 were observed over all the study sites. The percentage share of spherical (either smooth or rough) particles to the total morphological characteristics of the particles was found to be highly subdued (< 10%). The present study thus critically assesses the relevant knowledge pertaining to the morphological features of aerosols over the IGP during spring for the accurate estimation of aerosol radiative properties. More such efforts are required in future to study the connections and dependencies between morphological and radiative properties of aerosols in different seasons.
      PubDate: 2020-08-14
  • Long term trends of wet deposition and atmospheric concentrations of
           nitrogen and sulfur compounds at EMEP site in Armenia
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper presents the trends of gaseous nitric acid, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ammonia and nitrate, ammonium, sulfate ions in atmospheric air, and nitrate, ammonium and sulfate ions in wet deposition over 2008–2018 in Armenia. Atmospheric nitrogen and sulfur concentrations were monitored by data obtained from filter pack samplers and glass sinter filters at background monitoring station of Armenia (Amberd), which is designated as EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) station. Laboratory analyses were performed by ion chromatography system and UV spectrophotometer. MAKESENS programme was used for detecting and estimating trends in the time series of annual average values of atmospheric concentrations. Long term trends of atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen and sulfur compounds at the Amberd air quality monitoring station were calculated and discussed for the investigated decade. The trends significance levels for all parameters are calculated. It is identified that there are no significant trends for all explored paramenters, except reduced sulfur in aerosols. Possible emission and deposition changes of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in Armenia were explored in order to identify possible transboundary air pollution and its main sources. Deposition data was estimated by EMEP MSC-W model calculations. Investigation of transboundary fluxes of nitrogen and sulfur compounds displays main receptor areas and contributors. Analysis of seasonality in atmospheric pollutants shows strong seasonal behaviour of the measured parameters in wet deposition - higher concentrations during summertime compared with the wintertime. Atmospheric concentrations of nitrate and ammonium ions are lower during summertime compared with the wintertime, while ammonia has low concentrations during wintertime. Atmospheric nitric acid, sulfate ion, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide revel no significant seasonality.
      PubDate: 2020-07-22
  • Sources of HULIS-C and its relationships with trace metals, ionic species
           in PM 2.5 in suburban Shanghai during haze and non-haze days
    • Abstract: Abstract Humic-like substances (HULIS), the most ubiquitous class of water-soluble organic compounds in the atmosphere could enhance the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and play a significant role in impacting aerosol chemistry and health effects. In this study, twenty-three PM2.5 samples were collected in the atmosphere of suburban Shanghai from November 29 to December 17, 2015, and March 17 to April 30, 2016, during haze and non-haze days. The mean concentrations of HULIS in spring both in haze and non-haze days (2.34 ± 0.70 µg/m3 and 1.94 ± 0.88 µg/m3) were relatively higher than in that of winter (1.93 ± 0.95 µg/m3 and 1.31 ± 0.28 µg/m3). The ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate are the dominant ionic species in both winter and spring during haze days in suburban Shanghai. Correlation results revealed that HULIS formation was highly associated with the biomass burning (K) and secondary aerosols formation (SIA: NH4+, SO42−, NO3−) and also well-correlated with F− and ca.2+ ions, crustal elements (Al and Fe) and anthropogenic pollution metals (As, Se, Rb, Sr, and Pb), suggesting that HULIS-C formation might be from biomass burning and secondary aerosol processes and also mixed formation (marine, crustal and industrial emissions) sources. From the coinciding results of the clustering analysis and weighted-CWT model, the principal potential source regions were the short transports from the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) regions, local regions, marine areas (the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea) and also the long-range transports from northwestern in those seasons.
      PubDate: 2020-06-19
  • Chemical characteristics of particulate matters and their emission sources
           over Varanasi during winter season
    • Abstract: Abstract The chemical composition of particulate matter impacts both human health and climate. In this study, the chemical characteristics of particulate matter was measured for four months (November 2016–February 2017) at Varanasi, which is located in the middle of the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB). The daily observed mean values of PM10 and PM2.5 are 134 ± 48 and 213 ± 80 μg/m3, respectively, which exceeds both national and international standards. The average value of PM2.5/PM10 ratio is 0.64 ± 0.16 which indicates a relatively higher fraction of fine particles that are attributed to anthropogenic emission sources (biomass/post-harvest burning) as corroborated by MODIS fire counts and back trajectory analysis. Ion chromatographic measurements showed that SO42−, Cl−, K+, NO3−, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ are the major ionic species present in the aerosol. Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM–EDX) analysis shows the prevalence of carbon-rich particles at Varanasi which is likely due to biomass burning and other anthropogenic sources.
