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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 110 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 47)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 49)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Change and Adaptation in Socio-Ecological Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Climate Change Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Climate law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access  
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Climate Summary of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 60)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Atmospheric Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access  
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 199)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Journal of Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Climatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mathematics of Climate and Weather Forecasting     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorological Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal  
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 125)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Nīvār     Open Access  
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access  
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal  
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
The Cryosphere Discussions (TCD)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Weather     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access  
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Current Climate Change Reports
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 2198-6061
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Trait-Based Modeling of Terrestrial Ecosystems: Advances and Challenges
           Under Global Change
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review We summarize the general structure of modern terrestrial ecosystem models and investigate how advances in trait-based modeling approaches help to better constrain predictions for ecosystem sensitivity to global change. Recent Findings In ecosystem models, empirical parameters are increasingly being replaced with plant physiological trait-based parameters, which can be directly measured in the field. The needs to predict long-term terrestrial ecosystem dynamics under climate change have spurred novel model developments including the representation of (i) vegetation processes across the critical zone, (ii) wood and belowground ecophysiology, and (iii) the effects of physiological trait acclimation. Summary Trait-based modeling of terrestrial ecosystems allows for the direct integration of measured plant ecophysiology with model processes, increasing the potential to constrain uncertainty and improve predictions under novel climate regimes. However, such increased model complexity requires careful model design, standardized intercomparisons, and benchmarking for model responses to both climate extremes and long-term trends.
      PubDate: 2021-01-08
       
  • Frontiers in Climate Change Adaptation Science: Advancing Guidelines to
           Design Adaptation Pathways
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review This paper discusses three scientific frontiers that need to be advanced in order to support decision-makers and practitioners in charge of operational decisions and action on the design and implementation of concrete adaptation policies and actions. These frontiers refer to going beyond the (1) incremental vs. transformational and (2) maladaptation vs. adaptation dichotomies and to advancing knowledge on (3) adaptation measures’ effectiveness and roles in designing context-specific adaptation pathways. Recent Findings Dealing with adaptation to climate change on the ground often means answering three obvious but critical questions: what to do, where and when' These questions challenge the scientific community’s capacity to link conceptual advances (e.g. on transformative adaptation) and ground-rooted needs across sectors and regions (on solutions, governance arrangements, etc.). Summary We argue that the three abovementioned frontiers represent the most burning challenges to the Adaptation Science community to help addressing climate-related societal needs. We also demonstrate that they are intertwined as moving one frontier forward will facilitate moving the others forward.
      PubDate: 2020-11-20
       
  • Author Correction: Resolving and Parameterising the Ocean Mesoscale in
           Earth System Models
    • Abstract: The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in the Acknowledgements section.
      PubDate: 2020-11-19
       
  • Resolving and Parameterising the Ocean Mesoscale in Earth System Models
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Assessment of the impact of ocean resolution in Earth System models on the mean state, variability, and future projections and discussion of prospects for improved parameterisations to represent the ocean mesoscale. Recent Findings The majority of centres participating in CMIP6 employ ocean components with resolutions of about 1 degree in their full Earth System models (eddy-parameterising models). In contrast, there are also models submitted to CMIP6 (both DECK and HighResMIP) that employ ocean components of approximately 1/4 degree and 1/10 degree (eddy-present and eddy-rich models). Evidence to date suggests that whether the ocean mesoscale is explicitly represented or parameterised affects not only the mean state of the ocean but also the climate variability and the future climate response, particularly in terms of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and the Southern Ocean. Recent developments in scale-aware parameterisations of the mesoscale are being developed and will be included in future Earth System models. Summary Although the choice of ocean resolution in Earth System models will always be limited by computational considerations, for the foreseeable future, this choice is likely to affect projections of climate variability and change as well as other aspects of the Earth System. Future Earth System models will be able to choose increased ocean resolution and/or improved parameterisation of processes to capture physical processes with greater fidelity.
      PubDate: 2020-10-07
       
