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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 110 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 47)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 49)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Change and Adaptation in Socio-Ecological Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Climate Change Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Climate law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access  
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Climate Summary of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 61)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Atmospheric Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access  
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 199)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Journal of Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Climatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mathematics of Climate and Weather Forecasting     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorological Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal  
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 126)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Nīvār     Open Access  
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access  
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal  
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
The Cryosphere Discussions (TCD)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Weather     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access  
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Energy & Environment
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.258
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 23  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0958-305X - ISSN (Online) 2048-4070
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1099 journals]
  • Impact of blends of aqueous amines on absorber intercooling for post
           combustion CO2 capture system
    • Authors: Muhammad Imran, Usman Ali, Ali Hasnain
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Climate change is the biggest challenge of this century due to the global consequences of human activities on the ecosystem resulting in global warming. The emissions of greenhouse gases, mainly CO2 from the combustion of fossil fuels in the power plant is the main cause of global warming and to mitigate these emissions is the foremost challenge. Nowadays, the most preferred method is post combustion chemical absorption using amine-based solvents. However, high energy requirements for this method restrict its deployment. An efficient approach used for the reduction of the high energy requirement of post combustion CO2 capture process was absorber intercooling. Therefore, this research evaluates the effect of two configurations of intercooled absorber such as “simple” and “advanced” intercoolers for CO2 capture integrated with natural gas combined cycle power plant using aqueous alkanolamines, such as 30 wt.% monoethanolamine and 50 wt.% methyl-diethanolamine and their blends. For pure methyl-diethanolamine case, at lean loading 0.01 intercooling configurations; simple and advanced shows the highest reduction of 21.01% and 22.82% in the specific reboiler duty, respectively in comparison to other blends at the expense of highest liquid solvent flow rate. Simple and advanced intercooling configurations shows optimum results for the case with 40% monoethanolamine and 60% methyl-diethanolamine in a blend with decrease of 9.19% and 17.28% in solvent flow rate and a decrease of 9.42% and 16.83% in specific reboiler duty required for 90% CO2 capture rate, respectively. For pure monoethanolamine case at lean loading 0.2 absorber intercooling does not offer significant results.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-01-20T07:24:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20982835
       
  • Searching for sustainable electricity generation: The possibility of
           substituting coal and natural gas with clean energy
    • Authors: Mufutau Opeyemi Bello, Sakiru Adebola Solarin
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      It is now a common consensus that there is a need to lessen the consumption of fossil fuels as they are the main cause of greenhouse gases. Electricity is one of the chief determinants of greenhouse gases emission as its generation is dominated by fossil fuels. Thus, it is imperative to decarbonize the electric power sector. The main objective of this work is, therefore, to examine the potentials to switch from fossil fuels to clean energy which comprises of nuclear power and the various renewable energy sources of solar energy, hydropower, wind energy, biofuels, and geothermal. Due to the unsuitability of the ordinary least squares (OLS) procedure in the face of severe multicollinearity, the ridge regression procedure was adopted to obtain the parameter estimates using the U.S. annual electricity sector data for the period 1985 to 2018. The results show that substantial substitution exists between clean energy and the fossil fuels of coal and natural gas in the U.S. electricity sector. The results also underscore the importance of energy resource in the process of economic growth and development of U.S. To fully harness the potentials of clean energy, the study recommends increased investment in each of the components of clean energy. This should be complemented with various policy instruments such as provisions of tax credits and feed-in tariffs for clean energy and imposition of tax on carbon consumption.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-01-19T06:07:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20985253
       
  • The impacts of red mud dosing on methane production and reduction of CO2:
           Activity of granules and formation
    • Authors: Anwar Ahmad, Fatima Shahitha
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of red mud (RM) dosing on granular sludge formation, biogas production and carbon dioxide reduction from palm oil mill effluent (POME) digestion. The results show that dosing RM adversely affected sludge granulation due to the formation of precipitates and hydrolyzates with poor settleability. However, at the optimal dosage (4.5 g RM/L), it could benefit granules formation and stability by improving the in extracellular polymeric substances and biogas production rate was 87.9 l g-VSadded/d at 4.5:30 mixing ratio. The ratio of 0.5:80–2.5:50 g-VS did not affect methane production and the highest methane yield average 79.9 l/g-VS added for RM:POME of 4.5:30, 14.5 higher respective to that of POME alone only. A CO2 reduction of 89.6% was obtained at RM of 4.5:30 (r = 0.998). The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 87% obtained at 30 g COD/l and 4.5:30 g-VS with growth of sp. Methanosarcina. The process evaluation was found model cone best fitted and actual production of CH4. The evidence by low root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) showed high correlation difference (Dif. %) with predicted value and actual values. Analyses were evaluated that the POME degradation with RM utilization, substantially enhanced the hydrolysis rate (khyd), lag phase time h (λ) and methane production rate (Rm) of mixing ratio of RM:POME. Furthermore, the system showed solid reduction with the increased production of methane.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-01-14T06:29:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20986891
       
  • Hydrothermal synthesis of biocompatible nitrogen doped graphene quantum
           dots
    • Authors: Wan Ibtisam Wan Omar, Chin Fhong Soon, Mohd Khairul Ahmad, Masaru Shimomura
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) are promising biocompatible nanomaterial which has received much attention for biological application. However, the effect of the engineered electronic structure of N-GQDs to the fluorescence of GQDs applied for bio-imaging is still under debate. In this study, N-GQDs were synthesized by a facile one-step hydrothermal method for 10 hours at 180°C and theoretical calculation of electronic structure using density functional theory (DFT) by GAUSSIAN 09, were compared. Single to multilayer of N-GQDs with the particle size of 3.2 nm in average were obtained from hydrothermal synthesis. The optical properties of N-GQDs emitted green photoluminescence (PL) at 525 nm (2.36 eV) with PL excitation (PLE) at 367 nm (3.38 eV). From DFT calculation, the optoelectronic properties of GQDs from HOMO to LUMO differ between edge functionalization and graphitic nitrogen doping. Furthermore, cells cytotoxity showed that N-GQDs possess non-toxic property, and the cells were presented with high viability. In summary, by comparing experimental and theoretical calculations, the electronic properties of N-GQDs could enhance their reactivity in photo-electronics for biological application.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-01-11T12:14:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20984112
       
  • A comparative assessment on the effect of 1-propanol and 1-hexanol as
           oxygenated additive with diesel/biodiesel blends on single cylinder diesel
           engine characteristics
    • Authors: Mohanraj Jayapal, Kannan G Radhakrishnan
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Recovery of energy from waste is appealing as it meets the energy demand and minimize the problems associated with waste management. Biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil was used in this study along with 1-propanol and 1-hexanol to make a comparative assessment of the alcohol addition on different diesel engine characteristics. Experimental trials were carried out by utilizing two ternary blends with 20% by volume of higher alcohols (propanol & hexanol), 30% by volume of biodiesel and 50% by volume of diesel. Later, the results were compared with binary blend of 50% by volume of diesel and 50% by volume of biodiesel (D50B50), pure diesel (D100) and biodiesel (B100). Results divulge that ignition delay period got longer for both Pr20 blend and HX20 blend which resulted in a 2% and 1% increase in peak cylinder pressure and 26% and 15% increase in peak heat release rate respectively against D50B50 blend operation. In comparison with the binary blend, the engine brake thermal efficiency improved by 3% and deteriorated by 2% against hexanol and propanol blend respectively. The NOx emission aggravated with ternary blends, nearly 8% higher NOx emission was observed for propanol blend when compared to hexanol blend. Both smoke opacity and carbon monoxide emission reduced, while unburnt hydrocarbon emission was on the higher side with the introduction of alcohol. It is concluded from the observations that the HX20 blend was found to be optimal in terms of improved engine performance and emission characteristics.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-01-11T12:14:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20985618
       
  • Effect of fuel injection pressure and EGR techniques on various engine
           performance and emission characteristics on a CRDI diesel engine when run
           with linseed oil methyl ester
    • Authors: Manish Kumar, Varun Kumar Singh, Abhishek Sharma, Naushad Ahmad Ansari, Raghvendra Gautam, Yashvir Singh
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Nowadays, owing to the reduction in petroleum supplies due to the growing oil demand, the search for alternate fuels has intensified. However, as alternate fuel choice grows, checking whether alternative fuels are suitable for use in engines has become time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, the usage of Linseed oil methyl ester (linseed biodiesel) in the common rail direct injection (CRDI) diesel engine was optimized for a smaller number of trials in this research. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed for optimization. Input variables were chosen for LOME content in the blend, fuel injection pressure (FIP), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates, and engine load while output parameters were selected for like indicated power (IP), indicated thermal efficiency (η(I)), indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), hydrocarbon (HC), and NOx (Oxide of Nitrogen).The model layout employed in the analysis is focused on the matrix of the CCRD (central composite rotating design). The optimal input variables configuration is estimated at 5.45% LOME blend, 57.77 MPa FIP, 6.50% EGR, and 6.909 kg engine load leading to better efficiency together with reduced emissions. The optimized output of the engine at this input configurations are as IP 4.878 kW, IMEP 0.5886 MPa, indicated thermal efficiency 48.36%, HC 23.43 ppm vol., and NOx 533.15 ppm vol. Testing and optimum output response results are measured at acceptable input parameters and are considered to be within an acceptable error range. The findings of this analysis have shown that RSM is an appropriate technique for optimizing CRDI diesel engines.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-01-08T04:52:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20983477
       
  • Forecasting the future scale of vehicle to grid technology for electric
           vehicles and its economic value as future electric energy source: The case
           of South Korea
    • Authors: Keumju Lim, Justine Jihyun Kim, Jongsu Lee
      Pages: 1350 - 1366
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Volume 31, Issue 8, Page 1350-1366, December 2020.
      With the world seeking ways to cope with climate change, the interest in and demand for electric vehicles are increasing as part of the efforts to resolve the issue of fine dust, especially in South Korea. The Korean government has consistently announced plans to promote electric vehicles as a means of transportation by providing benefits such as subsidies for electric vehicle purchase and expansion of charging infrastructure. Meanwhile, as electric vehicles continue to grow in number, the energy industry has become attentive to its role as a resource for power generation through vehicle to grid technology. This study analyzes electric vehicle consumer preferences using the discrete choice experiment (DCE) and found that there exists a clear nested structure in Korean consumers’ choice of vehicle. The study also estimates the amount of vehicle to grid electricity supply in the power market and calculates not only national but also individual economic benefit of electric vehicle owners participating in vehicle to grid services based on the estimated amount of electricity supplied. The results of scenario analysis indicate that the estimated electric vehicle supply in Korea will be about 560,000 units cumulatively and that the vehicle to grid electric vehicle power supply scale will reach 1.81 GW by 2030. The estimation shows that the economic benefit of vehicle to grid at the national power market level is 50.9 billion KRW per year, while the economic benefit at an individual level (per vehicle) is 104,151 KRW.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-01-08T03:47:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X19898283
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 8 (2020)
       
  • One pot and large-scale synthesis of nanostructured metal sulfides:
           Synergistic effect on supercapacitor performance
    • Authors: C Karthikeyan, R Dhilip Kumar, J Anandha Raj, S Karuppuchamy
      Pages: 1367 - 1384
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Volume 31, Issue 8, Page 1367-1384, December 2020.
      Metal sulfides received key interest as an electrode material for storage and conversion of energy. Here, the novel nanostructured N17S18 and (CoNi)3S4 materials were synthesized via one-step hydrothermal method, and the synergistic effect of metal ions and electrochemical properties was investigated. A new and simple solution growth technique was employed in this work. The prepared nanopowders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the prepared nanopowder revealed the formation of cubic phase cobalt nickel sulfides (CoNi)3S4 and hexagonal phase nickel sulfides (Ni17S18). Scanning electron microscopy analysis display fibrous, flakes and sheet-like morphology for CoxSx, N17S18 and (CoNi)3S4, respectively. Fibrous and sheet-like morphology exhibits higher electrochemical performance in supercapacitors. The electrochemical behavior of the amorphous CoxSx, crystallite Ni17S18 and (CoNi)3S4 modified electrodes was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge–discharge techniques. The specific capacitance of 57 F/g and 31 F/g were obtained for the amorphous CoxSx and crystalline (CoNi)3S4 powder, respectively. Amorphous CoxSx modified electrode retains 76% of initial capacitance after 1000 repeated cycling process. These results of this study suggest that the CoxSx and crystalline (CoNi)3S4 are appropriate materials for supercapacitor applications.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-01-10T04:46:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X19899373
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 8 (2020)
       