      PubDate: 2020-05-30
  • Variation of carbonaceous species and trace elements in PM 10 at a
           mountain site in the central Himalayan region of India
    • Abstract: Abstract Observations of carbonaceous species [organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), carbonaceous aerosols (CAs) and secondary organic carbon (SOC) ] and trace elements (As, Cr, Ni, Zn, Na, Mg, Al, P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, and Mn) in PM10 are made over a high altitude site (ARIES, Nainital, 29.4° N, 79.5° E, ~1958 m amsl) in the central Himalayan region during October 2018−February 2019 to explore their possible sources. The average concentrations of PM10, OC, EC, WSOC, CA and SOC were recorded as 44±13 µg m-3, 3.66±1.26 µg m-3, 1.29±0.61 µg m-3, 2.28±0.76 µg m-3, 7.15±1.96 µg m-3 and 1.45±0.73 µg m-3, respectively during the study period. The concentrations of PM10, OC, EC, WSOC, CAs and SOC were significantly varied during autumn (October-November) and winter (December-February) seasons. During both the seasons, significant positive linear trend between OC & EC and OC & WSOC have been observed which is indicative of their common sources of carbonaceous aerosols at the study site. WSOC/OC ratio was estimated as 0.56 and 0.67 during autumn and winter, respectively suggested that the biomass burning could be one of the major sources of carbonaceous aerosols at Nainital. The significant positive correlation of PM10 with crustal elements (Al, Fe, Ca, Mg and Ti) as well as correlation of Al with other crustal elements (Fe, Ca, Mg and Ti) indicates the abundance of mineral dust at the sampling site. The observed Fe/Al ratio (1.07) also indicates mineral dust as a source at the sampling site, similarly, Ca/Al ratio (1.36) indicates that aerosols over this region is rich in Ca mineral as compared to average continental crust. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified the contribution of crustal/soil dust, biomass burning and industrial emissions to the PM10 over the central Himalayan region of India. Five days back trajectory analysis indicates that the air mass impacting the sampling site is from local surrounding area in Uttrakhand as well from Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Ingo Gangetic Plain (IGP) region, Pakistan, Afghanistan region and Thar Desert.
      PubDate: 2020-05-29
  • Ship-borne observations of sea fog and rain chemistry over the North and
           South Pacific Ocean
    • Abstract: Abstract Clouds, fogs, and rain can serve as useful integrators of both atmospheric aerosols and soluble trace gases. To better understand the chemical characteristics of sea fog and rain in the North and South Pacific Ocean, fog and rain were measured aboard the R/V ARAON in 2012 and 2014, respectively, as part of the Ship-borne Pole-to-Pole Observations (SHIPPO) project. The mean sea fog pH (3.59) was lower than the mean rain pH (4.54), reflecting greater inputs of non-sea-salt (nss)-SO42−. For the collected rain, nss-Ca2+ and nss-Mg2+ from mineral dust particles were the major contributors to acidity neutralization. NO3− concentrations, which are derived from scavenging of gaseous nitric acid and aerosol nitrate, were higher than NH4+ concentrations, indicating that terrestrial and/or local anthropogenic NO3− sources outweighed contributions from anthropogenic or biological oceanic NH3/NH4+ sources. The ratio of Cl−/Na+ in the sea fog was slightly lower than that in the sea water due to HCl volatilization from scavenged sea-salt particles. The ratio of NH4+/ nss-Ca2+ was lower in the rain than in the sea fog, revealing the influence of mineral dust particles at altitudes above the sea fog layer. The average sea fog water TOC concentration, 13.2 ppmC, was much higher than the measured TOC concentrations in marine fogs and clouds in other remote environments, likely due to continental influence; the TN and TOC concentrations in the fog water were much higher than those in the rain. The sea fog and rain chemical properties measured during research cruises like these enhance our understanding of wet deposition and cloud condensation nuclei sources and processes in the Pacific Ocean.