  • Treatment of International Economic Trade in Intergovernmental Panel on
           Climate Change (IPCC) Reports
    • Abstract: Purpose of the Review Climate change presents significant risks to the international trade and supply chain systems with potentially profound and cascading effects for the global economy. A robust international trade system may also be central to managing future climate risks. Here, we assess the treatment (or lack thereof) of trade in a selection of recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment and special reports using a quantitative text analysis. IPCC reports are considered the preeminent source of relevant climate change information and underpin international climate change negotiations. Study Findings Results show that international trade has not had substantial coverage in recent IPCC assessments. Relevant keywords associated with trade appear in very limited ways, generally in relation to the words “product” and “transport.” These keywords are often referring to emissions associated with transportation and the movement of food and global food systems. The influence of trade is given larger consideration with respect to the costs and trade-offs of climate mitigation policies, especially the interactions with food availability, that appear in Working Group III reports compared with the risks to trade from climate change impacts in Working Group II. Trade in relation to other economic sectors is largely absent as well as risks from potential climate-related trade disruption. There is almost no treatment of the potential impacts, risks, and adaptation strategies to manage the climate related-implications for international trade. Recommendations Given the importance of trade to economic growth, we recommend that additional attention be paid to trade and related economic issues in future IPCC assessment and special reports, specifically on the interactions of climate impacts and risks on trade and the potential for trade to moderate these risks. To achieve this, there must be efforts to increase the base of scientific literature focused on climate change and international trade as well as increased effort made among IPCC lead authors to review trade literature that may lie outside conventional climate change scholarship.
      PubDate: 2020-10-01
       
  • Should Sea-Ice Modeling Tools Designed for Climate Research Be Used for
           Short-Term Forecasting'
    • Abstract: Abstract In theory, the same sea-ice models could be used for both research and operations, but in practice, differences in scientific and software requirements and computational and human resources complicate the matter. Although sea-ice modeling tools developed for climate studies and other research applications produce output of interest to operational forecast users, such as ice motion, convergence, and internal ice pressure, the relevant spatial and temporal scales may not be sufficiently resolved. For instance, sea-ice research codes are typically run with horizontal resolution of more than 3 km, while mariners need information on scales less than 300 m. Certain sea-ice processes and coupled feedbacks that are critical to simulating the Earth system may not be relevant on these scales; and therefore, the most important model upgrades for improving sea-ice predictions might be made in the atmosphere and ocean components of coupled models or in their coupling mechanisms, rather than in the sea-ice model itself. This paper discusses some of the challenges in applying sea-ice modeling tools developed for research purposes for operational forecasting on short time scales, and highlights promising new directions in sea-ice modeling.
      PubDate: 2020-09-26
       
  • Tracking Improvement in Simulated Marine Biogeochemistry Between CMIP5 and
           CMIP6
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review The changes or updates in ocean biogeochemistry component have been mapped between CMIP5 and CMIP6 model versions, and an assessment made of how far these have led to improvements in the simulated mean state of marine biogeochemical models within the current generation of Earth system models (ESMs). Recent Findings The representation of marine biogeochemistry has progressed within the current generation of Earth system models. However, it remains difficult to identify which model updates are responsible for a given improvement. In addition, the full potential of marine biogeochemistry in terms of Earth system interactions and climate feedback remains poorly examined in the current generation of Earth system models. Summary Increasing availability of ocean biogeochemical data, as well as an improved understanding of the underlying processes, allows advances in the marine biogeochemical components of the current generation of ESMs. The present study scrutinizes the extent to which marine biogeochemistry components of ESMs have progressed between the 5th and the 6th phases of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP).
      PubDate: 2020-08-18
       