  • Strategic demand response framework for energy management in distribution
           system based on network loss sensitivity
    • Authors: Sampath Kumar, M Sushama
      Pages: 1385 - 1402
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Volume 31, Issue 8, Page 1385-1402, December 2020.
      This paper discusses an energy management system–based demand response scheduling strategy in distribution system. The proposed strategy includes customer payment minimization and network loss minimization as responsive load scheduling objectives through centralized approach. Two types of optimization strategies each based on payment minimization and network loss sensitivity are discussed in this paper. Thus, the proposed scheduling strategy can effectively resolve the optimality issue between different objectives of the distribution system scheduling under demand response penetration. The demand response scheduling strategies are simulated using standard IEEE 37 bus distribution test system through different cases of scheduling and optimization scenarios. The simulation results are presented, discussed, and compared with the base test cases without demand response penetration and without optimization strategies under demand response penetration to demonstrate the effectiveness of network loss, sensitivity consideration and optimization strategies in carrying out distribution system scheduling. In addition, sensitivity analysis is performed. The variation of distribution network performance is analyzed for various test cases and scenarios at different penetration levels.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-01-22T06:23:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X19893041
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 8 (2020)
       
  • Comparative study of greenhouse gas emissions between national government
           and local governments in Korea
    • Authors: Eun-Mi Been, Young-Kwon Park, Kyung-Tae Kim
      Pages: 1403 - 1415
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Volume 31, Issue 8, Page 1403-1415, December 2020.
      The purpose of this study is to calculate and analyze emissions using the uniformity of national and local emission calculation institutions, unification of calculation methods, and common statistical data. The Korea Environment Corporation has reported the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from local governments in Korea since 2015. On the other hand, the reliability of the emissions amount has been questioned because of the inconsistency of the figures between the national emissions calculated by the green in regulation and the total emissions of local governments. To validate the reliability of the emissions report, this study examined the causes of the differences between the national government and 17 local governments nationwide over a 10-year period from 2005 to 2014. The national GHG inventory was designed to make reporting at home and abroad, but the local GHG inventory was built to support the GHG reduction activities of local governments. The most important reason why the sum of state and local governments GHG emissions did not coincide was the difference in the guidelines applied to establish the calculation standard for the GHG inventory. Discrepancies in the calculation criteria were also shown to cause differences in the calculation methodology, range of calculation categories, emissions coefficients, and available activity data.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-03-03T05:01:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20907089
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 8 (2020)
       
  • Spillover effects between energies, gold, and stock: the United States
           versus China
    • Authors: Xie He, Tetsuya Takiguchi, Tadahiro Nakajima, Shigeyuki Hamori
      Pages: 1416 - 1447
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Volume 31, Issue 8, Page 1416-1447, December 2020.
      This study investigates the time–frequency dynamics of return and volatility spillovers between the stock market and three commodity markets: natural gas, crude oil, and gold via a comparative analysis between the United States and China is conducted with the help of new empirical methods. Our findings are as follows. First, in terms of time, return spillovers between crude oil and the stock market are strongest in two of the three commodity markets. Crude oil emits a net negative return spillover to the US stock market, and a net positive return spillover to the Chinese stock market. By contrast, the strongest volatility spillover effect is transmitted to the stock markets of both countries through gold. However, gold has a net positive volatility spillover effect on the US stock market and a net negative effect on the Chinese stock market. In the frequency domain, most of the return spillover is produced in the short term, and most of the volatility spillover occurs in the long term. In addition, the moving-window method reveals the dynamic nature of the spillover effect. Some extreme events can have a dramatic effect on the spillover index. Conversely, the spillover effect differs significantly between the two countries and is characterized by time variation and frequency dependence.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-03-03T05:01:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20907081
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 8 (2020)
       
  • Analyzing energy poverty using intelligent approach
    • Authors: Milena N Rajić, Miroslav B Milovanović, Dragan S Antić, Rado M Maksimović, Pedja M Milosavljević, Dragan Lj Pavlović
      Pages: 1448 - 1472
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Volume 31, Issue 8, Page 1448-1472, December 2020.
      The study represents a new approach of analyzing energy poverty using an intelligent method based on social factors. Energy poverty represents one of the most vital problems, especially in recent years, with serious implications in the social, economic, environmental, political, and health sphere. Identifying and measuring social energy parameters represents a challenge not only on the national, but also on the regional level. This research represents a new approach to neural network application in energy systems and energy resource planning activities with the aim of analyzing energy poverty with real socio-economic data. The analyzed data are associated with social factors within one country. The newly developed model includes a new data optimization framework for pre-processing and selecting the most important parameters from a raw dataset. In analyzing energy poverty, it is concluded that its weakness is based on the actual energy consumption of households (both electricity and heat consumption). The model presented in this paper uses 15 influential parameters in energy prediction.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-03-05T05:16:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20907087
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 8 (2020)
       
  • Discourses about energy transition in Austrian climate and energy model
           regions: Turning awareness into action
    • Authors: Nadejda Komendantova, Sonata Neumueller
      Pages: 1473 - 1497
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Volume 31, Issue 8, Page 1473-1497, December 2020.
      The paper is focused on energy transition and stakeholders’ discourses about it in three Austrian Climate and Energy Model Regions (Baden, Ebreichsdorf, and Freistadt). The theoretical basis of the paper is in the theory of plural rationalities. The data were collected from in-depth qualitative interviews with different stakeholders’ groups in each region, identified through comprehensive stakeholders mapping. The data were analyzed with qualitative data analysis software NVivo to identify elements and narratives of various discourses. The key words and meanings were embedded in the coding of context for different discourses following the content analysis techniques. The results, based on word clouds, identified major elements of hierarchical, egalitarian, or individualistic discourses. Based on identified discourses, energy policy measure can be developed to turn awareness about energy transition into action and to develop compromise solutions, which address narratives of various discourses.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-03-09T05:17:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20907086
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 8 (2020)
       
  • The impact of biofuel consumption on CO2 emissions: A panel data analysis
           for seven selected G20 countries
    • Authors: Bingjie Xu, Ruoyu Zhong, Hui Qiao
      Pages: 1498 - 1514
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Volume 31, Issue 8, Page 1498-1514, December 2020.
      Internationally, biofuel energy as a renewable energy source has been increasingly appreciated by various industries. The benefits of biofuel energy for environmental protection and global climate change cannot be denied. Hence, this paper examines the nexus among economic growth, biofuel consumption, urbanization rate, and CO2 emissions in seven selected Group of Twenty countries (G20) over 2001–2017. The results of fully modified ordinary least squares suggest that the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) exists between economic growth and CO2 emissions, and the impact of biofuel consumption and the urbanization rate on CO2 emissions is negative and positive, respectively. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the nexus among economic growth, biofuel consumption, urbanization rate, and CO2 emissions. The significance of this paper is to add biofuel consumption as a new variable for a panel of seven selected Group of Twenty (G20) countries covering 2001–2017. In addition, this study put urbanization into the current environmental Kuznets curve model to validate that urbanization can increase CO2 emissions. Developing the biofuel industry can not only diminish fossil fuel energy consumption but also offer huge potential to reduce CO2 emissions.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-04-03T01:37:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20915426
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 8 (2020)
       
  • Impact of public R&D as market matures: Evidence from solar PV
           industry
    • Authors: Hanee Ryu, Hyejae Jung
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Our study concentrates on the impact of public research and development (R&D) as solar PV market matures. This paper tried to distinguish the concepts of market maturity and technology maturity and to approach them measurably. Considering the concept of cost reduction rate and number of patent change rate, we estimates maturity indicator respectively. Next, we estimate how market and technology maturity interact with public R&D. Finally, we examine whether the R&D effect varies depending on market maturity. This study suggests the implications of the R&D policy of renewable energy technologies at various maturity levels by making the concept of market maturity which is commonly used and measuring the R&D effect according to market maturity.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-12-25T04:18:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20981580
       
  • Sorption of phenols on hexadecyltrimethylammonium- modified bentonite:
           Application of Polanyi−Manes potential theory
    • Authors: Jiyeon Choi, Dong-Ik Slong, Won Sik Shin
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated the sorption of phenol and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) on natural bentonite modified with hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) cation. The Freundlich, Langmuir, Dubinin−Radushkevich (DR), Sips, and Polanyi−Dubinin−Manes (PDM) models fitted the sorption data well (R2 > 0.92). The Freundlich coefficient and the maximum sorbed amount of the Langmuir and PDM models of 4-CP were higher than phenol because of higher hydrophobicity (log Kow = 2.39 for 4-CP and 1.46 for phenol). The PDM model that includes solubility and molar volume was highly useful in predicting the sorption of phenols having widely different hydrophobicity and solubility. The characteristic curves, the plot of sorbed volume (qv) versus the sorption potential per molar volume (ε/Vm) of 4-CP and phenol were distinctly different although they have similar chemical compositions. The selectivity of 4-CP (3.72) was higher than that of phenol (0.27) in binary sorption systems. The sorbed volume (qv) in the binary sorption was remarkably reduced and the characteristic curve had wider distribution owing to competition in pore-filling. The sorption behaviors were elucidated by partitioning and pore-filling mechanisms. Among the tested binary sorption models, the modified Langmuir competitive model was the best in the prediction of the binary sorption (R2 > 0.98).
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-12-08T03:35:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20977286
       
  • Pandemic outbreaks (COVID-19) and sectoral carbon emissions in the United
           States: A spillover effect evidence from Diebold and Yilmaz index
    • Authors: Andrew Adewale Alola, Festus Victor Bekun
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This article extend the body of knowledge in the environmental sustainability literature by exploring the spillover effect across the United States’ carbon emissions from sectoral energy consumption: from the commercial sector (CEM), transport sector (TEM), industrial sector (IEM), residential sector (REM), electric power sector (EEM). From this perspective, this study accounted for world pandemic uncertainty index (WPU) in retrospect of global episodes (coronavirus pandemic), crude oil price (WTI), and disposable income per capita (DIC). To this end, the novel spillover methodology of Diebold and Yilmaz is employed in the context of the United State for the period January 1996-February 2020. Our Study shows that total spillover effect from the forecast error variance decomposition (FEVD) is 51.1%, while the rest 48.9% of the forecast variance is attributed to the idiosyncratic shocks. Furthermore, a significant contribution of 113.9% spillover effect from uncertainty due to pandemics to TME, IEM, REM, EEM, CEM, DIC, and WTI. Our study adds to the spillover index and computed the net spillover index between the outlined variables that shows the variance between the contribution of spillover to and from the spillover dynamics. Importantly, the study found that WTI, DIC, IEM, EEM, and CEM received a net spillover shock of 63.80%, 25.90%, 48.80%, 26.10%, and 53.3% from the total spillover index. However, WPU, TEM and REM are a net transmitter of spillover effect of 111.7%, 56.90%, and 48.50% respectively. These outcomes are instructive as decision-makers, stakeholders, and players in the energy sector and oil/energy market are required to pay more focus on sectors that are a net transmitter of spillover shocks such as the world pandemic uncertainty and as well those that are net receivers.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-12-07T04:23:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20977275
       