      PubDate: 2020-05-23
  • Effect of wind speed on the level of particulate matter PM10 concentration
           in atmospheric air during winter season in vicinity of large combustion
    • Abstract: Abstract The concentrations of suspended particulate matter PM10 in two-month winter period, i.e. December–January in years 2009–2015, were analyzed in relation to the values of wind speed in that time. It was possible to analyze results of air pollution measurements performed in the measuring station from the perspective of their higher levels in winter seasons (so-called smog episodes). Results from 3 stations of the Regional Inspectorate for Environmental Protection in Poznań (WIOŚ Poznań) served for better presentation of smog episodes in the region (black smog) and aimed at verification of correctness of the measurements of pollution immission in the monitoring station in Piotrkowice which is situated in vicinity of large combustion plant. The analysis confirmed that with low speeds of wind higher values of particulate matter PM10 were observed. The results of the analysis also show the displacement of pollutants according to the current wind direction or their local persistence for a longer time over one area.
      PubDate: 2020-05-17
  • Physico-chemical characterization and sink mechanism of atmospheric
           aerosols over South-west India
    • Abstract: Abstract The properties of the atmospheric aerosols depend on the source region and on the modifications that occur during their transport in the air. We have studied physical and chemical properties of aerosols along with their sink mechanism over two locations in southwest India, an urban site (Pune) and well-established climate observatory at Sinhagad (SINH), which represents rural and high altitude site. The ground-based measurements of aerosols, together with their radiative properties in this study have provided means to understand the observed variability and the impact on the aerosol radiative properties effectively over this region. The annual mean elemental carbon concentration (3.4 µg m− 3) at Pune was observed about three times higher compared to SINH (1.3 µg m− 3), indicating strong emissions of carbon-rich aerosols at the urban location. Aerosol optical properties were derived using the OPAC model which were used to compute the Aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) over both stations calculated using SBDART (Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer) model shows pronounced seasonal variations due to changes in aerosol optical depth and single scattering albedo at both locations. The year-round ARF was 4–5 times higher over Pune (31.4 ± 3.5 Wm− 2) compared to SINH (7.2 ± 1.1 Wm− 2). The atmospheric heating rate due to aerosols shows a similar pattern as ARF for these locations. The heating was higher in the wintertime, ~ 0.9–1.6 K day− 1 at Pune, and ~ 0.3–0.6 K day− 1 at SINH. The estimated scavenging ratio was found high for NO3− and Ca.2+. The wet deposition fluxes of Cl−, SO42−, Na+, Mg2+ were observed higher for SINH as compared to Pune, due to the high amount of rain received at SINH.
      PubDate: 2020-03-19
  • Precipitation chemistry and stable isotopic characteristics at Wengguo in
           the northern slopes of the Himalayas
    • Abstract: Abstract The major ions in precipitation can reflect the conditions of the atmosphere, while stable isotopic characteristics provide information on the moisture source. In order to understand the local hydro-chemical features and regional geochemical cycle, it is essential to assess the chemical composition of precipitation and the associated sources. Therefore, a total of 57 precipitation samples (2016 to 2017) for major ions and 178 samples (2013 to 2017) for stable isotopes were collected from the Wengguo station and analyzed to explore the major ionic deposition and stable isotopic characteristics in the northern slopes of the Himalayas. The average pH and electrical conductivity were 6.82 ± 0.45 and 15.36 ± 11.67 μS cm−1, respectively. Ca2+ followed by K+ and Mg2+ played a crucial role in neutralizing the precipitation acidity. The major ionic sources in the region were terrigenous (Ca2+, HCO3−, and Mg2+) and sea salt (Na+, Cl−, and Mg2+), as well as anthropogenic emissions (SO42− and NO3−) and biomass burning (K+). The total deposition flux of the major ions was higher in 2016 than in 2017 and was influenced by the higher precipitation. The average values of δ18O and δD in precipitation were − 15.22 ± 5.17 ‰ and − 116.01 ± 41.31 ‰, respectively. The precipitation stable isotopes were not significantly correlated to the local air temperature but the precipitation amount. Moreover, the variation in stable isotopes, local meteoric water line, and d-excess indicated the existence of continental and monsoon moisture transport systems. The transport of chemicals over the high elevation region from polluted cities in South Asia via moisture originating in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea was determined based on the source identification, clusters of air mass backward trajectory analysis, and the National Center for Environmental Prediction Final dataset. Thus, the ionic concentrations and stable isotopic characteristics of the precipitation from this study provided a valuable dataset to assess the atmospheric environment in the northern slopes of the Himalayas at Southern Tibetan Plateau.