  • Implementing Pre-Emptive Managed Retreat: Constraints and Novel Insights
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Managed retreat will be inevitable where other adaptation options, such as protective structures or building restrictions, provide only temporary respite or are otherwise uneconomic, technically impractical or both. Here, we focus on the implementation of pre-emptive managed retreat, providing examples of how it can be sequenced, socialised and given the governance enablers necessary for implementation. Recent Findings Ongoing sea-level rise during the twenty-first century and beyond poses huge adaptation challenges, especially for low-lying coastal and floodplain settlements. Settlements are already functionally disrupted from repetitive non-extreme flooding and research shows that sea-level rise will impact far more people, far sooner than previously thought, as more powerful storms, heavy rainfall and rising groundwater coincide with higher tides. To date, most examples of managed retreat have been post-disaster responses following damage and disruption. Pre-emptive managed retreat, by contrast, has yet to become a well-accepted and widely practised adaptation response. Nevertheless, there are increasing examples of research and practice on how pre-emptive managed retreat can be designed, sequenced and implemented alongside other forms of adaptation within anticipatory forms of governance. Summary The current state of knowledge about managed retreat is reviewed and critical insights and lessons for governance and policy-making are given. Several novel examples from New Zealand are presented to address some of the implementation gaps. Goals and principles are enunciated to inform long-term adaptation strategies.
      PubDate: 2020-07-03
       
  • Data Assimilation Improves Estimates of Climate-Sensitive Seasonal Snow
    • Abstract: Abstract As the Earth warms, the spatial and temporal response of seasonal snow remains uncertain. The global snow science community estimates snow cover and mass with information from land surface models, numerical weather prediction, satellite observations, surface measurements, and combinations thereof. Accurate estimation of snow at the spatial and temporal scales over which snow varies has historically been challenged by the complexity of land cover and terrain and the large global extent of snow-covered regions. Like many Earth science disciplines, snow science is in an era of rapid advances as remote sensing products and models continue to gain granularity and physical fidelity. Despite clear progress, the snow science community continues to face challenges related to the accuracy of seasonal snow estimation. Namely, advances in snow modeling remain limited by uncertainties in modeling parameterization schemes and input forcings, and advances in remote sensing techniques remain limited by temporal, spatial, and technical constraints on the variables that can be observed. Accurate monitoring and modeling of snow improves our ability to assess Earth system conditions, trends, and future projections while serving highly valued global interests in water supply and weather forecasts. Thus, there is a fundamental need to understand and improve the errors and uncertainties associated with estimates of snow. A potential method to overcome model and observational shortcomings is data assimilation, which leverages the information content in both observations and models while minimizing their limitations due to uncertainty. This article proposes data assimilation as a way to reduce uncertainties in the characterization of seasonal snow changes and reviews current modeling, remote sensing, and data assimilation techniques applied to the estimation of seasonal snow. Finally, remaining challenges for seasonal snow estimation are discussed.
      PubDate: 2020-05-15
       
  • Changing Degree of Convective Organization as a Mechanism for Dynamic
           Changes in Extreme Precipitation
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review What does recent work say about how changes in convective organization could lead to changes in extreme precipitation' Recent Findings Changing convective organization is one mechanism that could explain variation in extreme precipitation increase through dynamics. In models, the effects of convective self-aggregation on extreme precipitation are sensitive to parameterization, among other factors. In both models and observations, whether or not convective organization influences extreme precipitation is sensitive to the time and space scales analyzed, affecting extreme precipitation on some scales but not others. While trends in observations in convective organization associated with mean precipitation have been identified, it has not yet been established whether these trends are robust or relevant for events associated with extreme precipitation. Summary Recent work has documented a somewhat view of how changes in convective organization could affect extreme precipitation with warming, and it remains unclear whether or not they do.
      PubDate: 2020-05-04
       