  • Turkey’s energy trade relations with Europe: The role of
           institutions and energy market
    • Authors: Halil Burak Sakal
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Globally, the level of electricity grid interconnectedness between neighboring countries varies depending on the level of regional cooperation enabled by institutions. As suggested by previous research, in transboundary river basins, this variation affects the environment and the management of transboundary waters. In regions where all electricity utilities are connected and function at a synchronized frequency, and where integrated electricity market mechanisms function, the stress on the shared water resources tends to be less. Turkey shares river basins and power transmission lines in Europe both with the members of the European Union (EU) and with non-member states. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the literature on the geopolitics of renewable energy by comparing the level of Turkey’s electricity trade integrity with its EU-member European neighbors and with its non-EU-member neighbors and discuss the potential impacts of the transboundary electricity trade on the environment and the shared water resources. The main argument in this paper is that the higher level of electricity trade between Turkey and its EU-member neighbors is facilitated and boosted by Turkey’s membership to the European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSO-E). The higher level of electricity interconnection leads to a higher level of cooperation in water and environment issues in the shared river basins between Turkey and Europe through the facilitating role of established institutions.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-12-07T04:23:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20977298
       
  • Firm structure, scale economies, and productivity in the U.S. electric
           power industry: A cost function analysis
    • Authors: Heesun Jang
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This paper analyzes economic performances of cooperatives relative to other types of ownership in the US electric power industry. Specifically, the paper uses a panel data of electric utilities over 2001–2013 to analyze economic performances of cooperatives relative to for-profit firms and to investigate the sources of performance differences under a model of cost minimization. The results show that investor-owned utilities are more profitable than cooperatives, but there are no significant differences in physical productivity between investor-owned utilities and cooperatives. Independent power producers are more financially profitable and more physically productive than their counterparts. The results also support that although the industry exhibits substantial scale economies over a broad range of output, cooperatives are constrained to exploit the scale economies than other groups as it is limited by higher cost of financing. This suggests that while a small number of very large firms are not required for efficient production in the industry, mergers between cooperatives could provide substantial scale economies, as discussed in the literature.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-11-19T12:57:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20971627
       
  • Environmental assessment of a hybrid system composed of solid oxide fuel
           cell, gas turbine and multiple effect evaporation desalination system
    • Authors: Sobhan Jehandideh, Hasan Hassanzade, Seyyed Ehsan Shakib
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study deals with a solid oxide fuel cell- gas turbine (SOFC-GT) hybrid system coupled with a multi-effect evaporation desalination plant with steam condensation. The environmental evaluation is also done due to the importance of waste energy recovery especially waste heat in power generation systems. The evaporation desalination plant is studied for using the excess heat to produce freshwater. The thermodynamic relationships governing different components of the system are first provided, including fuel cells, heat exchangers, gas turbine, and desalination plant. Next, given the absence of previous research on the environmental effects of cogeneration systems, despite its necessity, the study system is analyzed from an environmental point of view. Accordingly, the impacts of the system performance parameters, including the fuel consumption coefficients, compressor pressure ratio, fuel pre-reforming percentage, and the steam to carbon ratio are investigated on the CO2, CO, and NOx emission rates. Based on the findings, it is concluded that of different species, the impacts of CO, CO2, and NOx emission rates are significant on the environment. Thus, the impacts of pressure ratio and pre-reforming percentage on their emission rates have been studied. The results revealed with increasing the compressor pressure ratio, increasing the fuel consumption coefficients, and decreasing the fuel cell's exhaust temperature, the CO and NOx emission rates and corresponding social costs diminished. On the other hand, with elevation of the ratio of steam to carbon, the recovery rate, the fuel cell's exhaust temperature, the concerned gas emission rates, and corresponding social costs increased.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-11-17T12:58:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20973575
       
  • The prediction of CO2 emissions in domestic power generation sector
           between 2020 and 2030 for Korea
    • Authors: Roosse Lee, You Ra Gwak, Jung Min Sohn, See Hoon Lee
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In the last ten years, reducing CO2 emissions has been a very important focus across all industries. To efficiently achieve carbon reduction in the power generation sector, various policies, regulations, and legislation have been proposed. In addition, new energy sources and technologies have been developed and widely adopted. In this study, current and future CO2 emissions from the domestic power generation sector were calculated and predicted based on two national power generation plans. The overall power plant efficiencies, operation rate of power plants, power capacities, and CO2 emissions for 2030 were predicted based on the 7th and 8th basic plan for long-term electricity supply and demand in Korea. In addition, the CO2 emissions policies of several major countries announced in accordance with the Paris Climate Agreement were identified and compared with Korea's climate change policy. Finally, the improvement of power generation efficiencies and co-combustion of biomass with coal is recommended to help the reduction of the BAU-based CO2 emissions by 19.4%.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-11-11T05:13:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20971628
       
  • Does inflation instability affect environmental pollution' Fresh
           evidence from Asian economies
    • Authors: Waheed Ahmad, Sana Ullah, Ilhan Ozturk, Muhammad Tariq Majeed
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The present study examines the linkage between inflation instability and pollution emissions for the 40 Asian economies over the period of 1990–2018. However, a limited number of researches investigate the linkage between inflation instability and the environment. For empirical analysis, econometric methods namely cross-sectional test statistics for examining the dependency, cross-sectionally augmented Dickey-Fuller (CADF) and cross-sectional Im, Pesaran, and Shin (CIPS) for the panel unit root, Westerlund technique for the long-run relationship, and Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square (FMOLS) to estimate the long-run coefficients have adopted. Additionally, the Dumitrescu and Hurlin panel causality test is applied to investigate the causal nexus among the panel data series. The empirical finding depicts that inflation instability improves environmental performance implying that higher price volatility creates uncertainty that discourages investment projects and consumption, hence improves environmental quality. However, the results indicate that financial development stimulates pollution emissions and degrades environmental condition. Based on these findings, the study opens up innovative intuitions for policymakers to support a robust role of economic stability in attaining targets relevant to pollution reduction.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-11-06T05:33:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20971804
       
  • Forecasting short-term solar energy generation in Asia Pacific using a
           nonlinear grey Bernoulli model with time power term
    • Authors: Wenqing Wu, Xin Ma, Bo Zeng, Yuanyuan Zhang, Wanpeng Li
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Solar energy as one type of renewable energy is the cleanest and most abundant energy source available. It is mainly used for photovoltaics, solar heating and cooling, and solar power generation. With the crisis of energy and environment, the solar energy generation is becoming a research hotspot in clean energy production. In this paper, the solar energy generation in Asia Pacific including Australia, South Korea, China, Japan and India are studied by a new nonlinear univariate grey Bernoulli model with time power term. Analytical solution of the model is derived by the grey technique, the theory of ordinary differential equations and the two-point Gauss quadrature rule of integration. And the nonlinear parameters are determined by the grey wolf optimizer and the linearized form of the new model. According to historical data from 2011 to 2018 stated by British Petroleum, forecasting models are built to calculate the solar energy generation of the five countries from 2019 to 2023.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-10-08T05:54:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20960700
       
  • Implementation of cost benefit analysis of vehicle to grid coupled real
           Micro-Grid by considering battery energy wear: Practical study case
    • Authors: Rayhane Koubaa, Yeliz Yoldas, Selcuk Goren, Lotfi Krichen, Ahmet Onen
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The proposed research represents a spin-off of the Malta College of Arts, Science and Technology (MCAST) Micro-Grid (MG) project. Particularly, economic impact of Electric Vehicles (EV) integration into the MG is investigated in this paper. The MCAST MG consists of photovoltaic generation unit, a diesel generator and a battery storage system. In this paper, a Vehicle-to grid (V2G) concept is considered where utilities can profit from controlled energy trading operations according to EVs availability. EVs are categorized under different profiles considering energy and time availability of owners typical work hours. V2G energy cost is estimated based on battery energy wear due V2G extra cycling and refunded to EVs owners. As most of developed V2G studies don’t consider real world input data or/and EV battery aging cost in system modeling and evaluation, the present paper presents a reliable study as it considers a real life MG with in field measurement input data and appropriate battery degradation model. The adopted model represents a linear approximation with a minimum error value to make a suitable tradeoff of computational complexity and accuracy of obtained results. Economic assessment of the system according to the proposed energy management is performed, where results indicate that the V2G system assisted the MG operation during high electricity price period and achieved economic profit to EVs owners. According to numerical results, V2G energy trading achieved 29.90 EUR of gross selling revenues with only 4.46 EUR as battery degradation cost which makes a 16.41% average cost reduction of daily MG operation cost.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-10-08T05:54:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20965158
       
  • Effect of port injection of ethanol on engine performance, exhaust
           emissions and environmental factors in a dual-fuel diesel engine
    • Authors: Habib Gürbüz, Selim Demirtürk, İsmail Hakkı Akçay, Hüsameddin Akçay
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This paper investigates the effect of ethanol addition and hot exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on engine performance, exhaust emissions, and air-pollution damage-cost in a dual-fuel diesel engine. The ethanol is injected at low pressure into the intake manifold using a port-fuel injector while diesel fuel is injected directly into the cylinder. Only the duration of the ethanol injection is changed in the dual-fuel injection system while the diesel injection parameters are not changed. Ethanol fuel is added by port injection in such amounts as to provide additional heat energy in the range of 0–40% to the heat energy of the diesel fuel taken to the engine for any engine operating conditions. Moreover, 5%, 10%, and 15% rates exhaust gas recirculation (hot EGR) for each engine operating conditions are applied. The engine is operated at 1400, 1600, 1800 and 2000 rpm engine speeds at full load (≈40 Nm). In this paper, the highest improvement in engine performance and environmental factors is obtained with ethanol addition of 40% without the hot EGR at 1400 rpm. Under these conditions, the brake engine power (BEP) and brake engine torque (BET) increase of 6.9% and 8.1% while NOx emission and air-pollution damage-cost decreased of 32% and 23.9%, respectively. However, CO, HC, and smoke (FSN number) emissions increased significantly. On the other hand, the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) are negatively affected by the ethanol addition and hot EGR.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-09-25T01:44:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20960701
       
  • Microalgal potential for nutrient-energy-wastewater nexus: Innovations,
           current trends and future directions
    • Authors: Sandeep Panda, Srabani Mishra, Ata Akcil, Mehmet Ali Kucuker
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Agricultural, domestic and industrial activities contribute in releasing several organic and inorganic substances into the water streams that result in environmental pollution. Biological treatment of industrial and domestic wastewater using Activated Sludge Nutrient Removal (ASNR), the conventional process, is well known; however, it is relatively expensive due to the requirement for high energy inputs. Microalgal applications have been gaining interest as they offer potential cost-effective measures for the treatment of wastewater in the peri-urban and rural areas. Such systems provide an interesting tertiary biological treatment method where valuable biomass is produced with simultaneous uptake of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous with reduction in coliform bacteria, heavy metals, chemical and biochemical oxygen demand (COD & BOD) and the removal/degradation of xenobiotic compounds etc. This paper provides a systematic review on the current microalgal applications (phycoremediation) for wastewater treatment with advanced information on their role towards nutrient recovery and energy (biogas) production under the third generation biorefinery concept. The use of advanced algal pond systems for wastewater treatment including pollutant degradation, microalgal cultivation and employing such facilities for biogas production in view of technology applications is emphasized. This inter-linked network indicating microalgal role into the Nutrient-Energy-Wastewater nexus with future directions and concluding remarks are discussed.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-09-17T08:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20955187
       
  • Role of high technology exports for energy efficiency: Empirical evidence
           in the context of Gulf Cooperation Council countries
    • Authors: Rida Waheed, Suleman Sarwar, Zouheir Mighri
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores the impacts of high technology exports on energy consumption, energy intensity, and carbon intensity for a panel of six GCC economies covering a period of 1990 to 2017. For detailed empirical analysis, we employ panel techniques to explore the linkages between high technology exports and energy efficiency in GCC countries. The empirical results demonstrate that high technology exports help to reduce overall energy demand with −0.154% and energy intensity with −0.254% in GCC countries. Notably, we observe that effects on technology exports on carbon intensity are significantly lower in magnitude with −0.010%. Notably, the long empirics are in consistent with achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG's) of GCC countries (cleaner and affordable energy, environmental awareness, climate change action, etc.). The findings suggest that new and innovative energy conservation policies should be introduced to promote energy efficient equipment’s and technologies for cleaner and greener growth.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-09-09T05:43:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20954196
       