      PubDate: 2020-02-18
  • Temporal and source assessments of organic and elemental carbon at sites
           in the northern South African interior
    • Abstract: Abstract Particulate matter (PM) can affect climate, air quality, human health, acid deposition and visibility, and contain a significant fraction of organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). Southern Africa is an important source region for OC and EC, however, little OC and EC data have been published for this region. This paper presents a multi-year, multi-site (an urban-industrial site in the Vaal Triangle, UI-VT; an industrially influenced site at Amerfoort, iI-AF; and two regional background sites at Skukuza and Louis Trichardt, RR-SK and RR-LT) PM with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) OC and EC dataset for South Africa. The median OC (9.3) and EC (3.2 μg.m−3) concentrations at UI-VT were 1.3 to 2.5 and 2.7 to 4.4 times higher, if compared to the other sites. OC/EC ratios indicated that sources in close proximity to UI-VT were likely the main contributors, while sources that are more distant contributed fractionally more at the other sites. Household combustion for space heating and regional open biomass burning contributed to elevated levels during the cold and dry months at UI-VT. Regional open biomass burning also lead to higher OC and EC concentrations during the dry season at the industrially influenced site (iI-AF) and one of the regional background sites (RR-SK). From the seasonal concentration patterns, it seemed as if household combustion for space heating also contributed at these two sites during the cold months, but this could not be proven, even if only samples with limited influence of open biomass burning were considered. Such biomass burning influences were semi-quantified by considering MODIS fire pixels occurring within the air mass fetch region for each sample. For the remaining regional background site (RR-LT) the results suggesed that only regional open biomass burning contributed to elevated levels of OC and EC in the dry season and that household combustion for space heating did not contribute significantly.
      PubDate: 2020-02-11
  • Spatio-temporal distribution and chemical composition of PM 2.5 in
           Changsha, China
    • Abstract: Abstract The rapid economic development and significant expansion of urban agglomerations in China have resulted in issues associated with haze and photochemical smog. Central China, a transitional zone connecting the eastern coast and western interior, suffers from increasing atmospheric pollution. This study performed a spatio-temporal analysis of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution in Changsha, a provincial capital located in central China. Samples of PM2.5 were collected at five different functional areas from September 2013 to August 2014. The PM2.5 concentration at the five sampling sites was the highest in winter and the lowest in summer, with an average annual PM2.5 concentration of 105.2 ± 11.0 μg/m3. On average, residential sites had the highest concentrations of PM2.5 while suburban sites had the lowest. We found that inorganic ionic species were dominant (~48%), organic species occupied approximately 25%, whereas EC (~3.7%) contributed insignificantly to the total PM2.5 mass. Ion balance calculations show that the PM2.5 samples at all sites were acidic, with increased acidity in spring and summer compared with autumn and winter. Air quality in Changsha is controlled by four major air masses: (1) Wuhan and the surrounding urban clusters, (2) the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration and the surrounding cities, and (3) southern and (4) eastern directions. The north–south transport channel is the most significant air mass trajectory in Changsha and has a significant impact on PM2.5 pollution.
      PubDate: 2019-12-11
  • PM 10 carbonaceous aerosols and their real-time wet scavenging during
           monsoon and non-monsoon seasons at Delhi, India
    • Abstract: Abstract Real-time simultaneous measurements of rainwater and PM10 chemistry were carried out at Delhi during the year 2016–17 in order to assess the levels of carbonaceous species and their wet scavenging during monsoon and non-monsoon seasons at Delhi. The PM10 samples were collected Before Rain (BR), During Rain (DR) and After Rain (AR) events, while rainwater samples collected on an event basis. The ambient OC levels were always higher than the levels of EC during both monsoon and non-monsoon seasons in ambient aerosol as well as in rainwater. On an average, during rain (DR) 30% of OC aerosols and 28.2% of EC aerosols removed via wet scavenging process. In after rain (AR), 26.2% OC and 1.8% EC aerosols further decreased in comparison to DR samples due to the presence of OC and EC free air parcel. Overall it observed that the OC concentration significantly lowered from BR to DR and AR. However, EC concentrations in AR were found to be higher than DR samples indicating their build-up after the rains. The Scavenging Ratios (SRs) of OC and rain intensity had a significant positive correlation, whereas the SRs of EC showed a weak correlation with rain intensity. The SRs of EC were significantly higher during non-monsoon as compared to monsoon season. Such characteristics can be explained based on the particles size, source and the hygroscopicity of both types of carbonaceous aerosol.