  • When Climate Turns Nasty, What Are Recent and Future Implications'
           Ecological and Human Health Review of Climate Change Impacts
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review The impacts of climate change on biodiversity in the last three decades have increasingly assumed from significant to threatening proportions and this causes major global concerns. This study aims at examining the recent and future impacts of global climate change on both ecological resources and human well-being. This review study is based on the general concept of ecological resilience: that coping with climate change stresses and disturbances depends on social resilience, political and environmental strategies accessible in a community. The study assessed over 300 peer-reviewed publications, both articles and books, which linked climate change impacts on ecosystems to social/health resilience of people in the specific regions. Publications on that were focused on general impacts of climate change on global ecology, ecosystem distribution shifts and phenology change; the ecological and social/health resilience, in the tropic and polar regions, were reviewed. Recent Findings The major finding of this study is that there is considerable variation in magnitudes and patterns of responses to climate change in different regions, even with an overall review of scientific studies on the global ecosystem and human health. Despite this, what is obvious is that change in the ecosystem in Polar Regions will continue to have significant impacts on the global environment, flora, fauna and ultimately human well-being. Summary There are many uncertainties, though, on the possible effects of climate change ecosystem and soils and their severe biological, social, cultural and economic consequences. Notwithstanding these uncertainties, the impacts of climate change on both ecosystem and human socio-cultural activities are very likely to become even more widespread in the near future.
      PubDate: 2020-05-01
       
  • Finding the Fingerprint of Anthropogenic Climate Change in Marine
           Phytoplankton Abundance
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review We review how phytoplankton abundance may be responding to the increase in stratification associated with anthropogenic climate change, providing context on the utility of remote sensing datasets and Earth system model output to understand these perturbations. Recent Findings Assessing disruption in the ocean biosphere using remote sensing datasets is challenged by the relatively short length of the observational record, restricting our ability to disentangle fluctuations due to internal climate variability from those imposed by externally forced anthropogenic trends. Ensembles of Earth system models can be used to quantify past and future drivers, but may not skillfully predict observed spatial patterns and temporal dynamics in marine phytoplankton. Summary To better understand the role of internal climate variability in the observational record, we construct a synthetic ensemble of global chlorophyll concentration over the MODIS satellite mission using statistical emulation techniques. We emphasize the use of a synthetic ensemble to illuminate the role of internal climate variability in the evolution of the ocean biosphere over time.
      PubDate: 2020-03-27
       
  • Extratropical Influence on the Tropical Rainfall Distribution
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review This review focuses on recent progress in understanding the extratropical influence on the annual- and zonal-mean intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) position using a hierarchy of model simulations and theory. Recent Findings Significant progress in our theoretical understanding of the zonal-mean ITCZ position has been made utilizing simulations with a slab ocean. Interhemispheric contrasts in the atmospheric heating (e.g., via an anomalous radiative forcing in one hemisphere) lead to a compensating cross-equatorial energy transport by Hadley circulation adjustments and corresponding meridional ITCZ shifts. In particular, high-latitude radiative perturbations have a strong influence on the ITCZ position. The effectiveness of extratropical forcing for resulting in ITCZ shifts is amplified by cloud radiative feedbacks in the midlatitudes and tropical water vapor feedback associated with the ITCZ displacement. However, more recently conducted fully coupled model simulations tend to show a less pronounced extratropical influence on the ITCZ position due to additional compensating effects from ocean dynamics. The oceanic damping effect on ITCZ shifts results from distinct ocean circulation components, including the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and the wind-driven subtropical cell. Both the relative importance of different ocean circulation components and the roles of different radiative feedbacks are sensitive to forcing location, making the tropical hydroclimate response to extratropical forcing sensitive to the geographical location of the forcing, for instance, in which ocean basin it occurs. The interaction between radiative feedbacks and ocean dynamical adjustment further confounds the determination of extratropical influence on the ITCZ position, which has motivated a recently initiated model intercomparison project. Summary The zonal-mean energetics framework needs to be refined to explain beyond the time- and zonal-mean ITCZ position so as to incorporate transient propagation features and the spatial distribution of the tropical precipitation response.
      PubDate: 2020-03-03
       