  • Analysis on complementarity between a CO2 tax and an emissions trading
           system to reduce industrial emissions in Chile
    • Authors: Cristian Mardones
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to analyze the behavior of Chilean industrial sources when a CO2 tax, an emissions trading system with a total reduction target of 30%, or both instruments simultaneously are applied. For the above, an optimization model is built that is then calibrated with firm -level data obtained from the Annual National Industrial Survey (ENIA). Specifically, the model assumes that industrial sources have the option of maintaining their original emissions, replacing their current fuels with less polluting ones to pay fewer taxes and/or trade of emissions in a carbon market. The results show that to reduce emissions by at least 30% a tax close to US $17.5/tCO2 could be applied with a total cost of US $106 million, but it would be better to apply an emissions trading system with a similar price because the total cost would be US $21.3 million. If both economic instruments are applied together, the total cost of reduction is higher than when the instruments are implemented independently. Thus, it is concluded that Chile could move from a CO2 tax to an emissions trading system in order to reduce the costs of its environmental regulation.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-09-03T04:40:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20954197
       
  • The role of shale gas in shaping the U.S. long-run CO2 emissions
    • Authors: Y.-H. Henry Chen, John M Reilly, Sergey Paltsev
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The shale gas boom in the U.S. has lowered the U.S. CO2 emissions in recent years mainly through substitution of gas for coal in power generation. Will the shale gas boom reduce the emissions in the long-run as well' To study this, we consider a counterfactual without the shale gas boom based on a general equilibrium modeling for the 2011 U.S. economy. To enhance the power sector modeling, the supply responses of coal-fired and gas-fired generations are calibrated to existing research. We find that if gas prices remain at 2007 levels in 2011, only a model setting that allows very little reduction in electricity demand, reflecting a short-run demand response, generates an increase in economy-wide emissions. For all other cases, the higher gas price under the counterfactual will have a dampening effect on economic activities and consequently lowers economy-wide emissions, even though the power sector emissions may increase due to the gas-to-coal switch. In other words, without any policy intervention, although the shale gas boom could reduce emissions in the short run, it may lead to higher emissions in the long run if the low gas prices persist. Our finding suggests that extrapolating the current decline in emissions due to the shale gas boom to the distant future could be misleading. Instead, if curbing emissions is the goal, rather than depending upon the cheap gas, policies and measures for cutting emissions remain imperative.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-08-31T04:17:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20953412
       
  • Regional dimensions of the South Korean water-energy nexus
    • Authors: Jinyoung Lee, Hana Kim
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The linkage between water and energy, the water-energy nexus, is site specific. An integrated management approach to both resources begins with understanding a region’s water-energy nexus. This study built an inventory of water and energy consumption in 17 South Korean regions at each stage of the urban water cycle from 2012 to 2017, estimated the water-related energy intensities, and compared those values across regions. Additionally, this study conducted a series of regression analyses to identify the influences of various factors on water-related energy consumption. This study found regional variance in the total energy intensity as well as in the energy intensities at different stages of the water cycle. Both energy consumed and energy intensities generally increased over the study period. The findings show that greater attention should be paid to energy consumption in the water sector, especially in the wastewater treatment sector. In addition, the regression analyses revealed that management of energy intensity is the most impactful way to reduce energy consumption in the water sector. The positive impacts on water pollution and water consumption also bolster the necessity of water conservation efforts. This study presents regional priorities related to the water-energy nexus and provides water-related energy intensity benchmarks that local governments can use. The findings highlight the necessity of an integrated approach to water and energy.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-08-26T05:53:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20949468
       
  • Are the intensity of energy use, land agglomeration, CO2 emissions, and
           economic progress dynamically interlinked across development levels'
    • Authors: Munir Ahmad, Heng Li, Muhammad Khalid Anser, Abdul Rehman, Zeeshan Fareed, Qingyou Yan, Gul Jabeen
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Although urban agglomerations have introduced substantial contributions to the economies around the globe, it has also led to the serious environmental challenges. However, this situation may vary across the development levels. The existing knowledge offers a gap in terms of both theoretical and empirical grounds. The Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology (STIRPAT) is previously not known to incorporate land agglomeration and the intensity of energy use. Besides, the investigation of linkages among the variables of interest across the development levels within a country is not known to be considered by the existing knowledge. This study systematically investigates the heterogeneous dynamic causality among the intensity of energy use, land agglomeration, carbon dioxide emissions (CO2), and economic progress across the development levels in the Chinese economy, considering 29 provinces for the period 2000 to 2018. To this end, a long-term co-integration association is tested and found existent among the variables of interest. A dynamic common correlated effects mean group approach is applied for impact analysis. The key findings include: The impacts of economic progress and land agglomeration on CO2 are found positive and significant in the country panel and western zone of China (WZC). It turned to be neutral in the case of the central zone of China (CZC) and significantly negative in the eastern zone of China (EZC). To this end, economic progress presented a ‘development ladder-based CO2 mitigation effect,’ while the land agglomeration exposed the ‘land agglomeration ladder-based CO2 mitigation effect’. Further, the causalities extracted are: first, economic progress is found in positive bilateral linkages with the intensity of energy use and land agglomeration for all the panels. Second, a positive and unilateral causal bridge is found operating from land agglomeration to the intensity of energy use and from the intensity of energy use to CO2. Third, a unilateral linkage of mixed nature is exposed to exist from land agglomeration to CO2, with positive causal links for country panel and WZC, negative causal links for EZC, while a neutral linkage is found for CZC. Fourth, a bidirectional link with mixed causalities appeared in the country panel and WZC. Economic progress increased CO2 in WZC. Next, a negative bilateral link is observed between the two variables in EZC. Additionally, this link remained neutral in CZC. Based on empirics, it is revealed that the development level matters in determining the links among the variables of interest.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-08-20T04:43:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20949471
       
  • The path to a 2025 nuclear-free Taiwan: An analysis of dynamic competition
           among emissions, energy, and economy
    • Authors: Chun Chih Chen
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Taiwan intends to be nuclear free by 2025. This study employs the Lotka–Volterra competition model for sustainable development to analyze the emissions–energy–economy (3Es) issue to make appropriate policy suggestions for a nuclear-free transition. It also offers a new approach to naming the 3E relationship. The literature review shows that the environmental Kuznets curve accompanies the feedback and conservation hypotheses. In the 3E dynamics relationship analysis, the model shows a good mean absolute percentage error (
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-08-17T04:04:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20949981
       
  • Effect of process conditions on the surface properties of biomass chars
           produced by means of pyrolysis and CO2 gasification
    • Authors: Junaid Ahmad, Stergios Vakalis, Francesco Patuzzi, Marco Baratieri
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Biomass char is defined as the carbonaceous by-product of biomass pyrolysis or gasification and is an undesired by-product that is disposed as a waste, usually at a very high cost. Chars have interesting characteristics like high carbon content and high porosity. These characteristics can make attractive the utilization of biomass char for alternative and innovative applications, e.g. as precursors for activated carbons or as filtering mediums. In this framework, this present work focuses the attention on the surface properties of char which is a key parameter for the evaluation of its applicability in adsorption applications. The combination of three main variables has been considered: the carrier gas (nitrogen or carbon dioxide), the temperature (set at 500°C, 700°C and 900°C) and the initial heating rate (10°C min−1, 30°C min−1 or 50°C min−1). Maximum heating values are observed at 700°C for the case of inert atmosphere (pyrolysis) and the values reduce slightly for the case of CO2 gasification. On the contrary, CO2 gasification has a positive effect on the porosity of the biomass chars. This present research has the scope to provide a first insight on the effect of operating conditions on the optimal char characteristics for the utilization of biomass char as a cheap alternative for filters and adsorbents. An interesting future potential transition of existing biomass CHP facilities would be the evolution into biorefineries, in accordance with the new mandates about Circular Economy.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-08-17T04:04:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20948237
       
  • Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth in the
           US: A Markov-Switching VAR analysis
    • Authors: Emrah Ismail Cevik, Durmuş Çağrı Yıldırım, Sel Dibooglu
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      We examine the relationship between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth in the United States. While the regime-dependent Granger causality test results for the non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth suggest bi-directional causality in both regimes, we cannot validate any causality between renewable energy consumption and economic growth. The US meets its energy demand from non-renewable sources; as such, renewable energy consumption does not seem to affect economic growth. Given the efficiency and productivity of renewable energy investments, we conclude that it is worthwhile to consider renewable energy inputs to replace fossil fuels given potential benefits in terms of global warming and climate change concerns. In this regard, increasing the R&D investments in the renewable energy sectors, increases in productivity and profitability of renewable energy investments are likely to accrue benefits in the long run.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-08-13T04:21:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20944035
       
  • Consumers’ heterogeneous preferences toward the renewable portfolio
           standard policy: An evaluation of Korea’s energy transition policy
    • Authors: Jihee Lee, HyungBin Moon, Jongsu Lee
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The low electricity tariff in Korea compared with other developed countries renders renewable energy expansion more challenging as its costs are higher than those of traditional power generation such as thermal and nuclear power. An increase in the electricity tariff is required to help the expansion of renewable energy and accelerate the energy transition. It is therefore necessary to understand public acceptance of the renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies implemented by the Korean government to expand renewable energy. This study analyzes public’s heterogeneous preferences of renewable energy policies and identifies the determinants of people’s divided reactions to the policy. This study also forecasts the change in the degree of public acceptance of renewable energy expansion until 2030 and provides suggestions for the enhancement of public awareness and acceptance of the RPS plan. The simulation analysis shows that a sharp decline in the public’s acceptance rate is to be expected when the renewable energy expansion target becomes more challenging in 2025. The drastic change in acceptance is attributed to the electricity tariff spike. We conclude that the government should prepare to address the severe backlash from the public against the increase in electricity tariff to have a successful renewable energy policy.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-08-13T04:21:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20949467
       
  • Energy and resources cooperation for greenhouse gases emissions reduction
           of industrial sector
    • Authors: Parakram Pyakurel, Laurie Wright
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Energy and resources cooperation has a great potential of reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions of companies, especially in industrial and business parks where facilities are located in geographical proximity. Such cooperation could cut emissions without significant impact on profit, and in some cases, may even reduce costs by decreasing waste generation and improving energy efficiency. This paper combines similar themes of industrial symbiosis, sharing economy and circular economy to formulate a single robust concept of energy and resources cooperation. A framework and methodology for mass implementation of energy and resources cooperation is proposed by integrating disparate fields of industrial ecology, business studies and industrial investments. Furthermore, an approach of enhancing such cooperation is proposed which involves an establishment of a specialized Cooperation Development and Management Company. Finally, research agenda is set out to capitalise the developments of industry 4.0 and peer to peer sharing for energy and resources cooperation.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-08-12T04:40:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20949957
       
  • Differences in the effects of China’s new energy vehicle industry
           policies on market growth from the perspective of policy mix
    • Authors: Yongqing Xiong, Shufeng Qin
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Regarding the characteristics of policy mix and its effectiveness, no complete consensus currently exists. This paper divides the new energy vehicle (NEV) industry policies issued by the Chinese government from 2009 to 2018 into two types: the supply-side and demand-side policy mix. From the three dimensions of comprehensiveness, consistency and balance, we applied the state space method to construct a time-varying parameter model and analyzed the differences in the overall and dynamic impact of the NEV policy mix characteristics on market growth. The results show that the three characteristics differ in their overall impact: comprehensiveness has the largest impact, followed by consistency, and balance has the smallest impact. The dynamic impact of the comprehensiveness and consistency characteristics of the two types of policy mix fluctuates greatly and presents clear differences in the stage effect. The dynamic impact of the balance characteristic is relatively stable, but this characteristic has little dynamic impact on market growth. The NEV industry policy design should fully consider the characteristics of the policy mix and the differences of this policy mix in terms of market development stage and region.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-08-06T04:26:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20945333
       