      PubDate: 2019-08-21
  • Optical properties of atmospheric particles over an urban site in Mexico
           City and a peri-urban site in Queretaro
    • Abstract: Abstract Optical properties of atmospheric particles at Mexico City (UNAM) and Queretaro (JQRO) were measured with a Photoacoustic Extinctiometer (PAX) at 870 nm. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area has around 21 million inhabitants and Queretaro Metropolitan Area has little more than a million. Observations of meteorological parameters (relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) were used to identify the rainy and dry seasons and explain the daily and seasonal behaviors of particles optical properties. The measurements were made from November 1, 2014 to July 31, 2016. At UNAM, the mean values of the scattering coefficient (Bscat) in cold dry, warm dry, and rainy seasons were 35.8, 27.1, and 31.3 Mm−1, respectively; while at JQRO were 10.9, 11.9, and 15.0 Mm−1. The average values of the absorption coefficient (Babs) at UNAM during the cold dry, warm dry, and rainy seasons were 14.5, 12.7, and 12.7 Mm−1, respectively; whereas at JQRO were 4.9, 4.7, and 3.9 Mm−1. Both absorption and scattering coefficients showed similar diurnal behaviors, but at UNAM they are three times higher than JQRO. Concentrations of criteria gases (O3, NO, NO2 and NOx) were also measured. At UNAM no difference was observed between the seasonal values for the single scattering albedo (SSA); while in JQRO, the rainy season had the highest seasonal value, being 13% higher than in the dry seasons. The Mass Scattering Cross-Section (MSC) values at UNAM were close to 2 m2/g; on the other hand, at JQRO the MSC values were lower than 1 m2/g. The results suggest a seasonal variability in the aerosol optical properties in both sites, which should be verified with more long-term studies.
      PubDate: 2019-08-02
  • Chemical characteristics and source apportionment of PM 2.5 in Wuhan,
    • Abstract: Abstract Continuous online measurements of fine particulate matter mass (PM2.5) and its chemical composition were carried out at an urban monitoring site in Wuhan from March 2017 to February 2018. The PM2.5 mass concentration ranged from 6.3 to 223 μg/m3, with the highest in winter and the lowest in summer. Water soluble ions (WSIs) were the most abundant component in PM2.5 (28.8 ± 22.9 μg/m3), followed by carbonaceous aerosol (11.9 ± 10.4 μg/m3) and elements (5.5 ± 6.7 μg/m3). It is noteworthy that six episodes of sustained high PM were observed during the study period. Five major contributors of PM2.5 were identified by positive matrix factorization (PMF) to be the iron and steel industry, fugitive dust, secondary photochemistry, traffic-related emission and biomass burning, contributing 26.3%, 5.5%, 29.5%, 29.2% and 9.6% to PM2.5, respectively. Furthermore, conditional probability function (CPF), trajectory analysis and potential source contribution function (PSCF) were used to identify the influences of local activities and regional source. Local sources mainly include Wuhan iron and steel group, construction sites and urban trunk roads, etc. Three pollution transport pathways of PM2.5 in Wuhan were identified to be northwest, east and south pathway, with the relative contribution of 40%, 17% and 43%, respectively. Western Henan, northern Shaanxi and southwestern Shanxi were identified to be the major potential source regions of PM2.5 in Wuhan.
      PubDate: 2019-07-30
  • Water-soluble ions and oxygen isotope in precipitation over a site in
           northeastern Tibetan Plateau, China
    • Abstract: Abstract A total of 30 precipitation samples were collected at a remote site of Qinghai Lake in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, China, from June to August 2010. All samples were analyzed for major cations (NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+) and anions (F−, Cl−, NO3−, and SO42−), electric conductivity (EC), pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O). The volume-weighted mean (VWM) values of pH and EC in the precipitation samples were 7.2 and 19.0 μs cm−1. Ca2+ was the dominant cation in precipitation with a VWM of 116.9 μeq L−1 (1.6–662.9 μeq L−1), accounting for 45.7% of total ions in precipitation. SO42− was the predominant anion with a VWM of 32.7 μeq L−1, accounting for 47.1% of the total anions. The average precipitation DOC was 1.4 mg L−1, and it shows a roughly negative power function with the precipitation amount. The values of δ18O in the rainwater in Qinghai Lake varied from −13.5‰ to −3.9‰ with an average of −8.1‰. The enrichment factor analysis indicates that crustal materials from continental dust were the major sources for Ca2+ in the precipitation samples. The high concentration of Ca2+ in the atmosphere played an important role in neutralizing the acidity of rainwater in Qinghai Lake area. Cluster analysis of air-mass trajectories indicates that the air masses associated with northeast and east had high values of NH4+, SO42−, and NO3−, whereas large Ca2+ loading was related to the air mass from west.
      PubDate: 2019-06-17
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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