  • Migration and Household Adaptation in Climate-Sensitive Hotspots in South
           Asia
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review South Asia is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, owing to the high dependency on climate-sensitive livelihoods and recurrent extreme events. Consequently, an increasing number of households are adopting labour migration as a livelihood strategy to diversify incomes, spread risks, and meet aspirations. Under the Collaborative Adaptation Research Initiative in Africa and Asia (CARIAA) initiative, four research consortia have investigated migration patterns and their inherent linkages to adaptation to climate change in climate hotspots. This article synthesizes key findings in regional context of South Asia. Recent Findings The synthesis suggests that in climate-sensitive hotspots, migration is an important livelihood diversification strategy and a response to various risks, including climate change. Typically, one or more household members, often young men, migrated internally or internationally to work in predominantly informal sectors. Remittances helped spatially diversify household income, spread risks, and insure against external stressors. The outcomes of migration are often influenced by who moves, where to, and what capacities they possess. Summary Migration was found to help improve household adaptive capacity, albeit in a limited capacity. Migration was mainly used as a response to risk and uncertainty, but with potential to have positive adaptation co-benefits.
      PubDate: 2020-02-19
       
  • Paying a Price of Climate Change: Who Pays for Managed Retreats'
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Managed retreats are an important climate change adaptation tool. They seek the relocation of communities due to perceptions that they are already exposed to undue levels of risk or will become exposed to high risk in the near future because of climate change. Here, we focus on the economics of managed retreats and specifically focus on the question of who pays or may pay for these relocations. Recent Findings There is a significant body of research in the other social sciences (political science, sociology, anthropology, history) on managed retreats, but almost none in economics. No paper that we are aware has focused primarily on the question of who pays for managed retreats, and the survey here therefore focusses on lessons we can learn from examples, specifically an example from New Zealand and from the little references to these questions in the existing literature. Summary Sources of funding for managed retreats can come from the affected communities, from the public sector (the government or public insurers), and from the private sector (mostly private insurers). It is politically easier to implement managed retreats if it is the latter groups (public and private insurers) that pay, rather than placing the burden on the general taxpayer or on the affected communities themselves.
      PubDate: 2020-02-18
       
  • Snow and Climate: Feedbacks, Drivers, and Indices of Change
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Highlight significant developments that have recently been made to enhance our understanding of how snow responds to climate forcing and the role that snow plays in the climate system. Recent Findings Widespread snow loss has occurred in recent decades, with the largest decreases in spring. These changes are primarily driven by temperature and precipitation, but changes in vegetation, light-absorbing impurities, and sea ice also contribute to variability. Changes in snow cover can also affect climate through the snow albedo feedback (SAF). Recently, considerable progress has been made in better understanding the processes contributing to SAF. We also highlight advances in knowledge of how snow variability is linked to large-scale atmospheric changes. Lastly, large-scale snow losses are expected to continue under climate change in all but the coldest climates. These projected changes to snow raise considerable concerns over future freshwater availability in snow-dominated watersheds. Summary The results discussed here demonstrate the widespread implications that changes to snow have on the climate system and anthropogenic activity at large.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Indo-Pacific Climate Modes in Warming Climate: Consensus and Uncertainty
           Across Model Projections
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Understanding the changes in climate variability in a warming climate is crucial for reliable projections of future climate change. This article reviews the recent progress in studies of how climate modes in the Indo-Pacific respond to greenhouse warming, including the consensus and uncertainty across climate models. Recent Findings Recent studies revealed a range of robust changes in the properties of climate modes, often associated with the mean state changes in the tropical Indo-Pacific. In particular, the intermodel diversity in the ocean warming pattern is a prominent source of uncertainty in mode changes. The internal variability also plays an important role in projected changes in climate modes. Summary Model biases and intermodel variability remain major challenges for reducing uncertainty in projecting climate mode changes in warming climate. Improved models and research linking simulated present-day climate and future changes are essential for reliable projections of climate mode changes. In addition, large ensembles should be used for each model to reduce the uncertainty from internal variability and isolate the forced response to global warming.
      PubDate: 2019-11-25
       