  • Offshore wind energy status, challenges, opportunities, environmental
           impacts, occupational health, and safety management in India
    • Authors: J Charles Rajesh Kumar, D Vinod Kumar, D Baskar, B Mary Arunsi, R Jenova, MA Majid
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Offshore wind is at its infancy in terms of technology and capacities in India. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) announced medium and long term offshore targets of 5 GW and 30 GW by 2022 and 2030, respectively. The location of the first offshore wind park has recently been identified, and the Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) has signed a contract with the Government of Gujarat to establish the 1000 MW of offshore wind energy capacity by 2019. To achieve the ambitious targets, India will require demand and resources planning, and policy support at an unprecedented scale. The MNRE notified the country’s offshore wind energy policy in 2015, and draft offshore wind energy lease rules in 2019. In this paper, several offshore wind energy challenges have been identified, and a clear policy road map and effective support schemes required to trigger offshore wind development activity for medium to long term are suggested. The environmental consequences of European offshore wind farms are assessed to optimize future monitoring of offshore wind programmes in India. Furthermore, the occupational health and safety management requirements are highlighted to ensure that the accidents, vulnerabilities, and hazards are avoided. The research and development (R&D) considerations are provided to assist policymakers, potential investors, stakeholders, designers and manufacturers, contractors, professional advisers, and wind farm developers in their decisions and planning.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T06:04:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20946483
       
  • Comprehensive analysis of the thermohydraulic performance of cooling
           networks subject to fouling and undergoing retrofit projects
    • Authors: Hebert Lugo-Granados, Lázaro Canizalez-Dávalos, Martín Picón-Núñez
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this paper is to develop guidelines for the placing of new coolers in cooling systems subject to retrofit. The effects of the accumulation of scale on the flow system are considered. A methodology to assess the interconnected effect of local fluid velocity and fouling deposition is developed. The local average fluid velocity depends on the water flow rate distribution across the piping network. The methodology has four main calculation components: a) the determination of the flow rate distribution across the piping network, b) the prediction of fouling deposition, c) determination of the hydraulic changes and the effect on fouling brought about by the placing of new exchangers into an existing structure, and d) the calculation of the total cooling load and pressure drop of the system. The set of disturbances introduced to the system through fouling and the incorporation of new coolers, create network responses that eventually influence the cooling capacity and the pressure drop. In this work, these interactions are analysed using two case studies. The results indicate that, from the thermal point of view, the incorporation of new heat exchangers is recommended in series. The limit is the point where the increase of the total pressure drop causes a reduction in the overall volumetric flow rate. New coolers added in parallel create a reduction of pressure drop and an increase in the overall water flow rate; however, this increase is not enough to counteract the reduction of fluid velocity and heat capacity removal.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-22T04:34:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20945312
       
  • CO2 absorption of anhydrous colloidal suspension based silica nanospheres
           with different microstructures
    • Authors: Yudong Ding, Liheng Guo, Xiaoqiang Li, Qiang Liao, Xun Zhu, Hong Wang
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Liquid absorption and solid adsorption technologies have been researched and reported widely for CO2 capture. Combining the advantages of these two capture materials, a novel anhydrous colloidal suspension was synthesized by dispersing amine-modified microporous silica nanospheres in 2-[2-(dimethylamino) ethoxy] ethanol. In this study, solid, hollow, and porous silica nanospheres with different internal pore structures were synthesized and characterized. The effects of the silica nanosphere microstructures on diethylenetriamine loading and CO2 absorption in anhydrous colloidal suspensions were studied. Due to a more developed pore structure, the hollow and porous silica-based absorbents possessed stronger amine loading capacities compared to solid silicon-based absorbent, and the best absorption performance was an absorption capacity of 1.2543 mmol/g at a pressure of 150 kPa and a temperature of 300 K. The results indicated that pore structure had a significant influence on the absorption property, and the porous silica-based absorbent was more favorable for CO2 absorption than solid and hollow silica-based absorbents. Moreover, the pseudo-second-order model was successful in predicting the CO2 absorption process in colloidal suspensions.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-22T04:34:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20943876
       
  • Do energy efficiency building codes help minimize the efficiency gap in
           the U.S.' A dynamic panel data approach
    • Authors: Bishwa S Koirala, Alok K Bohara
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study estimates the effects of energy efficiency policy in the residential sector using panel data of 48 contiguous states starting from 1970 to 2017. To avoid any unobserved heterogeneity and facilitate efficiency in estimation, this study employs a Dynamic Panel Data model with a two-step Generalized Method of Moments technique. The results suggest that energy efficiency policy for the residential sector has saved about 8.6 percent in energy consumption, which is about 22 percent of the total stated saving, leaving an energy efficiency gap of 1.5771 quadrillion Btu. Consistent with previous estimations, this study finds that theoretical saving amounts overestimate energy efficiency output and overinflate the increase in potential energy efficiency by about 32 percent. Since energy efficiency policy has failed to achieve the stated amount of saving in the residential sector, households have no incentive to adopt the energy efficiency policy, which has created an unusual gap in energy efficiency.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-21T04:46:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20943881
       
  • The impact of international sanctions on energy security
    • Authors: Jun Wen, Xinxin Zhao, Quan-Jing Wang, Chun-Ping Chang
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study first investigates different types of sanctions on energy security by employing data from a panel of target countries covering the period 1996–2014 and using the panel fixed effect model. Our evidence indicates that international sanctions do significantly negatively influence the energy security of target countries in some cases. Specifically, unilateral sanctions, U.S. sanctions, economic sanctions, and the intensity of sanctions have a significantly negative impact on energy security. However, plurilateral sanctions, EU sanctions, UN sanctions, and non-economic sanctions have no significant impact on the energy security of target countries. The results of endogeneity concerns are also consistent with the results of the basic regression analysis. Overall, our empirical findings merit particular attention from policy makers of target countries to ensure their energy security when facing international sanctions.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-20T05:51:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20937686
       
  • The spatial-temporal evolution and spatial convergence of ecological total
           factor productivity in china
    • Authors: Zhengda Li, Dong Li, Wanping Yang, Xiaoyan Qi
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Based on the theory of strong sustainability, this paper evaluates the ecological environment from two aspects of ecological environment construction and ecological environment damage, and incorporates the ecological environment into the research framework of total factor productivity (TFP), and proposes a new ecological total factor productivity (ETFP) index, and studies the source of factors, spatial-temporal evolution and spatial convergence of the ETFP in China from 2001 to 2018. The results show the following: ETFP is driven by technological efficiency, and the stage fluctuation differentiation is obvious; the growth rate of the sub-factors of the “labor —energy — ecological environment construction — capital” decreases in sequence, and the contribution degree of the factors of “labor — ecological environment construction — energy — capital” keep decreasing in turn; the distribution pattern evolves from unipolar to bimodal. The path dependence of TFP on capital, labor and energy is relatively strong; There was a spatial convergence in china's provincial ETFP, and convergence speed was accelerated of 4.07% under Geo-economic weight matrix. Considering the influence of institutional factors, environmental decentralization and fiscal decentralization can put off the ETFP’s increasing speed, but the interaction between them can drive the ETFP’s growth.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-15T05:13:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20941141
       
  • New micronutrient biocomponents based on blackcurrant seeds pomace –
           Bench-scale kinetic studies
    • Authors: Katarzyna Chojnacka, Mateusz Samoraj, Łukasz Tuhy, Małgorzata Mironiuk, Konstantinos Moustakas, Anna Witek-Krowiak
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In the present work new universal bench-scale plant for biosorption, useful in production of new micronutrient biocomponents, was described. The new installation enabling working in a fixed bed or stirred tank batch mode. Reactors may also be used in serial or parallel mode, which gives many application possibilities.Copper ions were selected as a sorbate for kinetic modelling. The results of the adsorption capacities of Cu(II) were 13.9 mg/g for fixed bed and 12.8 mg/g for stirred tank. During biosorption of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution ion exchange and release of Ca(II), K(I), Mg(II), and Na(I) were observed. For kinetics description of stirred tank process pseudo-1st-and pseudo-2nd order models were used. For fixed bed process the Thomas, Yoon-Nelson, Adams-Bohart and Wolborska models were used. The use of blackcurrant seed residues as biosorbents enables the generation of new products from waste biomass, which can become an alternative to the traditional fertilizers with microelements. The presented technology is an attempt to reduce environmental impact of the conventional micronutrient fertilizers, which contain toxic chelators such as EDTA. Minimization of waste and maximization of product output makes it an efficient tool supporting cleaner production.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-14T04:05:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20942106
       
  • Emission profiling of a common rail direct injection diesel engine fueled
           with hydrocarbon fuel extracted from waste high density polyethylene as a
           partial replacement for diesel with some modifications
    • Authors: Kulandaivel Duraisamy, Rahamathullah Ismailgani, Sathiyagnanam Amudhavalli Paramasivam, Gopal Kaliyaperumal, Damodharan Dillikannan
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      A hydrocarbon fuel extracted from waste high-density polyethylene (WHDPE) by catalytic pyrolysis in a batch scale reactor is blended with diesel by 30% vol. (called as D70H30) is tested in a variable compression ratio engine equipped with a common rail system. Experiments were conducted at three compression ratios (16:1, 17.5:1, and 19:1) and exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR) rates (0%, 10%, and 20%) at the engine’s rated power to evaluate its combustion, performance and emission characteristics. The results revealed that, increasing the compression ratio resulted in higher peak cylinder pressure (PCP) and heat release rates (HRR). Introduction of EGR diminished both PCP and HRR peaks. The brake thermal efficiency of D70H30 blend was 4% lower than diesel at same operating conditions which got better at higher compression ratio without EGR. NOx emission was highest when injected at compression ratio 19:1 and at 0% EGR rate which was 6% and 3% higher than diesel and D70H30 blend operated at engine stock settings. In comparison with baseline diesel smoke opacity remained lower at all operating conditions, where lowest smoke emission was recorded at CR19 and at 0% EGR rate. UHC and CO emission followed the similar trend of smoke opacity. Whereas CO2 emission increased with compression ratio and reduced with induction of EGR. It can be concluded from the study that at higher compression ratio and low EGR rates D70H30 blend can be effectively utilized in a CRDi engine.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-14T04:05:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20942873
       
  • Measuring technical inefficiency and CO2 shadow price of Korean
           fossil-fuel generation companies using deterministic and stochastic
           approaches
    • Authors: Dong-Hyun Oh, JongWuk Ahn, Sinwoo Lee, Hyundo Choi
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This paper measures the technical inefficiency and the shadow price of Korean fossil-fuel generation companies (GENCOs) between 2001 and 2016 at the firm-level. To obtain robust empirical results, this study employs both commonly used deterministic and stochastic estimation methods. The empirical results are as follows: the inefficiency estimates are approximately 0.09 (deterministic) and 0.08 (stochastic); the estimates of CO2 shadow price, in KRW/tCO2, are 82,758 (deterministic) and 49,830 (stochastic), which shows high volatility in the annual average shadow price. In addition, we find that the results of the deterministic method without any random errors show a large variation in the trends of technical inefficiency and shadow price, while the stochastic method with random errors yields only moderate volatility. Our empirical results are expected to assist policymakers in determining how much potential mitigation can be achieved through improved efficiency, and the range of the CO2 shadow price will contribute to more efficient policy tools.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-08T05:04:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20932547
       
  • On the nexus of CO2 emissions and renewable and nonrenewable energy
           consumption in Europe: A new insight from panel smooth transition
    • Authors: Huthaifa Alqaralleh
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study seeks, within the extended framework of the so-called environmental Kuznets curve (EKC), to analyse the nonlinear effect of economic growth and energy consumption on environmental pollution (measured by CO2 emissions) in 30 countries, over the period 2000 – 2018. The panel smooth transition regression (PSTR) model is used to allow such a relationship between variables in different economic regimes to be determined. According to the analysis results, this study strengthens the idea that the relationship can be described as a shaped business cycle, in which economic growth first increases environmental degradation, and then, after a certain growth (income) level has been reached, reduces it. This business cycle relationship suggests that environmental improvements will eventually occur as economies grow. Another implication of these results is the importance of using energy in a greener way to combat climate change and to sustain economic development.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-07T04:01:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20937687
       
  • Greenhouse gas emissions reduction by process intensification: Reactive
           distillation column with side decanter
    • Authors: Alexandra-Elena Plesu Popescu, Jordi Bonet, Joan Llorens
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Direct hydration of cyclohexene to produce cyclohexanol is the industrial process with a lower raw material cost but with a quite expensive process. Large energy consumption is consequence of large cyclohexene recycle related with its unfavourable chemical equilibrium. This study corroborates that the Asahi process is a good candidate for intensification avoiding the cyclohexene recycle. Rigorous simulation shows that a single reactive distillation column, with a side decanter, operated at total reflux, allows overcoming the chemical equilibrium limitations as the product is continuously collected by the column bottoms and the heat of reaction is directly used to separate the product by distillation. The novel process is studied and compared to the classical Asahi process. An energy comparison with the available processes proposed in the literature is performed. Therefore, achieving more energy-efficient processes leads to lowering their environmental impact, thus decreasing the carbon dioxide emissions. Applying the proposed methodology for cyclohexanol production, more than 67,000 t CO2/y emissions can be avoided compared to the nowadays used classical process, thus the potential savings applying process intensification to the chemical industry are very large and worth further investigation.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-06T03:59:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20937689
       
  • Evaluation of the impact of energy utilization and PM on respiratory
           health in China
    • Authors: Changfeng Shi, Xinhui Liu, Min Gu, Qinghua Pang, Zhen Shi
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The haze climate has seriously affected people’s lives in China, and one of the important causes is particular matter (PM). For further, PM also has a negative impact on human health, especially respiratory health. A modified two-stage EBM (Epsilon-based Measure)data envelopment analysis (DEA) model considering undesirable outputs was used in this study to explore the energy utilization, PM and respiratory efficiency evaluation in China. It is concluded that the total efficiency value of Beijing, Inner Mongolia, Shandong and Tianjin is high, while that of China’s other provinces is low. The overall efficiency of most provinces in the first stage is better than that in the second stage, and the efficiency difference between provinces in the second stage is more significant. There is a significant difference in PM efficiency between provinces, which needs to be managed by governments of different regions. Except for Beijing, Jiangsu, Inner Mongolia, Shandong and Tianjin, the efficiency of respiratory diseases in most provinces still needs to be improved. Therefore, it is suggested to optimize the industrial structure, accelerate the adjustment of energy structure, strengthen the treatment of air pollution and increase public expenditure on medical care, so as to improve residents’ respiratory health.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-06-30T04:16:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20932546
       
  • The wind energy potential in Kudat Malaysia by considering the levelized
           cost of energy for combined wind turbine capacities
    • Authors: A Albani, MZ Ibrahim, KH Yong, ZM Yusop, MA Jusoh, AR Ridzuan
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents the wind energy potential at Kudat Malaysia by considering the Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) model for combined wind turbine capacities. The combination of small- and utility-scale wind turbines is the key to the success of the operation of a wind park in the lower wind speed region. In a combination approach, the small-scale wind turbines provide the power required by the utility-scale wind turbines to start the blade rotation. For this reason, the particular closed-form equation was modified to determine the LCOE of a wind park with combined turbine capacities. The modified LCOE model can be used as a basis for setting tariff rates or define the economic feasibility of wind energy projects with combined wind turbine capacities.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-06-26T09:20:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20937006
       
  • Decrease of energy demand of semi-batch distillation policies
    • Authors: Mariem Ferchichi, Laszlo Hegely, Peter Lang
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Batch distillation (BD) has much higher energy demand than continuous distillation (CD). Different semi-batch distillation (SBD) policies, by which one part of the feed is continuously fed into a batch column, are investigated and optimised to minimise the energy demand. SBD has the advantage, that contrary to the batch distillation (BD), the liquid volume in the reboiler, can be kept constant, even at its maximal value. Usually, continuous feeding is performed into the reboiler (SBD1), but by shaping a feed plate in the batch column, it has not only a rectifying but also a stripping section. Several SBD policies differing in feeding location are studied by dynamic simulation and compared based on the specific energy demand (SED) of production. The different policies and effects of the variation of feed composition are studied for the separation of the mixture dichloromethane-acetone. The lowest SED is obtained by SBD with feeding at a variable location of the column (SBD3). However, feeding at a fixed location (SBD2) is much simpler to realise and only slightly inferior. Further reduction of SED is reached by using two SBD2 or one SBD2 and one BD step with different reflux ratios. The separation of the mixture n-hexane-n-heptane-n-octane is also studied by SBD1 and SBD2 policies with both direct and indirect sequences. The energy demand of SBD2 in indirect sequence is lower than that of the direct sequence by 25%. By applying SBD2, SED was reduced by 38% and 39% for binary and ternary mixtures, respectively, compared to BD.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-06-21T05:54:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20933310
       
  • Acidophilic biodesulphurization of calcined pet coke and coal samples in
           iron and iron-free leaching media
    • Authors: Srabani Mishra, Sandeep Panda, Nilotpala Pradhan, SK Biswal, D Satapathy
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Mineralogically distinct coal samples respond differently to microbial attack. In the present study, a mixed meso-acidophilic bacterial consortium predominantly comprising of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain was investigated for its biodesulphurization abilities for three distinct sulphur bearing samples (Goa CPC, Rajasthan Lignite, Assam Coal) of Indian origin in iron (9K+) and iron-free (9K−) media. A media devoid of Fe (II) iron was more effective for sulphur removal with maximum desulphurization of 45.19% for Assam coal followed by 36.8% for Rajasthan Lignite and 23.38% for CPC respectively. The proximate analysis, FTIR patterns and XRD analysis of the samples provided better insights into understanding the mineralogical and compositional changes in the coal matrix. Owing to the higher efficiency, Assam coal was additionally subjected to further optimization studies and characterization of the treated coal through TGA. The study indicated that the gross calorific values for all the samples increased following microbial treatment in 9K− media thereby providing a scope for further scale-up studies.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-06-21T05:54:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20935678
       
  • Mitigation pathways impact of climate change and improving sustainable
           development: The roles of natural resources, income, and CO2 emission
    • Authors: Syed Tauseef Hassan, Enjun Xia, Chien-Chiang Lee
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      AbstractClimate change is an obstacle in the path of sustainable economic development. One of the key findings in the economics literature is that the use of natural resources contributes to real income per capita. However, its environmental consequences should not be ignored. This paper examines the nexus among CO2 emission, real income, and natural resources, by incorporating urbanization, and trade in Pakistan from 1971 to 2017. The Auto-Regressive Distributive Lag (ARDL) and Vector Error Correction (VECM) models are used for analyzing time-series data. The empirical findings infer that the use of natural resources accelerates the rate of CO2 emission in Pakistan which worsens environmental quality. In addition, the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) is confirmed in the presence of natural resource use. Besides, urbanization improves environmental quality through mitigating the level of CO2 emission. Moreover, the feedback hypothesis is found between the use of natural resources and CO2 emission. Additionally, bidirectional causality is found between urbanization and the use of natural resources. Overall, this study supports formulating new policies to overcome environmental degradation through energy-saving technologies.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-06-19T01:05:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20932550
       
  • Effect of calcination temperature on properties of waste alkaline
           battery-based catalysts for deep oxidation of toluene and o-xylene
    • Authors: Young-Kwon Park, Min Ki Kim, Sang Chul Jung, Wang Geun Shim, Seong Ho Jang, Sang Chai Kim
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      To evaluate waste alkaline battery (WB) as a catalyst for deep oxidation of toluene and o-xylene, we investigated how calcination temperature influenced the catalytic activity of WB-based catalyst for catalyst preparation. Physicochemical properties of WB-based catalysts were characterized by BET (Brunauer Emmett Teller) analysis, XRD (X-ray diffraction), SEM/EDX (scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray), TGA/DTA (thermo gravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis), and H2-TPR (hydrogen temperature programmed reduction). Major elements of WB-based catalysts were carbon, manganese, zinc, and iron. The catalytic activity of WB-based catalyst was significantly influenced by calcination temperatures ranging from 300 °C–600°C. An increase calcination temperature resulted in a significant decrease in the BET surface area and concentrations of surface carbon and chlorine of the WB-based catalyst, while levels of other components increased. The average pore diameter of the WB-based catalyst calcined at 400 °C (WB (400) catalyst) was the smallest. The concentrations of manganese and iron in WB (400) catalyst were the highest, while those of manganese and iron in the WB-based catalyst calcined at 300 °C (WB (300) catalyst) were the lowest. Therefore, a good performance of WB (400) catalyst was likely due to its higher concentrations of manganese and iron and smaller pore size. When GHSV (gas hourly space velocity) was 40,000 h−1, toluene and o-xylene were completely oxidized on WB (400) catalyst at 430 °C and 440 °C, respectively.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-06-16T02:45:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20932551
       
  • Energy, economic, and environmental analysis of 10-MW biomass gasification
           based power generation in Malaysia
    • Authors: ABM Abdul Malek, M Hasanuzzaman, Nasrudin A Rahim, Yusuf A Al–Turki
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Biomass gasification based power plants can play an important role in power sector in Malaysia with her abundant agricultural and forest resources. In this research energy and economic feasibility, and environmental impact of biomass gasification power plant has been analyzed and assessed for sustainable power generation in Malaysia, the plant being a clean development mechanism supported project. Gasification based power generation with a dual fuel internal combustion engine is found more biomass combustion power plant. But, the annual fuel cost is significantly higher with gasification plant claiming MYR 10 million/y for a generation of 67,500 MWh. The net present value, internal rate of return, and PBP for a 10-MW gasification based dual fuel internal combustion engine power plant without loan financing using empty fruit bunch pellet as biomass; with CER issued at USD16/tCO2; and without loan financing provides net present value, internal rate of return, and PBP of MYR 19.68 million, 11.90%, and 6.05 y, respectively. With a loan financing at 3% per year with CER still be effective the net present value, internal rate of return, and PBP is estimated to be MYR 7.03 million, 3.97%, and 11.78 y, respectively. However, if a 60:40 debt equity is applied then the project net present value, internal rate of return, and payback period seen to improve slightly. The net present value attains a positive value of MYR 3.6 million. Internal rate of return and PBP values are found to be 7.08% and 8.27 y, respectively. The emission reduction achieved with the plant is 17,863 t CO2/y, 206 t SO2/y, 90 t NOx/y, and 10.37 t CO/y, respectively. Energy efficiency and tariff policy have been found to have highest impact on economic profitability of gasification based power generation units.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-06-16T02:45:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20930386
       
  • Selection of solar collector network design for industrial applications
           subject to economic and operation criteria
    • Authors: Juan R Lizárraga-Morazán, Guillermo Martínez-Rodríguez, Amanda L Fuentes-Silva, Martín Picón-Núñez
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this paper is to present a design approach for the selection of the most cost-effective solar thermal plant composed of flat plate solar collectors for a given process. The approach seeks to provide the designer with the necessary elements for decision making, namely minimum total operating costs, minimum required plot area for installation, maximum daily operating time and determination of payback time. The optimisation methodology search uses a cost equation for flat plate solar collectors along with a thermal model linked in a MatLab and General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) platform. In stand-alone collector design, tube diameter, tube length and collector width are the variables that have a major impact on the cost; in the case of solar collector fields, the number of collectors in series is the variable with the strongest impact. It is shown that the optimised networks fulfil the thermal duty within the limitation of land area. The designs are carried out for the conditions that guarantee operation throughout the year and exhibit saving of up to 50% and payback times lower than six years. The approach is demonstrated using a case study.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-06-05T04:14:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20927375
       