  • Mechanisms of Future Predicted Changes in the Zonal Mean Mid-Latitude
           Circulation
    • Abstract: Abstract State-of-the-art climate models predict the zonal mean mid-latitude circulation will undergo a poleward shift and seasonally and hemispherically dependent intensity changes in the future. Here I review the mechanisms put forward to explain the zonal mean mid-latitude circulation response to increased carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration. The mechanisms are grouped according to their thermodynamic starting point, which are thought to arise from processes independent of the zonal mean mid-latitude circulation response. There are 24 mechanisms and 8 thermodynamic starting points: (i) increased latent heat release aloft in the tropics, (ii) increased dry static stability and tropopause height outside the tropics, (iii) radiative cooling of the stratosphere, (iv) Hadley cell expansion, (v) increased specific humidity following the Clausius-Clapeyron relation, (vi) cloud radiative effect changes, (vii) turbulent surface heat flux changes, and (viii) decreased surface meridional temperature gradient. I argue progress can be made by testing the thermodynamic starting points. I review recent tests of the increased latent heat release aloft in the tropics starting point, i.e., prescribing diabatic perturbations, quantifying the transient response to an abrupt CO2 increase and imposing latitudinally dependent CO2 concentration. Finally, I provide a future outlook for improving our understanding of predicted changes in the zonal mean mid-latitude circulation.
      PubDate: 2019-11-21
       
  • Amplification of Waveguide Teleconnections in the Boreal Summer
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review While the influence of climate change on mid-latitude atmospheric circulation remains uncertain, hypotheses based on linear waveguide dynamics have been proposed suggesting amplification of circumglobal quasi-stationary Rossby wave events, which may have led to persistent and high-impact extremes in recent boreal summers. It is thus useful to synthesize these hypotheses and to discuss limitations of this simplified dynamical framework for explaining observed features. Recent Findings The hypothesis that climate change can alter the basic circulation state and thereby enhance circumglobal waveguide teleconnections by increasing their resonance has been proposed but has not yet been verified with models. Furthermore, there is no convincing evidence that the variability of disturbances within the waveguide will increase in future climates projected by the CMIP5 models. On the other hand, recent research indicates that enhanced diabatic heating, particularly that associated with increasing aridity in the mid-latitude, can stimulate the jet stream waveguides, thus suggesting an alternative mechanism which, if properly modeled, could lead to more high-amplitude circumglobal planetary wave events. Summary There could be circumstances that lead to resonant amplification of waveguide Rossby waves in the boreal summer, but an alternative mechanism that involves changes in the forcing rather than the mean state deserves closer attention.
      PubDate: 2019-11-06
       
  • Simulating the Midlatitude Atmospheric Circulation: What Might We Gain
           From High-Resolution Modeling of Air-Sea Interactions'
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review To provide a snapshot of the current research on the oceanic forcing of the atmospheric circulation in midlatitudes and a concise update on previous review papers. Recent Findings Atmospheric models used for seasonal and longer timescales predictions are starting to resolve motions so far only studied in conjunction with weather forecasts. These phenomena have horizontal scales of ~ 10–100 km which coincide with energetic scales in the ocean circulation. Evidence has been presented that, as a result of this matching of scale, oceanic forcing of the atmosphere was enhanced in models with 10–100 km grid size, especially at upper tropospheric levels. The robustness of these results and their underlying mechanisms are however unclear. Summary Despite indications that higher resolution atmospheric models respond more strongly to sea surface temperature anomalies, their responses are still generally weaker than those estimated empirically from observations. Coarse atmospheric models (grid size greater than 100 km) will miss important signals arising from future changes in ocean circulation unless new parameterizations are developed.
      PubDate: 2019-11-04
       
 
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