  • The rise of community choice aggregation and its implications for
           California’s energy transition: A preliminary assessment
    • Authors: Sean F Kennedy, Bailey Rosen
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Community choice aggregation—an emerging electricity supply model allowing residents and businesses to purchase electricity from local governments instead of utilities—is projected to account for 60% of Californian customers currently served by investor-owned utilities by 2020.Community choice aggregation advocates claim that the model is an effective means of meeting California’s renewable energy policy objectives in a way that is more democratic and socially just than the prevailing utility-based model of electricity governance. We interrogate these claims through a focus on three issues: community choice aggregation governance and access to capital, electricity procurement, and customer rates and retention. We find that community choice aggregators have been able to address concerns regarding access to capital while balancing competing objectives around renewable energy and affordability. However, local benefits—particularly in terms of local economic development driven by the expansion of distributed generation—are yet to be fully realized. In addition, ongoing policy uncertainty regarding cost allocation between utility and community choice aggregation customers may limit the ability of community choice aggregators to offer competitive rates, which may threaten the model’s long-term viability. We conclude by arguing that meeting California’s future renewable energy requires a reconfiguration of the regulatory framework that leverages the respective strengths of both community choice aggregators and investor-owned utilities in the context of the state’s energy transition.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-06-05T04:14:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20927381
       
  • Heterogeneous impact of CO2 emissions on renewable energy technology
           innovation between oil importers and exporters
    • Authors: Bai Liu, Yutian Liu, Ailian Zhang
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      With the depletion of fossil energy and the rise of global temperature, it is urgent to use renewable energy to solve environmental problems. By studying the heterogeneous relationship between CO2 emissions and renewable energy technology innovation in different countries, we can find out the gap and something helpful to energy development. In the empirical test, we use the negative binomial regression model with fixed effects to study the impact of CO2 emissions on renewable energy technology innovation from 1997 to 2016. The research shows that impact is positive in oil-importing countries, but this relationship is not established in oil-exporting countries. In both oil importers and oil exporters, CO2 emissions have a positive effect on the solar energy technological innovation, however, the influence on the technology innovation of solar energy in oil exporters is more significant than that of renewable energy. Whether for oil importers or oil exporters, it can be more reasonable and effective to develop renewable energy by clarifying the impact of CO2 emissions on domestic renewable energy technology innovation.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-06-04T03:46:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20928934
       
  • Anaerobic digestion: Technology for biogas production as a source of
           renewable energy—A review
    • Authors: KeChrist Obileke, Nwabunwanne Nwokolo, Golden Makaka, Patrick Mukumba, Helen Onyeaka
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The authors reviewed the future prospects and previous studies on anaerobic digestion technology for biogas production and highlight the solutions to problems relating to construction and maintenance of biogas digesters, which can now be accessed in a single paper. It is the aim of the review to provide insight into the use, process and application of anaerobic digestion as an appropriate technology for biogas production from peer reviewed literature. Recent studies have shown that the microbial communities and metabolic pathways involves in anaerobic digestion are influenced by temperature. Their metabolic activities increase significantly with increase in temperature. Therefore, the findings of the review reveal that temperature is a major parameter for biogas production due to its influence on metabolic activities involved in anaerobic digestion. Hence, there is the need for insulation as well as external heating to maintain temperature stability and to avoid temperature fluctuations. More also, the anaerobic digestion technology for production of biogas is a viable option that can supplement as well as reduce the usage of non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuel. The detailed information addressed in this study would increase biogas energy mix as well as mitigating climate change. Therefore, the study recommends the use of biogas as a clean energy for the purpose of power generation, cooking and heating.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T03:10:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20923117
       
  • Analytical assessment of a concentrated solar sub-critical thermal power
           plant using low temperature heat transfer fluid
    • Authors: Umish Srivastva, K Ravi Kumar, RK Malhotra, SC Kaushik
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The paper presents energy–exergy–economic–environment–ethics analysis of a concentrated solar thermal power plant. Design basis of a concentrated solar power for 24 h operation on parabolic trough collector technology in best suited direct normal irradiation location and least capital cost analysis has been presented. An unconventional approach of reducing the capital cost is analyzed by intentionally designing the power plant for sub-critical conditions using a low-cost mineral oil with permissible operating temperature of 320°C in place of the conventional synthetic solar grade oil of 400°C. Using low pressure and temperature steam in the plant, it has been shown that while there is a reduction of 0.1% in energetic efficiency, there is a gain of 0.28% in the exergetic efficiency of the solar power plant conditions, gross thermal efficiency decreases by 1.18% and the net thermal efficiency decreases by 2.91%. However, the energetic and exergetic utilization factor for heat transfer fluid is increased by 0.84 and 5.58%, respectively. By suitably adjusting the solar field configuration and inlet oil temperature, energy savings to the tune of 45% is possible apart from 2.5 times of cost saving. An attempt has been made to quantifiably assess the ethics of switching to renewable electricity through shared responsibility as a novelty in the study. The payback period for the investment has also been shown to reduce from 20 years to 5 years assuming that the carbon price increases, concentrated solar power cost comes down by 25%, and cost at which electricity can be sold increases to US $0.14 (Rs. 10) per unit.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-05-16T09:05:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20921593
       
  • Analysis on new types of electric power businesses using a morphological
           box
    • Authors: Chankook Park, Daeyoun Lee
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study analyzed new electricity business cases with an aim to categorize them systematically based on theoretical grounds. The previous research studies on new businesses in the electric power sector lack the perspicuous theoretical basis for the criteria for classification and fail to examine a wide range of cases or the further possibility of new businesses development. Complementing the shortcomings, we adopted the morphological box for categorization to compare several business cases and draw the main types of businesses. It has revealed that utilities as well as residential, commercial, industrial customers also act as the main customers for the distributed resources while cooperation among different industries is growing rapidly, and local governments are actively involved in the business as the main providers. Also, cases related to consumer service innovation including consumer choice expansion and customized services are often seen. Furthermore, free services have emerged in the sector. This study has significance in that it successfully reassessed the theoretical arguments on business models and rearranged the parameters of the morphological box suitable for analyzing more than 100 business cases.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-05-14T03:48:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20919413
       
  • Spatial and temporal pattern evolution and influencing factors of
           energy–environmental efficiency: A case study of Yangtze River urban
           agglomeration in China
    • Authors: Zhaoqiang Zhong, Benhong Peng, Ehsan Elahi
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Improving energy–environmental efficiency is prerequisite for sustainable development. In order to explore ways to improve energy–environmental efficiency, this paper uses the undesired output slack-based model to measure the energy–environmental efficiency of the Yangtze River urban agglomeration based on the input and output index data from 2008 to 2017, and its spatial and temporal pattern evolution is analyzed by using kernel density estimation, Gini coefficient, and coefficient of variation. Moreover, the Tobit regression model is used to analyze the influencing factors of the energy–environmental efficiency of the Yangtze River urban agglomeration. The results indicate that the energy–environmental efficiency of each city is increased continuously, and the regional differences are gradually narrowed. The spatial pattern is changed from polar nucleus type to valley type, and finally the distribution characteristics of “overall high” are formed. Overall, the energy–environmental efficiency presents a spatial layout of “high in the east and low in the west.” The regression results show that the level of economic development and energy–environmental efficiency are “U-type” associated characteristics, and government regulation and population density have significant positive effects on it. Industrial structure and technological progress have negative effects on it, and the effect of opening degree is not significant.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-05-12T04:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20923114
       
  • Comparative study of air quality indices in the European Union towards
           adopting a common air quality index
    • Authors: Zissis Karavas, Vayos Karayannis, Konstantinos Moustakas
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to compare air quality indices applied in European Union countries towards adopting a common air quality index. The urban European cities Rome, Madrid, Paris, London, Berlin, Warsaw, Stockholm, and Oslo were selected. Using the EEA AirBase air quality database, time series data for the major atmospheric pollutants (CO, NO2, SO2, O3, PM10, and PM2.5) were recovered for each city, for most recent years available. Daily averages, maximum hourly values and maximum 8-h averages were calculated for each pollutant. The air quality indices selected were BelAQI, DAQx, DAQI, AtmoIndex, AQIH, and CAQI. The daily value of each air quality indices and the corresponding dominant atmospheric pollutant were determined for each city. A two-stage normalization procedure was applied on air quality indices in a 0–1 range, to allow their direct comparison without altering their structure. All air quality indices exhibited air quality rates over 64% for all cities, thus below the European Union air quality standard. The dominant pollutant was NO2 for both BelAQI and DAQx; O3 for both DAQI and AQIH (with an exception for Warsaw where SO2 was the dominant pollutant). For CAQI, NO2 prevails in Berlin, London, Warsaw, Stockholm, and Oslo, while O3 prevails in Rome, Madrid, and Paris. The dominant pollutant for AtmoIndex was NO2 in Berlin, Warsaw, and Stockholm; O3 in Madrid, Paris, London, and Oslo; PM10 in Rome. A very strong positive statistical correlation (p 
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-05-09T12:47:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20921846
       
  • Catalytic reduction of nitrate in reverse osmosis concentrate by using
           Pd-Cu/activated carbon felt
    • Authors: Carolina Andrea Bahamondes Fuentes, Yuhoon Hwang
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The reverse osmosis concentrate generated during the water reuse process contains a high concentration of nitrate but a low amount of biodegradable organic carbon for heterotrophic denitrification. Catalytic reduction of nitrates using Pd-Cu is one of the most promising technologies to achieve complete removal of nitrate; however, the effect of a range of experimental factors on the nitrate removal rate and N2 selectivity is still an ongoing concern. Two kinds of supporting materials, alumina and activated carbon felt, were used to immobilize the Pd-Cu catalyst. The alumina-based catalyst was used to establish reference conditions for further experiments, and the effect of pH control was evaluated for both supporting materials. It was observed that pH has a direct influence on the nitrate reduction rate as well as the N2 selectivity. Nitrate reduction efficiency was low at acidic conditions while the highest N2 selectivity was obtained at the acidic conditions. The optimal pH condition for Pd-Cu/activated carbon felt was determined as pH 4, showing the highest total nitrogen removal as N2 gas. Finally, the feasibility of catalytic nitrate reduction for reverse osmosis concentrate was evaluated by investigating the effects of organic and inorganic components commonly present in reverse osmosis concentrate. The organic and inorganic components did not show a significant inhibitory effect on catalytic nitrate reduction, while a high concentration of salt significantly decreased the nitrate reduction rate as well as the N2 selectivity. The filter type morphology of the Pd-Cu/activated carbon felt would be beneficial for field application compared to the conventional catalyst with powder form.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-05-08T02:03:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20923115
       
  • Anaerobic degradation of palm oil mill effluent with aluminum bauxite
           residue for methane production
    • Authors: Anwar Ahmad, Salam S AlDawey, SS Reddy
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Experimental study of the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was carried out in an anaerobic upflow sludge blanket reactor (UASBR) with bauxite residue. The production rate of methane 114 L/gCOD/d and CH4 concentration was 205 L gCOD/d at 8.5 g/L of bauxite residue in UASBR. The results showed that the highest methane yield was 37.5 L gCODadded/h; CO2 reduction 1.5 L gCODadded and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal reached 98.3% at 8.5 g/L of bauxite residue, respectively. The results the best by the modified kinetic model and Umax was 100 mg/L. The kinetic of methane production was also studied. The methane yield coefficient, YM, was 0.69 L CH4/gCODremoved. Anaerobic digestion of acetate was the dominant soluble metabolites in development and specific methanogenic activity results showed that high observed between stoichiometric and experimental higher methane production.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-05-08T02:03:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20923120
       
  • Comparative study on the economic feasibility of nanogrid and microgrid
           electrification: The case of Jeju Island, South Korea
    • Authors: Jinwoo Bae, Soojung Lee, Heetae Kim
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Due to heavy fuel dependence, the “renewable energy system” idea is an important issue in South Korea. The government of South Korea is endeavoring to convert its energy infrastructure into renewable energy generation. As such, numerous studies have evaluated the economic feasibility of various renewable energy sources in South Korea. This study differs from those studies as it is focused on a smaller scale in terms of self-supporting nanogrid and microgrid energy. The purpose of this study is to determine which type of grid is more economical. To conduct a comparative study on the economic feasibility of nanogrids and microgrids, three substations on Jeju Island were randomly selected. We then suggested two scenarios. The first scenario is , which changes each substation into a nanogrid, and the second is , which connects the three nanogrids to share electricity. This study identifies the optimal combination of hybrid energy resources using HOMER (hybrid optimization model for electric renewables) software to change the substations into an self-supporting energy nanogrid or microgrid. According to the net present cost and cost of energy results for each scenario through HOMER simulations, the scenario is more economical than the scenario. However, this study also shows that microgrids can be the better option, depending on the distance between nanogrids. Finally, implications and limitations are discussed in the last section of this paper.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-05-08T02:03:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20923119
       
  • Can pollution charges reform promote industrial SO2 emissions
           reduction'—Evidence from 189 China’s cities
    • Authors: Da Gao, Yi Li, Qiuyue Yang
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This paper evaluates the real effects of pollution charges reform on [math] emissions at the city level. Using the establishment of Comprehensive Work Plan for Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction (The Plan) in China as a quasi-natural experiment, our difference-in-differences estimation shows that: (1) increasing pollution charges has a significant and positive effect on controlling industrial waste [math], and this relationship is robust to different specifications and alternative measures; (2) [math] emissions can be reduced to achieve reduction targets by forcing companies to strengthen the degree of process production controls and end-of-pipe treatment; (3) eastern and western cities have a better pollution control effect than the other regions, and large cities have better emission reduction effects than smaller cities. Overall, this paper sorts out the evolution of China’s pollution charge policy, and reveals the mechanisms behind the real effects of pollution charges reform on [math] emissions, thus providing timely implications for policymakers concerned with environmental protection.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-05-05T01:30:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20919410
       
  • Terrorism, environmental pollution, foreign direct investment (FDI),
           energy consumption, and economic growth: Evidences from China, India,
           Israel, and Turkey
    • Authors: Melike E Bildirici
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, it was aimed to investigate the relation between economic growth, terrorism, foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow, environmental pollution, and energy consumption in China, India, Israel, and Turkey for a time span of 43 years from 1975 to 2017. Three different panel cointegration methods to determine the cointegration relation and two different causality methods to find the direction of causality were simultaneously used, since the presence of cointegration and direction of causality are fundamental to design economic policy and strategy. After similar results from panel cointegration tests were obtained, the causality tests were applied. Panel causality tests determined the evidence of uni-directional causality from terrorism, FDI, and energy usage to CO2 emission.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-04-27T05:13:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20919409
       
  • Study on the industrial structure optimization under constraint of energy
           intensity
    • Authors: Xiongfeng Pan, Mengna Li, Chenxi Pu, Haitao Xu
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study establishes a multi-sector dynamic computable general equilibrium framework that integrates energy intensity module to explore the reverse feedback effect of energy intensity control on industry structure. The results indicate that (1) the tightening effect of energy intensity constrains on the Industrial sector is most significant, followed by the Tertiary Industry, with the least impact on Agriculture; (2) when there is no technological progress in the departments, the change of industrial structure is mainly reflected in the sharp decline in the proportion of Industry and the significant increase in the proportion of Tertiary Industry. When technological progress exists in high energy-consumption departments, the tightening effect of energy intensity constraints on the industrial sector will be reduced; when there is technological progress in all departments, the industrial structure will have a smaller change, and the technology progress can alleviate the tightening effect of the energy intensity target on various sectors; (3) under the constraint of energy intensity, the high energy-consuming industry shifts to the Equipment Manufacturing with low energy-consumption and high-added value. The increasing proportion of Tertiary Industry mainly comes from two industries including Wholesale, Retail, Hoteling and Catering, and Transportation, Storage, and Post.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-04-27T05:13:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20921592
       
  • Wood processing industry by-products as a source of natural bioactive
           compounds
    • Authors: Maria Celeiro, J Pablo Lamas, Rosa Arcas, Marta Lores
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The chemical composition of several by-products, chips, screw waters, and concentrates from a fiberboards manufacture green industrial process, which only employs wood and water, was deeply evaluated. The three by-products analyzed represent different steps of the industrial process. In addition, different types of wood: pine, walnut, chestnut, oak and cherry tree, were evaluated. For all of them, total polyphenols content, and antioxidant activity have been assessed, showing significant differences. To characterize the volatile compounds, an environmentally friendly technique, solid-phase microextraction has been employed. Besides, aqueous and generally recognized as safe organic extracts obtained from the by-products have been prepared, and their chromatographic fingerprint was obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to identify extractable organic wood components. Significant differences were observed between the studied by-products and wood types. More than 30 different compounds were successfully identified in the screw waters, and concentrates, including terpenes, sesquiterpenes, or polyphenols. Regarding the obtained extracts, up to 30 compounds were identified in the chips, screw waters, and concentrate extracts, highlighting the presence of 13 polyphenols in the cherry tree chips and more than 20 compounds with interesting properties in the concentrate extracts. This work contributes to improve the knowledge about the chemical composition of several wood industry by-products, which could be exploited to obtain natural extracts with added value for their reuse in the food, cosmetic, or pharmaceutical industry, reducing also the environmental impact of the industrial activity.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-04-27T05:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20919939
       
  • Design of total water networks of multiple properties based on operator
           potential concepts and an iterative procedure
    • Authors: Lei Zhang, Ai-Hong Li, Xue-Xiu Jia, Jiří J Klemeš, Zhi-Yong Liu
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The design of property-based total water networks by using the concepts of operator potential is investigated with an iterative approach. The precedence order of demands is identified with the operator potential values of demands. The internal sources to be regenerated are selected based on the values of operator potential of sources. A linear programming approach is used to determine the allocation of sources to demands. With the proposed method, the networks which meet both the requirements of demands and environmental regulations can be obtained. Two examples are studied to illustrate the proposed method. It is shown that the results obtained by this work are comparable to that obtained by mathematical programming method in the literature. For Example 1, flowrate of regenerated stream is reduced 28.5% compared to that in the literature results with almost the same freshwater consumption. In addition, the number of interconnections for this work is smaller than that of literature, which means that the design structure of this work is simpler. For Example 2, freshwater consumption is reduced by 4.29% with almost the same regeneration flowrate. However, the number of interconnections for this work is 24, which is higher than 23, that is the value of the literature result. Compared to graphical methods, the method proposed in this paper can handle the networks with more than three properties. Compared to mathematical programming methods, the proposed method has clear engineering meaning.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-04-24T02:42:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20919408
       
  • Effective reduction plan for greenhouse gas inventories of local
           governments
    • Authors: Eun-Mi Been, Young-Kwon Park, Kyung-Tae Kim
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The main purpose of this study is to propose a reduction of inventory based on non-industrial sectors reflecting the characteristics of local governments and efficient greenhouse gas reduction activities in Korea. Although national government has implemented various policies and systems to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, it would only remain in industrial and public areas. Thus, in order to reduce national greenhouse gas emissions, local governments should play a major role as a leading management entity and it is necessary to adopt efficient and systematic management of the non-industrial sector, which accounted for a significant portion of the country’s emissions. However, the policy of the local governments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions has not been effective due to lacking in connectivity to the central government’s plan or presenting it in a simple listing format. The characteristics of inventory building such as main purpose, boundary setting, emission source, policy setting, range, organizing body, relevant law of inventory building between national government, and local governments are quite different from the start. In order to reflect the actual greenhouse gas reduction activities of the local governments, this study reconstructs the categories that are considered to have management authority in the local governments such as home, commercial, and road transportation among the scope 1 of the local governments inventory and scope 2 for establishing effective policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in local governments. This study also proposes reduced inventory by reorganizing categories that local governments deem to have managerial authority among direct and indirect emission of greenhouse gas inventory.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-03-03T05:01:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20907082
       
  • Valorization of cassava waste for pullulan production by Aureobasidium
           pullulans MTCC 1991
    • Authors: Ravichandran Viveka, Sunita Varjani, Nakkeeran Ekambaram
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The interest in pullulan produced from industrial wastes has substantially increased due to its industrial applications. The major constraint in pullulan production is expensive and low yield. In this study, attempts were made on the evaluation of media components for maximum pullulan production from Aureobasidium pullulans MTCC 1991 using cassava waste in solid-state fermentation. A statistical approach was scrutinized to evaluate the effects of yeast extract, K2HPO4, (NH4)2SO4, MgSO4⋅7H2O, and NaCl on pullulan production. The optimal conditions eliciting the maximum pullulan yield (6.45 g pullulan/L of culture broth) were found to be 0.6 g/L yeast extract, 3 g/L K2HPO4, 0.2 g/L (NH4)2SO4, 0.3 g/L MgSO4⋅7H2O, and 1 g/L NaCl. The produced pullulan was extracted using the solvent precipitation method and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy spectroscopic analysis that confirmed pullulan with linear α (1–6) linkage. The results revealed that cassava waste could be used as an effective carbon source for the production of pullulan.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-02-27T05:35:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X20908065
       
  • Economic growth, exports, and role of energy conservation: Evidence from
           panel co-integration-based causality models in South Asia
    • Authors: Muhammad Shakeel, Aziz Ahmed
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines the relationship among energy use, real gross domestic product, and exports and thereby the impact of energy conservation for the quest of a sustainable environment-gross domestic product growth in the panel of five South Asian countries. The aggregate production function framework is estimated by employing first/second generational panel co-integration-based models for the panel data covering the years 1980–2014. The empirical findings demonstrate a statistically significant panel error correction mechanism among real gross domestic product, capital, labor, and energy use in both export-added and export-excluded models. The findings of panel causality test depict a significant causal relationship running from export and energy use towards gross domestic product in the long run. Furthermore, a significant feedback relationship between energy use and gross domestic product and between exports and gross domestic product has been found in the short run. These findings of vector error correction model-based panel causality test imply that reducing/cutting the extant aggregate energy use (fossil fuel dominant) via conservation policies are somewhat wanting and could be implemented at the cost of lower gross domestic product and export growths, ceteris paribus. Therefore, for reducing the level of carbon emissions arising from fossil fuel-based energy use and for a sustainable aggregate energy use to the production sector per se, there is an immense need of developing environment friendly/green sources of energy in the region. These consolidated and concerted strides of developing and substituting environment friendly energy options into the extant aggregate energy use will, inter alia, ensure the sustainability of environment-gross domestic product growth in South Asia.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-01-17T05:56:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X19899372
       
  • Microbial approaches for remediation of pollutants: Innovations, future
           outlook, and challenges
    • Authors: Bishwambhar Mishra, Sunita Varjani, Gopalakrishnan Kumar, Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Sanjeev Kumar Awasthi, Raveendran Sindhu, Parameswaran Binod, Eldon R Rene, Zengqiang Zhang
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Environmental contamination with persistent organic pollutants has emerged as a serious threat of pollution. Bioremediation is a key to eliminate these harmful pollutants from the environment and has gained the interest of researchers during the past few decades. Scientific knowledge upon microbial interactions with individual pollutants over the past decades has helped to abate environmental pollution. Traditional bioremediation approaches have limitations for their applications; hence, it is essential to discover new bioremediation approaches with biotechnological interventions for best results. The developments in various methodologies are expected to increase the efficiency of bioremediation techniques and provide environmentally sound strategies. This paper deals with the profiling of microorganisms present in polluted sites using various techniques such as culture-based approaches and omics-based approaches. Besides this, it also provides up-to-date scientific literature on the microbial electrochemical technologies which are nowadays considered as the best approach for remediation of pollutants. Detailed information about future outlook and challenges to evaluate the effect of various treatment technologies for remediation of pollutants has been discussed.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2020-01-10T04:46:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X19896781
       
 
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